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Longitudinal Autopilots

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Introduction

Autopilot uses:

For safety reasons

Lowers pilot workload (especially for long flights)

Types

Control or Hold certain flight parameter(s)

Perform navigational tasks

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Introduction

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Introduction

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Longitudinal Autopilots

Pitch Hold
Altitude Hold
Airspeed Hold
Mach Hold
Climb/Descend rate Hold

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Pitch Attitude Hold Autopilot

9/10/2012

Pitch Hold

Prevents pilot having to constantly control pitch attitude in


turbulent air (e.g. TURB switch in 747-400)

Autopilot mode analysis/design, 2 important questions:

Which type of control device do we use?


Elevator

What type of feedback loop structure (sensor)?


Vertical gyro

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Pitch Hold

Block Diagram

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Pitch Hold

Block Diagram
2

+ +
++

()

+ 1

1
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Pitch Hold

Block Diagram

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Pitch Hold

Example: Cessna 620

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Pitch Hold

Example: Cessna 620

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Pitch Hold

Example: Cessna 620


Simulink & sisotool

Gain

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Pitch Hold

Example: Cessna 620


= 0.5
Short period damping goes from = 0.716 to = 0.464
But it still satisfies the requirements, so no inner loop
(SAS loop) is required.

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Pitch Hold

Example: Cessna 620

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Pitch Hold

Example: Cessna 620

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Pitch Hold

Example: Boeing 747-200

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Pitch Hold

Example: Boeing 747-200

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Pitch Hold

Example: Boeing 747-200

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Pitch Hold

Example: Boeing 747-200


Simulink & sisotool

Gain

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Pitch Hold

Example: Boeing 747-200

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Pitch Hold

Example: Boeing 747-200

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Pitch Hold

Example: Boeing 747-200

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Pitch Hold

Example: Boeing 747-200

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Pitch Hold

Example: Boeing 747-200

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Pitch Hold

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Pitch Hold

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Pitch Hold

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Pitch Hold

Flight Conditions

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Pitch Hold

Flight Conditions

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Pitch Hold

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Pitch Hold

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Pitch Hold

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Pitch Hold

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Altitude Hold Autopilot

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Altitude Hold

Prevents pilot having to constantly control altitude during


the flight

Autopilot mode analysis/design, 2 important questions:

Which type of control device do we use?


Elevator

What type of feedback loop structure (sensor)?


Altimeter

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Altitude Hold

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Altitude Hold

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Altitude Hold

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Altitude Hold

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Altitude Hold

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Altitude Hold

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Altitude Hold

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Altitude Hold

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Altitude Hold

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Altitude Hold

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Altitude Hold

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Airspeed Hold Autopilot

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Airspeed Hold

Prevents pilot having to constantly control airspeed


during the flight

Autopilot mode analysis/design, 2 important questions:

Which type of control device do we use?


Throttle

What type of feedback loop structure (sensor)?


Airspeed Sensor

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Airspeed Hold

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Airspeed Hold

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Airspeed Hold

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Airspeed Hold

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Airspeed Hold

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Flight Path Angle Hold Or


Climb/Descent Rate Hold Autopilot

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Flight Path Angle Hold

Prevents pilot having to constantly control airspeed


during the flight

Autopilot mode analysis/design, 2 important questions:

Which type of control device do we use?


Elevator

What type of feedback loop structure (sensor)?


Flight Path Angle??
It is not directly measureable so vertical gyro and angle of attack
sensor are used.

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Flight Path Angle Hold

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Flight Path Angle Hold

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Flight Path Angle Hold

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Flight Path Angle Hold

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Summary

For each Hold autopilot there are two important


questions:

Keep controller as simple as possible

Which type of control device?


Which type of feedback? loop structure? sensors?
Proportional only (if acceptable)
PD, PI, Lead/Lag, etc

The closed loop system must comply with the


airworthiness requirements

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Summary

Take into account the inner loop, when constructing the


outer loop.
Keep in mind the possible effects on the closed loop
system of:

Servo break frequency


Flight condition (airspeed, altitude)
etc...

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