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(1940-1941)

(1943)
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(1941)
2 6

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(592-601)

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LES BALKAN, OPERATION MARITA. Editions
Heimdal, France, 1999.
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(7) THE GERMAN CAMPAIGNS IN THE
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(1). Alexander: HOW GREAT GENERALS WIN.


Norton, 1993.
(2) R. Goldston: THE LONG MARCH. Franklin
Watts, 1971.
(3) J. Harrison: THE LONG MARCH TO POWER.
Praeger, 1972.
(4) H. Salisbury: THE LONG MARCH: THE
UNTOLD STORY, Harper & Row. 1985.
(5) E. Snow: THE OTHER SIDE OF THE RIVER.
Random House, 1962.
(6) D. Wilson: THE LONG MARCH, Viking, 1971.
(7) D. Wilson: THE PEOPLE S EMPEROR,
Doubleday, 1980.


565
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(579-582)
.


.
582.
.
582
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, ( )

,
, .
585

100.000 .
.
585

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, . 586
,
, , , . 586
,
587

. 587 ,
, , -

39



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).


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).

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,


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.

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.
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mm


1
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620 ..

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42




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.

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,
,

.
,

.
,

.
, .

,
,
,
15
(584/5,
585/6, 592, 598).


.

,
120.000 .




,
.



,


.

. , 17.000
, (
) .
.


.


(599-601)

, ,

.
599,

.

.
.
.
.

.

.

, ,
"".
4.000


.

30.000 .
,
.


.
,
,
.
,
600.


.


, 11 ( 600--

43
mm

44

601).



599,


596.

601

,
.

,

" ",
.
, ,

,
.

.
,
,
, .

, ,

.

(602-610). ,

,
,

602,
.




,


.

.

(610641),

626.

. , ,



, 1018,
1 (976-1025).

(1) W. Pohl: D IE AWAREN. EIN STEPPENVOLK


IN MITTELEUROPA 567-822 N. CHR., ,
1988.
(2) A. Avenarius: D IE AWAREN IN EUROPA,
, 1974.
(3) Cs. B alint: DIE A R CH O LO G IE DER
STEPPE. STEPPENVLKER ZW ISC H EN
WOLGA UND D O N A U VO M 6. B IS Z U M 9.
JAHRHUNDERT, , 1988.
(4) E. G aram : DER AWARISCHE FU N DSTO FF
IM KARPATENBECKEN UND SEINE ZEITLICHE
GLIEDERUNG. D IE VLKER
SDOSTEURO PAS VO M 6-8 JAHRHUNDERT,
"S dosteuropaisches Jahrbuch", 17.
(5) I. E csedy: N O M A D S IN HISTO R Y AND
H ISTORICAL RESEARCH, "A cta O rientalia
H ungarica", 35, 1981.
(6) F. Tokei: A N O TE O N N O M A D IS M ,
"Acta O rientalia H u n g a ric a ", 36, 1982.
(7) E. D arko: INFLUENCES TOURANIENNES
SUR L EVO LU TIO N D E L A R T M ILITAIRE DES
GRECS, DES R O M A IN S ET DES BYZANTINS,
"B yzantion", 10(1939).
(8) . : THE EVO LU TIO N O F SLAVIC
SO C IETY A N D THE SLAVIC INVASIO NS IN
GREECE. THE FIR ST MAJORATTACK O N
THESSALONIKI, A .D .597, "H e s p e ria ", 50, 1981.
(9) M . - :


(582-602)
(

), " ", 2 (1 9 7 0 ).
(10) D arko E.: INFLUENCES TOURANIENNES
SUR L EVO LU TIO N DE L A R T M ILITAIRE DES
GRECS, DES R O M A IN S ET DES BYZANTINES,
"B y z a n tio n ", 12 (1937, . 1964).
(11) Ch. O m an: A HISTO R Y O F THE A R T O F
THE WAR IN THE M IDD LE AGES, ,
1924.
(12) G. O stro g o rs ky: TOY
, , 1978.
(13) H. W olfram : DAS REIC H UND DIE
G ERMANEN. ZW ISC H EN ANTIKEN UND
MITTELALTER, , 1998.
(14) P. Schreiner: EINE M ER O W IN G ISC H E
GESANDTSCHAFT IN KONSTANTINOPEL
(590?), "Frhm ittelalterlichen Studien", 19,
1985.
(15) Erich Zllner: AWARISCHES N A M EN SG UT
IN BAYERN UND OESTERREICH, M IO G , 58
(1950).
(16) J. Fine: THE EARLY MEDIEVAL BALCANS,
M ichigan, 1983.
(17) M . Com sa: EINIG E BETRACHTUNGEN
BER D IE EREIGNISSE IM 6.-7. JH . A N DER
UNTEREN D ONAU, "Slavia antiqua", 21, 1974.
(18) J. Ferluga: BYZA NZ A U F DEM BALKAN
IM FRHEN MITTELALTER,
"Sdostforsungen", 44, 1985.
(19) E. :

, " ", 24, 1982.
(20) V. Velkov: DER D O N A U LIM ES IN
BULGARIEN UND DAS VO RDRING EN DER
SLAWEN, "Sdosteuropa-Jahrbuch", 17, 1987.

TOY

1877
,

,
.


18 .

1877

,
,




.
,
,


.
,
1848 ,
,
,


,


. .



18
.

,

" .
,
,

, ,

. ,



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,
, .



, ,



.




,

. 18




. ,
,

.

& . ,
1877.

48
1







.

.
,
,


.
19
,

, ,

.

, ,

.

,
,
,
.
,
,



,

.

1877,


.

,

,
"
".


,

.


-.
'
,

(1854-55)

.
, , .

,


1683.
1870


,
250.000
.
,
(
1875)

.
,
,


.
,

.



,
.


" " ,



.


,

.

,

.
1877

,

.

,
,

.

,
.

47 ( 16.000
,
48 )
19 (
7.000 ).

,
'
.

,
"",

M artin i-P e ab o d y .
1.500 m.

.

,
,
"
".



, "
,
".

,


.


,
,
.



.

.
1877

.

,
( )

""
.


,
,

.
Berdan II,

,

.
0,40 in, 380 grains
440 m/sec,

1.000 m .
Berdan

,

1882.
, .

1874.

Krnka, ,

,
.



, - .

,

,


.

.

,

- .


,


.
, ,
. ,
Berdan,
,

.
,
2/3 ,
.

,

,

.
.

-

49

.


.

Krnka. , .

& .
, .

50


,

.
1877
.



.
2,5
3,5 km,

.


,

,


. , , / ,
.
,
,
.



,


.

,
.

Gatling,

,
.


,
, ,



,
.


Martini Peabody,
Martini Henry
.
486 grains,
390 m/sec ,

.
Martini Henry
, Peabody


.



Snider
Enfield.
Krnka, "
"

.

,


,

.

,
.

,

. 23

,


,
, .

.
,

.

Winchester,
12,15 17 . -

" "
1880.
" ".



,

,
.
100 m,
Berdan
800
m.



.
,

,

.
,
.
" "
,
.
,
,
: "
, , ...

".

,



.



, 50
Krupp,

.
,


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,
.
,
200
Gatling 20 ,

.


.
,

.
(
),
,

.
,
,
,



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.



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,


.

.


, ,


.

,
""
,

.

mm

'.

24 1877
'

,
. (

), 400

( ) 1887.

B erdan.

52
mm


,

.


,
- ,

()
().

,
, " .

.


.


,

.
22 19
( ), . 26



, 8
.
,
.

.

300


,
""
.

,
.


,

,

.
,
12.000
,

.
,



.

, 4.000


18
.

. .

,


( 17
!),
.
,

,


.


,
40 km ,
.

,

.
,
16 5
20
. 11.000
,
170 km .

,
.
30 ,
9

22.000 () .


,

.


,
.
7.000,
.

"
.



.

,

,

. "
.
,

.

15 .


,


.
45.000

.

.

45.000
,
,
.

,
120.000
( 40.000
),
50
km .


. 4.500 ,
,

50 km
. 45.000
21 .
,

Krupp.

, .



,

.


13.000 , 3.500
.

.



80.000 450 ,

.
27.000
, 15 km
.
.
5.000
,

.
,

.
320
7.000
1.000.

,
. ,

.
,
15.000


.

.



.


. ,

,
.

( 120.000
)
, 50.000 .


,
. 10

.

,

53


B erdan.

S nid er - Enfield. &


& ,
M artini-H enry.

,

.
,

.

.



. 3 1878
,

.

,
.

.
(, , , ,
, , , )


.
43.000
. "
"

,

.
35.000
80.000 ,
,
.

.
65.000
, 4
.
55.000


.
9
35.000 .


,
.

40.000

.

,


. ,

,

,


1877 1
.. ,



.





.

.
,
,

,


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.

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,

,

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.


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1877
.


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.


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.
,

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, .


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.


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,
, ,

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,


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.



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,


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,


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.
,
,
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,
.

. 40
,
.



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,


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,
,
. , ,

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,


.

,
.


.

1861,
,

,
.

,

.




.
,

1917.
,

,


.
,
1877,


.

(1) Ian Drury: THE RUSSO TURKISH WAR 1877,


Osprey, 1994.
(2) www.xenophongi.org/milhist/modern/
russoturk.htm
(3) www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russo-Turkish_War
(4) www.simonides.org/users/bibliotheca/links/
w ars/ wars-1800/1877-russoturk/russoturk.html
(5) www.sirgarnet.com /arm yguide/
Army_Russia1877.html
(6) www.m ilitaryrifies.com/Russia/RBerdan2.htm
(7) http://www.m artinihenry.com /
(8) freespace.virgin.net/pete.jones/Ruies/
19th_Century/balkanfury.htm
(9) www.russianwarrior.com/
1877weapon_index.htm
(10) members.aoi.com/_ht_a/balkandave/
serb1876.htm

55

Avenger .
Wright R-2600-8, 1.675 hp,
436 km/h 1.778 km.
0,30
in 0,50 In, 907kg.

'

.
,


,


.

To Bogue .
,
,
5 i n / 38 cat
. 0
Bofors
40 mm Oeriikon 20 mm
/


TOY

U-118
VC-9 12
1943.

.

37 mm.

Wildcat VF-29 29-GF-4



Santee. To F4F-4

Pratt and Whitney R-1830-86
1,
1.200 hp, 512 km/h

1.335 km.

Browning M2 0,50 in
.
450 ,
45 kg.


. Atlantic Gap, -
.
,
CVE(1) Long

1. - Island (CVE-1),
,
-
(), 1941.
, 9002.100 km


.
-
Bogue (CVE-9).
. 26 1942

1943.
' . Grumman TBF
Avenger 12 Grumman F4F
. Wildcat,
,
(Composite) VC-9,
.
,
,
1943

.

.
Bogue
.
- -228.
,

(Task
.
Unit) TU 24.4.1 6 1943
. Bogue
. Audacity . 10
( )
VC-9
1941 , .
( 21

1941),

. , 3,5
km ,

. .
340 km/h 15 m

. !
Mk. 17
.
,
, .
! ,
,


. .
Bogue 10
.
,
,

.

,

.

(
)

, Bogue
Avenger
.

Bogue


. TU 24.4.1
26
. 32

To Santee ( Sangamon) Esso


Seakey
(). 1942.
13.500 Up
19 kts. 4.7801
15 kts 21.700 km.

Core - () 24
1943. Bogue Foster-Wheeler,
8.500 hp, 18 kts.
3.4201 10.800 km 15 kts.


.
Bogue

20
.
Bogue

(
),
(Task Group) TG 92.3. 25
HX-235.

, ,
VC-9
.



. TG
92.3
, 2 .
Bogue


.

:

. Avenger VC-9
12,
.
TG 92.3
19

-184. Bogue

,
. :
,


.

,

.
Bogue
650 m.
Avenger

58 km/h ( Wildcat 48
km/h).
30 km/h ( 11
km/h).

Bogue.



.
-184
42 , - . Bogue
,
10 ,

20 1943.

,

, ,



.
Bogue.
Bogue

21 .
VC-9, , 110 km
, U-231
.

( ).




. Mk. 44 (
)

. U-231 ,

.
,.
,
. 05.35
,
,

5,5 km . U-468,

. 920 m
.

,
20 mm.
Avenger 50
.

. ,
.

.

.
.

.

15 m .

59

-569


.
Mk 17
,
( 7,5 m).

6. ,


.
,
.

Wildcat
U-305 65 km .
.
U-305 .
.


.


Bogue. To U-569
16.23
37 km
.

,

17.04
.


6 6
. 20
U-569 ,
,

. To Avenger

,
180 m.


.

U-569.
105 m

.


.
.

St. Laurent.
.
U-569 .
24
.
To U-569


.
10 .

.
,

40% .





.

.


,

.






.

,
.


.

' .

.
.



.
.
Wildcat Avenger
12
.
Wildcat
Avenger,
.
31 Bogue Clemson, Greene, Osmond
Ingram George E. Badger
TG 21.12

.
. ,
,




.
1
.

.

(17) 10
24 .

,



. 4

.
.

U-228
Avenger.


. U-228 .

U-603
18 km
Flight 10, 19
LCI(L).
370
km/h
.

.
,
,
. To U-603
.

U-641

.
.

-

,

.
.
305 km/h,

.
U-641, ,




.

20 m
Mk. 17,
.
20 m

.

.
Bogue
.
4/5 TG 21.12 5
,
.
.
.



06.50, 12 km
, U-217
.
Wildcat

.

,

.
.
Avenger
30 m.

33
.
Bogue

. 8



, 3,5 km . U-758
,
20 mm.


1942,

.


.

300 ,

.
U-758,
.


.

Avenger,

.


( )
.
.
Avenger

.

Bogue .



.
Wildcat

.

.
U-758

21 m.
.

.

.
,
.
,
Avenger
.
To U-758

.
+

61

To "Card
26 1943.
.





.
U-758
Bogue
.
10
.
2 U-118 (
U-758)
Bogue,
.
U-118
.

,
Bogue
.
20
. .

( )

.
:
.
.


1943,

. , Santee
(CVE-29),

1942
. 16 1943
,


,

.
, 4 ,



. Santee
13

.
,
~ 3-

, Santee

UGS-10 .


. , 12
,
.
7 .
Card (CVE-11,
),
( )
Bogue.



. Card
,

. 9

GUS-8 ,
.
: ,

...

.


.
.


.


- .

" "

Core
(CVE-13), Bogue.
,
24 1943
Avenger Wildcat
VC-13
. 27

UGS-11.
Bulner, George . Badger
Barker.

Core


.
13
Core

.

...
18 km .
14.21.

.



.

Mk. 47. 1.000 m

.


, .

.


, Wildcat

. .
VC-13

. Wildcat


1.200 .
Wildcat Avenger
.

.
,

.

.
10

. Barker
33 .
LI487 ( 10 )
10 ! (
1.600 t)

-
.
U-487
.
,
Santee .
08.00 14

38 km.

Avenger


.
Wildcat
.
.
. To Avenger
, Mk. 24,

Fido (2). ,



180 .

Fido 180 m 30 m
.
,


. To U-160
.

: Wildcat


Avenger Fido.
Santee
U-509 15 16
(
Core) U-67 (3).


. U-487
U-160
.


( 12)
.




.

.

,

,


.
,
.
12 1943 Bogue

UGS-12.



. (
)


.

-664[ VUQ)
/ 9
A u 1943
Carct>

To "Bogue"

( George .
Badger, Clemson Osmond Ingram),
23
. 06,00
Avenger/Wildcat,
,

.
.
George . Badger

32 (

U-613).
.
12.00 Avenger
90 m,
,

.

50 m .
U-648,
U-527.
Avenger. U-648 . To U-527
,
20 mm .


.
. Clemson 13 .
26 Bogue UGS-12
.
Osmond Ingram

.
Fw 200
Bogue


.


.

:

! 30
Santee U-43,
U-403.


,
. 4
:
,
.
...
.


.

. Bogue
23 .
Card ( Wildcat 11
Avenger VC- )
27 Santee.

TG 21.14 ( Card)
UGS-13.
TG
21.14 .

:

, 180 km
.
.

63

3
. Wildcat
,
20 km
U-66, 830 km -
( ).
.


.

.



.
,



.

Avenger.
,

.




. Fido
.


.
40 m .


.
To U-66
.
6
U-117,
.
.

10
.
,
.
7



Card,
22 km
.
,
60 m .
,

.
Card,

. ,
-

To Bogue 20 1943.


.






.
Core
.
Bogue
8.390 , 890 1.205
28
.
135 m.
,
,

.

,
350 m .
( U-117
) .
38 m
U-117.
,

.
.
U-66

.
240 km/h 60 m
U-117,
.

U-66 Fido, .
Avenger Wildcat

U-117.
U-117

, 14
. 13
.


.

.

Card.
VC-1, ,
.

Wildcat
Avenger. Avenger
225 kg
,
Fido.
9

460 m.

U-664 3,5 km
.
, Avenger
. 300 m
Card. ,
50 ,
. , Wildcat,

225 kg m
U-664.

.


,
30 m.
.


.
.
,

.
.
. To U664 .

14.20 .
TG 21.14
, 11
U525 ( , 1.1441),
16 .

Card ,

Mk. 24.
225
kg
,
Mk. 24.
" "

Bogue.

Santee
.
153 m .
1.080
30 .


.
1943
,
Bogue,
. Croatan (CVE-25,
).
. To U-847,
Card
27 , 16
22 (
Card),

.



.
16
98 .
,

,
.

.


.



.
,
,
.


.
1943

.


.
,
.. ,

,
.
10
(4). 18
( 1943)
36 .
65
.
10

,
.

,

,

.
,
(
11
) 10 .

(1 )0

APV, AVG, 1942
ACV ( ) 15
1943 CVE ( ).
CVE
Combustible,
Vulnerable, Expendable (, ,
).
Jeep carriers ( )
Baby flat tops.
(2) Fido
General Electric, Harvard Bell Laboratories
1941. 483 mm,
2134 mm 308 kg, 42 kg
Torpex.

75 m 230 km/h.
12 kts

.
15 ,

.
(3)
.
(4)
.

,

.


370 km.

90 km
,
.

.
,

.

65

(1) Adcock, AI: ESCORT CARRIERS.


Squadron/Signal Publications, Carrollton. Texas.
(2) Blair, Clay: HITLERS U-BOAT WAR. Cassel & Co..
London, 2000.
(3) Germinski, Robert A. (USNR): A BRIEF HISTORY
OF US NAVY AIRCRAFT CARRIERS. 1999
( internet).
(4) Helgason, Gudmundur: U-BOAT NET
(www.uboat.net), 2003.
(5) Ministry of Defence (Navy): THE U-BOAT WAR IN
THE ATLANTIC 1939-1945, HMSO. London. 1992.
(6) Terraine, John: BUSINESS IN GREAT WATERS.
Wordsworth Editions, London. 1999.
(7) Tillman, Barrett: TBF/TBM AVENGER UNITS OF
WORLD WAR 2, Osprey Publishing, Oxford. 1999.
(8) Tillman, Barrett: WILDCAT ACES OF WORLD
WAR 2, Osprey Publishing, London. 1995.
(9) YBlood, William: HUNTER-KILLER. Naval
Institute Press, 1983.

1940.


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DVD : Black Hawk Down Spectacular Double Disc Set
: 2
: Dolby Digital 5.1
:

(1) CNN.com PROGRAMS

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:

, , "Making of",
, storyboard, ,
, ,
DVD-ROM.

http://www.cnn.com/CNN/Programs
/presents/index, blackhawk.html
(2) BBC History

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/war
(3) PBS

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages
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A rn o ld J . To yn b e e

Univfersity
Studio Press
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428


1936-1940


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University
Studio Press ( 32,546
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fax: 2310/216647)
.

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lantheod@ compulink.g