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COMPLETE SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Alicia Paterno Parsi

Arash Parsi

Tomislav Pintauer

Duquesne University

Duquesne University

Duquesne University

Lucio Gelmini
Grant MacEwan College

Robert W. Hilts
Grant MacEwan College

General Chemistry
Principles and Modern Applications
Tenth Edition
Ralph H. Petrucci
California State University, San Bernardino

F. Geoffrey Herring
University of British Columbia

Jeffry D. Madura
Duquesne University

Carey Bissonnette
University of Waterloo

Pearson Canada
Toronto

Copyright 2011 Pearson Canada Inc., Toronto, Ontario.


Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright, and
permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in
a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission, write to the
Permissions Department.

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-504293-9

Acquisitions Editor: Cathleen Sullivan


Developmental Editor: Toni Chahley
Production Editor: Lila Campbell
Production Coordinator: Patricia Ciardullo

The author and publisher of this book have used their best efforts in preparing this book. These efforts
include the development, research, and testing of the theories and programs to determine their
effectiveness. The author and publisher make no warranty of any kind expressed or implied, with regard to
these programs or the documentation contained in this book. The author and publisher shall not be liable in
any event for incidental or consequential damages in connection with, or arising out of the furnishing,
performance, or use of these programs.

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Printed and bound in Canada.

CONTENTS
Preface..................................................................................................................................v
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Chapter 18
Chapter 19
Chapter 20
Chapter 21
Chapter 22
Chapter 23
Chapter 24
Chapter 25
Chapter 26
Chapter 27
Chapter 28

MatterIts Properties and Measurement .....................................................1


Atoms and the Atomic Theory ....................................................................28
Chemical Compounds ................................................................................61
Chemical Reactions...................................................................................112
Introduction to Reactions in Aqueous Solutions.......................................163
Gases .........................................................................................................208
Thermochemistry ......................................................................................262
Electrons in Atoms ....................................................................................305
The Periodic Table and Some Atomic Properties .....................................352
Chemical Bonding l: Basic Concepts........................................................384
Chemical Bonding ll: Additional Aspects.................................................453
Intermolecular Forces: Liquids and Solids ...............................................508
Solutions and Their Physical Properties....................................................560
Chemical Kinetics .....................................................................................611
Principles of Chemical Equilibrium..........................................................666
Acids and Bases ........................................................................................720
Additional Aspects of AcidBase Equilibria ............................................786
Solubility and Complex-Ion Equilibria .....................................................890
Spontaneous Change: Entropy and Gibbs Energy ....................................946
Electrochemistry........................................................................................998
Chemistry of the Main-Group Elements 1: Groups 1, 2, 13, and 14 ......1064
Chemistry of the Main-Group Elements ll: Groups 18, 17, 16, 15,
and Hydrogen......................................................................................1095
The Transition Elements .........................................................................1136
Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds .........................................1163
Nuclear Chemistry...................................................................................1196
Structure of Organic Compounds............................................................1221
Reactions of Organic Compounds...........................................................1265
Chemistry of the Living State .................................................................1303

PREFACE
The Complete Solutions Manual to accompany the 10th edition of General Chemistry
contains full solutions to all in-chapter and end-of-chapter exercises and problems,
namely,

Practice Examples (A and B)


Integrative Examples
Exercises
Integrative and Advanced Exercises
Feature Problems
Self-Assessment Exercises

Each solution is preceded by its level of difficulty, set in parentheses (E = easy, M =


moderate, and D = difficult). Solutions with the question number underlined indicate that
these are solutions for the red questions in the textbook. Solutions for all of the red
textbook questions are included in the Selected Solutions Manual (978-0-13-504292-2).
Stepwise Approach and Conversion Pathway Approach
To reflect changes made to the tenth edition of the textbook, we have enhanced the
coverage of the Complete Solutions Manual by providing solutions to selected questions
in both the Stepwise Approach and Conversion Pathway Approach. In Chapters 16, 19,
and 20, you will see one problem in each section solved by both the stepwise and
conversion pathway approaches. These two methods of problem solving are modeled
after the text, and their purpose is to help you set up problems as you begin your
problem-solving journey in the solutions.
Molecular Formulas of Organic Compounds
For brevity, the molecular formulas of organic compounds in the Complete Solutions
Manual are often written as CxHyOz rather than as the condensed structural formulas
found in the textbook. For example, the formula of glycerol, HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH, is
written as C3H8O3.
Periodic Table
The tenth edition textbook uses the atomic masses in the new periodic table, and the
solutions in this manual do not. As a result, there may be small discrepancies in the
atomic masses found in the solutions.