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FIELD STUDY

FS 5 LEARNING ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES


Episode 3: ON CONTENT VALIDITY OF TESTS

Name of FS Student: Dela Cruz, Mar-Jay P.


Course: Bachelor of Secondary Education Biological Sciences
Year & Section: BSE-302 Bio. Sciences

My Tools
A. Interview
1. I will ask my Resource Teacher this question: What do you do/ what does your school do to
ensure the content validity of your periodic tests?

Summary of Information Gathered from the interview:

In Santiago Elementary School, our resource teacher in the name of Mrs. Lorina Pagkaliwangan
say that, in order for the school to safeguard the validity of content in their periodic test, the higher
officials established a CENTRALIZED way of constructing periodic test. This implies that there were
KEY TEACHERS who have a renowned expertise in the art of test construction in every designated
area that makes the test for all the elementary schools in the whole vicinity of Cavite province.
According to Mrs. Pagkaliwangans statement, the periodic test made by the key teachers cited
earlier are sometimes prone to UNPARALLELLSIM, in a way that it is different from what they are
teaching in reference to the Philippine learning competencies their tests are anchored upon. Especially the
references and terminologies they are using in order to add AESTHETICS in the exam, making it
professional- looking and expert-made in total appearance.

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B. Documentary Analysis (Lesson Plans with the accompanying quiz/test)
My documentary analysis will be guided by this question: Does the quiz/test measure what it is
supposed to measure
In an obvious sense, YES. For the reason that Mrs. Pagkaliwangans test/quiz is directly
proportional to her predetermined objectives. One can say that his/her test had measured what it is
supposed to measure if it satisfies the objective he/she set beforehand. In addition to that, her test
measures the skills/ abilities that should be measured (construct validity) such as what she had indicated
in her lesson plan: Observing, Comparing and Explaining through the inculcation of higher taxonomical
learning domain in her test/ quiz with due consideration to the measurement of the appropriate content
(content validity) in order for Mrs. Pagkaliwangan to predict the success or consequences of her effort
(predictive validity) in teaching and on test construction.

My Analysis
1. What has a Table of Specification (TOS) to do with the content validity of test?
A blueprint is a crucial concept when constructing anything. First, it is important to know what you
are building before you start. And that what makes TOS an important constituent of content validity, it
organizes the objectives that in turn, will serve as the basis for ones test especially; its content that will
be subjected to measurement. The table mainly serves to clearly define the scope and focus of the test. It
also insures correspondence between the learning objectives for the students and the content of the
subject. A table serves to organize the process of test development to best represent the material covered
in the teaching/ learning process. Without a Table or a test blueprint, a test will produce scores of limited
use, validity and interpretation.
2. If validity as a characteristic of test means that a test must measure what it is supposed to
measure, is a multiple choice type of test valid to determine learning of manipulative skill
like focusing a microscope? Explain.
The answer can be a YES or a No. In neurology, the response for an action is triggered by a stimulus
that will stimulate the sensory neurons of the brain to produce an effect called as the motor response by
the motor neurons, thus it is a YES, the teacher can determine that he learner is already capable of doing
the hands on of microscope through assessing his/her cognitive domain/outcome with the use of

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assessment tool like multiples choice. However, in a careful analysis, it is a NO. It sounds like the skill of
focusing should be OBSERVED, if one will ask about which part of the microscope would be used to
focus the microscope then that would be valid.

3. Do we have other types of validity of a test other than content validity? Research for an answer.

CONSTRUCT VALIDITY an assessment of the quality of an instrument or experimental


design. It says Does it measure the construct it is supposed to measure.

INTERNAL VALIDITY it occurs when it can be concluded that there is a causal relationship
between the variables being studied. A danger is that changes might be caused by other factors.

COCLUSION VALIDTY occurs when you can conclude that ere is a relationship of some kind
between the two variables being examined. This may be a positive or negative correlation.

FACE VALIDITY occurs when something appears to be valid. This of course, depends on the
judgment of the observer.

My Reflections
Write down what you learned on what to do to measure validity of tests. Did you ever experience
taking a test which was very difficult because the items were not all covered in class? How did it affect
you? How will you prevent your future pupils / students for experiencing the same?
The more opportunity a child is given to learn to manage the stress involved in a test-taking
situation, the more comfortable they will become. Subsequently, when the childs stress is reduced and
their confidence strengthens, there will be an improvement in their performance on a certain test. When I
started answering our test on organic chemistry, I figured out that something was totally different, first on
the type of exam (our teacher told us that it will be a multiple-choice type of exam), it is predominantly
identification type and problem-solving test. Second, it should be only a short quiz but it is indicated on
the upper part if the test paper LONG TEST. Third, is the content. It should be on the context of
fullerenes however, in a careful observation of the succeeding statements that the following relies
heavily on the HISTORY OF METHAMPHETAMINE.
At first, I did not think of it that it is indeed, difficult. But there were question and typographical
errors on chemical symbols and formulas (our teacher told us to ignore the formulas for we are not Chem.
majors). The first thing that a test-taker will do if there is something unclear to the instrument will be to
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ASK questions but since our teacher is not around for some unknown reason, the time keeps running and
running and the only the thing that I can do at that time is to SKIP on such unclear questions to save time
until our teacher goes back (our teacher left us. However, we were being entrusted to a particular faculty
member for the administration and keeping of answer sheets and questionnaires).
As with anything that is perceived difficult, my fellow students approached this task differently.
Most of us spent so much time analyzing what should have been simple questions, while the other quarter
rushed through the testing and guessed at the answer. It only shows that the test is not a representative of
student performance in class and did not reflect our potentials. But it was a worthy experience, because
we completed the test! As a future teacher that is directly dedicated to public service, I will do it this way:
First, I will read the questions, eliminated the obviously impossible choices and re-read again. There is no
greater action than PROOFREADING the test for the students to do well in the testing proper, eliminating
skipped and blanked items that really matter a lot especially if they are scored differently. It only takes a
single effort and little effort goers a long way.

My Portfolio
1. Research on at least two forms of TOS. Paste them here. Between the two, which do you prefer?
(see the module for ANSWERS)
2. Copy one lesson objective form my Resource Teacher (or use same lesson objective that I used in
the My Tools portion, letter B Documentary Analysis of this Episode). I will develop an
appropriate and valid quiz/ test to measure attainment of that lesson objective.

Lesson Objective:
At the end of the 80 minute lesson, 70% of the students with 70% of accuracy should be
able to:
A. Describe phase changes according to the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) of Matter;
B. Explain refrigeration cycle in relation to phase changes, properties of fluids and Kinetic
Molecular Theory of Matter; and
C. Appreciate the importance of phase changes in the environment.
FORMATIVE TEST (QUIZ: SELECTION TYPE)
A. Direction: From the choices listed below, encircle the letter of the correct answer.
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1. Which property of gas proves that the molecules are in constant motion?
a. It is light. c. It is compressible.
b. It is usually visible. d. It leaks out of a container.
2. Which of the following releases heat?
a. Evaporation of water. c. Condensation of water in the atmosphere
b. Sublimation of naphthalene d. expansion of a gas at constant pressure
3. Which of the following properties of a given quantity of substance changes when it changes
from liquid to gas?
a. Its mass c. Its density
b. Its kind d. The particles it is made of.
4. What is the condition of temperature and pressure of the refrigerant in the evaporator?
a) Low temperature and low pressure
b) High temperature and high pressure
c) High temperature and low pressure
d) Low temperature and high pressure.
5. What is the phase change that occurs in the evaporator?
a) Liquid to gas
b) Gas to liquid
c) Both a & b
d) All of the above

IV. Agreement:

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Directions: Answer the following questions:
1. Give the difference between physical and chemical changes in matter.
2. Give 5 examples for each kind of change.

3. Following the new version of Blooms Taxonomy of Objectives, formulate a lesson objective for
each level and a corresponding valid test item. (Dont worry if in writing the sample questions,
you go beyond the triangle.) (see the module for ANSWERS)

FS 5 LEARNING ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES


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Episode 4: ON SCORING RUBRICS

Name of FS Student: Dela Cruz, Mar-Jay P.


Course: Bachelor of Secondary Education Biological Sciences
Year & Section: BSE-302 Bio. Sciences

My Tools
Interview of my Resource Teachers
I will ask the following questions:
1. Where do you use the scoring rubric? (students outputs or products and student
activities)
Resource teachers 1, 2 and 3 stated that they use scoring rubrics on performance
examinations, group presentations, student portfolios, different students projects, in conducting
seminars and in other student outputs and products.

2. What help have scoring rubrics give to you? When there were no scoring rubrics
yet, what did you use?
Scoring rubrics gives emphasis to the elements to be evaluated with due consideration to the
lesson objectives making the entire body of student work be evaluated accordingly. If there are
none, they prefer a more simplified format consisting of a simple array of categories with
corresponding points.

3. What difficulties have you met in the use if scoring rubrics?


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There is an increasing need to survey all the students work prior to judging since in several
occasion, students work are nearly or almost the same making further judgment be passed with
difficulty. Another is the assigning of scoring category that consume s time due to thoughtful
considerations of the encompassingness and overlapping principles.

4. Do you make use of holistic and analytic rubrics? How do they differ?
Resource teachers 2 and 3 use the holistic one while Resource teacher 1 uses the analytic
one. Holistic rubrics are based on the overall impression or assessment that evaluates both the
output and process for the general aspect of grading. In contradiction, analytic rubrics are based
on the components/aspects that only measure the process or the output for a more detailed
scoring.

5. Which is easier to use- analytic or holistic?


Resource teacher 1 voted for the analytic rubric while resource teacher 2 and 3 voted for the
holistic one. According to Resource teacher 1, analytic rubrics because it is much more objective,
for it gives separate points to the individual aspects/ components. In the light of reason for
resource teacher 2 and 3, holistic rubrics since it only measures the general aspect that is a
combination of the outputs and manner of producing such outputs.

6. Were you involved in the making of the scoring rubrics? How do you make one ?
Which is easier to construct analytic or holistic?
Resource teachers 1 and 3 except for resource teacher 2 make their own scoring rubrics. They
simply make one by identifying the categories appropriate for the subject which is also
connected to objectives of the topic; that they want their students to attain. According to
Resource teacher 3, holistic rubrics are easier to construct with the same ideology of importance
cited earlier on number 5.
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Research
I will research on the following:
Types of rubrics

Analytic scoring rubrics much like the checklist allows for the separate evaluation of
every criterion. Each criterion is scored on a different descriptive scale (Moskal, 2013).

Holistic scoring rubrics The criteria is considered in combination on a single


descriptive scale. It supports broader judgments concerning the quality of the process or
the product (Brookhart, 1999).

When to use rubrics


Where and WHEN a scoring rubric must be used does not depend on the grade level or
subject but rather on the purpose of the assessment. For example, one might think of having an
oral presentation for the purpose of assessment that is, to authentically evaluate the students
knowledge of the given oral piece. That is the time wherein one must use either an analytic/ task
specific or general/holistic scoring rubric. For one might experience a difficultly in assessing a
particular factor such as persuasiveness by means of an objective paper-pencil test. Also, other
forms of authentic assessment are applicable such as the checklist etc. (Barbara M. Moskal,
2013).

How to construct the two types of rubrics


The first step in developing a scoring rubric is to clearly identify that question that need
to be displayed in a students work to demonstrate proficient performance. The indentified
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qualities will form the top level (s) of whether the information that is desired from the evaluation
can best be acquired through the use of holistic or analytic rubric.

Analytic rubrics Each criterion is considered separately as the descriptions of the


different score levels are developed.

Holistic rubrics The collection of the criteria is considered throughout the construction
of each level.

Advantages and disadvantages of scoring rubrics


Rubrics PROS

Rubrics help categorize student work with a rubric, youll be grading student work
against a benchmark of success. A good rubric describes different level of success in
meeting this benchmark and awards points accordingly.

Rubrics can be BLIND A huge advantage of rubrics is their ability to record grades
objectively. With a rubric, theoretically, you could grade all projects with just the typed
text component and a rubric.

Rubrics save you time Once you have a rubric, all you have to do is go through the
project looking for the components included on you rubric.

Rubrics CONS
They dont always take outside circumstances into account rubrics doesnt reflect the effort and
the amount of time spent in an output especially if one student happens to have some disabilities
then in the most part, it is not the best tool for you.
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Can be too analytical for artistic project There are so many intangible factors in an art project
such as creativity, inspiration, personal history that grading with a rubric can seem impossible.

My Analysis
1. What benefits have scoring rubrics brought to the teaching-learning process?
Scoring rubrics put emphasis on what the learner is able to demonstrate, rather than what
he/she cannot do. With this, thoughtout the process, learners can see exactly what they are
expected to do to get the grade they want. Meaning, they become responsible for their own
learning.

2. Howe is scoring rubrics related to portfolio assessment?


Portfolios belong to the domain of authentic assessments. Meaning, they cannot be graded as
easy as a selection type of test (traditional assessment) thus, scoring rubrics can be employed to
evaluate portfolios, paving the way for a more reliable interpretation of student work.

3. To get the most from the scoring rubric, what should be observed in the making and
used of scoring rubrics?
First, one must determine the learning outcomes which will server as the foundation of your
rubric. Second, your rubric must focus on different skills especially on the manner on how
students develop and express their learning that is, for the most part, measureable by a certain
criteria.
My Reflections
Reflect on this: Scoring Rubrics: Boon or Bane?
Rubrics are very phenomenal and are embrace in the profession of education. It is applied
equally to all task or projects through which the identity of the students does not affect the
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scoring of his/her project thus, promoting OBJECTIVITY. For this reason, they are being
renowned for their ability to remain reliable, valid, fair, and completely connected to what you
are assessing. That is, according to Brookhart, 1999 Rubrics are a FRIEND for educators and
the like.
However, according to Moskal, 2013, the best rubrics are developed and tested
COLLABORATIVELY. The question is that If you dont have a collection samples from trial
results and errors for the creation and improvement of your rubrics, how can you be sure that it is
valid and reliable? The reality was that, most of the teachers do not implement testing prior to
the usage their rubric, making them record the interpreted result that is a product of a prototype
only; for the main reason of conserving time and effort. Meaning, you really cant be sure of its
validity and reliability thus, one can say that it has a nature of being an ENEMY to teachers etc.
Subsequently, in the end of the day, scoring rubrics helps in making things fair so that a
student cant complain about his grade and for them to use if they feel they have been unfairly
graded. I love to think that rubrics help teachers grade better than just thinking of a grade into
their heads, with this, I learned that a quarter of it can be a friend for us educators. Thus, as a preservice teacher, scoring rubrics are neither a BOON nor a BANE for me, if I can have the chance
to rephrase such questions, I will make it - HUMANS: BOON OR BANE? Since the only way to
answer the question RUBRICS: BOON or BANE is to know the true nature of humans, the
worker of the product, that reflects its source, and the source that solely defines it product.

My Portfolio
Come up with one scoring rubric for a student product (example: Science experiments)
and another for a student activity such as a cooperative learning activity. (See the module for
ANSWERS)

FS 5 LEARNING ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES


Episode 5: ON PORTFOLIOS

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Name of FS Student: Dela Cruz, Mar-Jay P.
Course: Bachelor of Secondary Education Biological Sciences
Year & Section: BSE-302 Bio. Sciences

My Tools

Checklist
Classify the portfolios examined. Use the checklist below:
Type of Portfolio
Documentation portfolio
Process portfolio
Showcase portfolio

Tally
||
||
|||||

Frequency
2
2
5

Observation Checklist
Select 3 best portfolios from what you examined. Which element/s is/are present in each?
Please check.
Elements of a Portfolio
1. Cover letter About the Author and What My Portfolio
Shows About My Progress as a Learner
2. Table of Contents with numbered pages.
3. Entries Both core (required items) and optional items
(chosen by students)
4. Dates in all entries to facilitate proof of growth over time
5. Drafts of aural/oral and written products and revised
versions, i.e. (first drafts and corrected/revised versions)
6. Reflections

My Analysis
1. Did I see sample of the 3 different types of portfolio?

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Yes, I see sample of the 3 different portfolio types. Mainly, there are 2 process/working
portfolios, 2 documentation/display portfolios and a total of 5 showcase/assessment portfolios.

2. What did I observe to be the most commonly used portfolio?


The most commonly used portfolio based on my observation and frequency count is the
showcase/assessment portfolio, since it can be used to demonstrate mastery in any curricular area
of interest. With this kind of portfolio, the teacher can assess the growth of their students
overtime by means of their narrative, reflections and outputs tagged in their work.

3. As I examined 3 selected portfolios, did I see all the elements of as portfolio?


As I examined the three selected portfolios, some elements (s) of a portfolio is/are missing in
action. Particularly the DATES on all entries through which the three portfolios all lack with.
Another is the DRAFTS and the revised editions and also the Table of Contents which are
absent specifically, on portfolio 2 and 3.

4. Is it necessary for a teacher to use varied types of portfolio? Why?


Of course! Using a variety or a COMBINATION of those portfolios cited earlier can
inculcate and promote a more meaningful learning experience to the students. According to
Brookhart, 1999, the most rewarding use of student portfolio is the display of student work, the
work that makes them proud. Students as well as their teachers become most committed to the
process when they experience the joy of exhibiting their best work and interpreting its meaning
through the use of the 3 different types of portfolios that although in their types are distinct, in
theory, they tend to overlap in the USAGE and practice thus it is, without a doubt, NECESSARY.

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5. If one element or two elements of a portfolio are missing, will this have any impact
on the assessment process? Explain your answer.
Portfolios are known for its provision of flexibility in measuring how students accomplish
their learning goals. However, by giving the students the opportunity to have an extensive input
into the learning process, they tend to add and omit some important components of a good
portfolio. This result to the inability of teachers to measure the multiple dimensions of student
progress imposed by the absence of data and presented materials. In turn, the interpretation of the
teacher will not reflect the real weight of a students learning and effort.
After the teacher had evaluated the portfolio, the next step is for the teachers and students to
discuss the learning goals and the progress toward these goals in structured or unstructured
conferences. Meaning, if there is something that is wrong, then how can the teacher corrects
what is lacking or imperfect? Then, no improvement will surely occur. And the probable scenario
is that, the student will continue to apply such action to his/her future work, creating a
devastating sequence of substandard outputs and works.
In addition to that, according to Mitchell, 1992, the necessity and relative impact of an
ORGANIZED portfolio is clustered on many powerful consequences of usage such as in the
categories of instruction, professional development, research and especially, assessment. With
these, I want to add the essential area of communication with the larger community and
especially with the parents, our ever loyal customers that will secondarily carry the burden of a
misinterpreted portfolio assessment that one might passed in the students.

My Reflections
1. Have portfolios made the learning assessment process inconvenient? Is the effort
exerted on portfolio assessment commensurate to the improvement of learning that
results from the use of portfolio?
With due emphasis to the word inconvenient, portfolios are indeed, promotes
CONVENIENCY in the assessment process. For it permits the evaluation of a wide range of
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outcomes which is its major contribution; it allows students to document the aspects of their
learning that do not show up well in traditional assessments.
One good example is the idea of community service that is now required in many
school. Since this type of activity is not well suited to traditional assessments such as tests and
quizzes, portfolio assessment provides an excellent vehicle for assessing the goals of a
community service curriculum. Students can collect examples of service, select the best ones,
reflect on their experiences, and determine future goals.
The entries in such a portfolio might include research, narrative summaries of activities
performed, pictures, videos, projects, and the like. With is, one might ask; how can someone
assess an individuals effort, perseverance and persistence? Of course, not by a selection-type of
test but rather through the application of scoring rubrics. How will the students products be
evaluated if student writing or chemical problem-solving is included in the portfolio? How will
the practitioners be sure that the products are good enough that the work is of high quality? By
what criteria will student work be judged? To answer all of these questions, educators develop
scoring-rubrics or rubrics, with clear criteria and descriptions of different level of performance,
making assessment very convenient.
In the context of performance, the portfolio reflects the amount of learning one has
attributed to the criteria of such authentic work. For example is the height of ones knowledge
that is can be observed on how he/she executed the written works and activities tagged in his
portfolio? Another is the depth if his AFFECTIVITY that is described by his/her passionate
and thorough reflections. Last is the degree of his/her manipulative skills that is represented by
his/her creativity and resourcefulness.
To give the final blow, I as a pre-service teacher commit to learning that portfolios can
take many different forms and may be used for many purposes. They may be used to diagnose,
document or celebrate learning. Regardless of their primary purpose or audience, they have the
power to transform the learning environment into the classroom where they are used. For me, the
true magic of portfolios lies not in the portfolios themselves, but in the process used in creating
them and the school culture in which documented learning is valued.

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My Portfolio
Capture what you learned on types, functions and elements of a portfolio by means of 3
separate organizers (see workbook for ANSWERS).

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