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TACHEOMETRIC SURVEY
Mohd Effendi Daud (Dr. Sc)
B.Surv (UTM, Malaysia) Msc (UTM, Malaysia), Dr. Sc (Nagoya Univ.,
Japan)

(Geomatic Division)
Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat,
Johor, MALAYSIA.
Phone : +6074537363; +60197853740; Fax :
+6074537060
E-mail : effendi@uthm.edu.my
Web: http://www.fkass.uthm.edu.my/
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INTRODUCTION
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This method of survey consists of using


either a level, theodolite, total
station, or specially constructed
tacheometer to make cross hair intercept
reading on a leveling staf. As the angle
subtended by the crosshairs is known, the
distance can be calculated.

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DEFINITION
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o Tacheometry is an optical solution to the


measurement of distance and elevation
(vertical distance).
o The word is derived from the Greek Tacns,
meaning swift, and metrot, meaning a
measure.

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METHODS OF
TACHEOMETRY

Present day methods of tacheometry can


be classified in one of the following three
groups.
The last two groups will not be cover in
these lectures.

Stadia System,
Electronic Tacheometry,
Subtense Bar System, and
Optical Wedge System.
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STADIA SYSTEM
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In stadia method, a theodolite is set


up at one station and staf is held at
another station. The staf intercept
(S) which is the diference between
the upper stadia and the lower stadia
hair is measured.
The vertical angle () is also
measured.
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STADIA SYSTEM
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The horizontal distance (D) between


the Center of Instrument and staf
stations is computed using staf
intercept (S) and the vertical angle
()

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STADIA SYSTEM
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There are two types of stadia method


Fixed Hair Method
In fixed hair method, the vertical spacing
between upper and lower stadia hairs, called
stadia interval I, is fixed, while the staf
intercept (S) varies depending upon
horizontal distance between the instrument
station and the staf station.

Movable Hair Method


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STADIA SYSTEM
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The fixed hair method is the most


commonly employed method for
tacheometric measurements. Figure 1.0
shows the types of diaphragms used in a
fixed hair stadia tacheometer (theodolite).

Fig. 1.0: Types of diaphragms


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STADIA SYSTEM
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In stadia method, the staf is held


vertical, the line of sight may be
horizontal or inclined either in upward
direction or downward direction.
There can be three cases as given below:
Line of sight horizontal,
Line of sight inclined upward, and
Line of sight inclined downward.

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STADIA SYSTEM
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Line of Sight Horizontal


Let us assume that the line of sight is
horizontal. Figure 2.0 shows the outline of
telescope with its axis horizontal. The staf is
held vertically.

A, B & X : positions of lower, upper, an


middle hair the staf.
a, b & x : positions of lower, upper, and
middle hairs
ab : i (stadia interval)
c : distance from object lens to the cent
of the instrument
AB : S (staf intercept)
D : distance between the instrument &
staf

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STADIA SYSTEM
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From the diagram, triangles AOB, aOb are similar

Line of Sight
Horizontal

OX U AB

ox V
ab

From the lens equation:


1
1
1

U
V
f

Multiply both sides by Uf:


U

U
ff
V

From the equation 1.0 and 2.0:


U

AB
ff
ab

S
ff
i

The horizontal distance:


D U c
f
D S ( f c)
i

If multiplicative constant, C=f/i, and additive constant, K =f D


+ c,

The tacheometric distance formula may be stated as:

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CS K

f
S f
i

STADIA SYSTEM
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Line of Sight Inclined Upward


Distance and Elevation Formula
The theory discussed so far, in The Stadia
System, all applies to the situation where
the staf is held vertically and the line of
sight of the telescope is horizontal.
It is very seldom, however, that this
situation occurs in practice
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STADIA SYSTEM
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Generally a theodolite is sighted to a level


staf held vertically (by use of a bubble),
which gives rise to the situation below.

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STADIA SYSTEM
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Let the actual distance between upper and
lower
stadia be S and the required projection of it
at
right angles
to
IQCs
be
s
but s1 s cos
D
1 1K ,
Now

S D cos
Cs cos 2 k cos

Also

V D sin
Cs cos sin k sin
Sc sin 2

k sin
2

In practice,

s 100 s cos 2
V 50s sin 2
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STADIA SYSTEM
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The diference in height between
The two points is given by:

H HI V CL
And the Relative Level (R.L) of
The points is given by

RL RLA HI V CL

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ELECTRONIC
TACHEOMETRIC

Used a Total Station, able to read distance by


reflecting of a prism.
The stadia procedure is used less and less
often these days, more commonly geomatic
engineers or civil engineers use a Total Station
This instrumentation has facilitated the
development of this method of detail and
contour surveying into a very slick operation.
It is now possible to produce plans of large
areas that previously would have taken weeks,
in a matter of days.

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ELECTRONIC
TACHEOMETRIC

S D cos
RL RLA HI V HT
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DETAILING &
BOOKING

Tacheometric surveys are generally


conducted for contouring, and plotting the
details of the area on undulating ground.
There are two main steps in tacheometric
surveys:
Running a traversing around the area to be
surveyed,
Locating details and elevations of the features in
the area with reference to the traverse stations

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DETAILING &
BOOKING

Figure above shows a part of the traverse with three stations A, B and C a
Some features in the area. The following observation procedure is adopted
For detailing.
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DETAILING &
BOOKING

Procedure
Set up the instrument at a station (say station
B), centre and level it accurately.
Measure the height of instrument (HI) from the
top of the peg at the station to the centre of the
trunion of the instrument.
Orientate the instrument correctly with respect
to a reference line (traverse line, BA) whose
bearing from the station is already known by
traversing.
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DETAILING &
BOOKING

Procedure cont.,
Take the pole reading held vertical on the nearest
available temporary benchmark (TBM) to
determine the reduced level of the instrument
station.
Located the detail points around the traverse
station (B) as given below:
Observe the horizontal angle between the reference line
and the line from the instrument station towards the
point of interest.
Observe the vertical angle and the pole readings.
Repeat the steps above for all the points of interest.
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WORK EXAMPLE 1
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Determine the diference in elevation and the horizontal


distance between the points A and B from the following
observations.

The instrument was set up at O at 1.500 m height, and the RL of


Station O was 12.635 m.
Calculate the following:
(i) Horizontal distances OA and OB
(ii) RLs of station A and B
(iii) Difference in elevation between A and B
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WORK EXAMPLE 2
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The following observations obtained from tacheometry survey.

The RL of P is 58.775 m. Determine the distances PQ and QR and


Reduced levels of Q and R.

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ACCURACY AND
TYPES OF ERRORS

Besides all the errors discussed in the


topic on total station, there are four (4)
specific sources of errors needed to be
mentioned in tacheometric observations

Staf readings
Tilt of the pole or staf
Vertical angle, and
Horizontal angle

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PLOTTING OF
TACHEOMETRIC
DATA

The process of tying the topographic


details to the control stations fixed
by traversing is called detailing.
A map is the final
product of a
tacheometric survey.

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PLOTTING OF
TACHEOMETRIC
DATA

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Type of Maps
Maps produced or normally used by
engineers may fall into one of the
following three categories:
Topographic maps 1:50,000 to 125,000 which
shows natural and cultural features of an area.
Plans 1:10,000 or larger, which shows
boundaries and main features like roads,
bridges and main buildings.
Detail survey plans (construction plans) at
1:1,000 1:250
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PLOTTING OF
TACHEOMETRIC
DATA

Plotting Methods
Can be carried out manually, or by employing
computer aided design (CAD) systems.
The procedure consists fundamentally of
plotting individual points, regardless of which
method is used.
Lines are drawn from point to point to show the
features.
Points can be plotted in diferent ways using
distances and directions, and lines can be scaled
and plotted directly.
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PLOTTING OF
TACHEOMETRIC
DATA

Plotting Methods
There are two main methods of plotting
details as discussed below:
Plotting by Coordinates
Plotting by Angle/bearing and Distances.

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PLOTTING OF
TACHEOMETRIC
DATA

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Map Layout
The surveyed area should be plotted to fit
neatly in the centre of a map sheet at the
largest possible scale.
North Direction
Every map must display a north line for orientation
purpose.

Topographic Symbols (Legends)


Standard symbols should be used to portray topographic
features.

Title of Map
Place title of the map where it is balanced on the sheet.
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PLOTTING OF
TACHEOMETRIC
DATA

Map
Layout

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CONTOURING AND
CROSS-SECTIONS
Mohd Effendi Daud (Dr. Sc)
B.Surv (UTM, Malaysia) Msc (UTM, Malaysia), Dr. Sc (Nagoya Univ.,
Japan)

(Geomatic Division)
Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat,
Johor, MALAYSIA.
Phone : +6074537363; +60197853740; Fax :
+6074537060
E-mail : effendi@uthm.edu.my
Web: http://www.fkass.uthm.edu.my/
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CONTOURING
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For planning and development of an


engineering project, the engineer requires
the topographic of the natural ground.
An understanding of contours is therefore
essential in the interpretation of surface
topography.
Some basic understanding of contours is
as follow:

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CONTOURING
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CONTOURING
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A contour is an imaginary line


connecting all points of the same
elevation above or below a datum.
Contours of diferent elevation cannot
cross each other except in the case of
overhanging clif or a cave.
The height between successive contours
is called the contour interval
Its value depends on the variation in height
of the area being contoured.
The contour interval is kept constant for a
plan or map
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CONTOURING
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The plan spacing between contour line


indicates the steepness of slopes.
Closely spaced lines indicated a steep slope
Widely spaced lines indicate a gentle slope.

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CONTOURING
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CONTOURING
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Production of contours
There are TWO types of contouring
method:
Direct Methods, and
Indirect Method:
from random spot heights
from a grid of spot heights

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CONTOUR
INTERPOLATION &
PLOTTING

There are THREE methods of


interpolating contours:
Mathematical calculation,
Graphical method, and
Estimation method.

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PROFILE AND
CROSS-SECTIONS

Profiles (longitudinal sections) is generally


carried out along the center line of a proposed
alignments e.g. highways, railways, pipelines
or canals.
The profile is usually plotted with the vertical
scale much larger than the horizontal scale.
The term cross-sectioning refers to a relatively
short profile view of the ground, which is
drawn perpendicular to the route center line of
a highways or other linear type projects.

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PROFILE AND
CROSS-SECTIONS

Cross-section drawing are particularly important


for estimating the earthwork volumes needed to
construct a roadway, canal, railroad, etc.
They show the existing ground elevations, the
proposed cut or fill side slopes, and the grade
elevation for the road base.
For one route profile, there are many crosssections; a km-long route, for example, will have
more than 100 cross-sections every 50 m.

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Pheewww! End of Part


V

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