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(1) S helby Foote: THE A M ERICAN CIVIL WAR.


A NARRATIVE, Pimlico, 1991 (
).
(2) Jam es M cPherson: THE WAR OF
SEC ESSIO N 1861-1865, R o b ert
Laffont, . 1992.
(3) R ob Johannsen: LINCO LN, THE SLAVERY
A ND THE SO UTH, Louisiana S ta te U niversity
Press, B aton Rouge, 1991.
(4) internet
w w w .m em o ry.loc.gov/am m em /m d bquery.htm
I (L ib ra ry o f A m erican C ongress).
(5) in te rn et
w w w .civilw arh o m e.co m
(6) CD Encyclopedia B rittan ic a: THE
AM ER IC A N CIVIL WAR.
(7) Tim e-Life, ,
17 1850-1900,
, 1993.

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, (1261),
,
.

(1) B row ning, R.: B YZA NTIU M A N D BULGARIA,


U n iv ersity o f C alifornia Press, C alifornia,
1975.
(2) Dennis, G.: THE BYZANTINES IN BATTLE,
"To ", EIE,
, 1997.
(3) ' : ,
,
, , 1973.
(4) :
, . '.
(5) Haldon, J.: THE O RG ANIZATIO N A N D
SU PPO R T O F A N EXPED ITIO N A R Y FORCE,
"To ", EIE,
, 1997.
(6) Heath, I., - M cB ride, A.:
, 886-1118, , ,
1995 ( . : .
).
(7) , .:

, 285-1354,
, , 1980.
(8) ",
, , 2000.
(9) , I.:

, , ,
1996.
(10) , .: '
, , ,
1996.
(11) , ..:
, 7-10 ,

, . .
, , 1993.
(12) , .:
, . ' ',
, , 1995.
(13) , ..:
, " " - ,
20/1/2000, . 14.
(14) M cG reer, E.: SO W IN G THE D R A G O N S
TEETH: BYZA NTIN E WARFARE IN THE 10th
CENTURY, D um barton O aks R esearch Library
a n d C ollection, W ashington, 1995.
(15) Nicoile, D. - M cB ride, A .: R O M A N O BYZA NTIN E ARMIES, 4th -9th CENTURIES,
O sprey M ilitary , London, 1997 (rep rin te d
edition).
(16) - , . 15, ,
.
(17) Runcim an, St.: A HISTO R Y O F THE FIR ST
BULG A R IA N EMPIRE, G. B ell an d Sons Ltd.,
London, 1930.
(18) Treadgoid, W.: THE BYZA NTIN E REVIVAL
(780-842), S ta n fo rd U niversity Press, 1988.
(19) Treadgoid, W.: B YZA NTIU M A N D ITS
A R M Y (284-1081), S ta n fo rd U n iv ersity Press,
1995.

(20) , A .:
, . 1 2, ,
1984 1988 ( ).
(21) : REG UM LlB R i QUATTOR. ed. .
Lesm uiier-W ern er an d J. Thum, B erlin, 1978.
(22) : , im pensis ed.
W eberi, Leipzig, 1883.
(23) , Corpus
Fontium H istoriae B yzan tin ae, (CFHB),
sterreichischen A kadem ie der
W issenshaften, Wien, 1981.
(24) G. M o ravcik:
, TON
(C SH B, Bonn, im penisis
Weberi), W ashington DC, 1967.
(25) J. Thurn: ,
, CFHB, B erlin, 1973.
(26) (
, ,
), C orpus Scriptorum
H istoriae B yzan tin ae (C SH B ), Im pensis ed.
W eberi, B onn, 1838.
(27) I. D uycev: X P O N IK O N 811, Travaux et
M em oirs, 1 (1965).


1918,
Pour Le M e rite
(Blue M a x ) .

0
, A lb a tro s D. Ill,
J a sta 15, 1917
.

0


R FC (R oyal Flying Corps,
),

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A lb a tro s D .V
L 0 ,
Ja sta 37.

01 1918. ,
0 , 0 62 ,
17 1941. .
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LUFTWAFFE
, ,
I , M EN 01 :
0 , 0 , 0 .

62 + 1

To C urtiss H aw k II
.


Junkers Ju 8 7 Stuka

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13 1915 , 1909
206

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:
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26
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12 km.




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.


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1918,

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. 100-200
,
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.
,

.
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.



.


Fokker.


.
Fokker - .
.

.





1915 2.000 m
Caudron.


-

.
, ...
.
,
.

:
,
Fokker :



.
.


.
: -, -, -, .
,
,
.
, 3 1916


.

.
,


.
2.800 m.


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.

;, .

.
.
.

, 22
Caudron Farman
.


.

,
23
.
Fokker
Farman.
-

.
, .

.

.

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.
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.





.

, .


.

-
.

...




-.



Sonntagskind ( )

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III.
.
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-



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.
,

.
.
, .

.
.

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.
26 1917

,
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,
:
.
.

.
.

.


.

:

.

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15
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, ,
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.
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2.000 m
,

31

h cU /i

:
D-822,
1933, ,

,
,
.


:
()
, . ()
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, .

To U det U 12 1933. To , Flam ingo D-822,


,
. 525 kg,
10 m, 7,5 m 2,8 m U 12 134 km /h
1.000 m /10 min. Siem ens Sh 11 84 hp (1928)
Sh 14 95 hp (1930).

.
.

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.

.
,
-
.

.
.
, ,
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.


.




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.

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.
.
.




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. .
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54
.

.

.
,

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.

.

.

( ),

.

Pour Le M e rite
(
). :
(36 ), (35),
(47),
(26), (35),
(62), (44),
(43), (22)
(33),
383
.

,
39

,

.
24 ...

JASTA 37-JA STA 11





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.
1917


.



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.
20

.

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,
.


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,
,

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1918

.
-
,
67 ( ) ,


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.


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, Jasta 11


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,
,
5

.
,



28 1916,
(40 ).
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,

. , ,


.

23

.

,
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24
Sopwith Camel 6
1918.



.



.

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Max).

, .
21
:

.

.

JG 1

,
.

,
.

33

L u ftw a ffe
1934,


.



20 1918,
Jasta 4.

34


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.
, Fokker D.VII,
.

LO ( Lora
)
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. 35.


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-
.

,
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.
.


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. ,

.


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,
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27 .

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.

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26
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. 4
60 ,
!
,

, 22
. 26 1918


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.
.

.
,

.
11 1918

.
.
,
.
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80 .


28 1919
(Treaty
of Versailles). 15.000
27.000


. ,
Pour
le Merite,
.
(26
), Fokker D.VIII
(Parasol) Fokker D.VII

,

.

,
.
, ,
.
14 1922

.
,
,
.
( ) :



.
Udet Flugzeugbau
U2 U4

, .
U12 Flamingo,
,
(1.300 )

.

,
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.

Flamingo D-822
-


.
,
,

.

.
, , ,

,
, ,
.


,

SOS Iceberg. , ,
,
,
,
.


.
The Miracle of Flight, Storms over
Mont Blanc The White Hell of Piz Palu a

S iIm x M u r ie v '

.


.

1930




(National Air Races)
.
1931

Flamingo U12 ( 95
hp)
4-8
.


,
, .




.

. ,
!,


.
,
Nieuport 28 ,
' .

:
6347.


.
.
,
,


35


.

,
,

( ).



( 1938).


.

1933
, .



: Hawk II Curtiss,
F
11C Hawk,
. 14.000 (60.000
)

, Sonntagskind
.
Jasta 4,
,
Luftwaffe.


,
,

: Curtiss
Hawk II '

.



.
.

Luftwaffe,


. 1935
Mein
Fliegerleben,
Ace of the Iron Cross

600.000 .
.




,
Curtiss F8C Helldiver.

Junkers Ju 87 Stuka,

.
Bf 109,

Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, Udet
Flugzeugbau Messerschmitt AG.


Bf 109: ... ,





!.
Bf 109


.
.

Bf 109 1-16 Ftata -
Heinkel He 51.
Me 109
(14)
,
101
.
1936

.

4.000

To U det C ondor.

" "
U det Flugzeugbau.

L u ftw a ffe ,

.


.



.

'


.
1 1939


Generalluftzeugmeister (
).



.
,

,
. Luftwaffe


,

Jasta 4.

, Eiserner (
),

-

.
,


,
!
1940


.

. ,
Me 109

Supermarine Spitfire Ju 87
. Luftwaffe "
" ,

, , (
) H ein kel He 280 5-4-41.

' .
L u ftw a ffe
04.30 27-4-39: " .
".
", ...

. ,
,



'
,
.

,



.



.


.
,

. 1941
,


Luftwaffe,

. ,



.
17 1941

. 62
.

,
.
: Eiserner, warum
hast du mich verlassen ? (,
; ).
Sonntagskind.


,
,
-

.
,
Heinkel He 111
,
.



. 0
, ,
. 0 ,


,
. , ,
.
'
,
.
. 22
'
, Eiserner
15 1946


.

(1) Atken Ken: THE ACES, ER N ST UDET,


"A eroplane M onthly", A ugust 1996.
(2) Atken Ken: THE ACES, H E R M A N N
G O E R IN G , "Aeroplane M o nthly", M arch 1997.
(3) C arson A nnette: FLIG H T FANTASTIC, THE
ILLUSTRATED HISTO R Y O F A ER O B A TIC S,
H ayn es Publications Inc., Som erset/1986.
(4) Ernst Udet: K N IG H T O F THE IR O N CROSS,
N ew nes, London, 1937 (
D oubleday, N Y, 1990),
M ein Fliegerleben,
D eu ts ch e r Verlag, B erlin, 1935.
(5) Franks N orm an: ALBATROS ACES OF
W ORLD WAR, O sprey A irc ra ft O f The A ces
32, UK, 2000.
(6) Franks N orm an: N IEU PO RT ACES O F
W ORLD WAR, O sprey A irc ra ft O f The A ces 33, UK, 2000.
(7) Jo sep h y A lvin: THE AM ER IC A N HERITAGE
H ISTO R Y O F FLIGHT, A m erican H eritage
H isto ry Publishing, 1962.
(8) M arch D an iel-H ea th co tt John: THE
AEROSPACE ENCYCLOPEDIA O F A IR
WARFARE, vol. 1, 1911-1945, A erospace
publishing Ltd, UK, 1997.
(9) M o m b e e k Eric: JAGDWAFFE, vol. 1, B IR TH
O F THE LUFTWAFFE FIGHTER FORCE,
C lassic Publications, UK, 1999.
(10) R a b in o w itz H .: C O NQ UER THE SKY,
M e tro Books. NY, 1996.
(11) Spick M ike: THE C OM PLETE FIGHTER
ACE, 1914-2000, G reenhill Books. London,
1999.

37

K rak des C hevaliers


.

11 42 1201.
.
1271,

(
).




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( )



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1540.
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9
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1283. Caernarfon
Segontium . 1283
(383-388),
,
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Caernarfon.
C aernarfon (
) ,
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, sir William de Cicon, .
.

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(840)
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,

.

(keep)

.


.

,
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, .
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,
(Beaumaris, Caernarvon,
Conway, Flint, Rhuddlan, Harlech),

,

.

,
,




.


.



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.



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.


,
30
.
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,
:
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.


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.

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.


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.

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.
Harlech,
, 227 ,
115 , 30 , 22
546 .
(1283-1290)
.

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To Harlech


,
.
1 .
.

, .



.

,
.

,


.

49

H arlech 40 km
C aernarfon

.
7 (1283-1290).


,

. Chateau
Gailliard ,
.
1204
.




.



.
.


. 1418 Chateau
Gailliard 16


.

14-15
Harlech,
Caernarvon Chateau Gailliard


.

,


.
1078
1079.


/.

, 2,5 .

,
16,5


,
-
,

.
,
-
(1196-1198), Chateau
Gailliard,


. To Chateau
Gailliard
,

.
.


.


13


12 .


. To Chateau Gailliard
(keep)

.


.


.

13 .

. 14

/,



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,

.


, Castel
del Monte,
t o u 1240
.


.


, keep, ,
.
,
,

.
,
.
("")
.

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chateaux () 17
-.

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-- ),
15 .


.
() ()
.


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14 . ,


,

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33 24

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,

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,
,

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,

.


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.


,

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,

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.




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,



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, .
, ,

,




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.

"J

(1) Reginald Allen Brown an d S pecial


C ontributors: CASTLES, A HISTORY AND
GUIDE, British Library, 1980.
(2) R. Allen Brown, Peter Lewis: CASTLES. A
GUIDE FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. 1981.
(3) Ian Hogg: THE HISTORY OF
FORTIFICATION, 1981.
(4) Paul Johnson: THE NATIONAL TRUST
BOOK O F BRITISH CASTLES. 1978.
(5) L' EUROPE DES CHATEAUX FORTS, sous
la direction de Regine Pernoud. 1982.
(6) R oger Thomas: CASTLES IN WALES, 1982.
(7) :
,

, 1984.

216 .. ,

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..

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pila
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, 200
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, (primus
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Da Capo Press, 1992.


(4) J.F.C. Fuller: A MILITARY HISTORY OF THE
WESTERN WORLD, Da Capo Press. 1987.
(5) R. Gabriel & D. Boose: THE GREAT
BATTLES O F ANTIQUITY, G reenw ood Press.
1994.
(6) A. Goldsworthy: THE PUNIC WARS.
Cassell, 2000.
(7) J. G uttm an: GREAT COMM ANDERS IN
ACTION, N ational H istorical Society. 1996.
(8) V.D. H anson: CANNAE. "M ilitary History
Quarterly", Sum m er 1990.
(9) M . H ealy: CANNAE 216 BC. Osprey. 1994.
(10) L. Keppie: THE MAKING OF THE ROMAN
A RMY, B arnes & Noble, 1994.
(11) T. Livy: THE WAR WITH HANNIBAL.
Penguin, 1972.
(12) J. M acdonald: GREAT BATTLEFIELDS OF
THE WORLD, Greenwich Editions. 1998.
(13) J. Peddie: HANNIBAL'S WAR. Sutton.
1997.
(14) J. Warry: WARFARE IN THE CLASSICAL
WORLD, U niversity o f Oklahom a Press. 1995.

65

(1) . Alexander: H OW GREAT GENERALS


WIN, N orton & Company, 1993.
(2) S. Allen & W. Reynolds: CELTIC WARRIOR,
Osprey, 2001.
(3) L. C ottrell: HANNIBAL: ENEMY O F ROME,

1941 TOY

66
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(
8, , . 3627318).

Martin Poppel

Denis Richards

HEAVEN AND HELL


THE WAR DIARY OF A
GERMAN PARATROOPER



1789 - 2000

Spellmount
, 2000
256


, 2001
688

-



1.
, ,

,
1988.
1938
,
.
' 1939
4
1 .




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1941.

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(
112, , 114 72, . 3630697,
3614736).

.
lantheod@compulink.gr

I, II, III

. 568, 9.360 .

. 238, 5.000 .




,
1955-1959.




19461949,

.

. 335, 5.200 .

. 341,18.000 .



- - ,
. ,
.

.

. 736, 6.500 .


.

81

+*

- .-

EMftvnuK *
____ ___________________ ____



. 167, 2.080 .

. 537,17.00 .

. 648,12.000.




.


,



1951 - 2000.

'

. 397, 3.500 .

""
'

.238, 6.240 .



.

,
112, , .. 11472, . 3630697, 3614736 ( ).