Sie sind auf Seite 1von 76

IS

(418 ..)

2003 3,00

82

i f


(1936-38)

31

" " (1973)

82

2003

6 (418 ..)

14 "BISMARCK11

3 0 "
0 1 (1973)
3 8

4 4
(1936-38)

5 4


6 4


9 Bismarck


Swordfish (
Revell/Nilco
).

4
75
78
82 QUIZ

: 2 8 1

" - - : : - 0 0 1: 0 K O '. C '. 'A O I


. . / 0 0 , . . / , . . / , .., . ... i - V ---------1 11 \
. ., . ... / , . ./ .., . / 0 0 . r : . _ r r c
.. / , () . . / / / / / /

~ " ~ : '

/ 0 0 0 / / / / / / -

" \?

/ / / / / / / >

/ / / / / / 1,

\ '

0 0 0 : - - - - :
- - : 49, 10683 / : . . . 3951, 10210 :

- <-

: V : 55 e-

mail: p erisco p @ o te n e t.g r FAX: 210.38.21.985 ( 12 ): 36.00 / - - . 70.00 : = - * - ' . " - / 80,00 ( ): , . . 3951, 10210 - 0 : . _ - r
: : . -1. :

\ <01

~ \\~

. - ' - V A M 0 \ -

~2 ! !
:




,
90

(1912-1913)




.






, ,
,
, ,
,

,
.


.

" "



.


323
.,,
,
10 . ,


,

.
.




,
.


, ,
.



,
.







.


.



.



",


"Addiction History" ( 98),


.

: ,

,

,

,
,
,
,

.






.



.

" ".
,


.



( DSM-IV ICD-10),


.
, ,

,


.

(

,
),
,
, ,
,
.




. ,
, .


.




.


0 .



, -

""



1912-13

().

,

. "
"


.
1976 (

)

.
"
".




.


: "


.

.
...

' ,


*.






,


.

"
"

"
"

1912-13".
""



,


,

.

,


.

,
,


,

.




.



- .



,
, ,
,

.



.



.



22

: 28 MAFTIOY23
Mo v s m o Ma u m m

u sjm



" ""

1912-1913.

1912.


,

. 24
1913
' .


,
.
.
,
,


.


.

28
,
,

.

.. ,

"

.

418 ..


421 ..


.

421 416 .. - 0 1

' 6
..

.


, ,





( ).



.

.
.
, A (University College, London)

I rou5ou .. tiftbla

*'
1 .. 1.000'

'
[ ."" ' ' 418 ..
( ).

. ,
.

420 .. 420 ..,


30 .
-
-






. .
,
,
, ,
, , , , ,
,
,

.
.

6


,


,

.
425 .. " "


,

6 - ,
,
, . , ,

429 ..
,


,
, .
,


,
.
420 ..
. - 100 .


, ,

,
,




.




,
"
"
.


, ,

.

.
419 ..

.



,
,

.

,



.



,

.





1.000 .


,

.


,


.


,


.
300 ,

. -


-
-
,

.
,





.

.


,
418 ..


,

.

.

,

.








.



,

,

.



.
|
, ,

,

.



.
- i
4.200

, 600 ,


.
500
,

1.500 .

11,000 , 2.000
,
, , . 20.000
6.000 ,
3.000 3.000 ,

.
,
,
,

.
-
-
.

.

,
.
;

,


.



.
.

.

,
. .
1.000 300
.
, ,

.
, -
1.300
,
,

.
,
.
,

.

.
,
,
.
,
,
.

,


!


,

,


.


,
420 ..,


( , ).

- .
6
,




.
,



.

,
,


.

" "



!
.



,
,

,

.
,

10


.

,

,

. 1.000

,
,


,
.


.


.

,

.


.

:
600
500

.
,
,



300
. -


.



.

1.
2. "": 600
3. "" "" . 800
4. : 7 , . 3.500
5. : . 1.000
6. : . 2000
7.
: . 8.000
: . 1.100 .

"

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

, : . 2.000
"": 1000
, : . 3000
: 1.000
: 300

: . 7.300
: . 1.000 .


.

.

418 ..




.


,

.



, .

,


.

,
,



.




.


,
.
(5, 71),
,


,



.


200

.


,


. ,

"" 420 ..
, ,

( ).



,


.
,
,




.

,

.

.


. ,



.

.
,

,

,
.

.
300

,

.





.





.

,

,



.
-

"j "f
**

12

6


.




,


.


-
362 ..
,

( . 5,74),

.
.
1.100
, 200


. ,
700 .
200

.


.


,

.
,
,



.

.

,
300 ,
.






, . ,
,


.

. , ,

, .
,


,

. '

.


.

.
.
418
..

,

.


,
,


.



,
.

,

300 425
..
,


.





.



,




.



.






.



.

.



.

. ,
,

,

.

,


.


.

,

.
50 .



.
,

.

,
.
""
,

.

.


,
,

. 417 ..

, -


, .
.
,
.
- 416 .. -
20 , .


,








.



,


.


.








(2 7 )
.
.

:


,

.

,


.




.

,

,
.


.


,
.

,


( , ).

.



. .


!
,

:

,
-


!



. 417 ..


y ,

,






' , *J
. f r j


,


.

, <


.


418
..,



.

13


(1) : , 6-7,
.
(2) Thucydides, BOOKS V-VI, Loeb Classical
Library, Harvard.
(3) ,
, , 1981.
(4). W. Gomme, Andrewes A., Dover . J: A
HISTORICAL COMMENTARY ON THUCYDIDES.
Oxford University Press, 1945-1981.
(5) Ulrich Wilcken:
, , . 1976.
(6) J. . Finley: THUCYDIDES, Oxford
University Press, 1942.
(7) D. Kagan: THE PEACE OF NICIAS AND THE
SICELIAN EXPEDITION, Cornell University
Press, 1974.
(8) S. Hornblower: THUCYDIDES. London Duckworth, 1987.
(9) J. B. Bury & R. Meiggs:
, .
1981.
(10) Jacqueline de Romiily: THUCYDIDES AND
ATHENIAN IMPERIALISM. Oxford University
Press, 1967.
(11) Jacqueline de Romiily: ,
"To ", , 1995.


,


"RHEINUBUNG"
1941.




"BISMARCK"


,

.

BISMARCK




1939,

,
.



,

.

, ,

.

,

1940,
.

Wehrmacht

,
.

(
)
,

11
21 .


,
.
,

,

:
.,. ...
,.
,.,.
....
;....
....

".

,


,
.



,


"Bismarck", 1939,

,

19

.


.


Wehrmacht

"
,


.


,


,

. " "Graf Spee"
(
)
,
"Berlin,
, . ,
,

.
,



. 3
1941


"Bismarck" ,
"Anton" "Bruno",

.


Luftwaffe.



Scharnhorst" "Gneisenau"


.

,

.

,
59 22
.

"Prinz
Eugen",
"Admiral
Hipper",
1938

. 14.000 t,
209 m 21,9 m.

8 in
115,7kg.

,
,


Spitfire 21
1941
,


Bismarck1'



.


'



. ",Bismarck"
27 1941.

"Berlin"

Rheinubung (" ").
"Bismarck",
24 1940
46 ,

.
"Bismarck" "Scharnhorst" "Gneisenau",
(
138%
) ,

.
"Bismarck"
1941 ,
,
. , ,


,


.

( ,

).
"Bismarck"
"Rheinubung".

"Prinz Eugen"
,


.

. "Scharnhorst"
,
,
6 1941


"Gneisenau" ,

.


,
.
5

,
"Bismarck" "Tirpitz"

.






"Bismarck"

.

.


"Berlin'.
Prinz Eugen"
,
1.400 .

18


,

.


20 .

, ,

,
"Gotland".

, .
20 -

17

To "Bismarck"
"Prinz Eugen

9
,
,
.



.

"J

.



. To "Bismarck"

, "Prinz Eugen" , .

"Hood", 42.1001,
1920 9
(1922), &,
9 9 .

. 1930
.

TO BISMARCK REVELL
1/570

To "Bismarck" "Tirpitz"

' .

.
24 1940. 18
1941
"Rheinubung". 27 1941
490 km .

131 ,


23 ,

.

.
42,2 cm (
: Nilco/Revell, .
163, , 17342, . 2109889800).
.


,

.


,
.






"" .

.

.
,



.

-

< 08.00 21
(
) .
,

( 20 )


,

"Bismarck".


.


;

11
.

,

"Bismarck" .


,

,


, .



,

.

;
.

,
" '

BISMARCK:

Bism arck
, T irp itz,
,

,


.
Bism arck 1936
Blohm & Voss .

.
1939
.
.
35.000 t , Bism arck
50.955 t (). 251 m, 36
m 9,33 m.
136.200 hp 12 Wagner
,
30,1 kts,

.
.

Bism arck

.
.

11 in.
16 in ( )

,
.
Bism arck SK
380mm/L47 ( 15 in),
, (A n to n B runo)
(C aesar D ora), 1.100 t

36.510 m
800 kg 25 .



10,5 m . Bism arck
840 15 in.

500 kW 690 kW. SK 150mm/L55.
105mm/L65.16
37mm/L83 12 20 mm.

Arado 196,
.
Bism arck
.
40% St 95 St 70.
Krupp
, .
360 mm
30 mm .

1.016 kg
11 km.
,
,
80% .
Bism arck
90%
.
Bism arck
,
.
,
200
500 . , , ( )
, 8.294 t . Bism arck 8.330 km 28 kts, 12.300 km 24 kts
15.800 km 19 kts.
103
1.962 .
.
: 21
.
Bism arck
.

19

^.


,
-
1
"Hood"
.



"PrinzEugen"
"Rheinubung".

20

,

1941,
,
"King George V".

RAF.

.


,
.

Norfolk"
.
"Suffolk".

" 1.600 km

.

.


Spitfire

. 13.15 21
"Bismarck"
"Prinz Eugen .


18.00.

:



.
,

: . 70 m.
.
".
RAF
.


:
. .

RAF



. "
", . "
10 ".



"Bismarck",

. , 22 ,


,
"Weissenburg"

,
"Bismarck",
1940
, .

,
.
.

Bismarck"
"Prinz Eugen
,


.
,


.
,
,
-


.

,

" B I S M A R C K

'Suffolk'
Norfolk"

\
'

To "Hood"
"King George V", "Repulse1
"Victorious"

"Victorious"

^ To "Rodney"

"Prinz Eugen'

"Repulse1

'R odney1


Bismarck" /
\

To "Bismarck"
\
Catalina \

"Ark Royal'

^ "/


"Bismarck"
, .

"H ood"
. .
270
.


.
.


.


,

".

1940



,
.

, ,

, "Suffolk" "Norfolk,
-. ,
10.0001,
8 in
31 kts.
: Norfolk"


, "Suffolk"
Type-284,
360
27 km
.
-
, 'Arethusa'
"Birmingham" "Manchester".



,



.


. 21 Hood1

.

.
"Prince of

22

Wales" .
6 "King George V",

.

"Victorious 23.0001, 25
"Repulse,
15 in,
"Aurora", "Galatea", "Hermione", Kenya",
"Neptune" .

"Bismarck" "Prinz Eugen"


.
,

.

,




.


.
22

.

.

;
Maryland

. 19.15

1.390 km.


25 kts. "Bismarck" "Prinz Eugen"

.

"Norfolk"
"Suffolk"
.
" ",
, "
,

,
".
19.22 23
"Suffolk"

.



.
-

14 in ",Prince of
Wales"
Bismarck"
.


. To "Bismarck"
! "Suffolk"

.

.
Bismarck" !


"Hood"


.



.


,

Norfolk
"Suffolk" .
.
",
,
,
,
28 ,
,

".


"Rheinubung"
22 ,
!



23
,
"Hood"


"Prince of Wales"

.

.


.

28 kts

.
05.37 " !"
.
:


, .
.
Hood"

,

.
"Hood".
, 262 m,

"Bismarck.
33% .
, "Bismarck".
( 95 mm,
203 mm "Bismarck)

. "Hood" 15 in
, 872 kg
30 km 30 .

,


.


("
",
),
"Prince of Wales (
1.640 ),

.
"King George V",
,

.

(
)
35.0001,
10 14 in (

)
'5 in. -V
_ 6. <~ 722 kg "King George V" .
.. 40 .

"Prince of
.'.'ales'


Cammell Laird

!
227 m,
31,7 m 28 kts.

. .

jv ia

.


jpyicFKO

"Prince of
Wales"
1941

.

"King George V"

'
,

.

Bsmarck"
.
.


'Hood", 24.200 m
05.52.
: * , 50
.

. "Bismarck"
.

: - "Prinz Eugen" . c c jo io
. ,

;. ,

0/
"Bismarck"

.

"Prinz Eugen"

"Hood"
, 4 in.
.
To "Bismarck" , 05.55.
,


"Hood" ,
.

"Bismarck".
,
"Prince of Wales"
. To "Prince of 1.000 m .
Wales "Bismarck*, "Hood" ,
"Hood

. Prinz Eugen"
. "",
05.53, .
.
: " 1.
.
: " ".
21.000 m
"Bismarck" : "!
!'1.
:
" " .
- "Hood" -

23

24

Bismarck",
06.00.
15 in
"Hood"
.


. "Prince
of Wales"


"Hood".

, .
95 1.324 "Hood"
.

"Prince of Wales

.
"Hood"
.

.
13.700 m (
20 ) "Prince of Wales"
: 15 in


,
.

.
"Prince Eugen"

5,25 in
400 1
.
06.03 "Bismarck"
"Prinz Eugen" "

"Prince of Wales"
.



, "Prinz Eugen"
"Prince of Wales"
15 .

"Prince of Wales"

-,

,

,
06.09
.
, "Prince of Wales"


.

"Bismarck"
.

.
"Bismarck"
.


"Prince of Wales"
,



-


.

TO "BISM ARCK"
31,5
"Bismarck" .
52

.
. "Bismarck"
.
"Prince of Wales"
No 2

2.0001.


,
"" 3

1.000 t
.


.


,

"Normandie".
"

", , "

.
,
, 08.01,


28 ,
".

"Hood"

.

.
.
-
,


.

"King George V" (
"Prince of Wales"),
"Repulse"
"Victorious".
"Ramillies" 31.000 t (
15 in),
-127,
.
, "Revenge",

,

"Bismarck".

. "London"
"Edinburgh"
.
"Rodney" 37.7801,
16 in,

,
-

___________ i

"Bismarck",
"Rodney"
"Nelson"


,

.

,
180

"Bismarck". 4
,
,
WS-8B
.


, '
.


""
,
Ark Royal",
"Renown"
"Sheffield.
"Dorsetshire"
SL-74
.


"Bismarck
, ,
, '
.
U-556,




,
!
24 Norfolk"
"Suffolk" ( "Prince of Wales" )

,
,
.


,


.

, Suffolk"
. 18.14 "Bismarck"

180
,
30 km .
"Prinz Eugen"
(
)

.

"Bismarck
.
Swordfish
" " .
, ,


"Bismarck" -



25
.

"Bismarck".

,
(
).



.
Swordfish
.

(
240 km),

Swordfish.
,

"Victorious".


- ,
.
To Suffolk
Bismarck
,


.

.
25 . 03.00.


,

25


.

,

,
.


30 (!) .

,

Bismarck
.
Bismarck
()

.

26

Suffolk
Bismarck
.


.
-

,
.
.

330
!
Bismarck
!.
,
,
, .

, .

,
Bismarck,
Hood, ;.
25
.




.



.
To "Revenge" , "Victorious, "Prince of
Wales" "Repulse"
. To King George V"
Rodney

,
,

To "Bismarck" "Prince of Wales"


06.08 24 1941.


"Bismarck" "Prinz Eugen"
.
"Prince of Wales'' .

.


.





. ,
,
,
Catalina

, .

. Catalina
209
,

.


. 10.30 26

120 .


!

. Bismarck
,

.

1.100 km .

,


Suffolk",

Bismarck".


.
Bismarck
8.0001 6.500 t.
Hood Prince of Wales
2.0001 ,

1.0001 No 2.
28 kts
1.0001 24
1.200 km.
,

,

20 kts.

Bismarck
. 210 km



Luftwaffe

.
.


,
,

Swordfish

"Victorious" .

,
"Prince of
Wales",

.


Bismarck
.

Bismarck ,
.
Renown
Hood,
Swordfish Ark Royal

.


Swordfish .
Bismarck
Catalina,

. , -



.

.

.

Bismarck, Sheffield

!

.

Ark Royal
.
. '
15 Swordfish 19.10.
.
Bismarck

. Swordfish

,

.

20.47,
.
Swordfish
,
.
Bismarck
.

38 .
Bismarck
. =
.

.
.

.
. .
Swordfish .
Bismarck>=
.


10 .


,

.

.
300 kg TNT
Bismarck
10

.

27


. 0


,
.



.
Bismarck 3 kts.

. ,

,
.
.


.
21.40
:
, .


.

:
.
. ,
.

. :

.
.

To "Rodney" () 16 in.
"Bismarck" .

,
, "Bismarck" 27 .
"Rodney" "King George V"
.





Bismarck
01.20 ,
Cossack, Maori, Sikh, Zulu
Piorun.


16 .
.


Bismarck.

,



.
Rodney King George V
08.45, 118 ,
Bismarck

.

600

To "Bismarck"
, "Caesar" Dora",
. 10,5 m FuMO 27
.

,
Bismarck

!
7 .
08.47 Rodney

20.100 m.
King George V.

10 kts, Bismarck


Rodney.


.
, ,
Bismarck

. 08.54 8 in
Norfolk
.


. 09.02
16 in Bruno

Rodney (

)
Anton.

.
14 in
.
Bismarck
. 09.30
.

"Bismarck"



.

.

Bismarck

. King George
V

:

80% 23 40%.
Rodney,
20 kts,
.
16 in
Bismarck .
10.15 .


Rodney, -,
4.000 m
,
16 in
.
10.23, 36
,
.


(
)


.
Bismarck 6 Dorsetshire,
.
Bismarck
.


Bismarck.


15
.
,
,




.




.




.
Bismarck
10.36 27 1941.

115 , .
Bismarck


.

.
( ,
,
)


.
Bismarck


. 9 1989
, ,

,

115
"Bismarck" 2.200
.

Dorsetshire '.


4.750 m
(
)
24.
Bismarck 4
,

.
.

.

29

(1) R. Cartier:
,
, 1964.
(2) C.S. Forester: SINK THE BISMARCK!.
Bantam Books, 1963.
(3) E. Gray: HITLERS BATTLESHIPS. Naval
Institute Press, 1992.
(4) E. Grove: SEA BATTLES IN CLOSE-UP. Ian
Allan, 1993.
(5) R. Humble: HITLERS HIGH SEAS FLEET.
Baliantine, 1971.
(6) G. Koop & K.P.Schmolke: BATTLESHIPS OF
THE BISMARCK CLASS, Greenhell. 1998.
(7) B. Baron von Mullenheim-Rechberg:
BATTLESHIP BISMARCK, Birlinn. 2001.
(8) G. Rhys-Jones: THE LOSS OF THE
BISMARCK, Cassell, 2000.
(9) WAR ON THE HIGH SEAS. Time-Life Books.
1991.
(10) M.J. Whitley: GERMAN CAPITAL SHIPS
O F WORLD WAR TWO, Cassell. 2000.
(11) M.J. Whitley: BATTLESHIPS OF WORLD
WAR TWO, Cassell, 2001.
(12) R. Winklareth: THE BISMARCK CHASE.
Naval Institute Press. 1998.


..,. ,



1973

(15-18 )

.

,

.

1973, "
" ( ), 6

, 0
, ,
( ),
, 1967.
, ,
.

8 .
10
.
.
, ,

. 22

.
, .
( 2 3
)
(1), 10

(2).
, 8
8-10 .
9
,
. , ,
,

. 13 -

1973


"

,


.

32
sas

.




,
( )
,
.

2.000
.
. 300
, .




14
(3)


.
14
,
14/15
,
15/16
,

(Chinese Farm).



.
,
.


, .

- "-

. ""

. (
)

.


:
-
2 3

.
-

.
-

,

,
.

-

14

.
16
()
21 (),

14 .

, .

()
.
.
Sagger

. ,

.


(
),

,
(10 ).


3 .


.


- -


-

.





, .



, .
(4
3 )


.
'

.
,

,

,
, ,
.

,
.

.


16.00 15
, ,
17.00




.
. 19.00

.
21.30

.

, 18 ,

11 .
7
,


. -




6 .
.
(
).
,
, 22.30

.


,
.

.
,

,
, ,

.

, ,

.
,
.

. ,
,


,
.
7



16
. ,
, ,
,
, .


.



.

.
7 ,
.
, 7
, 3
.
() 18

.

48(5)

.

.

7
.
7

( )
(
),

.


. 02.00

.

.

7 , .


,

.
, .
.
04.00,
, .






. 22.30
10 . ,
10
.



,


. .
.
,


.


-
.

.


. ,
700
,


,
01.30.
05.00
. 06.43

. 08.00 30
11.30
.


.

33





,
.
,


.

,
.

16
.


.
,

.
16



.
,
,
,
.

.
.
15
(


,



,
.
,

,



.



.

,
.




.
, (

" ",
. 48(5).

)
.


.

.

.
,
,

.
( )


,
,
.
16

)
.
23.30.



,
.

. ,



.
40 100
.
17

.

"
" .


11.00 17
,
,



.


,
.
,



.


.





.



. "
",
,



.






.
2 ,
16
21

.
3 ,
25


.

,
16 21
.


.

,

. , ,
14
,
.


25

25
3

. 96
,
,

, .
,

,
(
)
.


.
. ,

,



.
,
,
,



.

.


.

. ,
,

.

, ,
.
,
,
,

.



,
. 10
.
.
.


.



25
.
.
, 18

.

,


.

.

"

36

"
,
,
,
.


,
"
"
.







.
,

.

,
, ,
, . 17

.


,

.


. 16.00 17

.

(
) .

.
, 17/18
. 18

.
18
,
.
24
.


.

.
,

3 .




.


,
24
.




,
,

.


,


.
,

, ,
-


.



,

.


,

-
.
,

,



( ),
.


,


(
),


15/16

.


,
( )


,
.


,
, , ,
.

.

.


,

, (
)

17 -

Centurion

-3 Sagger (Malyutka).
, 48(5)
.

6.
(
)



.
25
,

.

,
,


- .
,
'

1967,
.
,




,

.


. ,
,
1967,



.





.


16/17 ,
.

,

, .




.
17

,



. 14



.


.



-
.


.



.



.

.

, ,


.

(1) Martin van Creveld: COMMAND IN WAR.


Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Massachusetts and London. England.
(2) :
,

, , 1977.
(3) Michael C. Jordan: THE 1973 AR AB
ISRAELI WARS, 1997.
(4) home.freeuk.com/henridecat/Operation
Stronghead, 17th October 1973.


(1) ,
, 168
. 180
240 15 18
.

,
25 . .
(2) 2 3 .
( 120 ).


.

.
,
28 .

800.000 , 2.200 , 2.300
, 550
.
(3)
,
,


,
-


-.

37


0


.
. 01
: 0
(1752-1804)




(,
, ).

(1752-1804)
(, , ).

19
( ).
(1768-1774)

, ,
1782
,
, " " ,
, ,
. ,


, ,
. .
( ),



,


, ,

,

.
,


.


1783,
.
,
,


1821.
1768



,
.

(1770-1774)


,

. -


- .


1785.

1788,
(
, ).


- ,
.
, ,

,

1787. . -

40



9 ,



.


.


.

.


.
, ,
, ,

.
. ,
1788

20.000
.

,

1788.
3 1789

, ,
,
,


.
,
,

.
1789
10.000 ,

.

.






1752.
,

.

1787 ,

,

.


.
1788
,


, 28 ,
(
).
,

, .




15 ,
, .

. 1788


.


.


31 .



24 .

,
.



1788

,
17 .


.
1788

. ,
,

.
.



.



1789,
.
500 ,
.

,

,
.


.

,

"" (,
, ).


.
,
.

.


,
, ,
.
,
.
,

. 3

(),
.
,
,
1789


.


,


. 1791




.


, ,
,


.



.

.
1790
. ,
1821,
.
. ,

41



()
......


.
,

,
, ,

.
ta
. ,


,

,
.

. ,
.
,
,

.
,
.

, ,



,
......

,
1788 .


( ,
, ).

42

,

.

.

.
17 6
, ,

.

,
.

,


.

565 53 ,
3.000
.


.

,
.

.
.

1820 (,

, ).

,
1790,
.


1791

24 .


( 1791)
.




.



.
,

.

(9 1792),

.



: (. , " -

", , 1985, . 292-293): , ,


, 6,

.
1792 .

,




.
,

( 1792)
.
.

.

1792.
1
30

. .

,
, 5 1792 (

).

.
.

, ,

.


.
11 .


. , ,
.
1794, ,


. 1799
', ,
470,000 ,
.


,
1804 52 .



.

,

1788-1792

.


,


. ,



.
,

.

,
.



(
),
.
1809, , :

,

,
,
t o u



....

(1) .:
. . 1969.
(2) - , 35.
, , 1996.
(3) " ". :
(

), 31-8-2000.
(4)
, . . 1980.
(5) .: .
, 1958.
(6) .:
, 8.
, , 1983.
(7) " ",
" ", 1821.
6 2003.
(8) .: 21.
1, . .
, 1977.

I 936


" "
.

Mosin-Nagant.
,
(
%)

KW

.

01

X V .
37 mm, .

,
1936,
,
.
35-40.000. 01

.
1938
' "

.

70 .

"
".

45

1930
24
. 60%

.
5%
.
50% .

,
. 1936,
,
, 268 470.

, ,
.
.

"" ( ), X V
,
, () ,
,
" "

.
.


. 17 ,

" ",
,
Ju 52").
,
.



4.000 .



.
- .
,



.
,
,
(
,
,
" ").

.
.
.
, "


"
,




,
.
.
.
1936
.



.
,

1936
.
"
: "
, ,
",
".

,

.
(
.



,


.
" ",
23.000
"
,

").
, , ,
.

.
,

202

,
,
,
.

.
1936
(centuria)

.
, ,



,
.
( ).
,
,

,

( )
Ju 52,
.

1871

,
" 1.000
,
"
( : "
, -

46
mm

01

XI

22-10-1936

, , ,
,

XII

3-11-1936

, ,

XIII

2-12-1936

, , ,

XIV

2-12-1936

XV

31-1-1937

, , ,

,
, ,
129

13-2-1938

, ,

86

13-2-1938

, ,

150

27-5-1937


, ,


,
,
,

(
) .



1936.

, (
)
.


.

,
1917,


.
()
.
, (
)
, XI.
.

1938
.


,




,
,
.


,

1936

( ). ,

,
.


,
.
.

.. :
).
" '
,
.
1936
100 -26, 400 50
.
"
"
,
.

(

"", . 51).
Renault FT-17,
Potez
Dewoitine.Ta

,

. ,
.
XI,
1936,
.
,

.

600 -

47

. XI '.
" " '\
XII
"", "1
. XIII
. XIV
, XV,
, : ', '
", " ", '
", " -",
, " 6

59
. 86
, 129
35
. 150 .



4 1936


.
, ,



.
,

"" " ".


" "
.
" "
"",
.

,
, ,
,

.
.
.


1937.

" " "
" XV .

300 ,

"" X II
,
.


.
,
.

,
.
,
.
, ,
XV
" ", "
" " ",
. 1937,
,
XV


70
(


).

, ,



100
(
).
70 - 80 .

,
-

.
.


,
,

(


1919,

)
.
,
, ,
, ,
.

,

.
,


.
,

,

.




.

"
".
,


.


.


.
.
,
,
.



,

.
.


.
-


,

. 1938


,

,
.


.

.



.


.
300 ,
,
,
1937 1938.
XIV , 2 1937
. XV
(
)
1938
.
1938



,

.

, -,

.

,
,
Adrian
' .
XI XII

.
1926.

,
.



9 mm.
"
1
.


,

1.


Maxim
.


, 1937.

-26 .


.
MosinNagant 7,57 mm,
Steyr 7,9 mm,
Mauser 7,56 mm, Lebel 8 mm,
Springfield 0,30 in,
Arisaka 6,5 mm.
Degtyarev PPD 1928.
Hotchkiss 8 mm,
Maxim Lewis 0,30 in.


37 mm.

Astra Star
Mauser Luger.
, .

.


.
.
.


,

.


,
.

. 1937
5 XI .
'

. 1945

1947
.

,
,

.
'' "
,
.

. ,

.

,


. " "

( ").

1936 - ,
,
1936

.



. 5
, XI, 1.600 , "

"" (
) . XI
7
.
13 1936
.
XI XII

-26.
.
XII
!
25



. XI XII

.
1936 -

50
" 1937.

.

" " ",



" " ( )

. 7 23




.

.
.
100 .

.

.
XIV
.


. 3 1937

""

. 5
"
'' XI

.


.

1937-,
,
, ,

6 1937


.

. 9

. 12


XV ,
" " "
".

.
.
Maxim
.


".
"" "
"
30
, . 13
160 "
'1
.

. ,
, XI, XII
XIV
. "
". 27


127 200
50 !

.

.

.

20 "" ,

.
10.000 7.000
.

.


.


, ,
.

8
.



.
, ,
35.000
,
.
,
, XI, XII
.
""


. .


.
XI ,

.
12

.




. 18
, 100
70
.

.
.
".
1939.

,
1937
.

.

90.000
6 , .

XI XV .

,
.
130 , 40
, 188
200 .
2.000 ,

" " X III .


, , , , .
.

" " X V .
, , , , , ,
.

105.300 , .
.


.

"
", "" "
.
11 30.000
,
, .
.
. ""
"".
18

. " " XV

100
300. 25 .


. .
,
"".

,

.


XIII
XV .

. XIII ,
,



" "
X V
.

.
1938


.
'




().
1944.

" .
XV


.

,
,
,
,

. 6 ,

,
,
1937

.
24 80.000

100 200

.
XI, XII, XIII, XIV XV
. XV



.

, 5
(

2.700 ).

.

1937

.

",
,

,


.

.

.
15

,
.
,
6.000
.

(



).
7 ,

.

,
XV . 15
1938


. .

20 .
22.000 .
,

, ,
.

1938 -,
9 1938

.
.


.
.
10 ,

. "
" 150
500
.

. 3 ,

,
,

6.
15
.
.
100.000 80 , 22
-26 120 1-16



.
XI, XII, XIII, XIV
XV .
2
.


. 30

.
70.000 , 45.000 .



.
20.000 "
",

"". , ,
, ,


.
.
29 1938


.

,
"". 32.300

. 8.000
.
1939 ,
, ,
,
.
.

X II

1936,

.

.

X V
1938.

( ), ,
. .
"". .


29 1938
. 300.000
,

.

,

, "" XIII
,
1947-1953,
.
,
.

:
1937,
,
1941,

"".
,

,


.
,
,
1956.0 1985

.

.
""


.

(1) Ken Bradley: INTERNATIONAL BRIGADES


IN SPAIN 1936-39, Osprey - Elite Series,
London, 2000.
(2) A nthony Beevor: THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR,

53

1936-39, Cassell, London, 1982.


(3) Patrick Turnbull: THE SPANISH CIVIL
WAR 1936-39, O sprey- Men at Arms.
London, 1978.
(4) Chris Henry: THE EBRO 1938. Osprey Campaign Series, London, 1999.
(5) Gabriel Jackson: THE SPANISH
REPUBLIC AND THE CIVIL AR.1931-39.
Princeton U niversity Press. 1972.
(6) : TO Y
, .
, 1965.
(7) Anthony Livesay: GREAT B AU LE S
O F THE WORLD, Michael Joseph Limited.
London, 1987.
(8) :
(
),
, , 2001.
(9) Edouar Bobrowski:
,
" ", .188,
1984.

"01


.


0 0

t M fc

>>>?**

' ,1



".

0 01
,

f l\

,
m



(.
"").


& ,

o 1099 1


. ,
.
,

.




.



.



,
.
, ,
,
. '
.



,

.


.

,

.


.

,
,


,
,
.
, .
,

,




.
, ,
, ,
.
,

,



,
,
. ,
, ,
.


,

.

,

,



,
1176.
.



,
.


,
.
,
1
.
,
,
.
.

56




.


.

,

,

.
, ,
.

,

.


.

.

,
,

,
, ,



.

, ,
,
, ,
.



. , ,




.



.

,


.
,
-

.
,

.

,
,

,

.

. ,
-

,

, ,
,

.



,

.

.

. ,

,

.

,
.


.

,
. t o u c


,
.

.
.


.



.
1119,
(Hugues de Payns), .
,


, .
1, ,

.




.

. -



.


. 0
.

, , ,
,


.



.

.

,
.

,

.
, ,


.

. .^

.





.

,

.
,
.

( H m e f c f c r t t J r f h I

ui5 S; antoandtofcni
uwatnuwloufi
t H n n ivr

MJAVtflVOJS

fatttams Dur
g

t f t u

i m

rn tliin n a n ra c c ifm

( ,
).

.
8

16.


58

.


, (
)
.
1
, ,

.

, ,
,


.
, 1134,
, .
.




.


.
,
,


. .



.


.
,



,
.

,

.
,
,


.

.


.



,
.

, ,


.

.


.

Kodeins quirrdigtiua
tcfcfifco dtgtittante
,
, .


,
.

,



.

.

.
,

2.000 1.500 .


,

,


. ,

,
,
.

,

.




.

,


.
,
.

~

..

-'

- .


*
.


,

,

.






1147
50


130

,

.

,

.

.
.

, .


,

.
,


.

,

.

.
,

.




.


. 1187
,
,

.
,
,
.

.
, ,
(
)
.

.

,

.




.


,
.
,

-

.


.

.

,
,

.

7
1191,
.

.
.
,
.

.
.

.


.

,

.

,

.

fare C m f^fyia a zcr pjajtiW

wy3

n x n & i <gtfSm tjn i; i S t t maur-ia ft


, sarti Sc6mcH>a
baba

^ P an u prjtram fwerfBr negaSi


q vTtuii nfrrbrfiEeSm
v.
t uviuT ntn ca i


, .





,
.


,
. 0


,
,
.

,
,

. ,


, ,
.


.
100.000 .
40.000 ,




.




.

,
.

.

( . ).


.

.


(!).

.

.

1192.
.


,
,
.


.

, ,
, , .



- ,
.






1.



.
.

.
, .^ 1

. .
. _ .jt ik l l . .

.
, 1,
, ', 'V -". .

. .
.



.
"',
.
,
, .:

.

'


.
, ,
,
.
.

f ij

,
.

.

62

.


,
. , ,

,
,
, ,
,
.

.


,

.


.
,
,
.




.



.

1291,

,

.

,


.


,

.



.
.

.

.

.

.
,
.

,
,
.




.
.
.
ro 1303
,


,
.



.


,

.


.
,
,
.

,
.


.
"
"
:
.
, ,
.

,
,

.

,

20.000 ,

.

la u ttw tf n u l. r n . t r . r it f . it
-f'A



'.


.
,
,
.

^ n t*'
1306
.
,
.

,

.



. .
.


.




.



,
.

1,
1307
-

(1) Malcolm Barber: THE TRIAL O F THE


TEMPLARS, Cambridge University Press.
Cambridge, 1978.
(2) Malcolm Barber: THE NEW KNIGHTHOOD.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
1994.
(3) :
, . .
(4) David Nicolle: THE CRUSADES. O sprey
Publishing, Oxford, 2001.
(5) David Nicolle: KNIGHT O F OUTREMER.
O sprey Publishing, Oxford, 1996.
(6) Joshua Prawer: CRUSADER INSTITUTONS.
Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1980.
(7) Jonathan Riley-Smith (editor): THE
OXFORD ILLUSTRATED HISTORY O F THE
CRUSADES, O xford University Press. Oxford.
1995.
(8) Steven Runciman: A HISTORY O F THE
CRUSADES, Cambridge University Press.
Cambridge, 1954.
(9) Kenneth Setton: THE PAPACY AND THE
LEVANT, The American Philosophical Society,
Philadelphia, 1976.
(10) Kenneth Setton: A HISTORY O F THE
CRUSADES, Univerrity of W isconsin Press.
Madison, 1969-1990.
(11) Desmond Seward: THE MONKS O F WAR.
Penguin Books, 1995.

j
i^ m




0 20 .
, .
,
'
. ,
, ,
0 .

1) .
2) - (1904-1905)
( ).
3) 1.
4) 1889
" " .
5) .
6) .
7) .



. 1
,
,

, ,


.






.
6 6

,




66

.

.


,
,

. '

, ,

,



- -


,
1939-1940.






,

(
, ).

, , ,
. ,

,
,
.



,
,

.

,

.
, (

)
.


.



.

,
.









.

,


,
.

,
, 1867.


1768, 1825
.

,
.
,

, ,
.

, 19 1882
22 1886
.

(1882-1886)

. 2
1887 1889
' .

1865
250 .



.
,

-
1.


'
.

(
), ,
, .


. ""
,

,

.
,


,

-

.



,
,
.


2 1892

,

, .


.
,
.

.

1919.
,
,
. 1917,

, .

,
.

""


,
',
,
1896 ,
,

.

,

,

.
1904-1905
- .



,

,
.


. 9
1904

.
.

: "

".



.


.

.
,

,

,

-

( ).


,
.
.

.


...
,
,
10 1904

, 4 1906.

""
,
. 3

. 29
1905 '

'.
, ,


.
1904
.

,
.


.
. , ,


. 15 1905.

.
,

24
9 1905.

(27-28 ). -

68


.
,

, .


.
(5
1905)
,

.


'
.


(1899-1905).

, 1809

.
,
,

.
,
,
,

.
, ,

.

1
.


, .
4

, ,
, ,
-.


.

,
, . 1914


, ,


-.


4 1914. -




"
"

1.

.



.


.

.




,

. 1917

.

1918





1914,
.



.
1914

9
, -, , , , , ,
, , , ,
, .
18 1915 12 , , , ,

.

1915
2

1915.
1917.




.
, , 11 1916
7 1917.
12


,

.

90
.


.
6
, 12
1917,


1917
.
8
1917 20

.


,

.


,

.

.


1

.


.
1917,
,
,

.

,


.



.


.




,
,
,
.

,
, -

,
.




-

,

,
.


40.000 ,
.
27 1918 ""

.


.


100.000 ,
.

. ,
,
70.000

.


(Ostseedivision)
.
16


. , ,
,

, .
,
1,
.


,
.
. 1930
.





,

.


.



-

.






. , ,



.

.

.
.



.

.




.

.


- -
(12 1918 - 25
1919).



.
-
1919,
-


.

, 17
1919 ,


. ,

,

.


,
1931,
.
,

, ,
,

1930.

,
-

1.

,
,

(4 1944-8 1946)
.

1931-1939
, 1937.
1944.
.

.
, 23 1939,
,
,
.

, ,


.


.

""

1939

, .
, , . ,
, .



,
-

() ,

.
. ,

,
1918 - .

"" (
" "
).

30
.
,

" ".
.
.
,

,

,
.


.

,
.


, ,
. -

72

. 40
,
,
,
.
" ".

,

,
.
"
".
, ,


,


.
20%

,

. 12/3/40
. , ,


.
.
. -
22 1941.

.



1939.
31


.



.

,
.
,
IB 1


.




.
,

,
.



.

.


20 .
" "

.

".


.
,

4
1951.
.

'
' , .




-
,



.

,
.

,

. ,
,
" "
.

.
.

75 , 4
1942.


. 4 ,
,
4
1942

,
.
, 1937
1942,
.
.

.
,

,


.




,
,
1944
.
,


.
,
,
,

'
.
1944
,
,

,
-

: .



.

1944,



.
, 1944,



77 .
, ,




.


.







.

.
1945,

,



. ,

-

J2




" "
.

4 ,
,

4
1942 .

74

. 0

,
1946. , 6,
.
.
.


" "
.
, 27
1951,
,

.

.



.


,

.

.


.

: )
(1809-1917),

, )

( 1918 ), )
. ""


,
,
,

.


.

,
.


.
,

,



.

(1) BrookerPaul: TWENTIETH-CENTURY


DICTATORSHIPS: THE IDEOLOGICAL ONE-PARTY
STATES, New York University Press, January 1996.
(2) Collected Works in Memory of Grand Duke
Constantine Constantinovich, The Council of All
Cadet Union Abroad, Paris, 1962.
(3) Constantinovich Gavriil, Grand Duke, IN THE
MARBLE PALACE, FROM THE CHRONICLE OF OUR
FAMILY, Chekhov Publishing House, New York, 1955.
(4) Conte Arthur: LES DICTATEURS DU XX SIECLE,
ed. Robert Laffont, Paris, 1984.
(5) : , .
, , 1980.
(6) :
, . , .
(7) :
, . , .
(8) A.:
, . , , 1972.
(9) Paleologue Maurice: AN AMBASSADOR'S
MEMOIRS, Hutchinson & Co., London, 1923.
(10) THE PENGUIN ATLAS OF WORLD HISTORY,
London, 1978.
(11) :
, . .


01

).

, 1860,

1885 -

, ,

. "

1' 1998,

27,

( ,

,
. 1) -

, ,
,

1866-1868

, 0-

Society,

,
3. -

1860
,


),

. 2)

1876 (

),

. ).

.
1

. Yta
.

.
. 3)
, ,

()

,
,
(

"":




,
,

.
: 1)0






.
1886

" ".

,



".
2)

.
,
. 3)


,
, ).
4)

*

"
,
.
.


.

.
(
). 5)

,

, .
(

17
,
,

.
1814






.

.

.
, , , ,
,


. 4) 1868
7

,


.


. 5)


,
"
",
scalping,


" ".

.

"
". 6)
,
,





,

.

,
,

.


. 7)



.




. 8)
Wounded Knee
"".



'
"

.
.
,
.

, .

.
.
.

, .

.
Quiz
No 70

75

2002 (!)
.

, , .
"
12

19121941 .



,
,


1945

1945
1942.

, , .





.


I I
:

""

78

" ,

1941, -

Luftwaffe.

" "

. 18

).

Ardena, -

, -

. , 15 -

, -

1941,

11 ,

/ "

Luftwaffe

: -

...


/ "
1925
.


Luftwaffe

,
1941. "
,
.

""


.

"
.