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Test 20

GRE
MATH

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GRE Math Tests

Questions: 24
Time: 45 minutes
Quantitative Comparison Question]
Column A
1.
x

1 < x < 0

Column B
1/x

[Multiple-choice Question Select One Answer Choice Only]


2.
Define x* by the equation x* = /x. Then (()*)* =
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1/
1/2

1/


[Numeric Entry Question]


3.
If the least common multiple of m and n is 24, then what is the first integer larger than 3070 that is
divisible by both m and n?

384

Test 20 Questions

[Multiple-choice Question Select One or More Answer Choices]


4.
If p and q are two even integers and 0.05p and 0.07q lie between 0.69and 0.78. Which of the
following could 0.05p + .07q equal?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

0.69 + 0.78
0.7 + 0.77
0.7 + 0.78
0.7 + 0.7
0.7 + 0.78

Quantitative Comparison Question]


Column A
5.

Everyone who passes the test will


be awarded a degree. The
probability that Tom passes the
test is 0.5, and the probability that
John passes the test is 0.4. The
two events are independent of
each other.

The probability that both Tom


and John get the degree

Column B

The probability that at least one


of them gets the degree

Quantitative Comparison Question]


Column A
6.
Perimeter of a rectangle
with an area of 10

Column B
Perimeter of a triangle
with an area of 10

385

GRE Math Tests

[Multiple-choice Question Select One or More Answer Choices]


7.
In the figure, AD and BC are lines intersecting at O. a is equal to?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

15
30
45
x/2
y/2 x

5x + 5a

A
y

2x + 30

O
5y/2

386

Test 20 Questions

[Numeric Entry Question]


8.
In the figure, AB and CD are the diameters of the circle. What is the value of x ?

x
D

A
32
O

387

GRE Math Tests

[Numeric Entry Question]


9.
In the figure, what is the value of x ?

388

Test 20 Questions

[Multiple-choice Question Select One or More Answer Choices]


10. If exactly two of the choices below must be true about a triangle, which of the following must they
be?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

The angles of ABC are in the ratio is 1 : 2 : 3.


The sides of ABC are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3.
One of the angles of ABC equals the sum of the other two angles.
One of the sides of ABC equals the sum of the other two sides.
The triangle is right angled.

Quantitative Comparison Question]


Column A
11.
a b
a +b

Quantitative Comparison Question]


Column A
12.

a>b>0

Column B
a 2  b2

a 2 + b2

x/a > 4 and y/a < 6


a2 = 9
ab2 = 8

Column B

389

GRE Math Tests

Quantitative Comparison Question]


Column A
13.
2
3
4
5
+
+
+
10 100 1000 10000

Column B
4
3
2
+
+
10 100 1000

[Multiple-choice Question Select One Answer Choice Only]


14. In a country, 60% of the male citizen and 70% of the female citizen are eligible to vote. 70% of male
citizens eligible to vote voted, and 60% of female citizens eligible to vote voted. What fraction of the
citizens voted during the election?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

0.42
0.48
0.49
0.54
0.60

[Multiple-choice Question Select One Answer Choice Only]


15. a, b, and c are three different numbers, none of which equals the average of the other two. If

y
z
x
=
=
, then x + y + z =
bc c  a a b
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

0
1/2
1/3
2/3
3/4

390

Test 20 Questions

Quantitative Comparison Question]


Column A
16.
The average of five consecutive
integers starting from m

Column B
The average of six consecutive
integers starting from m

[Multiple-choice Question Select One or More Answer Choices]


17. 40% of employees in a factory earn a daily wage of $385. Some employees earn a daily wage of
$395, and the remaining employees earn a daily wage of $405. Based on the given data, which of the
following could be the average daily wage of the employees at the factory?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
(F)
(G)
(H)
(I)

385
390
391
394
395
397
400
405
410

Quantitative Comparison Question]


Column A
18.

a and b are positive.


(a + 6) : (b + 6) = 5 : 6

a +10
b +10

Column B
1

391

Complete GRE MATH Preparation Material


http://studymaterialcollection.blogspot.com/2015/12/complete-gre-math-preparation-material.html
GRE Math Tests

19. If two workers can assemble a car in 8 hours and a third worker can assemble the same car in
12 hours, then how long would it take the three workers together to assemble the car?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

5/12 hrs.
2 2/5 hrs.
2 4/5 hrs.
3 1/2 hrs.
4 4/5 hrs.

Quantitative Comparison Question]


Column A
20.
(2x  11)(2x + 11)
4

Quantitative Comparison Question]


Column A
21.

Column B
(x 11)(x + 11)

Miller sold apples at 125% of


what it cost him.

The profit made by selling 100


apples

Column B
The profit made by selling 200
apples at a further 10%
discount

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392

Test 20 Questions

[Multiple-choice Question Select One Answer Choice Only]


22. John had $42. He purchased fifty mangoes and thirty oranges with the whole amount. He then chose
to return six mangoes for nine oranges as both quantities are equally priced. What is the price of each
Mango?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

0.4
0.45
0.5
0.55
0.6

[Multiple-choice Question Select One Answer Choice Only]


23. For how many positive integers n is it true that the sum of 13/n, 18/n, and 29/n is an integer?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

6
60
Greatest common factor of 13, 18, and 29
Least common multiple of 13, 18, and 29
12

[Multiple-choice Question Select One Answer Choice Only]


24. Each Employee at a certain bank is either a clerk or an agent or both. Of every three agents, one is
also a clerk. Of every two clerks, one is also an agent. What is the probability that an employee
randomly selected from the bank is both an agent and a clerk?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1/2
1/3
1/4
1/5
2/5

393

GRE Math Tests

Answers and Solutions Test 20:

Question
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Answer
A
C
3072
D
B
D
A, E
32
45
B, D
B
B
B
A
A
B
D, E
B
A
A
C
E
E
C

If you got 18/24 correct on this test, you are likely to get 750+ on the actual GRE by the time you
complete all the tests in the book.
1. There is only one type of number between 1 and 0negative fractions. So we need only choose one
1
1
= 2 . Now, 1/2 is larger than 2 (since 1/2 is to the right of 2
number, say, x = 1/2. Then =
x 1
2
on the number line). Hence, Column A is larger, and the answer is (A).
2. Working from the inner parentheses out, we get
(()*)* =
(/())* =
(1)* =
/(1) =

The answer is (C).

394

Test 20 Solutions

Method II:
We can rewrite this problem using ordinary function notation. Replacing the odd symbol x* with f(x) gives
f(x) = /x. Now, the expression (()*)* becomes the ordinary composite function
f(f()) =
f(/() =
f(1) =
/(1) =


3. Any number divisible by both m and n must be a multiple of the least common multiple of the two
numbers, which is given to be 24. The first multiple of 24 greater than 3070 is 3072. Hence, enter 3072 in
the grid.

4. Multiplying the statement 0.05p and 0.07q lie between 0.69and 0.78 by 100 indicates that 5p and 7q lie
between 69 and 78.
The only multiples of 5 between 69 and 78 are 70 and 75. Hence, 5p = either 70 or 75; p = either 70/5 = 14,
is even (hence acceptable) or 75/5 = 15, not even (Reject).
Since p = 14, 0.05p = 0.70.
The only multiples of 7 between 69 and 78 are 70 and 77. Hence, 7q = 70 or 77. Now, p could equal even
value of 70/7 = 10 or 77/7 = 11. Reject 11, for it is not even.
Since q = 10, 0.07q = 0.70.
The answer is 0.05p + .07q = 0.7 + 0.7 = 1.4. The answer is (D) only.

5. The case of both Tom and John getting a degree is just one of the cases in which at least one of them
gets the degree (Column A is one of the cases of Column B). Hence, the probability of the former is less
than the probability of the later (Column B is greater). Also, the probability of the remaining case (exactly
one of the two passing) is not zero. So, Column A cannot equal Column B. The answer is (B).

6. The eye-catcher is Column A since one expects the perimeter of a rectangle to be longer than that of a
triangle of similar size. However, by making the base of the triangle progressively longer, we can make the
perimeter of the triangle as long as we want. The following diagram displays a rectangle and a triangle
with the same area, yet the triangles perimeter is longer than the rectangles:

5
1
20

2
The answer is (D).

395

GRE Math Tests

7. Equating vertical angles AOB and COD in the figure yields y = 2x + 30. Also, equating vertical
angles AOC and BOD yields 5y/2 = 5x + 5a. Multiplying this equation by 2/5 yields y = 2x + 2a.
Subtracting this equation from the equation y = 2x + 30 yields 2a = 30. Hence, a = 30/2 = 15, and the
answer is (A). Subtracting 2x from both sides of the equation y = 2x + 2a yields y 2x = 2a; y/2 2x/2 = a;
a = y/2 x. Also, choose (E). The choices to choose are (A) and (E).

8. OA and OC are radii of the circle and therefore equal. Hence, the angles opposite the two sides in AOC
are equal: C = A = 32 (from the figure). Now, summing the angles of the triangle to 180 yields
A + C + AOC = 180 or 32 + 32 + AOC = 180. Solving the equation for AOC, we have AOC =
180 (32 + 32) = 180 64 = 114.
Since BOD and AOC vertical angles, they are equal. Hence, we have BOD = AOC = 114.
Now, OD and OB are radii of the circle and therefore equal. Hence, the angles opposite the two sides in
BOD are equal: B = D. Now, summing the angles of the triangle to 180 yields B + D + BOD =
180 or D + D + BOD = 180 or 2D + 114 = 180. Solving the equation yields D = 32. Since D and
angle x are vertical angles, x also equals 32.
Enter the value 32 in the grid.

9. Lets name the vertices as shown in the figure


x
A

x
G
x
B

C
E

D
x
Lets start evaluating the unknown angles of the triangles in the figure from left most located triangle
through the right most located triangle. Then the value of x can be derived by summing the angles of right
most located triangle to 180. This is done as follows:
In the first triangle from the left: ABC, we have from the figure that B = x and A = x (vertical angles
are equal). Summing the angles of the triangle to 180 yields x + x + C = 180. Solving the equation for
C yields C = 180 2x.
In the second triangle from the left: CED, we have from the figure that D = x (vertical angles are
equal), and we have C [in CED] = C in ACB (They are vertical angles) = 180 2x (Known result).

396

Test 20 Solutions

Now, summing the angles of the triangle to 180 yields (180 2x) + x + E = 180. Solving the equation for
E yields E = x.
In the third triangle from the left: GFE, we have from the figure that G = x (vertical angles are equal)
and E [in GFE] = E in CED (Vertical angles are equal) = x (Known result). Now, we also have
F = 90 (From the figure). Now, summing the three angles of the triangle to 180 yields x + x + 90 = 180.
Solving for x yields 2x = 90 or x = 45. Enter 45 in the grid.

10. Choice (A): The angles of ABC are in the ratio is 1 : 2 : 3.


This indicates that ABC is a right triangle.
Choice (B): The sides of ABC are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3.
This indicates that ABC is not a right triangle.
Choice (C): One of the angles of ABC equals the sum of the other two angles.
This indicates that ABC is a right triangle.
Choice (D): One of the sides of ABC equals the sum of the other two sides.
This indicates that ABC is not a right triangle.
Choice (E): The triangle is right angled.
The Choices (A), (C), and (E) are mutually compatible and the choices (B) and (D) are not mutually
compatible.
But the first set [Choices (A), (C), and (E)], and the second set [Choices (B), and (D)] are not mutually incompatible.
Hence, either the choices (A), (C), and (E) are true or the choices (B), and (D) are true. But since we are
given that exactly two of the choices (A), (B), (C), (D), and (E) are true, the set to choose would be the
second one.
The choices to select are (B) and (D).

397

GRE Math Tests

11. Factoring Column B yields


Column A
a b
a +b

a>b>0

Column B

( a  b)( a + b)
a 2 + b2

Since a > b, a b > 0. Hence, we can cancel a b, a positive value, from both columns:
Column A
1
a +b

a>b>0

Column B

a +b
a 2 + b2

Since a > b > 0, both a and b are positive. Hence, the Least Common Denominator of the fractions,
(a + b)(a2 + b2), is positive. So, we can multiply both columns by the LCD to clear the fractions:
Column A
a2 + b2

a>b>0

Column B
(a + b)(a + b)

Performing the multiplication in Column B yields


Column A
a2 + b2

a>b>0

Column B
a2 + b2 + 2ab

a>b>0

Column B
2ab

Subtracting a2 + b2 from both columns yields


Column A
0

Since both a and b are positive, 2ab is positive. Hence, Column B is greater than Column A, and the
answer is (B).
12. The possible solutions of the equation a2 = 9 are a = 3 and a = 3.
Since the square of any nonzero number is positive, b2 must be positive. We are given that ab2 = 8, a
negative number. Since the product of a and b2 is negative, a must be negative. The negative solution of a
is a = 3.
Substituting this value of a in the given inequality x/a > 4 yields

x
>4
3
x < 12

by multiplying both sides by the negative number 3 and flipping the direction
of the inequality

Hence, Column A is less than 12.


Now, replacing a with 3 in the inequality y/a < 6 yields

y
< 6
3
y > 18

by multiplying both sides by 3 and flipping the direction of the


inequality

Hence, y is positive and therefore greater than x. Hence, Column B is greater, and the answer is (B).

398

Test 20 Solutions

13. First, cancel (subtract) the common term 3/100 from both columns:

2
4
5
+
+
10 1000 10000

4
2
+
10 1000

Next, multiply both columns by 10000 to clear the fractions:


2000 + 40 + 5

4000 + 20

Finally, add the numbers:


2045

4020

The answer is (B).


Method II
Column A equals 2/10 + 3/100 + 4/1000 + 5/10000 = 0.2345.
Column B equals 4/10 + 3/100 + 2/1000 = 0.432.
Since 0.432 is greater than 0.2345, Column B is greater. The answer is (B).

14. Let the number of male and female citizens in the country be m and f, respectively.
Now, 60% of the male citizens are eligible to vote, and 60% of m is 60m/100. 70% of female citizens are
eligible to vote, and 70% of f is 70f/100.
We are given that 70% of male citizens eligible to vote voted:
70% of 60m/100 is

70 60m 70  60m

=
= 0.42m
100 100
10,000

We are also given that 60% of female citizens eligible to vote voted:

60% of 70f/100 is

60 70 f 60  70 f

=
= 0.42 f
100 100
10,000

So, out of the total m + f citizens, the total number of voters who voted is
0.42m + 0.42f = 0.42(m + f)
Hence, the required fraction is
0.42( m + f )
= 0.42
m+ f

The answer is (A).

399

GRE Math Tests

15. Let each expression in the equation

x
y
z
=
=
equal k. Then we have
bc c  a a b
y
z
x
=
=
=k
bc c  a a b

Or

x
=k
bc
y
=k
ca
z
=k
ab
Simplifying yields
x = k(b c) = kb kc
y = k(c a) = kc ka
z = k(a b) = ka kb
Hence, x + y + z = (kb kc) + (kc ka) + (ka kb) = 0. The answer is (A).

16. Column A: The five consecutive integers starting from m are m, m + 1, m + 2, m + 3, and m + 4. The
average of the five numbers equals

The sum of the five numbers


=
5
m + ( m + 1) + ( m + 2) + ( m + 3) + ( m + 4 )
=
5
5m + 10
=
5
m+2
Column B: The six consecutive integers starting from m are m, m + 1, m + 2, m + 3, m + 4, and m + 5. The
average of the six numbers equals
The sum of the six numbers
=
6
m + ( m + 1) + ( m + 2) + ( m + 3) + ( m + 4 ) + ( m + 5)
=
6
6m + 15
=
6
5
m+ =
2
1
m+ 2+ =
2
1
( m + 2) + =
2
1
Column A +
2
Since Column B is 1/2 units greater than Column A, the answer is (B).

400

Test 20 Solutions

Method II:
Choose any five consecutive integers, say, 2, 1, 0, 1 and 2. (We chose these particular numbers to make
the calculation as easy as possible. But any five consecutive integers will do. For example, 1, 2, 3, 4, and
5.) Forming the average yields

1+ (2) + 0 +1+ 2 0


= = 0 . Now, add 3 to the set to form 6 consecutive
5
5

integers: 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, and 3. Forming the average yields

1+ (2) + 0 + 1+ 2 + 3
=
6
[1 + (2) + 0 + 1+ 2] + 3
=
6
[0] + 3
=
since the average of 1 + (2) + 0 + 1 + 2 is zero, their sum must be zero
6
3
=
6
1
2
Since 1/2 > 0, Column B is greater than Column A and the answer is (B).
17. We are given that 40% of employees in a factory earn $385 a day as daily wage.
Assuming all the remaining 60% of employees earn $395 a day, the average is 391.
Assuming all the remaining 60% of the employees earn $405 a day, the wage is 397.
So, the range of possible values is 391 through 397, not either number (not all the remaining employees
earn $391 only or not all the remaining employees earn $397 only).
Select the answer-choices falling in the region (greater than 391 and less than 397).
The answer is (D) and (E).
18. Since a and b are positive, a + 6 and b + 6 are positive. From the ratio (a + 6) : (b + 6) = 5 : 6, we get

a+6 5
a+6
= . Since 5/6 < 1,
< 1 . Multiplying both sides of this inequality by b + 6, which is positive,
b+6 6
b+6
yields a + 6 < b + 6. Adding 4 to both sides yields a + 10 < b + 10. Since b is positive, b + 10 is positive.
Dividing the inequality by b + 10 yields

a +10
< 1 . Hence, Column A < Column B, and the answer is (B).
b +10

Method II: Since b is positive, b + 10 is positive. So, we can multiply both columns by b + 10, which yields
a + 10

b + 10

Subtracting 10 from both columns yields


a

We have reduced the problem to comparing the sizes of a and b. Let's solve the equation

a+6 5
= for b.
b+6 6

Multiplying both sides by the LCD 6(b + 6) yields 6(a + 6) = 5(b + 6), or 6a + 36 = 5b + 30, or 5b = 6a + 6,
or 5b = 6(a + 1), or b = (6/5)(a + 1). This equation says that to make a as large as b you must add 1 to it and
then multiply it by 6/5, a number bigger than 1. Hence, b is greater than a. So, Column B is greater than
Column A, and the answer is (B).

401

Complete GRE MATH Preparation Material


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GRE Math Tests

19. The fraction of work done in 1 hour by the first two people working together is 1/8. The fraction of
work done in 1 hour by the third person is 1/12. When the three people work together, the total amount of
work done in 1 hour is 1/8 + 1/12 = 5/24. The time taken by the people working together to complete the
job is

1
=
fraction of work done per unit time
1
5

24

24
=
5
4

4
5

The answer is (E).

20. Applying the Difference of Squares formula (a + b)(a b) = a2 b2 yields


Column A
(2x) 2  112
4

Column B
x2 112

Column A
4 x 2  121
4

Column B
x2 121

Column A
121
x2 
4

Column B
x2 121

Subtracting x2 from both columns yields


Column A
121/4

Column B
121

Since 121/4 > 121, Column A is greater than Column B and the answer is (A).

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402

Test 20 Solutions

21. Let each apple cost Miller x dollars. Since he sold the apples at 125% of the cost, the profit made is
Selling price Cost =
(125/100)x x =
5x/4 x =
x/4
The profit on 100 apples is 100  x/4 = 25x. Hence, Column A equals 25x.
Now, after a 10% discount on the selling price, Mr. Miller must be selling the apples at a price equal to

(actual selling price)  1

discount percent   5x   10   5x   9  9x
 =    1
 =    =
  4   100   4   10  8
100

Hence, the profit made on each apple equals Selling price Cost = 9x/8 x = x/8. The profit on 200 apples
is 200  x/8 = 25x = Column B.
Since the columns are equal, the answer is (C).

22. Since 6 mangoes are returnable for 9 oranges, if each mango costs m and each orange costs n, then
6m = 9n, or 2m = 3n. Solving for n yields, n = 2m/3. Now, since 50 mangoes and 30 oranges together cost
42 dollars,
50m + 30n = 42
50m + 30(2m/3) = 42
m(50 + 30  2/3) = 42
m(50 + 20) = 42
70m = 42
m = 42/70 = 6/10 = 0.6
The answer is (E).

13+ 18 + 29 60
= . Now, if 60/n is to be an integer, n must be a
n
n
factor of 60. Since the factors of 60 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30, and 60, there are 12 possible
values for n. The answer is (E).

23. The sum of 13/n, 18/n, and 29/n is

403

GRE Math Tests

24. The employees of the bank can be categorized into three groups:
1) Employees who are only Clerks. Let c be the count.
2) Employees who are only Agents. Let a be the count.
3) Employees who are both Clerks and Agents. Let x be the count.
Hence, the total number of employees is c + a + x.
The total number of clerks is c + x.
The total number of agents is a + x.
We are given that of every three agents one is also a clerk. Hence, we have that one of every three agents is
x
1
also a clerk (both agent and clerk). Forming the ratio yields
= . Solving for a yields a = 2x.
a+x 3
We are given that of every two clerks, one is also an agent. Hence, we have that one of every two clerks is
x
1
also an agent (both clerk and agent). Forming the ratio yields
= . Solving for c yields c = x.
c+x 2
Now, the probability of selecting an employee who is both an agent and a clerk from the bank is

x
x
x
1
=
=
=
c + a + x x + 2x + x 4 x 4
The answer is (C).

404