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Analog Circuit Design on Digital CMOS

Why it is difficult, and which ideas help. Presented by HP. Schmid.

Background on Hanspeter Schmid


Dissertation on video-frequency integrated filters (ETH Zrich)
Analog IC Designer at Bernafon / William Demant Holding:
Analog electronics: LNAs, amplifiers, regulators, filters, standard
cells, circuits for wireless communication system.
System design, analog signal processing and signal integrity.
Communication facilitator between Danish and Swiss Teams.

IME: research projects (sensor systems, sigma-delta, etc.),


consulting, teaching.
ETH Zrich: teaching analog (integrated) signal processing
IEEE CAS:
Chair Analog Signal Processing Tech. Comm.
Associate Editor of TCAS-I

Hobbies: going for walks,


playing trombone, reading.
Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Tutorial Philosophy

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Philosophy I: Be a fool!
multiparameter optimization

noise
distortion
power consumption
signal delay
chip area
offset
yield
mask costs

conscious vs. subconscious


conscious mind: 45 criteria
subconscious: 100? 200?

what it means to be a fool

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Philosophy II: Be a child


open for everything
playful
does not do
what she should do
a child has got time!
Advice for scientists by
Douglas Adams:
See first, think later, then
test. But always see first, or
you will only see what you
expect to see!

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Philosophy III: Be a climber


works hard to achieve a goal
is well trained
normally gets to the intended
goal
Is the intention good?
The direct path leads only to
the
goal!
Gide) new
The most exciting phrase in science,
the
one (Andr
that heralds
discoveries, is not Eureka! (I found it!), but
Will
That's funny
... the fool not fall down?
(Isaac Asimov)
Not if the fool also is a child.

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Tutorial Contents

Image from http://www.beatenbergbilder.ch/


Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

Introduction: What is new?


More metal layers
Small lateral distances
Thinner gates
more C
less Vdd

less gain
more weak inversion

Image from http://www.ndl.org.tw/cht/ndlcomm/P10_2/7.pdf


Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Multi-metal cross section


Example: 6 Metal layers.
Lateral dimensions are smaller than vertical dimensions!

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Transconductance in Strong and Weak Inversion


Strong Inversion

Weak Inversion

Moderate Inversion: Superposition

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Maximum gain of single stage is reached in weak inversion


For a given supply current: gain is proportional to supply voltage!

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Weak inversion = matching problems?


For a 0.25u process:
Voltage offset
for identical supply current

Current offset
for identical gate-source voltage

Therefore: Differential pairs in weak inversion


Therefore: Current mirrors in strong inversion
Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

from [Kinget07]
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Summary
Thinner gates (and higher gate tunnelling currents!)
more gate (overlap, ...) capacitance per area
No buried channels anymore
pMOS is not better anymore in terms of flicker noise!
Less supply voltage less signal
Less gain
same white noise at same supply current; less flicker noise
Sub-threshold leakage

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Literature: What is new?


[Annema99] Anne-Johan Annema, "Analog Circuit Performance and Process Scaling",
IEEE Trans. Circuits and SystemsII, vol. 46, no. 6,
pp. 711725, June 1999.
[Huang98] Qiuting Huang et. al., "The Impact of Scaling Down to Deep Submicron on
CMOS RF Circuits," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 10231036, July
1998
[Kinget07] Peter Kinget, "Device Mismatch: An Analog Design Perspective", ISCAS, New
Orleans, pp. 12451248, May 2007.
[Tsividis02] Yannis Tsividis, Mixed Analog-Digital VLSI Devices and Technology, World
Scientific Publishers, 2002.
[Tsividis99] Yannis Tsividis, Operation and Modelling of the MOS Transistor, ed. 2,
McGraw-Hill 1999.
[Dijksterhuis06] Ap Dijksterhuis et. al., "On Making the Right Choice: The DeliberationWithout-Attention Effect," Science, vol. 311, pp. 10051007, 2006.
[Simons99] Daniel Simons et. al., "Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional
blindness for dynamic events," Perception, vol. 28, pp. 10591074, 1999.
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Signal Integrity
Ground and Power Routing
Star Connections
Tapered Stars
Signal Grounds and Refs
Improving PSR (theory)
Finger capacitors and
MIM-capacitors
Demodulation by nonlinearity
Decoupling

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Why correct ground and power routing are important

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On PCB: Power plane? No!

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On PCB: Split ground plane? Dangerous!

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Recommendations for PCB routing


[National05] recommend
Use a single, unified ground plane
use separate power planes for analog and digital
let trace routing control ground currents.

Low-power low-noise circuits:


require controlled power/gnd routing!

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The problem of the star connection on chip

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Calculation example: hearing aid system

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16 is not a lot!

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Solution: Tapered star

This means: we have full control of where the noise currents flow.
But: more chip area or more supply / ground wire resistance!
Paradox: most sensitive nodes are farthest away from pad.
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Local decoupling is sometimes needed


The question is: where shall the decoupling capacitor go?

Answer: to the reference of the signal!


But this may not be so easy.
Many "PSR problems" are really coupling problems or problems
with dirty references
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How to improve PSRR and CMRR in a system?


CMRR and PSRR are connected!
Proof: Gauge transformation

from [Sckinger91]
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Solution: Additional input from quiet ground


Now we have one more degree
of freedom

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Example: additional signal path

from [Loikkanen06]
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Example: additional signal path

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Recommendations for chip routing


Use "tapered" star connections
For every differential signal node, make sure that the signal is
referred to a clean signal.
Input reference
Problem:
the references can change
within a single circuit

Output reference
Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Multi-metal Finger-Cap MIM-Cap combination

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Comparison for a six-metal 0.18um CMOS process

MIM capacitor (Metal 5 and Metal 6):

1.0 fF/m2

Finger structure (Metal 1 Metal 4):

1.3 fF/um2

MIM capacitor on top of Finger structure (all Metal):

2.3 fF/um2

MOSFET gate capacitance (non-linear):

10.0 fF/um2

Can we use a MOSFET gate capacitor for decoupling?

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Demodulation by a nonlinearity I: DC offset


Normal Operation with HF-Signal on Pad
(weak inversion)

Gives DC Offset! Inputs must be protected against this ...


Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Demodulation by a nonlinearity II: receiver


Normal Operation with amplitude-modulated
HF-Signal on Pad (weak inversion)

Demodulates the signal and gives more DC offset!


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Realistic? Yes!
In all digitally driven class-D (PWM) amplifiers, the signal is
amplitude-modulated on the system clock frequency.
The square of this signal appears in the supply current.
If this strays back into a high-gain audio system:
huge distortion or even instability!
Solution:
decouple all inputs
... to the respective reference of the signal
... as close to the pad as possible
... with as big a capacitor as possible

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Literature: Signal Integrity


[Loikkanen06] Mikko Loikkanen et. al., "PSRR Improvement
Technique for Amplifiers with Miller Capacitor," ISCAS 2006,
Kos, Greece, pp. 13941397.
[National05] National Semiconductor Analog University, Meeting
Signal-Path Design Challenges, High-performance seminar
series 2005, part no. 570012-001. (Can be ordered from
National for free.)
[Sckinger91] Eduard Sckinger et. al., "A General Relationship
Between Amplifier Parameters, And Its Application to PSRR
Improvement," IEEE Trans. Circuits and SystemsI, vol. 38,
no. 10, pp. 11731181, Oct 1991

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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An amp within an amp


Weak inversion
Zero-Vgs amplifiers
Super-Transistors
Cascode current mirrors
Self-biased cascodes
Regulated cascodes

Matryoshka amplifiers
Regulated cascode OTAs
Nested Miller amplifiers

Image from http://www.souvenironline24.de/shop.aspx


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Weak Inversion = Sub-threshold Operation

from [Tsividis99]
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Zero-Vgs folded-cascode opamp in 0.18m technology

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Zero-Vgs folded-cascode opamp in 0.18m technology

VGS

VT=230 mV (!), L=min, ID=5uA


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Maximum gain of single stage is reached in weak inversion


For a given supply current: gain is proportional to supply voltage!

Less gain on (deep)


submicron
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Normal current mirror


Output resistance

Increase this with feedback!

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Cascode current mirror


Feedback loop:
For a constant signal current, the transistor M4 tries to keep the
drain voltage of M2 constant. The loop gain around M4 is

and the output resistance:

Problem: high voltage drop.


Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Low-voltage cascode current mirror


Same feedback loop!

Careful design needed such that


M3 and M1 are always saturated
Bias voltage necessary

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Self-biased low-voltage cascode current mirror


Still same feedback loop!

But: for the same current, Vgs3 < Vgs1!


M1, M2 in strong inversion
M3, M4 in weak inversion
(makes Aloop small and M3,M4 huge)
M1, M2 normal-Vt transistors
M3, M4 low-Vt transistors
(requires low-Vt transistors, which
most submicron processes have)
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Different view: build super transistors

Then: build good super transistors!


Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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The regulated cascode


Increasing the loop gain ...

... gives much higher output resistance

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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The "original" by Sckinger


simplest loop amplifier, but needs a lot of supply voltage

from [Sckinger90]
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Matryoshka-style regulated-cascode amplifier

several OTA
Slices
Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

one OTA Slice


from [Treichler06]
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Matryoshka slice layout!

One OTA Slice


Full OTA

[Treichler06]
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Matryoshka Miller OpAmp: Two stages

from [Huijsing01]
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Matryoshka Miller OpAmp: Three stages

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Matryoshka Miller OpAmp: Four stages

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Conclusion
On modern digital technologies, we lose
supply voltage
gain
If we need gain:
we need to combine more gain stages
and, if possible, use weak inversion
Intuitive way to think about it:
An Amp within an Amp within an Amp

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Literature: New uses of old parts


[Burger96] Thomas Burger and Qiuting Huang, "A 100dB 480MHz OTA in
0.7um CMOS for sampled-data applications," Proc. CICC,
pp. 101104, 1996.
[Huijsing01] Johan H. Huijsing, Operational AmplifiersTheory and Design,
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.
[Sckinger90] Eduard Sckinger et. al, "A High-Swing, High-Impedance MOS
Cascode Circuit," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 25, no. 1,
pp. 289298, Feb 1990.
[Treichler06] Jrg Treichler et. al., "A 10-bit ENOB 50-MS/s Pipeline ADC in
130-nm CMOS at 1.2 V Supply," Proc. ESSCIRC, Montreux, Switzerland,
pp. 552555, 2006.
[Tsividis99] Yannis Tsividis, Operation and Modelling of the MOS Transistor,
ed. 2, McGraw-Hill 1999.

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Switched capacitors
Speed limit of SC filters
SC noise filtering
Switches and T-gates
Voltage doublers
for clock signals
for OTA tails
for control voltages

Flicker Noise
Autozero, CDS and Chopping

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Simple SC resistor

Pole frequency of SC resistor


loaded with capacitance:

from [Gregorian86]
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SC becomes much faster on modern processes

from [Johns97]
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Huge SC resistor for noise filtering


"Bucket Chain" technique

Possible: 1s time constant!

Requires RC filters for antialiasing

e.g., 80fF, 160kHz, 13 elements 1 G

Beware of offset!!!

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Bad Layout: asymmetries of clock lines!


This can give huge offset.

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Good Layout: as symmetrical as possible

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Types of switches

from [Johns97]
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Voltage-level limitation

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Benefitting from Narrow-Channel Effects

from [Tsividis96]
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Reduce switch threshold voltage by slicing

VT=610mV

0.18u Process
Normal-VT Transistors
VT=540mV
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Clock voltage doubler


"Doubling" pMOS gate voltages below VSS is also possible!

from [Basu99]
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What is flicker noise?

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Fllicker noise comes from a process with memory!

from [Keshner82]
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Why is it called "flicker" noise?

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On flicker noise:
the Yahoo Aaaaaargh!

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On flicker noise: the Yahoo Aaaaaargh!

from [Schmid07]
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Nature of Memory in MOSFETs


Mainly interface traps at the channel-to-oxide and gate-to-oxide
interfaces:
Spectrum caused by a single trap with time constant :

Distribution of the time constants:

Flicker noise slope is a physical property.


Flicker noise magnitude is related to the absolute number of
interface traps.
Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Model of scaling-invariant memory

from [Schmid08]
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RMS behaviour of flicker noise

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Reducing flicker noise by deleting memory I

from [Klumperink00]
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Sampling noise

from [Schmid08]
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Reducing offset and flicker noise by auto-zeroing

Autozero
1: Vos
2: Vin+Vos
21: Vin

Correlated
Double
Sampling
1: Vin+Vos
2: Vin+Vos
21: 2Vin

from [Enz96]
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Reducing offset and flicker noise by auto-zeroing

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Reducing offset and flicker noise by chopping

from [Enz96]
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Simulated chopped noise

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Chopper circuit

from [Schmid08]
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Matryoshka Chopper

from [Schmid08]
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Multipath Chopper

Chopped
High
Gain

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Reducing offset and 1/f noise by correlated double sampling


Auto-zeroing: sample offset in one phase; sample signal in
other phase while compensating offset.
Auto-zeroing works in sampled time.
Chopping: modulate input signal to a higher frequency;
modulate signal back after amplifier, and therefore modulate
offset and 1/f noise to higher frequencies.
Chopping works in continuous time!
Correlated double sampling combines both: first sample signal,
then sample inverse, then subtract.
Correlated double sampling works in sampled time.
CDS can be used most effectively in capacitive sensor systems
where the sensor can be controlled to give normal or inverse
output signals! Then sensor offset and 1/f noise is reduced too.
In auto-zero and CDS, the transistor bias history must be
the same for both samples!
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Literature: Switched capacitors


[Basu99] S. Basu and G. Temes, "Simplified Clock Voltage Doubler," Electronics Letters, vol. 35, no. 22, pp. 19011902, Oct 1999.
[Duisters98] Tonny A. F. Duisters and Eise Carel Dijkmans, "A 90-dB THD rail-to-rail input opamp using a new local charge pump in
CMOS," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 947955, Jul. 1998.
[Enz96] Christian Enz and Gabor Temes, "Circuit Techniques for Reducing the Effects of Op-Amp Imperfections: Autozeroing, Correlated
Double Sampling, and Chopper Stabilization," Proc. IEEE, vol. 84, no. 11, pp. 15841614, Nov 1996.
[Gregorian86] Roubik Gregorian and Gabor Temes, Analog MOS Integrated Circuits for Signal Processing, John Wiley & Sons 1986.
[Johns97] David Johns and Ken Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons 1997.
[Keshner82] Marvin Keshner, "1/f Noise," Proc. IEEE, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 212218, March 1982.
[Klumperink00] Eric Klumperink et. al., "Reducing MOSFET 1/f Noise and Power Consumption by Switched Biasing," IEEE J. Solid-State
Circuits, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 9941001, Jul. 2000.
[Schmid02] Hanspeter Schmid, "An 8.25-MHz 7th-Order Bessel Filter Built with Single-Amplifier Biquadratic MOSFET C Filters", Analog
Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, NORCHIP special issue, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 6981, January 2002.
[Schmid07] Hanspeter Schmid , "Aaargh! I Just Loooove Flicker Noise," IEEE Circuits and Systems Magazine, pp. 3235, First Quarter
2007.
[Schmid08] Hanspeter Schmid, "Offset, flicker noise, and ways to deal with them": Chapter in Circuits at the Nanoscale, CRC Press,
2008, edited by Krzysztof Iniewski.
[Wel07] Arnoud P. van der Wel et. al., "Low-Frequency Noise Phenomena in Switched MOSFETs," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 42,
no. 3, pp. 540550, March 2007.

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Feedback or no feedback
The benefit of feedback
Current mode and
voltage mode
Example: Open-Loop SigmaDelta A/D converter
Case study with CSEM Zrich:
Low-feedback approach
applied to buffer design

Image from [Black34]


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Feedback (in Black's words)


Advantages:
constancy of amplification
freedom from nonlinearity
reduced delay and delay distortion, reduced noise disturbance from
the power supply circuits
Disadvantages:
[difficult] because of the [] special control required of phase shifts
Unless these relations are maintained, singing will occur

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No free lunch!
The famous no-free-lunch theorem states that even if we say, e.g.,
"A system with feedback gives us low distortion for free", it is not
really for free, we just cannot possibly optimize power by trading in
distortion or other parameters.
A more scientific version of the no-free-lunch theorem states:
A general-purpose optimization strategy is impossible, and
the only way one strategy can outperform another is if it is
specialized to the structure of the specific problem under
consideration.

from [Ho01]
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High-Impedance node in AD844 current-feedback amplifier

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Simple example: voltage-controlled current source

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AD844: the first stage is a Current Conveyor (CCII)

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Current Amplifier without high-impedance node

from [Schmid00]
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Real difference

from [Schmid03]
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Very simple, very fast voltage integrator

from [Nauta92]
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Impedance mismatch
to decouple
feedback couples again
no FB

decoupled
optimization is much faster
optimization space becomes tidier
the child finds out more in a shorter time
the fool won't fall

Example
aggressive design time
first time right

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Case Study: Low-feedback approach applied to buffer design


Hanspeter Schmid, IME/FHNW
Simon Neukom and Yue-Li Schrag, CSEM Zrich

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Standard SC amplifier
Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

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Why an open-loop solution?


We needed
Voltage level shift from arbitrary low voltage to 1.6V
Less supply current variation (lowered by 20dB)
12-bit precise settling at 4 MHz sample rate, 12-bit precise offset
Our open-loop continuous-time solution gave
less offset (3=3.3mV compared to SC amp's 3=11.4mV)
less power (14mW compared to SC amp's 63.5mW)
Disadvantages are:
more harmonic distortion
more noise
but since this is an output driver after high-gain pre-amplifier chain,
both disadvantages do not matter in our application.
Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

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Operation principle: (with matched resistors)


Stage 1: single-ended voltage to differential current
Stage 2: current to voltage

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

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Offset compensation with current-output Track&Hold


Signal is processed in "Hold" mode

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

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Offset compensation with current-output Track&Hold


Offset is compensated in "Track" mode individually for each output path

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

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The remaining offset comes only from the T&H OTA!


All other offsets, including random offsets in the gnd references, are cancelled.

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

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Input transconductor

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Output transresistance amplifier

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

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Track&Hold amplifier

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

109

Static offset: value settled at the end of calibration cycle


Dynamic offset: mean value of full-scale settled values

Static Offset

Durch Bild oder Grafik


ersetzen
(Grsse und Position beibehalten)

Dynamic Offset

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

110

Static and dynamic offset


correlate very well

Offsets of two channels do


not correlate well

digital correction possible!

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

111

Supply current for full-scale steps


The current peaks are much smaller than for SC amplifiers

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

112

Monte-Carlo simulation of third-order (left)


and second-order (right) harmonic distortion (full scale, full speed)

Efficient Simulation of Harmonic Distortion in Discrete-Time Circuits


Wednesday May 27, 2009 from 15:30 - 17:00 in Room 101B.
Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

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What causes
non-idealities?

odd-order distortion

even-order distortion

gain error

NOISE
Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

offset
ISCAS 2009

114

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

115

Design time!
two weeks including all
simulations and layout
has been used on
three chips
first time right;
meets specs

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

116

Literature: Feedback or no feedback


[Black34] Harold S. Black, "Stabilized Feed-Back Amplifiers," Electrical Engineering, vol. 53, no. 1,
pp. 114120, Jan 1934. Reprinted in Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 379385, Feb 1999.
[Ho01] Y-C. Ho, D. Pepyne, "Simple Explanation of the No Free Lunch Theorem of Optimization",
Proc. 40th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, Orlando, pp. 44094414, Dec. 2001.
[Mahattanakul98] Jirayuth Mahattanakul, "Current-Mode Versus Voltage-Mode Gm-C Biquad Filters:
What the Theory Says," IEEE Trans. CASI, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 173186, Feb 1998.
[Nauta92] Bram Nauta, "A CMOS Transconductance-C Filter Technique for Very High Frequencies,"
IEEE J. Solid-State Circ., vol. 27, no. 2., pp. 142153, Feb 1992.
[Schmid00] Hanspeter Schmid, "Approximating the Universal Active Element." IEEE Trans. CASI,
vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 11601169, Nov 2000.
[Schmid03] Hanspeter Schmid, "Why 'Current Mode' Does Not Guarantee Good Performance,"
Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 7990, April 2003.

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

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Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

ISCAS 2009

119

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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Thank you for coming!


Hanspeter Schmid
Institute of Microelectronics
Steinackerstrasse 1
5210 Windisch
Switzerland
Tel +41 56 462 46 25
Fax +41 56 462 46 15
hanspeter.schmid@fhnw.ch
Lab: http://www.fhnw.ch/technik/ime/
Publications: http://www.schmid-werren.ch/hanspeter/

Hanspeter Schmid, Institute of Microelectronics, FHNW, Windisch, Switzerland

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