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Indian Roads Congress

Founded : December 1934

Volume 43

Number 12

December 2015

Contents

ISSN 0376-7256

Page

Page

4-6 From the Editors Desk - Role of Road & Road


Transportation Sector in Green House Gases (Ghg)
Mitigation: Suggested Way Forward
7-8

Important Announcement - Invitation and Registration


Form for 76th Annual Session

9-10

Important Announcement - New Membership Fee/Form


Advertisements

ICT Pvt. Ltd.

- Inside Front Cover

Sachi Geosynthetics Pvt. Ltd.

- Inside Back Cover

Transoft Solutions

- Outside Back Cover

19

Redecon (India) Pvt. Ltd.

20

K & J Projects Pvt. Ltd.

26

Ooms Polymer Modified Bitumen Pvt. Ltd.

32

Arun Soil Lab Pvt. Ltd.

38

Unihorn India Pvt. Ltd./Casta Engineers Pvt. Ltd.

39

Sparsh Engineering Company (P) Ltd./Keshav Industries

40

MoRT&H Circular

41

TechFab India Industries Ltd.

42

Tender Notice, NH Circle, Madurai

43

Strata Geosystems (India) Pvt. Ltd.

44

Tender Notice, NH Circle, PWD Barelly (U.P.)

45

Spectrum Chemicals

46

Tender Notice, MoRTH, New Delhi

47

Rodic Consultants Pvt. Ltd.

48

Tender Notice, MORTH, NH Division Nagpur

49

BASF

50

Hincol

51

Metal Engineering & Treatment Co. Pvt. Ltd.

52

Kraton Polymers

53

Jalnidhi Bitumen Specialities Pvt. Ltd.

54

Supreme Industries Ltd.

Satellite Office:
Jamnagar House, Shahjahan Road,
New Delhi - 110 011
Tel : Secretary General: +91 (11) 2338 4543
Sectt. : (11) 2338 7759
Fax : +91 (11) 2338 1649,
E-mail: secygen.irc@gov.in, publication.irc@gov.in

11

Technical Papers
Evaluating Recycled CDW for Sub-Base and Base Course
of Flexible Pavements

Rajiv Goel
21

Suitability of Alkali Activated Fly Ash Binder as a


Stabilizing Agent for Highly Expansive Soil

Sarat Kumar Das


27

Ashutosh Trivedi

P.S. Parhi

Estimation of Carbon Footprints in Bituminous Road


Construction: A Case Study

Siksha Kar

Ambika Behl

P.K. Jain

A. Shukla
33

Rheological Properties and Storage Stability of EPE


Modified Bitumen and EPE/Montmorillonite Modified
Bitumen

Vandana Tare

Sangita

Saurabh Bhargava

Rina Singh

Headquarter:
Kama Koti Marg, Sector 6, R.K. Puram
New Delhi - 110 022
Tel : Secretary General : +91 (11) 2618 5303
Sectt. : (11) 2617 1548
Fax : +91 (11) 2618 3669
E-mail: secygen.irc@gov.in

No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without prior written permission from the Secretary General, IRC.
Edited and Published by Shri S.S. Nahar on behalf of the Indian Roads Congress (IRC), New Delhi. The responsibility of the contents
and the opinions expressed in Indian Highways is exclusively of the author/s concerned. IRC and the Editor disclaim responsibility and
liability for any statement or opinion, originality of contents and of any copyright violations by the authors. The opinions expressed in
the papers and contents published in the Indian Highways do not necessarily represent the views of the Editor or IRC.

From the Editors Desk

Role of Road & Road Transportation Sector in Green house


Gases (GHG) Mitigation: Suggested Way Forward

S.S. Nahar
Dear Stakeholders,
Considering requisite consumption of stone aggregates, bitumen, cement and steel, fully
non-renewable minerals in such a large quantities in construction and maintenance of Road network
in the country would likely to offer irreparable damage to the environment and contribute to global
warming caused by GHG emission, it is envisaged that India should be the lead country in earning
carbon credit by introducing some of inescapable following suggested way forward in addition to
the policy initiatives taken by the Govt. which includes (i) introduction of bio-diesel & bio-ethanol
fuel (ii) the recent decision for implementation of Bharat Stages (BS) V & VI emission norms for
vehicles w.e.f. 2019 & 2023 respectively, a year ahead the road map laid in the Auto Fuel Vision
& Policy, 2025 and (iii) use of waste plastic in bituminous mix shall be the default mode for
Periodical Renewal (PR) works with in 50 kms periphery of urban areas having population more
than 5 lakhs:
1. It is warranted to mandate the diesel engine fitted vehicles to be phased out with clean (bio/ethanol)
fuel in time bound manner in compliance with National Biofuel Policy.
2. It is envisaged to mandate vehicle inspection and driving training on regular interval and phase
out/dispose of or recycle old vehicles once reach warranted maximum life prescribed for the
catalytic converter at the time of giving the type approval by the testing agency.
3. The imposition of new Green Tax or Environment Cess in observance to the directives of
the Honorable Supreme Court issued recently in the matter of commercial vehicles entering in
the National Capital and in synergy with stakeholders on similar line of the Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) under The Companies Act, 2013 as well GST Bill.
4. It is warranted to fully align automotive standards compatible to the UNECE (UN Economic
Commission for Europe: WP29) including that of crash tests and introduction of Bus Body
Code and Truck Code with mandatory life saving features like Antilock Braking System (ABS)
and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Photograph of complete built up truck alongwith number
of Original Equipment (OE) supplied leaf springs should be entered in the RC Book at the time
of registration and no modification be allowed at the time of issuing renewal fitness certificate.
It is proposed to mandate for the manufacturer of two-wheelers to ensure inbuilt life saving
features essentially helmet for driver and pillion rider in order to curb brain injuries which have
no full treatment. Helmet standard should be aligned with UN ECE Standards. Motor cycle more
than 150 cc should be fitted with ABS. it is envisaged to introduce the new technology of V2V
(Vehicle-to-Vehicle) and V2I (Vehicle-to-Infrastructure) communication and pedestrian impact
protection compulsory and alcolocks in cars/buses to check drunken driving.
5. In order to bring traffic discipline (curb over speeding/loading/theft) in turn to save
wastage of fuel and reduce road accidents, it is warranted to create a dedicated Unified
4

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

EDITORIAL
Highway Patrol Force (UHPF) to start with over 24,000 kms 4/6 laned NHs under NHDP and
built up gradually.
6. In order to save human health and damages to eco-system and bio-diversity, It is inevitable to
enact an effective National Policy on Substance production and Use (Alcohol and Drugs)
in tune with WHO Global Strategy and in collaboration with Internationally recognized NGOs
like Patanjali Yogpeeth.
7. In order to save wastage of fuel due to congestions, it is warranted to mandate the development/
upgradation of road network aiming to channelizing fast and slow moving traffic besides
dedicated pedestrian-cum-cycle track in urban conurbation to start with high density corridors.
8. IRCs initiatives to introduce cleaner, less polluting construction, use recycled wastes and
minimize drawing of natural resources from the environment get reflected in its recently
published documents viz:

(A) Environment Management Plan (EMP) (IRC:SP:108-2015) is a statutory requirement for
road projects beyond a size of 100 km based on the principles like less energy intensive
technology by reclaiming the damaged or unserviceable pavement materials by milling,
mixing fresh materials with reclaimed materials, and producing mixes (either in-situ or in
plant) (IRC:120-2015: Recommended Practice for Recycling of Bituminous Pavements);
substituting the crushed rocks with low embodied energy clean/waste alternative materials
(IRC:37-2012: Design of Flexible Pavements)

(B) Economy in cement and steel consumption by producing high strength concrete and modified
design procedures for concrete road bridges.

IRC:SP:70-2005: Guidelines for the Use of High Performance Concrete (HPC) in
Bridges. In this technology silica fume with a foaming agent as viscosity modifier is added
@10% by weight in replacement of cement, in concrete mix, as a result, strength of concrete
increases nearly 70%. This is fast construction technology besides economical as less
consumption of stone aggregates and cement hence saving in time and energy. The
second one is IRC:SP:71-2006 Guidelines for Design and Construction of Pre-tensioned
Girder of Bridges. The fast construction technique is widely adopted for construction of
metro track, expressways, etc. being safer (light structure); economical (less use of stone
aggregates) and environment friendly (less polluted).

Taking clue from the practice in Japan for Self Consolidated Concrete (SCC) whereas
mechanical consolidation is eliminated, the state-of-art technology in precast segmental
structures, IRC has formulated IRC:SP:62-2014: Guidelines for Design and
Construction of Cement Concrete Pavements for Low Volume Roads. However, for
road carrying very high volume of commercial traffic, IRC:118-2015: Guidelines for
Design and Construction of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement (CRCP),
having low life-cycle cost has been published.

IRC has strived upon another environment friendly new cost-effective technology for
construction of concrete road bridges. The new IRC:112-2011: Code of Practice for
Concrete Road Bridges is based on the limit state design concept as opposed to the
working stress design principles in the earlier version. The code permits design and
production of very high strength concrete approaching almost 100 MPa, nearly twice as
much as that permitted under the previous versions. The code also provides for use of blast
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

EDITORIAL
furnace slag upto 50% by weight in replacement of cement in construction of concrete piles
in coastal regions. This brings economy in consumption of cement and steel, two of the
most polluting manufactured construction materials resulting reduction in carbon
dioxide emission and consumption of energy.

(C) Use of fly ash in construction

Taking advantage of IRC initiatives in formulation of Guidelines for promoting the use of
fly ash in road embankments (IRC:SP:58-2001), MoEF issued an amendment to their fly ash
notification which read as:

No agency or person or organization shall within a radius of hundred kilometers of thermal
power plant undertake construction or approve design for construction of roads or flyover
embankment with top soil, the guidelines or specifications issued by the Indian Roads
Congress (IRC) as contained in IRC specification No. SP:58 of 2001 shall be followed.

(D) Use of warm mix asphalt technology

Most bituminous mixes are produced at a very high temperature (nearly 160C), mainly
because bitumen is very viscous at low temperatures and cannot coat the aggregates unless
heated to high temperatures. There are technologies available, which can facilitate the
coating at low temperatures by increasing the surface area of bitumen (foaming) or by
reducing the surface tension at the aggregate bitumen interface with use of certain additives,
thereby making the mixing possible at much lower temperature (typically 110C), saving
energy and releasing less pollutants in the atmosphere reducing GHG emission and hence
earning carbon credit. IRC has institutionalized the new environment friendly technology in
new code namely IRC:SP-101-2014: Interim Guidelines for Warm Mix Asphalt.

(E) Further, as an endeavor towards cost effective environment-friendly maintenance of
bituminous pavements during adverse climate, IRC formulated IRC:116-2014:
Specifications for Readymade Bituminous Pothole Patching Mix Using Cut-Back
Bitumen, a mix capable of being stocked for at least six months without stripping. Besides,
IRC:SP:100-2014: Use of Cold Mix Technology in Construction and Maintenance of
Roads Using Bitumen Emulsion.

(F) Gap-graded bituminous mixes using crumb rubber

With the twin aims of which are to improve the pavement design as well as utilize the
rubber waste in construction rather than disposing it into landfills and use land resources
for disposal of waste or by disposing it by the crude method of burning, which is highly
polluting, taking clue from the practices in Japan, IRC has developed standards and
formulated the guidelines under the code named as IRC:SP:107-2015: Guidelines for
Gap Graded Wearing Course with Rubberised Bitumen-Rubber. Use of these wastes in
bituminous construction is extremely environment friendly and makes economic sense as
well (because of higher performance, durability and less maintenance needs).
This issues in dedication to The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21
or CMP 11, scheduled to be held in Paris from November 30 to December 11.
Place : New Delhi
Dated : 29th November, 2015
6

Sajjan Singh Nahar


Secretary General
E-mail: secygen.irc@gov.in
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

Registration Fee & Form


rEGISTRATION fEE & fORM
1. Registration Fee:

A.

Delegates from India


1 Official Government Delegates
a) Senior (EE & above)
b)

Self

Spouse/
Companion

Rs5000
Rs4000

Rs3000
Rs3000

Junior (below EE)

2 Officials of Public and Private Sector Undertakings,


Companies etc.
Rs5000
Rs3000
3 Individuals (Not nominated by the
Government/Public and Private Sector
Rs4000
Rs3000
Undertakings/Companies etc.
4 Local Delegates (From the host State other than the
official delegates nominated by the host
Rs4000
Rs3000
Govt./Deptt./Organisations)
$120
$70
b.
Delegates from Foreign Countries
Note: Members who are retired from service and age of 60 to 65 years are entitled to pay 75% of
above rates of registration fee & 50% after 65 years of age. This concession will not be admissible
to the spouse of the retired members. Spouse of the delegates will also have to be registered on
payments of the requisite registration fee.
2. Registration Form :
i.

Name:

ii.

IRC Membership No. (Mandatory) :

iii.

Nationality:
(Passport No., If foreigner)

iv.

Date of Birth:

Designation/Organization :

vi.

Contact Address: Postal with Pin Code


Telephone with STD/Mobile
Email:

vii.

Name and Age of Spouse/ Companion (If


Accompanying)

3.

Payment Mode for Registration:

Through Non-Refundable Demand draft/cheque No._____________Dated______________


issued by__________________________drawn in favour of Secretary General, IRC payable at
New Delhi amounting Rs. __________________as Registration fee is enclosed

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

Important Announcement - New Membership Fee/Form


INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS
Kama Koti Marg, Sector-6, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110022 (India)
Phone.: +91(11) 26171548/26185303 Fax: +91(11) 26183669,
E-mail: membership.irc@gov.in

APPLICATION FORM FOR LIFE/INDIVIDUAL ASSOCIATE/STUDENT MEMBERSHIP


(TO BE FILLED IN CAPITAL LETTERS)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.

NAME:
NATIONALITY:
(Passport No. & Date of Issue, if Foreigner):
DATE OF BIRTH (attach matriculation certificate as proof):
QUALIFICATIONS:
DESIGNATION AND ORGANIZATION:
CONTACT (Mailing) ADDRESS:
(Postal with Pin Code):
Telephone with STD/Mobile:
E-mail:
BRIEF OF EXPERIENCE IN HIGHWAY
SECTOR (Period; Office/post held & Nature of duties performed)
PROFESSIONAL AREA OF SPECIAL INTEREST:
PAYMENT MODE FOR LIFE/INDIVIDUAL ASSOCIATE/STUDENT MEMBERSHIP FEE:

Through Non-Refundable Demand draft/cheque No._____________Dated______________


issued by__________________________drawn in favour of Secretary General, IRC payable at
New Delhi amounting Rs. __________________as Membership fee is enclosed
10.
I hereby request to become Life/Individual Associate/Student Membership (please tick ) of the
IRC and undertake to abide by the bye-laws of IRC and promote the objectives of the Society to
the best of my ability.
Date:
Signature
For Official Use
Receipt No:
Roll No:
Date:
Amt. Received:
Authorized Signatory of IRC
Guidelines for Life/Individual Associate/Student Membership & New Membership Fee Structure
(approved by the IRC Council in its 206th Meeting held at Srinagar, J&K on 25th/26th June, 2015)
1.

For Life Membership: Graduate Engineer or equivalent (AMIE) or Diploma with 10 years experience
or engineers/scientists having experience in relevant field for more than 10 years.
2.
For Individual Associate Membership: All professionals other than eligible for Life Membership
3.
For Student Membership: Any engineering student.
4.
FEE (Inclusive of Service Tax) TO BE PAID ALONGWITH APPLICATION FORM:
India & SAARC Countries
*E-Life Membership
Rs5000/**Non E-Life Membership
Rs10000/- (upto age of 45 years)
Rs7500/- (above age of 45 years)
Foreign Countries
*E-Life Membership
US$ 150
**Non E-Life Membership
US$ 500
Individual Associate E-Membership
*E-Life Membership
Rs5000/**Non E-Life Membership
Rs15000/E-Student Membership
Rs 500/- per annum
*
For e-membership periodical materials and correspondence by e-mail only
**
For non e-membership periodical materials and correspondence by post
____________________________________________________________________________________

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

Important Announcement - New Membership Fee/Form


INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS
Kama Koti Marg, Sector-6, R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110022 (India)
Phone.: +91(11) 26171548/26185303 Fax: +91(11) 26183669,
E-mail: membership.irc@gov.in

APPLICATION FORM FOR CORPORATE (ASSOCIATE) ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP


(FOR GOVT. DEPTTS., INSTITUTIONS, CORPORATIONS, COMPANIES, ETC. )
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.
6.

NAME OF ORGANISATION:

(TO BE FILLED IN CAPITAL LETTERS)

CORPORATE ADDRESS (Mailing) (ATTACH REGISTRATION OF THE ORGANIZATION):

(Postal with Pin Code):


Telephone with STD/Mobile:
Email:
Website:
NATURE OF ACTIVITIES (ATTACHED PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION):
Categories: (Tick whichever applicable) (a) Machinery (b) Instrumentation Material
Testing & Others (c) Cement/Concrete/Chemicals (d) Consultant (e) Contractor (f)
Asphalt/Bitumen/Material etc. (g) Any other relevant category
ANNUAL TURNOVER (ATTACH DULY AUDITED BALANCE SHEET FOR THE PRECEDING
THREE YEARS)

BRIEF OF EXPERIENCE IN HIGHWAY/ROAD TRANSPORTATION SECTOR:


(Period & Nature of activities performed)
PAYMENT MODE FOR CORPORATE MEMBERSHIP FEE:

Through Non-Refundable Demand draft/cheque No._____________Dated______________


issued by__________________________drawn in favour of Secretary General, IRC payable at
New Delhi amounting Rs. __________________as Annual Corporate Membership fee is enclosed
7.
FOR THE REPRESENTATIVE/NOMINEE:
(i)
Name
(ii)
Designation
(iii)
Qualification
(iv)
Contact No. (Mobile/Email)
8.
I (authorized representative) hereby request for Corporate (Associate) Membership of the IRC for
the __________(Name of Organization) and undertake to abide by the bye-laws of IRC and
promote the objectives of the Society to the best of our ability.
Date:
Authorized Signatory
For Official Use
Receipt No:
Roll No:
Date:
Amt. Received:
Authorized Signatory of IRC
New Fee Structure inclusive of Service Tax (approved by the IRC Council in its 206th Meeting held
at Srinagar, J&K on 25th/26th June, 2015) to be paid alongwith Application Form:
Corporate E-Membership (Annual)
Annual turnover upto Rs.5 Cr.
Rs. 21000/Annual turnover above Rs.5 Cr. and upto Rs.10 Cr.
Rs. 51000/Annual turnover above Rs.10 Cr. and upto Rs.25 Cr.
Rs. 100000/Annual turnover above Rs.25 Cr. and upto Rs.100 Cr
Rs. 500000/Annual turnover above Rs.100 Cr.
Rs. 1000000/US $ 350

10

Corporate E-Membership (Foreign Countries) (Annual)

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

Evaluating recycled CDW for Sub-base and Base


Course of Flexible Pavements
Rajiv Goel* and Ashutosh Trivedi**

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the results of laboratory experimentation and investigation of field study of the performance of base
and sub-base course constructed by using recycled Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) for flexible pavements.
The physical properties of CDW have been investigated and compared with physical properties of new materials as
specified by Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, MoRTH, Government of India. The specified physical properties
such as grain size distribution, specific gravity, aggregate crushing value, moisture-density relationship, abrasion value
and toughness index have been evaluated by lab testing and the same have been compared with that of new materials
obtained as crushed rock aggregates as per MoRTH specifications.
It is observed that physical properties of recycled CDW aggregates fulfill the requirements of MoRTH Specification. As
a step forward, to investigate the effect of use of CDW as sub-base and base course, the road crust was designed as per
IRC:37:2012 and constructed as per MoRTH specification. The base course and sub-base course material was replaced
by CDW material fulfilling the criteria of physical properties and gradation prescribed by MoRTH and the trial stretch
of flexible pavement was constructed.
The performance of flexible pavement was evaluated through field testing. The density of compacted pavement, relative
density, relative compaction, plate load test of compacted pavement, bearing capacity, settlement and modulus of sub
grade reaction was evaluated. The performance of the pavement has been found satisfactory from the experience of past
three years.

INTRODUCTION

The old city of Delhi has


numerous low rise masonry
and concrete structures living
beyond their design life. The
average age of these buildings
has been estimated within the
range of 60-100 years. The
major number of these buildings
are structurally unsound and
are posing threat to the life of
inhabitants as such demolition
of these old low rise buildings
is
inevitable.
However,
demolition of these buildings
will generate huge amount of
CDW which may be disposed
off without causing harm to
environment. Also the land so
reclaimed may be put to efficient
and effective use of public
by city planners. Demolition

waste so generated consists of


concrete, bricks, mortars, wood,
plastic, stone, steel and glass
with brick-mortar-concrete mix
debris constituting major portion
of this wreckage (TIFAC 2005).
This mixture is inert material
and on proper gradation by
crushing, it can be used for
various construction purposes
replacing new materials thereby
is an effective strategy for
disposal of waste which is
environment friendly.
According to the estimate, the
quantity of C&D waste generated
in Delhi varies from 3000 ton per
day in July and 500 ton per day
in September. (TIFAC 2005).
The situation in other Metro
Cities is no different from Delhi.
Central Road Research Institute

[Guru Vittal et al (2012)] have


conducted laboratory study on
CDW and found that Delhi city
produces about 3000 metric ton
of construction and demolition
waste every day and concluded
that crushed CDW can be
utilized as a fill material for
construction of embankment
and Mechanically stabilized
C&D waste mixture can be used
for sub-base layer.
A pattern of use of waste and
other industrial by products is
on the rise throughout the world
as per US Federal Highway
Administration. Inyang (2003)
had given the projections of
large scale requirement of
materials for expected 90%
increase of vehicular traffic
within the next 20 years, which

* Research Scholar, Dept. of Civil Engg., Faculty of Technoloy, University of Delhi, E-mail: rajivgoel.irse@gmail.com,
** Professor and Head, Dept. of Civil Engg., Faculty of Technology, University of Delhi, Delhi

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

11

TECHNICAL PAPERS

require use of large quantity of


aggregates. We can replace this
with aggregates derived from
recycled CDW. In reference to
growth of vehicular traffic and
requirement of new roads, road
availability in India only 5 meter
per capita as compared to per
capita road length of 450 meter
in the Australia, 280 meter in
the United States and 90 meter
in the Japan. This shows that
scope of further development
of roads in India is much higher
than the developed countries.

of about 725.7 million ton of


total waste materials.
In Europe, Netherlands has
framed national policies and
thereby took the lead in the
implementation of research to
support large-scale utilization
of waste in construction. The
Dutch
Building
Materials
Decree (1999) has formulated
combined soil and groundwater
protection standards along
with
the
performance
requirements for construction
materials for both natural
and recycled materials. Now
the Netherlands have been
able to recycle about 90% of
WRM materials primarily in
construction. Now European
Union is framing general
policies for waste management
programs.

The generation of demolition


waste in Hong Kong is 58,060
ton per year, out of this 45,360
ton can be recycled [Chen et al.
(2002a)]. It is found that the solid
waste output in Singapore has
been increased from 2075 ton per
day in 1973 to 7329 ton per day
in 1995. This indicates average
annual growth rate of 11.5%.
The quantity of solid wastes
rose 4 folds from 0.74 million
ton in 1972 to 2.80 million
ton in 2000. In this context
Singapore
Environmental
Pollution Control Act 1999 had
provided provisions for largescale recycling of solid wastes.

Finland reuses it's all the solid


wastes produced as it accepts
it as sources of primary
construction materials. In 2001
the Helsinki Energy produced
86,183 ton of y ash, 18,144 ton
of bottom ash, and 22,680 ton of
ash residues. About 50% of the
ash was used in concrete while
the remainder was used in earth
work constructions.

Japan requires large scale


utilization of recycled materials
due to high industrialization
rate and consumption patterns,
which creates huge quantity of
solid waste. In 1995, Japan has
recycled 190.5 million ton out

In Britain, Mulheron and


OMahony (1988) studied the
use of crushed concrete and
demolition debris as sub base
course aggregates. CBR tests
were conducted on crushed
concrete and demolition debris

12

and were compared with that


of lime stone. The test results
indicate that CBR of crushed
concrete was similar to that of
virgin aggregates and that of
demolition debris is less than
the CBR of virgin aggregates.
Mulheronand
OMahony,
(1988) have reported that there
is little difference between
the shear strength of natural
limestone aggregate, and that of
the recycled aggregates which
includes CDW.
It has been analyzed that
performance of blended mixture
of 25% of recycled concrete
aggregates with 75% of natural
aggregate in base course and
sub base course applications
and concluded it has the same
resilient response and permanent
deformation properties as of
a dense graded aggregates
base course made of natural
aggregates.
Molenaar
and
Niekerk
(2002) studied the influence
of composition, gradation,
and degree of compaction
on mechanical properties of
recycled crushed concrete and
crushed masonry aggregates.
The result indicates that the
composition and gradation have
little influence on the mechanical
properties but the degree of
compaction significantly affects
the mechanical properties of
recycled crushed concrete and
crushed masonry aggregates.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

TECHNICAL PAPERS

However, suitability and fitting


CDW in existing specification
as base and sub-base materials
for flexible pavement has
not been resorted to in India.
Experimental tracks are now
being constructed to establish
suitability of these aggregates
and for checking suitability
of these aggregates for further
formulation of specifications.
2

Characterization
of
aggregates extracted
from
construction
and demolition waste
(CDW)

Experimental Program
The CDW aggregate was
collected from two demolition
sites i.e. Ganga and Yamuna
multistory towers in Vaishali
Ghaziabad, Delhi NCR. The
experimental
investigations
of physical and mechanical
properties that affect the
behavior of base and subbase course made of recycled
CDW
aggregates
were
carried out to characterize
properties such as specific
gravity, grain size distribution,
proctors
compaction
test,
density-moisture relationship,
aggregate crushing value, Los
Angles Abrasion value test,
and California Bearing Ratio
(CBR).
The test for Specific gravity was
determined by density bottle
method. The Procter compaction
test was performed in laboratory
to calculate the optimum
moisture content and maximum

dry density of CDW. Aggregate


abrasion value of CDW was
tested in Los Angeles particle
abrasion machine. CBR Value
tests were performed to evaluate
the strength of material for its
suitability for base course of
pavement.
2.1 Test for Particle Size
Distribution and Grading
of CDW Aggregates
Test for particle size distribution
and grading of CDW aggregates

were conducted as per IS 2720:


Part 4:1985, Methods of test
for soils - part 4: grain size
analysis.
The grading requirement was
fulfilled in the trial case by
combining the CDW particles
of size more than 11.2 mm
and particles of size less than
11.2 mm were used as screening
and binder while making the
water bound macadam base
course and base course. The
grading obtained is as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 (a) Particle Size Distribution of Typical Waste Sample Compared


with other Geo-Materials

Fig. 1 (b) Particle Size Distribution of Typical Fine CD Waste Sample


(S1- Sands Extracted from CDW and A1 Aggregates Extracted from CDW)
Compared with Most Compactable Spherical and Flaky Geo-Materials

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

13

TECHNICAL PAPERS

2.2 Test for Specific Gravity of


Aggregates

2.3 Los Angeles Abrasion Value


Test

Tests for specific gravity is


performed as per IS 2720:
Part III: Sec 2: 1980 Test for
soils - Part III: determination of
specific gravity - section 2: Fine,
medium and coarse grained
soils

The Los Angeles abrasion value


tests on the coarse fraction were
carried out and the results of
tests are presented in the table
below. It may be noted from
the table that these values are
within permissible limits of 40%
prescribed for natural aggregate
for construction of base and
sub-base course.

Two sets of test samples of


crushed CDW aggregates were
prepared to find out specific
gravity. Each set consists of
three samples, one of course
particles of size more than 11.2
mm and other set consists of fine
grain particles of size less than
11.2 mm. The values of Specific
Gravity of samples of CDW as
determined in laboratory are
shown in the Table 1.
The specification of grading
(i.e. particle size less than
11.2 mm) is taken as the same is
used in MORTH specifications
of WMM for Highways as per
the specification for Road and
Bridge works (2001), Ministry of
Road Transport and Highways.

The reason of higher value


of abrasion test is due to the
fact that CDW consisted of
approximately 70 to 90%
normal aggregate only and the
remaining material consisted
of 10-30% pebbles and small
particles of mortar which
are comparatively weak in
strength. The results of tests are
presented in Table 2, Melbouci
(2010) carried out the hardness
test on crushed concrete
aggregates and found that Los
Angeles Abrasion value as 31
under standard test conditions.

Table 1 Results of Specific Gravity


Test of CDW Aggregates

2.4 Test
for
Aggregate
Crushing Value

Specific Gravity Specific Gravity


of Particle Size of Particle Size
More than
Less than
11.2 mma
11.2 mmb

The strength of CDW to be used


in sub-base and base course
was obtained by aggregate
crushing value test. For this
test aggregates passing through
12.5 mm sieve and retained
on 10 mm sieve were taken
and oven dried before the test.
Two tests were conducted on
a sample of about 9.5 kg oven
dried aggregate sample. The

2.71

2.61

2.65

2.64

2.70

2.59

a, b MORTH specifications of
WMM for Highways as per
the specification for Road and
Bridge works (2001).
14

crushed material was sieved


through the 2.36 mm sieve and
aggregate crushing value was
calculated as given in the table.
The aggregate crushing value of
the Recycled concrete aggregate
is higher than the crushed stone
aggregates as there is mortar
adhered around the particles
which get crushed easily during
the testing. The test results for
crushing values are as under:
Table 2 Results of Los Angeles
Abrasion Value, Aggregate
Crushing Value & Water
Absorption
Los Angles Aggregate
Water
Abrasion Crushing Absorption
Value % Value (%)
%
41.3
19.45
3.80
37.20
13.49
3.22
42.50
17.69
3.13

2.5 Tests for Porosity and


Water Absorption
The porosity of the aggregate
affects the water absorption
and permeability and hence is
very important factor. These
properties also affect the
stability of pavement in wet
condition. The specific gravity
of the aggregate depends on its
porosity. The water absorption
test of an aggregate after one
hour and twenty-four hour
of soaking give important
inferences in regards of stability
of pavement in wet condition.
(Fouad M. Khalaf and Alan S.
DeVenny)
The aggregate may contain
variable sizepores within its
structure. The large pores can

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

TECHNICAL PAPERS

be seen by microscope or even


with the naked eye. The smallest
pores are usually larger than the
size of the gel pores contained in
the cement paste. The pore size
affects the penetration of water
inside the aggregates and loss of
shear strength due to presence
of water.
According to Murdock and
Brook, (1979) it is often useful
to determine the absorption of
an aggregate after only a few
minutes of soaking as this rate
of absorption of water provides
an indication of the reduction in
workability between mixing and
placing when used in concrete.
The values of the test results
for 24 hour soaking are as per
Table 2.
The values of higher water
absorption of recycled CWD
aggregates are owing to presence
of cement mortar, brick bats
which are inert and porous.
2.6 Standard CBR Value
Tests
Laboratory CBR tests were
conducted as per the IS 2720:
Part 16:1987 on the samples
collected are as following:
A comparison of CBR value
of CDW aggregates consists
of concrete, mortar and broken
bricks that of only crushed
concrete and specified mixes
have been carried out with the
tests conducted by Melbouci

(2009) reveals that the CDW


has less CBR value as compared
the concrete aggregates.
A comparison has been made
between CBR values for the
CDW aggregates and Concrete

aggregates with or without


additions. It indicates that CDW
aggregates are having less CBR
as compared to crushed concrete
aggregates with or without
additions.

Table 3 Soaked and Un-Soaked CBR Test Results

Sample Type

OMC
(%)

CBR at
OMC

CBR
Soaked

Construction and Demolition Waste


aggregates of particle size more than
11.2 mma

4.5

72.5

68.6

Construction and Demolition Waste


Particle size less than 11.2 mmb

4.9

70.4

64.8

a, b MORTH specifications of
WMM for Highways as per

the specification for Road and


Bridge works (2001)

Table 4 Comparisons of CBR Test Results

Description of Materials

CBR at OMC

CBR soaked

Concrete Aggregates (CG)a

85

128

CG + Bricksa

87

83

CG + 10% sanda

93.5

93

CG + 10% Cementa

139

>150

CDWAb

72.5

68.6

CDWAb

70.4

64.8

Tests conducted by Bachir Melbouci (2009)

Present work

2.7 Procter Compaction Test


for Determination
of
Maximum Dry Density
of
Construction
and
Demolition Waste (i.e.
Particle Size Less than
11.2 mm)
Compaction characteristics i.e.
Optimum Moisture Content and
Maximum Dry Density (MDD)

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

of Construction and Demolition


Waste (CDW) are determined
by Standard Proctor test as per
IS2720: part-7.
A moisture content-dry density
plot for the aggregate derived
from CDW aggregates in present
case along with the similar test
data available is plotted in the
Fig. 2.
15

TECHNICAL PAPERS

gradation
prescribed
by
MoRTH. The plot of gradation
of CDW material used for
construction of base course
and sub-base course is given in
Fig. 1.

Fig. 2 (a) Maximum Dry Density-Moisture Content Plot course CDW


(D>11.6 mm) along with other CD Waste

Fig. 2 (b) Maximum Dry Density-Moisture Content Plot Fine CD Waste


(S1 and A1) Compared with Varied Geo-materials (1-8) along with
Zero Air Void Line

A comparison of physical
properties such As specific
gravity, Los Angeles abrasion
values and water absorption has
been made between the values
of C&D waste aggregates with
that of Crushed concrete
aggregates,
crushed
stone
aggregates and gravel as found
by Park (2003).
3

Construction of Trial
Stretch and Performance
Assessment

The CDW obtained from Ganga


and Yamuna multistory towers
16

in Vaishali Ghaziabad were


brought at the Construction
Site namely; Crossing Republic
Township at Ghaziabad and
the material was used for
construction of trial stretch of
2.0 km length.
The road crust was designed
as per IRC:37-2001 and
constructed as per MoRTH
Specification. However, the
base course and sub-base course
material was replaced by CDW
material fulfilling the criteria
of physical properties and

The layer was laid and


compacted as per Specification
and field densities were
measured for control of
compaction. The results of
field densities are tabulated in
Table 7. The road was overlaid
and finished with bituminous
layer and the tests were
conducted to assess the
settlement by Plate Load Test.
Besides, the visual inspections
were conducted to assess the
damage to the road under traffic
for a period of 3 years.
3.1 Field Tests for DensityMoisture
Content
of
Compacted Base Course
Constructed using CDW
The specific gravity of crushed
rock aggregates is in the range
of about 2.552.75 and will
produce the sub base and base
course of flexible pavements of
densities usually in the range of
about 20.50 21.50 kN/m3.
The densities of base course and
sub base course were determined
by sand replacement method.
Three samples were collected
and density and moisture content
were calculated as shown in the
Table-3 The water content of the
sample has been tested as per
IS 2720: Part 2: 1973.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 6 Physical Properties C&D Waste and other Aggregates
Tests

Recycled
Corse
Concrete
Aggregates1

Recycled Fine
Concrete
Aggregates1

Crushed
Stone
Aggregates1

Gravel
Aggregates1

Recycled
Demolition
Waste
Aggregates2

Specic Gravity

2.527

2.539

2.623

2.642

2.69

Water absorption %

1.43

1.77

1.8

1.3

3.35

Los Angales Abrasion %

32.9

43.6

31.2

--

43.07

Aggregate Crushing Value %

--

---

--

--

16.88

Un-compacted Voids %

42-50

42-50

42-45

37-39

--

Proctors density at OMC

21.8

19.5

20.5

--

21.35

Optimum Moisture Content

8.5

12.5

11

--

11.5

1.
2.

Park(2003)
Present work

Table 7 Results of Density-Moisture Data of Base Course/Sub-Base Course


Bulk Density (kN/m3)

Water Content (%)

Dry Unit wt (kN/m3)

22.3

9.50

20.4

21.9

11.00

19.7

21.6

12.50

19.2

3.2 Determination of Relative


Compaction

Table 8 Results of Relative


Compaction Test

Relative compaction has been


determined for assessing the
compaction achieved in the base
course/sub-base course by using
formulas per Eq.1 as,

Test
No.

20.37

95.50

Rc = d (achieved in field trial)/


d (MDD achieved in Procter
compaction test)

19.91

93.32

19.80

92.81

Field Density
Relative
using Sand Compaction
Replacement
Method

The values of relative compaction achieved in the field are


given in the Table 8.

Comparison of Test
Results with the
Standards Fixed by
IS Codes/IRC Codes

The
relative
compaction
obtained in the field trial at
two locations was less than
95% which may be due to poor
compaction control that could
be achieved for the Construction
and Demolition Waste.

The comparison of various


test results indicates that the
specific gravity of Crushed
stone aggregates in well within
the values required for good
hard surface of WBM. The
density of compacted pavement

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

achieved is also in the range of


density of crushed stone water
bound macadam and wet mix
macadam.
Los angles value of CDW
aggregates is slightly higher
than the crushed stone because
the aggregates of CDW were
having mortar adhered with
them and it was not possible to
fully remove the mortar from
surface of aggregates.
When the aggregates taken for
aggregates crushing value the
aggregates are comparatively
clean and hence the result
found is less than maximum
permissible.
The
water
absorption of CDW aggregates
was significantly higher than
that of crushed stone aggregates
as the mortar in between the
CDW aggregate absorbed more
water and hence we got the
higher value.
17

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 9 Comparisons of Code Provisions
Property of
Aggregates

Standard Value
Standard
for Crushed Stone Value for Wet
Water Bound
Mix Macadam
Macadam
Specific Gravity
2.65-2.75
2.55-2.7
Density of Compacted 19.50-20.50 kN/m3
19.00-20.00
Pavement
kN/m3
Los Angles Abrasion
40% max
40% max
Value
Aggregate Crushing
30% max
30% max
Value
Water Absorption
2%
2%

Value Obtained
for CDW
Aggregate
2.69
19.80 kN/m3
40.30%
16.88%
3.35%

Table 10 Comparison of Grading with WBM and WMM


IS Sieve
Average Grading
Designation
of C&D Waste
90
98.599
63
81.983
53
58.426
45
43.049
22.4
27.18
11.2
18.558
4.75
7.2507
Pan
0

Grading of Crushed Stone Grading of


Aggregate for WBM
WMM
100
90-100
25-60
100
0-15
95-100
0-5
60-80
0
40-60
25-40
0-25

From the above table it is clear


that the grading of recycled
CDW is finer than the grading of
crushed stone course aggregates
used in the water bound
macadam. But it is courser than
the aggregate grading required
in water mix macadam. Hence
the recycled CDW is a good
alternative material for the
road construction. Moreover
by proper planning and mixing
of some individual size of
aggregates it can be same as
that of the WMM required as
per MoRTH specification.
5 Conclusions
Recycling of CDW is not a new
concept, as several countries
18

have been crushing waste to


produce aggregate for a number
of years. Use of this recycled
aggregate in sub base and
base course material in road
construction will provide an
additional avenue and enhance
the demand of such aggregates
and pave the way for recycling in
India as being done in developed
countries. The limiting factors
on expanding the reuse and
recycling of construction and
demolition waste requires the
establishing the parameters
which could provide confidence
to road agencies and public
authorities for predictable and

consistent performance from the


final product. The present study
focuses on use of CDW as base
course and sub base course
of flexible pavements and
accordingly
attempt
has
been made to examine the
physical properties of CDW
and comparing the same with
commonly used Specification.
The results indicate that the
contamination in CDW does
not affect the final performance
and can be used in the road
construction.
Based on the tests performed
and field application of CDW
aggregate as base and subbase materials for flexible
pavement system, the following
conclusions can be drawn:
CDW aggregates can be
used as base and sub-base
materials, in place of crushed
stone aggregate.
The compactibility of CDW
aggregates is the same as
that of crushed stone and
gravel aggregate.
The strength and compactablity of recycled CDW
aggregates is equal to the
conventional WBM or
WMM and hence give same
strength characteristics as
that of WBM or WMM.
Aggregate crushing value
and abrasion values of
recycled CDW aggregate

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

TECHNICAL PAPERS

are higher than that of


values required by MOST
specification for crushed
stone aggregates
The
Water
absorption
of recycled aggregates is
sufficiently higher than that
of stone aggregates. Hence
special care is required to
prevent the in grace of
water in pavement.
References
1.

Inyang, H. I. (2003). Framework for


Recycling of Wastes in Construction.
Journal of Environmental Engineering, 129(10), 887-898.

2.

Khalaf, F. M., and De Venny, A.S.


(2004). Recycling of demolished
masonry rubble as coarse aggregate in concrete: review. Journal of
Materials in Civil Engineering, 16(4),
331-340.

3.

Melbouci, B. (2009). Compaction


and shearing behaviour study of
recycled aggregates. Construction
and Building Materials, 23(8),
2723-2730.

4.

Molenaar, A. A., andVan Niekerk,


A. A. (2002). Effects of gradation,
composition,
and
degree
of
compaction on the mechanical
characteristics of recycled unbound
materials. Transportation Research
Record:
Journal
of
the
Transportation Research Board,
1787(1), 73-82.

5.

Murdock, L.J., and Brook, K.M.


(1979). Concrete materials and
practice, 5th Ed., Edward Arnold,
London.

6.

Mulheron, M., and OMahony,


M.(1988) The durability of recycled
aggregates and recycled aggregate
concrete. Proceedings of 2nd
International Symposium
on
Demolition and Reuse of Concrete
and Masonry, 2, 633-642.

7.

Park, T. (2003). Application of


construction and building debris as
base and subbase materials in rigid
pavement. Journal of Transportation
Engineering, 129(5), 558-563.

8.

Seik, F. T. (1997). Recycling of


domestic waste: early experiences
in Singapore. Habitat Int., 21-3,
277289.

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INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

Suitability of alkali activated fly ash binder as a


stabilizing agent for highly expansive soil
Sarat Kumar Das* and Partha Sarathi Parhi**

ABSTRACT
This research work presents part of the research on efficacy of sodium based alkaline activators and class F fly ash
as an additive in improving the engineering properties of expansive soils (Black cotton soils). Cement industry is the
second largest industry for the global warming. Sodium hydroxide concentrations of 10, 12.5 and 15 molal along with
1 Molar solution of sodium silicate were used as activators. The activator to ash ratios (liquid to solid mass ratio) was
kept between 1 and 2.5 and ash percentages of 20, 30 and 40 %, relatively to the total solids. The effectiveness of this
binder is tested by conducting the Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) at curing periods of 3, 7 and 28 days and is
compared with that of a common fly ash based binder, also the most effective mixtures were analyzed for mineralogy with
XRD. Suitability of alkaline activated fly ash mix as a grouting material is also ascertained by studying the rheological
properties of the grout such as, setting time, density and viscosity.

INTRODUCTION

Expansive soils also known as


swelling soils or shrink-swell
soils have the tendency to swell
and shrink with the variation in
moisture content. The annual
cost of damage to the civil
engineering structures caused by
these soils are estimated to be
150 million in the U.K., $ 1,000
million in the U.S. and many
billions of dollars worldwide
Gourly et al. (2003). Several
techniques such as special
foundations that includes belled
piers, drilled piers, friction
piers and moisture barriers have
been developed to mitigate the
problems posed by expansive
soils Chen (1975). On other
hand cement stabilization is
most effective for expansive
soil compared to stabilization
with fly ash, lime, and calcium
chloride (Desai and Oza, 1997;
Cokca, 2001; Phani Kumar et al.,
2001). But cement industry is
becoming ecologically unstable

due to its second largest carbon


rating after the transportation.
Fly ash is a waste material,
which is extracted from the flue
gases of a coal fired furnace. At
present, the generation of fly ash
is far in excess of its utilization.
In combination with lime and
bentonite, fly ash can also be
used as a barrier material (Joshi
et al. 1994).
The alkali activation of waste
materials has become an
important area of research in
many laboratories because it is
possible to use these materials
to
synthesize
ecologically
sound cement like construction
materials Palomo et al (1999).
Alkali activated fly ashes is the
cement for the future. The alkali
activation of waste materials is
a chemical process that allows
the user to transform glassy
structures into very compact
well-cemented
composites
(Palomo et al 1999).

Pacheco-Torgal et al. (2012),


Villa et al. (2010) and Xu and
Van Deventer (2003) concluded
that alkaline activated materials
are more durable and stable and
are generally better performing
materials than conventional
cements available. But limited
study has been made on soil
stabilization
using
alkali
activated fly ash. Cristelo et al.
(2013) investigated the effect of
sodium based alkaline activated
fly ash and Portland cement
on the strength of soft soils.
They concluded that alkaline
activation of low calcium fly
ash can be used as an alternative
binder to Portland cement for
soft soil stabilization.
This paper presents part of
the results of an experimental
investigation carried out to study
the effect of fly ash activated by
sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and
sodium silicate (Na2O3Si) of
different molal concentration
on strength of expansive soils
after 3, 7 and 28 days curing,

* Associate Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, NIT, Rourkela, E-mail: saratdas@nitrkl.ac.in


** Ph D Research Scholar, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Hyderabad, E-mail: partha.nitrkl@gmail.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

21

TECHNICAL PAPERS

and is compared with the results


obtained from only fly ash
treated samples. This report
also presents the suitability of
alkaline activated fly ash mix as
a grouting material.
2

METHODOLOGY

2.1 Material Characterization


Black cotton soil for this study
were collected from a natural
deposit having coordinates
as N 21 12 34.03 and S
79 09 29.09 Khairi, Kanli
road, Nagpur, Maharashtra.
Geotechnical characterization,
as per IS 2720 (Table 1), and
the soil was classified as Clay of
high Plasticity (CH).

The fly ash used had low calcium


content (class F) and was
obtained from the captive power
plant of National Aluminium
Company Ltd, Angul Odisha. Its
characterization was carried by
scanning electron microscopy
(SEM), together with chemical
analysis by energy dispersive
X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and
X-ray diffraction (XRD).
The alkaline activator solution
used was a combination of
sodium silicate (Na2O3Si) and
sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The
sodium silicate in powder form
and sodium hydroxide in flake
form of commercial grade was
used.

Table 1 Geotechnical Properties of Expansive Soil

Properties
Coefficient of uniformity (Cu)
Coefficient of curvature (Cc)
Specific gravity (G)
Maximum dry density (MDD)
Optimum moisture content (OMC)
Natural moisture content
Free swell index
Liquid limit
Plastic limit
Swelling pressure
IS Classification
2.2 Sample Preparation and
Testing
Three
different
fly
ash
percentages, 20, 30 and 40 %,
regarding the total solids (soil +
fly ash) weight, were used with
corresponding ash/soil ratios of
0.25, 0.43 and 0.67. Moreover to
22

Value
2.43
0.51
2.64
1.55 gm/cc
23.31%
7.11%
100%
72%
21%
6 kg/cm2
CH

study the effect of activator on


the gain in mechanical strength,
the activator/total solids ratios
are kept as 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25,
respectively with all percentage
of fly ash mixed with soils.
The activator solution was
prepared at least 24 hours

before being used, so that the


temperature increase due to the
exothermic reaction between
the silicate and hydroxide was
dissipated and the activator was
back to room temperature, which
in this case was 33 2 C.
Initially the soil and the fly
ash were homogenized and
then the activator was added to
the mixture. After mixing for
3 min in a mechanical mixer, the
samples were cast into 50 mm
moulds by tapping the moulds
on the lab counter, then kept in
a sealed container. Each sample
was weighed after being removed
from the mould. There were
some difficulties arise during
the preparation of samples with
15 molal activator solutions.
The Unconfined Compressive
Strength (UCS) of these samples
are then tested with every single
result obtained was the average
of 3 tested samples.
In order to explain the
mechanism of strength gain
and determine the structure of
the final product, some selected
samples at 3, 7 and 28 days
curing were studied by X-ray
diffraction (XRD).
The rheological studies include
measurement of density and
viscosity of both cement
and alkali-activated grouts
and comparison between the
two. For this Marsh funnel
viscometer
confirming
to
IS 14343:1996 was used to
calculate the viscosity of both

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

TECHNICAL PAPERS

the grouts. Setting time was


ascertained by using Vicats
apparatus.

AF-125-30-15 exhibit least


7 days strength and mix AF-

125-40-15 exhibit least strength


after 28 days curing.

2.3 Results and Discussions


Unconfined
Compressive
Strength of Alkaline-activated
Fly ash treated samples.
All total 81 samples were tested
with different combinations of
fly ash percentage and activator
percentage. The results obtained
from the tests conducted are very
encouraging. Fig. 1 shows the
variation of strength obtained
for 10 molal activator content
and 20, 30 and 40% fly ash
content mixed soil samples,
after 3, 7 and 28 days curing
periods. It is evident that the
3 days strength is more in case
of mix AF-100-30-20, while the
7 and 28 days strength is more
in case of mix AF-100-40-20.
The least 3 and 7 days strength
is exhibited by mix AF-100-4025, while mix AF-100-30-25
exhibit least 28 days strength.
Similarly Fig.1 shows the
variation of strength obtained
for 12.5 molal activator content
and 20, 30 and 40% fly ash
content mixed soil samples,
after 3, 7 and 28 days curing
periods. From the figure, it is
evident that the 3 days strength
is more in case of mix AF125-20-20, while the 7 and 28
days strength is more in case of
mix AF-125-40-20. The least
3 days strength is exhibited by
mix AF-125-40-25, while mix

Fig. 1 UCS Results of all 10 Molal Samples

Fig. 2 UCS Results of all 12.5 Molal Samples

2.4 Effect of Activator Concentration


The variation in UCS of
prepared with 20% fly ash
content, with the amount of
activator (10, 12.5 and 15 molal)
are shown in Fig. 3. Apart
from 20% fly ash content with
15% activator content, 15 molal

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

mixtures are giving less


strength as compared to 10 and
12.5 molal mixes. The initial
strength (i.e. 3 day strength) of
10 molal and 12.5 molal mixes
having 20% activator content
and 20% fly ash is more as
compared to others, while the
same exhibit very low 3 day
23

TECHNICAL PAPERS

strength when it is mixed with


15 molal NaOH concentrations.
Similarly the 7 day strength of
10 molal, 12.5 molal and 15
molal NaOH concentrations mix

having 20% activator content


and 20% fly ash is more as
compared to others. While the
28 days strength of 10 molal and
12.5 molal mixes having 20%

activator content and 20% fly ash


is more as compared to others,
while the same exhibit loss of
strength when it is mixed with
15 molal NaOH concentrations.

Fig. 3 (a) Effect of Activator Concentration on UCS: 20% Fly Ash Mixtures with 15% Activator Content (b) Effect of
Activator Concentration on UCS : 20% Fly Ash Mixtures with 20% Activator Content (c) Effect of
Activator Concentration on UCS : 20% Fly Ash Mixtures with 30% Activator Content

2.5 Effect of Activator/Ash


Ratio
The effect of activator/ash ratio
on the strength gained by the
samples prepared from 10, 12.5
and 15 molal activator solution
after 3 days of curing is shown
in Fig. 4. The pattern shows
that higher values of 3 days
strength were observed, when
the activator/ash ratio ranges in
between 0.75 to 1.0 across all 10,
12.5 and 15 molal concentration
of NaOH concentrations, which
is quite acceptable as lower
activator to ash ratio will prove
to be economical. With the
24

help of these graphs another


inference can be made that,
for 3 days cured samples, the
strength of samples made of
same amount of fly ash content
and same molar concentration,
the strength is decreasing as
the amount of activator/ash
ratio increased. It also can be
concluded that the strength
of sample decreases with an
increase in fly ash content and
decrease in activator/ash ratio.
2.6 Rheological Study
Setting time
Due to very slow setting of

mixtures the setting time of


the alkaline grouts was not
measurable practically using
Vicats apparatus. It was
inferred during the investigations that the rate of setting
of alkaline grouts are very slow
than that of cement grout and it
was found out that the setting
process in alkaline grouts are
non-homogenous in nature. It
was concluded that this test is
not appropriate for evaluating
the setting time of activated fly
ash grouts.

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Fig. 4 (a) UCS and Activator/Ash Ratio Relation at 3 days Curing for 10 Molal Samples. (b) UCS and Activator/Ash
Ratio Relation at 3 days Curing for 12.5 Molal Samples. (c) UCS and Activator/Ash Ratio Relation at
3 days Curing for 15 Molal Samples

2.7 Viscosity
Table 6 shows the density
and Viscosity of cement and
alkaline grout obtained from
Marsh cone test. Results shows

that the alkaline grouts are


more viscous than the cement
grout and also it can be
observed that the flow time of
grouts are clearly dependent on

the density of the grouts and as


explained earlier the strength is
also governed by the viscosity
and fluidity of the activator
solution.

Table 2 Density and Viscosity of Cement and Alkaline Grout

Binder
Cement grout
Alkaline grout, 10 molal
Alkaline grout, 12.5 molal
Alkaline grout, 15 molal

Activator/Ash Ratio
--0.89
0.89
0.89

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

Density (gm/cm3)
1.58
1.66
1.76
1.88

Marsh Funnel (S)


39
82
95
128
25

TECHNICAL PAPERS

Conclusions
Based on the obtained results
and
discussion
thereof
following conclusions can be
made.
The unconfined compressive strength soil is found to
vary with concentration of
chemical in the activated fly
ash and curing period.
Since the final strength
of the mix is governed by
the viscosity and fluidity
of the mix prepared, it is
advisable to prepare the
alkaline grouts to a level of
viscosity keeping in mind
its compressive strength.

Alkali-activated fly ash can


be used effectively as a stabiliser alternate to cement
for stabilising expansive
soils, thereby helping in
reducing the carbon footprint.
References
1.

2.

3.

Chen, F. H. (1975). Foundations on


Expansive Soils, Elsevier Science,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Cokca, E. (2001). Use of Class C
Fly Ash for the Stabilization of an
Expansive Soil. Jl. of Geotech and
Geoenv. Engineering, ASCE, 127 (7),
568573.
Cristelo N, Glendinning S, Fernandes
L, Teixeira Pinto A (2013) Effects
of Alkaline-Activated Fly Ash
and Portland Cement on Soft Soil
Stabilization. Acta Geotechnica
(2013) 8:395405.

4.

Joshi, R.C., Hettiaratchi, J.P.A. and


Achari, G. (1994). Properties of
Modified Alberta Fly Ash in Relation
to Utilization in Waste Management
Applications. Canadian Journal of
Civil Engineering, 21: 419-426.

5.

Pacheco-Torgal F, Abdollahnejad Z,
Camoes AF, Jamshidi M, Ding Y
(2012) Durability of Alkali-Activated
Binders: a Clear Advantage Over
Portland Cement or an Unproven
Issue? Constr Build Mater 30:400
405.

6.

Villa C, Pecina ET, Torres R, Gomez


L (2010) Geopolymer Synthesis
using Alkaline Activation of
Natural Zeolite. Constr Build Mater
24(11):20842090.

7.

Xu H, Van Deventer JSJ (2003)


Effect of Source Materials on
Geopolymerization. Ind Eng Chem
Res 42(8): 16981706.

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INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

Estimation of Carbon Footprints in Bituminous Road


Construction: A Case Study
Siksha Kar*, Ambika Behl*, P.K. Jain** & A. Shukla**

ABSTRACT
Carbon foot print is a term used to describe the total amount of carbon dioxide and other Green House Gas (GHG)
emissions for which an individual/process/organization/activity is responsible. The challenge of global climate change
has motivated state transportation agencies involved in the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure
to investigate strategies that reduce the life cycle Green House Gas (GHG) emissions associated with the construction
and rehabilitation of highway infrastructure. The road sector is coming under pressure to review current practice and the
potential to reduce carbon emissions.
To reduce GHG emission, different approaches are adopted for road construction and maintenance such as Warm Mix and
Cold Mix Technologies. Warm mix asphalt is produced at temperatures 20 to 40C lower than Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA).
Cold Mix Asphalt is produced and paved at ambient temperature using bitumen emulsion. The immediate benefit of
producing and placing asphalt mixes at a lower temperature is the reduction in energy consumption, greenhouse gas
emissions, fumes, and odors generated at the plant and the paving site. The life cycle approach has been accepted as a
robust method of measuring carbon footprint. Tools and data-sets have been developed to facilitate the measurement.
Among them is the Calculator for Harmonised Assessment and Normalisation of Greenhouse-gas Emissions for Roads
(CHANGER) developed by International Road Federation (IRF).
This paper outlines the common methodology of road carbon foot printing, application of results in sustainable
construction assessment schemes and resources available to undertake such analysis. Case studies of using CHANGER
are provided in India for different technologies. The CO2 output of these projects is compared.

INTRODUCTION

The challenge of global


climate change has motivated
state transportation agencies
involved in the construction and
maintenance of transportation
infrastructure to investigate
strategies that reduce the life
cycle Green House Gas (GHG)
emissions associated with the
construction and rehabilitation
of
highway
infrastructure
[Santero et al 2009]. Environmental consciousness is on the
rise and many transportation
officials are striving to make
their practices and policies
greener or more sustainable. To
analyse the carbon footprint,
one must look at the GreenHouse Gas (GHG) emissions
associated with the construction

and maintenance of a road.


Greenhouse
gases
include
carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous
oxide (N2O), methane (CH4)
etc. Greenhouse gas emissions
are typically measured in terms
of carbon dioxide equivalents
(CO2).

asphalt freeway pavement


built as a Perpetual Pavement.
Both the carbon footprint of
the initial construction and
the carbon footprint of the
maintenance activities over a
50-year
life
cycle
were
evaluated and compared.

2 Literature Review
Carbon Footprint of HMA and
PCC Pavements [Brown et al
2009], a paper presented at the
2009 International Conference
on
Perpetual
Pavements,
examined the carbon footprint
of asphalt and concrete
pavements
for
typical
residential,
collector,
and
freeway pavements constructed
in Ontario, Canada. In addition,
the paper looked at the carbon
footprint of an equivalent

Pavements cannot be easily


defined as products. Pavement
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)
applications and methodologies
have their roots in the
application of traditional LCA
methodologies that are typically
product driven. In practice,
it is difficult to assume a
pavement section to be a well
defined product with a standard
functional unit. The functional
lives of pavement control
sections are less predictable

* Scientist, ** Chief Scientist, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, E-mail: pk_crri@rediffmail.com

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

27

TECHNICAL PAPERS

unlike other typical products


that have clearly defined
functional lives. This comes
out resulting with incomparable
functionality, service lives and
impacts.
Most of the current research
efforts in pavement LCAs
emphasize prescriptive approaches that present general
conclusions
regarding
the
comparative
impacts
of
pavement materials [Muga
et al 2009, Gambatese eta l,
2005, Zapata et al 2005 &
Horvath et al 1998] based on
estimated inventories and/
or case studies. They have
significantly furthered the field
by illustrating the application of
life cycle assessment methods.
However, their conclusions are
limited by explicit assumptions
in the control sections selected
for comparison, and implicit
assumptions of uniform climate
conditions, usage patterns and
environmental contexts, such
as access to raw materials
and availability of local water
resources. Regional and local
variations are difficult to
codify in these approaches, as
they emphasize comparisons
of alternative designs across
assumed uniform conditions,
rather than supporting context
sensitive decisions that reduce
long-term
impacts.
Often,
there is limited consideration
of construction process information, such as the type of
equipment used and the impact
28

of site location and layout


when considering the total life
cycle emissions. There has
also been some disagreement
on an appropriate functional
unit. While the measures per
lane mile have been commonly
used, they are not completely
representative. As the size of
projects scale, such measures
are subject to statistical
smoothening resulting in flawed
results.
As an alternative, a recent study
[Gallivan et al, 2010] has used
representative panels of typical
concrete and asphalt pavements
to compare emissions of
concrete and asphalt pavements.
While not a perfect functional
unit, this provides an approach
to compare the emissions from
a cluster of materials that are
required to build a concrete
panel and an asphalt panel
respectively, and is arguably
less sensitive to scale.
A lack of consensus on these
underlying
definitions
has
plagued the pavement LCA
literature. A recent review of
pavement LCAs, by the Portland
Concrete Association (PCA)
[Santero et al, 2010], have
reported inconsistencies due
to functional units, improper
system boundaries, imbalanced
data for asphalt and cement, use
of limited inventory and impact
assessment categories, and poor
overall utility.
Efforts aimed at developing
decision-support frameworks,

to
inform
agency
and
stakeholder decisions, also
remain fragmented. Prescriptive
LCA frameworks have been
developed to support decision
making
between
broad
pavement classes [Guggemos
et al 2006, Horvath et al, 2004].
However, the assumptions
underlying such frameworks
often make them unsuitable
for supporting policies that
aim to reduce long-term GHG.
They often lead to inaccurate
generalizations that cannot be
used to support context sensitive
policy. In addition, they leave
limited room for monitoring,
and/or rewarding continuous
improvement in construction
planning processes aimed at
reducing GHG. Subjective
point based systems, such as
Green RoadsTM [Muench, et al
2010], have been considered
for
reducing
construction
emissions. While such systems
are easier to implement, they
lack appropriate verification.
Studying
pavement
LCA
framework accounts for the
emissions from
i) the mining, manufacturing
and production of the material products (materials and
equipment) used to construct
the pavement,
ii) the processes involved
during the construction
and maintenance of the
pavement, and
iii) The service life/use phase
of the pavement. In doing

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

TECHNICAL PAPERS

so, the research builds on


methods and metrics in the
literature that apply LCA to
different stages of the pavements life.
3 Objective and
Methodology
In this study, we propose to
measure the Greenhouse Gas
(GHG) emissions for overlaying
of bituminous concrete. The aim

of this research is to compare


the carbon footprint, defined
as a composite measure of all
GHG emissions expressed as
equivalents of carbon dioxide
emissions, between Hot Mix
Asphalt (HMA) and Warm
Mix Asphalt (WMA) using
CHANGER Software. The
methodology adopted for this
paper has given in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1 Flow Chart of Methodology

4 Overview of CHANGER

CHANGER was developed by


the
International
Road
Federation (IRF) and the
rst version was released in
November 2009. The model
is being developed with a
view to elaborate an IRF
standard
and
certification.
The goal of this tool is
multifaceted.
To facilitate an environmental analysis of road projects;
To provide a basis for the
comparative analysis of
various
road
laying

techniques and materials;


To optimise site supply
schemes with respect to
the choice of suppliers,
delivery locations and
transport modes;
To enable an estimation of
the carbon footprint of road
construction activities.
The tool development, in
partnership with Ammann,
Colas and Scott Wilson (now
URS), undertakes an iterative
approach that includes data
sourcing,
initial
analysis,
feedback to data provider

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

and revisit the calculation, in


accordance with ISO 14044.
The tool takes into account
a range of emission sources
during project life, and analyses
at a project level to benchmark
the carbon footprint per
kilometre of road construction.
The
data-sets
and
the
calculation have been validated
by the Trafc Facilities
Laboratory (LAVOC) of the
Swiss Federal Institute of
Technology (EPFL; Bueche
and Dumont 2009). CHANGER
adopts a typical process-based
modelling approach (Fig. 1).
The calculation model is based
on a set of equations that enable
accurate estimation of overall
GHG
emissions
(outputs)
generated by each identified and
quantified source (inputs; IRF
2007). Data will be sourced for
the following activities:
Preconstruction:
site
clearance, cut and ll,
deforestation;
Onsite energy (electricity,
fossil fuels) consumption;
Materials quantity;
Transport
mode
and
distance;
Construction vehicles and
equipments.
The carbon footprint of road
projects comes mainly from
three sources:
1) Materials
embodied
carbon dictated by the type
and quantity, i.e. the
manufacture and upstream
29

TECHNICAL PAPERS

processes,
commonly
referred to as cradle-togate where the ICE data is
used by CHANGER, which
is multiplied by the quantity
of each type of material;
2) Carbon from transport
vehicles that bring raw
materials/products to plant/
site
or
unserviceable
materials to a place of
disposal (e.g. recycling,
stockpile, land ll). UK
Department for Environment, Food and Rural
Affairs
has
standard
emission factors for an
array of payloads and fuel
types which is multiplied
by tonnage and distance
and
3) Carbon from construction
activities (e.g. excavation,
paving, rolling) that are
calculated either for each
individual process (Stripple
2001) or for a paving
assembly as a whole
which is multiplied by
dimension/quantity
of
the eld work. The
effects of three GHGs
have been considered in the
calculation: carbondioxide
(CO2), nitrousoxide (N2O)
and methane (CH4), all
converted to the CO2 equiv.,
using conversion factors
provided
by
the
Intergovernmental
Panel
on Climate Change (IPCC
2007).
30

A detailed description of
CHANGER can be found on the
IRF website: http://www.irfghg.
org/index.php. The current
version of the model does not
include maintenance activities,
provision and powering of street
lighting, road signs and barriers,
and impact associated with
trafc using the road. The model
does not account for the loss of
CO2 absorption by removal of
trees or other land use change.
CHANGER generates reports,
either aggregated (total) or
disaggregated (inherent to one
or more steps of the process),
that can be exported to Excel,
Word, PDF and HTML.
5

The Case Study

5.1 The Project Road


The case study comprises of
62 km of 4 lane highway with
a width of 3.5 m at NH 62,
Jodhpur Pali Road for each
Warm Mix and Hot Mix.
The total paved area is
1,798,000 m2. 50 mm Bituminous

Concrete (BC) specification was


laid as binder course.
5.2 Assessment of Carbon
Dioxide Emission
Defining the scope of any work
is an extremely important step.
A well-defined scope makes
the work accurate, easy to
understand and enables better
collection of data. Scope
defining also saves a lot of
precious time. Road construction
is a large project consisting of
various strata and process that
are carried out. It is simply
not possible that every aspect
of the road construction to be
included in the project, nor is
it desirable. Too vast a scope
can create problems in data
collection, maintaining focus
on the primary subject matter
and can introduce inaccuracies
and ambiguities. It is always
recommended the confine the
scope of the project to the
relevant subject matter.
For this particular paper, scope
of work is defined as follows
and is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2 Scope of Work Presented in the Paper

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

TECHNICAL PAPERS

We restrict the boundary to


the region above the base
soil. Also we will exclude
any kind of embankment
shoulders or road furniture
such as toll plazas, markers,
sign boards, rails etc.
We do so to maintain the
focus on the process carried
out in the construction of
the road the material used
for making the layers of the
road
We exclude any road furniture and hence do not
calculate the Greenhouse
emissions from the process
carried out during the
production
of
such
materials
5.3 Collection of Data and
Questionnaire
The questionnaire is prepared
and data was collected from
the site engineer. The snapshot
of questionnaire is given in
Fig. 3. The aggregate used
for the project was collected
from a local quarry about
8-10 km away, contributing
less emission. Binder was
received from HPCL, Mumbai
Plant around 910 km away
from site.

same. The saving of CO2


emission using Warm Mix
Technology over hot Mix
Technology is only due to
the reduction of temperature

during mixing. Near about


590 tonne equivalent CO2 is
saved for 1,798,000 m2 paving
area i.e 32 g per 1 m2 paving
area.

Table 1 Consolidated Results of Emission from WMA and HMA

WMA
Consolidated results:

tCO2-eq

HMA
Consolidated results:

tCO2-eq

Pre-construction

Pre-construction

On-site impacts

On-site impacts

Construction materials:

17390.0

Material transport:

9482.8

Construction machines:
Total CO2 equivalent
emissions:

6.1

Construction
materials:
Material transport:

Construction
machines:
26,878.70 Total CO2 equivalent
emissions:

5.5 Discussion
Using Warm Mix Technology,
GHG emission in terms of
equivalent to CO2 reduces by
32g per 1m2 paving area. For
the total project 590 tonne of
CO2 emission was saved. The
embodied energy of material

17980.0
9482.8
6.1
27,469.14

plays a vital part for emission


which includes hot mix plant
emission. Construction machine
has negligible effect (0.02%) on
the total emission. The Fig. 4
shows the effect of component
on the total emission from the
project.

5.4 Analysis Through Changer


The data collected from the site
engineer was analysed through
CHANGER. Pre-construction
parts and on site impacts have
not analysed. The construction
equipment used and transport
of material for both the site is

Fig. 4 Effect of Component on the Total Emission from the Project

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

31

TECHNICAL PAPERS

6 Conclusion
The IRF developed software
CHANGER is a very good
tool that enables assessment
of GHG emission arising out
of road construction activity.
This handy tool has opened a
huge possibility in analysing
the various design possibilities
and selection materials based
on location and transportation
of material. There is a need for
more comprehensive case studies
that includes more materials
and more accurate quality check
on assumption necessary for
estimating consumed amount
for
the
most
important
materials.

Reference
1.

N. Santero and A. Harvath, Global


Warming Potential of Pavements,
Environmental Research Letters,
vol. 4, pp. 034011, 2009.

2.

Brown, Alexander. Carbon Footprint


of Hma and Pcc Pavements.
Proceedings,
International
Conference on Perpetual Pavements,
Columbus, Ohio, 2009.

3.

4.

H. Muga, et al., An Integrated


Assessment
of
Continuously
Reinforced and Jointed Plain
Concrete Pavements, Journal of
Engineering, Design and Technology,
vol. 7, pp. 81-98, 2009.
J.A. Gambatese and S. Rajendran,
Sustainable Roadway Construction: Energy Consumption and Material Waste Generation of Roadways,
San Diego, California, 2005,
pp. 21-21.

5.

A. Horvath and C. Hendrickson,


Comparison of Environmental
Implications
of Asphalt
and
Steel-Reinforced
Concrete
Pavements, Transportation Research
Record: Journal of the Transportation
Research
Board,
vol.
1626,
pp. 105-113, 1998.

6.

F. Gallivan, Greenhouse Gas


Mitigation Measures For Transportation Construction, Maintenance,
and Operations Activities, ICF
International. Inc 2010.

7.

N. Santero, Life Cycle Assessment


of Pavements: A Critical Review of
Existing Literature and Research,
Portland
Cement
Association
2010.

8.

IPCC,
2007.
4th Assessment
Report- the Physical Science Basis.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change.

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Reinforcement Bar/Steel/Flats
Rebound Hammer
Compression Strength Test of Cement
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Concrete Cubes & Paving Blocks
TRL Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Test
Plate Load Test
Traffic Engineering
Modulus of Sub-grade Reaction
Classified Traffic Volume Count
(K-value)
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32

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

Rheological Properties and Storage stability of EPE Modified


Bitumen and EPE/Montmorillonite Modified Bitumen
Vandana Tare*, Sangita**, Saurabh Bhargava*** and Rina Singh****

ABSTRACT
Expanded polyethylene polymer is commonly used for modifying physical, mechanical and rheological properties of
bitumen. Because of the poor compatibility between EPE polymer and bitumen, EPE modified bitumen is not having
storage stability at high temperature. To obtain more compatibility between EPE and bitumen, several methods have
been suggested. In this study, organophilic montmorillonite/EPE modified was prepared. Physical and rheological
properties of polymer modified bitumen were compared before and after adding nanoclay to the bitumen. The result of
storage stability test showed that the difference in softening point was in standard limitation which means that OMMT
can improve the storage stability of PMB. And increase the resistance to pavement deformation under repeated loading
condition.

1 INTRODUCTION
During the in life service of
asphalt binders, there are many
types of failures, e.g. rutting,
fatigue cracking and thermal
cracking, which can reduce
the quality and performance of
pavements. Polymer modified
bitumen are blends of bitumen
and one or more polymers,
usually added in percentages
ranging from 3% to 7% by
weight, and were developed to
overcome, or at least reduce,
such problems. Temperature
susceptibility
characteristics
and the physical properties of
asphalt bitumen at high and low
field-operating temperatures can
affect the final performance of
the mixture. At high temperature
polymer swell during mixing
process through absorption of
light component of bitumen
and thus properties of base
bitumen are altered. As a result,
the swelled polymer particle in
the bitumen will also affect the
compatibility of two phase over
a certain range temperature,
thus influencing the modifying

effect
of
base
bitumen.
Polymeric
nano-composites
are one of the most exciting of
materials discovered recently
and the physical properties are
successfully enhanced when
a polymer is modified with
small amount of nano-clay
on condition that the clay is
dispersed at nano-scopic level.
Before the term nanocomposite
was introduced, they were first
called hybrid or molecular
composites; moreover, they
basically consist of a blend
of one or more polymers with
layered silicates that have a
layer thickness in the order of
1 nm and a very high aspect ratio.
Conventional inorganic fillers
are usually added in percentages
varying between 20% and 40%
by weight, in nanocomposites a
typical quantity may be between
2% and 5%. Clay mostly consist
of alumina-silicates, which
have a sheet-like (layered)
structure, and consist of silica
SiO4 tetrahedron bonded to
alumina AlO6 octahedron in a
various ways. A 2:1 ratio of the

tetrahedron to the octahedron


results in mineral clays;
however, the most common
one is montmorillonite. The
thickness of the montmorillonite
layers (platelets) is 1 nm with
high aspect ratios.
One of the characteristics of
these types of clay is the Cation
Exchange Capacity (CEC),
which is a number for the
amount of cations between
the surfaces. The CEC of
montmorillonite ranges from
80 to 120 meq/100 g (milliequivalents per 100 g);
whereas, kaolinite have CEC
values ranging between 3
and 5. Dispersing nanoclay
in a thermoplastic material
(a material that is plastic or
deformable, melts to a liquid
when heated, and freezes to
a brittle, glassy state when
cooled sufficiently), stiffness
and tensile strength, tensile
modulus, flexural strength,
and thermal stability will
increase. The correct selection

* Professor, Shri G.S. Institute of Technology and Science, Indore, ** Senior Principal Scientist and Member
Advisory Group, Pavement Engineering Area, CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi, *** M.E. Student, Shri G.S. Institute of
Technology and Science, Indore, **** Scientist, Environmental Science Division, CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

33

TECHNICAL PAPERS

of modified clay is essential to


ensure effective penetration of
the polymer into the interlayer
spacing of the clay and result

in the desired exfoliated or


intercalated product. Fig. 1 show
the intercalation and exfoliation
structure.

Fig. 1 FTIR Test of EPE Polymer

2 Materials Used
2.1 VG-30 Bitumen
For present study VG-30
viscosity grade of bitumen,

obtain from tiki tar industries


is used as base bitumen. The
physical properties of base
bitumen are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Physical Properties of VG-30 Bitumen


Properties Penetration Softening Viscosity Stability of Flow Value
Point
Bituminous
of Mix
Mixes
Bitumen
Value
52 (mm)
51 (C)
325 (CP) 915 (Kg)
3.2 (mm)

2.2 Characteristic of EPE


Polymer
FTIR Test of EPE
EPE is an important type of low
density polyethylene (LDPE)
foam for specific purpose in
a wide range of application.
EPE Polymer are used in this
study, and it has well resistant
to oil, fuel, and other chemicals.

Fig. 2 shows the spectra of


EPE Polymer. The hydrogen
bonds are observed at 2887
cm-1 -2917 cm-1 and 2849 cm-1.
The aliphatic index -(CH2)are observed at 1480 cm-11460 cm-1. The stretching C-H
aromatic
monosubstituted
(styrene Block) are observed at
peak 710 cm-1 and 968 cm-1.

2.3 Characteristic of Nanoclay

Table 1 shows the characteristic


of cloisite-15A
Table1 Characteristic of
Cloisite-15A
S. Treatment/ Cloisite-15A
No. Properties
1 Organic
Methyl, Tallow,
Modifier
Bis
2-Hydroxyethyl,
Quaternary,
ammonium
2 Base
Montmorillonite
3 Moisture
1.2%
4 Particle
10
size (m)
1.5
5 Density
(g/cm3)

FTIR Test of Nanoclay


Nanoclays are high purity
material
compatible
with
montmorillonites. The nanoclay samples are used in this
study, which is processed
by
quaternary
ammonium
chemistry; it has good heat
stability and electrochemical
property. Fig.3 show the
FTIR spectra of nanoclay. The
hydrogen bonds are observed at
2887 cm-1 -2925 cm-1 and 9921022.7 cm-1. The peaks centered
at 2924 cm-1 and 2853 cm-1
indicates the stretching C-H
aliphatic bonds. The peaks at
3580 cm-1 and 3735 cm-1 present
the stretching O-H bonds.
3

Fig. 2 FTIR Spectra of Nanoclay

34

Experimental
Programme

3.1 Mixing
Process
and
Experimental Program
Nanoclay polymer modified
bitumen sample are prepared in
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

TECHNICAL PAPERS

laboratory by heating bitumen


binder at 180C and the small
size O-ring EPE Polymer (6%)
were added to the bitumen in
a high shear mixer. After that
the mixing was continued at
the temperature for 2h. The
mixer speed was maintained at
4000 rpm throughout the mixing
process. There are three method
for preparation triple composite
of bitumen/polymer/Nanoclay.
In this study, melt intercalated
method was chosen because of
its efficiency and simplicity.
So OMMT (2%, 3%, 5%)
was added into EPE Polymer
modified bitumen at 180C and
the mixtures were blended at
the fixed speed of 4000 rpm for
30 min.
The penetration test is carried
out by standard bitumen
penetration apparatus, measured
in term of 1/10th of mm under
weight of 100 gm for 5 second
at 25C. And softening point
is determined by ring and ball
method. Viscosity is determined
by Brookfield Viscometer. And
storage stability test is used to
measure the stability of polymer
at high temperature.

angular frequency 10 rad/sec on


a sample size of 25 mm diameter
with a gap of 1 mm.
4

Test Results

4.1 Effect of Nanoclay on the


Rheological Properties of
EPE Polymer Modified
Bitumen
The rheological parameters is
obtained in linear viscoelastic
range which is similar to
actual road traffic condition.
Figs. 3 and 4 show the change
in variation of complex shear
modulus (G*) and phase
angle at different temperature.
Addition of nanoclay results in
increase in complex modulus
and decrease in phase angle.
For triple nanocomposite there
are major increase in G* at high
temperature but minor increase
was observed at low temperature.

The complex shear modulus,


phase angle, storage modulus,
loss modulus, rutting parameter
and fatigue parameter with 6%
EPE modified bitumen and 6%
EPE/5% nanoclay modified
bitumen have been determined.
Dynamic shear rheometer test
was conducted at different
temperature subjected to an
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

This means that the resistance


to
permanent
deformation
of pavement increased. Base
bitumen
showed
elastic
behaviour at low temperature,
viscous behaviour at high
temperature and viscoelastic
behaviour at mid temperature.
The EPE could reduce phase
angle of base bitumen. Nanoclay
also has a similar effect. On
the other hand the decrease in
phase angle by adding nanoclay
at high temperature shows that
the nanoclay was found and
exfoliated was achieved.
The rheological parameter G*/
Sin is defined as rut factor to
demonstrate the deformation
in pavement layer. Rutting
is considered to be a stress
controlled,
cyclic
loading
phenomenon.

Fig. 3 Complex Shear Modulus Value of Modified Bitumen

Fig. 4 Phase Angle of Modified Bitumen

35

TECHNICAL PAPERS

It can be seen from Fig. 5,


addition of nanoclay increase
the rutting factor value at
high temperature, and minor
increase at low temperature.
So nanoclay improves that
permanent deformation of
pavement under cyclic loading

condition. Another rheological


parameter storage modulus (G)
is defined as elastic component
demonstrate the ability to
recover from the deformation.
And another parameter loss
modulus (G) is defined as
viscous component.

Fig. 5 Rutting Factor Value of Modified Bitumen

Demonstrate the ability to


resist deformation at prescribed
frequency. It can be seen from
Figs. 6 and 7 addition of
nanoclay increase the storage

stability and loss modulus at


high and low temperature. So
nanoclay improves the recover
ability of bitumen and resists
the deformation.

4.2 Storage Stability Test of


Modified Bitumen
When storage stability of EPE
modified bitumen were tested,
it was observed from the test
softening point of top section
of modified bitumen became
higher than that of bottom
section after 48 h. because
higher concentration of EPE
polymer present in top section.
The softening point difference
top and bottom should less than
3 as per IRC:53-2011. Effect of
nanoclay on the storage stability
of EPE modified bitumen show
in Table 2. Bitumen modified
with EPE modified, the
difference in softening point
was large, which imply that
the phase separation of EPE/
bitumen
mixture
serious.
When EPE/OMMT content
in the Triple nano composite
was 6% EPE/5% nanoclay, the
storage stability was improved
significantly.
4.3 Physical Properties
Modified Bitumen

Fig. 6 Storage Modulus of Modified Bitumen

Fig. 7 Loss Modulus of Modified Bitumen

36

of

Penetration results indicate


that the addition of OMMT
with EPE modified bitumen,
minor increase in penetration
value with OMMT at different
proportion. The softening value
results indicate that the minor
decrease in softening value
with OMMT at different
proportion.
INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

TECHNICAL PAPERS
Table 2 Storage Stability of Modified Bitumen
Sample

Top Sample Bottom Sample Difference in Top


Softening Softening Point and Bottom Sample
Point (C)
(C)
Softening Point (C)
EPE modified bitumen
100
59
41
EPE/2% Nanoclay
74
57
17
Modified bitumen
EPE/3% Nanoclay
70
58
12
Modified bitumen
EPE/5% Nanoclay
62
60
2
Modified bitumen

Viscosity is another rheological


properties, ability to flow at
high temperature. The rotation
viscosity was determined by
measuring the torque required
to maintain a constant rotating
speed of a cylindrical spindle
while submerged in bitumen
maintain constant temperature.
The effect of nanoclay content
on the viscosity of EPE modified
bitumen in 120C to 165C is

shown in Table 3.
Viscosity test results shows
that addition of nanoclay
with EPE modified bitumen
decrease viscosity below 120C
above 135C viscosity of
bitumen increase. The increase
in viscosity is result of the
stiffening effect of nanoclay.
Table 3 show the change in
physical properties after adding
OMMT nanoclay.

Table 3 Physical Properties of Conventional and Modified Bitumen


Test Conducted

Penetration Test

Conventional
Bitumen
52

Softening point

51

Viscosity
(CP)

31.5

40

39

38

64.5

54

54

58

12000

6250

6675

7725

325
-

1000
59

1275
17

1400
12

1500
2

120 (C)

160 (C)
Separation test
(degree C)
Difference of
softening point after
RTFO

Tests Results
6%/0% 6%/2% 6%/3% 6%/5%

5 Conclusions
1. EPE and OMMT/EPE
modified bitumen were prepared by melt intercalated
method. The effect of
nanoclay on the physical
and rheological properties

is found lesser than EPE


modified bitumen, penetration value increases and
softening point decreases at
the same temperature.
3. The storage stability of
PMB is one of the most
important advantages of
adding
OMMT.
High
temperature
storage
stability could be improved
obviously by choosing a
proper quantity of nanoclay
and forming an exfoliated
structure.
4. Complex shear modulus
increases
and
phase
angle decreases for OMMT
polymer modified bitumen
as compare with polymer
modified bitumen. This
will lead to increase in rut
factor led to higher rutting
resistance of nanoclay/EPE
modified bitumen.
Acknowledgement
Authors are thankful to director,
CSIR-CRRI New Delhi for
granting permission to carry
out this research of national
importance.
Refrences
1.

2.

of EPE modified bitumen is


investigated.
2. By addition of OMMT to
modified bitumen there is
improvement in viscosity
at above 135C and below
135C temperature viscosity

INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

3.
4.

Saeed Sadeghpour Galooyak, Dabir


Bahram Galooyak, Ali Ehsan
Nazarbeygi,
Alireza
Moeini,
Constructionand Building Material.
24, 300 (2009).
Juan Camilo Munera, Mnica
Alvarez Lainez, Alex Ossa (2012),
5th Euroasphalt and Eurobitume.
A5EE-505 (2012).
IRC:SP:53-2010, Guidelines on
Use of Modified Bitumen in Road
Construction.
ASTM:D7175-08, Standard Test
Method for Determining the
Rheological Properties of Bitumen
Binder using Dynamic Shear
Rheometer.

37

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Bridge Engineer (Design): Preferably Masters in Structural
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INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

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Ministry of Road Transport & Highways Circular

Circulars and Annexures are available on Ministerys Website (www.morth.nic.in) and same are also available in Ministerys Library.

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INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

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INDIAN HIGHWAYS, December 2015

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