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Squeeze cementing

Acidizing
Fracturing
Other remedial operations.
Length and force changes
Potential tubing-length changes must be understood to determine the length of se
al necessary to remain packed off in a polished sealbore packer, or to prevent t
ubing and packer damage when seals are anchored in the packer bore. Potential in
duced forces need to be calculated to prevent:
Tubing and packer damage
Unseating packers
Opening equalizing valves.
There are four factors that tend to cause a change in the length or force in the
tubing string[1][2]:
Temperature effect, which is directly influenced by a change in the average temp
erature of the string
Piston effect, caused by a change in the pressure in the tubing or annulus above
the packer acting on a specific affected area
Ballooning effect, caused by a change in average pressure inside or outside the
tubing string
Buckling effect, which occurs when internal tubing pressure is higher than the a
nnulus pressure.
Buckling will shorten the tubing string; however, the other effects may tend to
lengthen or shorten the string depending on the application of the factors. As l
ong as the tubing is allowed to move in the packer bore, the temperature and bal
looning effects will only have an impact on tubing-length changes, but, if movem
ent is prevented (or restrained) at the packer, these two factors would then cre
ate a force.
It is important to remember that a string of tubing landed in any packer is init
ially in a neutral condition, except for any subsequent mechanical strain or com
pression loads applied by the rig operator. After the tubing is landed, the fact
ors that cause changes in length or force are always the result of a change in t
emperature and pressure.
Piston Effect