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Training Manual
Jet
Aircraft
Maintenance
Fundamentals
ATA 21
Air Conditioning
JAR-66

Book No:

JAMF ATA 21 ALL

Lufthansa
Technical Training GmbH
Lufthansa Base Hamburg

Issue: June 2000


For Training Purposes Only
Lufthansa 2000

For training purposes and internal use only.


Copyright by Lufthansa Technical Training GmbH.
All rights reserved. No parts of this training
manual may be sold or reproduced in any form
without permission of:

Lufthansa Technical Training GmbH


Lufthansa Base Frankfurt
D-60546 Frankfurt/Main
Tel. +49 69 / 696 41 78
Fax +49 69 / 696 63 84
Lufthansa Base Hamburg
Weg beim Jger 193
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ATA 21 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 1

INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, aircraft fly at very high altitudes mainly for economic reasons.
This presents some problems, because humans are not able to live in this
environment without help.
At an altitude of 40.000 ft feet the temperature is about --56E C.
The air pressure is so low that there is not sufficient oxygen for human survival.
Therefore, the crew and passengers must be protected against freezing and
death.
The air conditioning system makes sure there is correct pressure in the cabin
to support life and it also ventilates the cabin to keep the temperature in a
comfortable range.
Now imagine an aircraft standing on the ground on a hot and sunny day with no
air conditioning.This would be uncomfortable and potentially life--threatening for
passengers on board. Also the equipment on the aircraft would be in danger of
overheating.
In summary, we can say the air conditioning system cools and heats the air. It
also ventilates the cabin and pressurizes the aircraft at high flight altitudes.

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INTRODUCTION

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ATA 21 Lesson 1

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


INTRODUCTION

Figure 1
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AIR CONDITIONING FUNCTIONS


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ATA 21 Lesson 1

PRESSURIZATION AND ZONES


The air conditioning system supplies pressurization to the whole passenger
compartment, the cockpit, all the cargo compartments and the avionic
compartment.
There are areas in the fuselage that are not pressurized and these are
separated by pressure bulkheads.
Areas that are not pressurized are the landing gear bays, the radome and the
tail cone and the tail cone.

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ATA 21 Lesson 1

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


INTRODUCTION

Figure 2
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PRESSURIZATION AND ZONES


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ATA 21 Lesson 1

pressurizazion and zones cont.


Now let us enter the cabin of a B747--400.
It has a huge main deck and an upper deck where first class can be located.
Also, of course, it has a cockpit where people have to work and not to sleep!
Usually the air temperature is regulated to a lower temperature in the cockpit,
this is because the crew has to work. Also, the many electric and electronic
devices which cause heat in the cockpit make it necessary to keep the temperature demand low.
On the upper deck an air temperature demand of abou 24E C would be
comfortable for the few people located in first class who wish to sleep.
On the main deck an air temperature demand of, for instance, 20E C would be
sufficient because there are many people sitting closely in this compartment.
The aircraft is divided into several zones so that the cabin areas can be heated
individually.
In this example of a B747--400 there are up to 7 cabin zones which are named
here with letters. Zone A is the first zone and is located on the main deck. This
is the position of zone B, Zone C, zone D and zone E.
On the upper deck there is zone U/D and the cockpit is zone F/D.
The number of zones depends on aircraft size.
For instance, on the Airbus A320 there are only 3 zones, the cockpit, the forward zone and the aft zone.

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ATA 21 Lesson 1

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


INTRODUCTION

Figure 3
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AIRCRAFT ZONES
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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 1

AIR CONDITIONING FUNCTION


The air conditioning system must make sure of 5 physical charactistics.
It must make sure that the air is fresh, clean, at a comfortable temperature, at
the correct humidity and at the correct pressure.
Lets look at each of these 5 characteristics in turn, the first one we will
consider is freshness.
There are regulations relating to freshness on board. These regulations state
that there is a minimum of fresh air which must be supplied to the cabin.
These regulations are stated in the F.A.R. and J.A.R which determines the
basic requirements for aircraft design.
The regulations say that, on average, an acceptable limit of fresh air to be
supplied is 0,283 m3 per minute per person. This is about 0,35 kg per minute
at sea level.
The regulations, therefore, make it necessary that the whole of the cabin air be
exchanged every 3 to 5 min., depending on the number of people in the aircraft. This means, for example, that a B747, which has a cabin volume of
nearly 800 m 3 and 500 passenger seats, shifts a minimum 160 m3 of air in one
minute.

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INTRODUCTION

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ATA 21 Lesson 1

Freshness

For each person:


0,285 m3

min

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0,35 kg/min

for 500 people

Figure 4
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REGULATIONS FOR AIRFRESHNESS


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ATA 21 Lesson 1

airconditioning function cont.


Now lets look at cleanliness.
The air must be clean. It must be free of all harmful or hazardous gases or
vapors.
Air filters are fitted to keep the air clean and at high altitudes for extra protection ozone converters are built in.
The temperature must be in a comfortable range. Most aircraft permit
temperature regulation in the range of about18EC to 30EC.

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

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ATA 21 Lesson 1

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Ozone Converter

Air Filter

Figure 5
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CLEANLINESS
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ATA 21 Lesson 1

airconditioning function cont.


The humidity of the air on board an aircraft is a big problem.
Humidity depends on air temperature, the warm air holds more water than cold.
Near the ground there is a lot of humidity in the ambient air.
The temperature regulation cycle, causes the temperature to decrease
dramatically which results in water droplets.
To prevent the freezing of parts and valves and also to prevent fog and water
droplets in the cabin, this water is separated from the air.
However, at high flight altitudes the ambient air is very dry, so people feel
uncomfortable on long--range flights.

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INTRODUCTION

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ATA 21 Lesson 1

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Correct
Humidity

Grafik fehlt

Figure 6
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HUMIDITY OF AIR
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ATA 21 Lesson 1

airconditioning function cont.


The last function of the air conditioning system we have to consider is
pressurization.
Pressurization has to be a compromise between passenger comfort and structural design.
The best condition for passenger comfort would be to pressurize the cabin to a
value which is similiar to ground conditions. This would not be best for the
aircraft.
The best condition for the aircraft structure would be no pressurization at all to
stress the structure. This, of course, would not be good for the passengers! If
you wish to find out more about the physical and medical aspects in relation to
people see Unit 35.
The regulations state that it is reasonable to pressurize the cabin to a value
which corresponds to an altitude of 8000ft (2400m). We say that the cabin is in
an altitude of 8000ft.

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ATA 21 Lesson 1

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Pressurization

Figure 7
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PRESSURIZATION
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ATA 21 Lesson 1

SYTEM LAYOUT
Here you see the principle layout of the air conditioning system.
The air supply comes from the pneumatic system.
The air conditioning system starts after the pack valve.
The air is cooled by two or more identical packs.Basic temperature and
humidity regulation are carried out in this area of the system.
The air conditioning system then mixes cooled air with hot air to give the desired temperature in the conditioned compartments.
The air conditioning system also supplies the necessary cooling of panels,
batteries and electronic racks by ventilating them with air.
Finally, the conditioned air is distributed to the compartments.
The cabin and flight compartment are pressurized to supply a pressure
corresponding to all flight altitudes. This is regulated by the outflow valve.

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ATA 21 Lesson 1

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


INTRODUCTION

Figure 8
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SYSTEM LAYOUT
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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW

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ATA 21 Lesson 2

TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW


INTRODUCTION
In this lesson we will give you an overview of how the air conditioning system
does the temperature regulation.
The air used by the airconditioning system is bleed air from the pneumatic
system. This pneumatic air is flow regulated by the pack valves, which are
therefore also called flow control valves.
From the pack valves the air goes to the packs. The air conditioning packs cool
the pneumatic air to a basic temperature.
The cooled air then flows to a mixing unit. The mixing unit mixes the cold air
from the packs with recirculated cabin air. This is for reasons of economy,
because you get the same airflow in the cabin with a lower pack airflow.
The temperature of the air that leaves the mixing unit is finally adjusted by a
certain amount of hot air that comes from upstream of the packs. This hot air is
also called trim air.
You can also supply air to the mixing unit from an external airconditioning unit
on the ground.You connect this unit to a low pressure ground connector if you
dont want to use the packs on ground.
The temperature of the air that is now delivered to the cabin zones is regulated
in 2 steps.
Pack controllers regulate the temperature of the cold air that leaves the pack
and a zone controller regulates the amount of trim air that is mixed with the
cold air.
The zone controller regulates the temperature by comparing the actual cabin
temperature with a selected zone temperature set by the flight crew.
Each cabin zone has its own control loop.
The zone controller also defines the temperature of the cool air and sends this
information to the pack controller.

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TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW

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ATA 21 Lesson 2

Mixing
Unit

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Pack
Valve

FUNDAMENTALS

Figure 9
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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


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ATA 21 Lesson 2

introduction cont.
The air conditioning controls are located on the overhead panel in the cockpit.
You will also find the indication displays in the cockpit.
The pack and zone controllers are located in the avionics compartment.
The low pressure ground connectors are located on the lower fuselage,
accessible by a door.
The air conditioning packs, the valves and the mixing unit are located in the
center wing box area.

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ATA 21 Lesson 2

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW

Figure 10
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AIR CONDITIONING COMPONENT LOCATION


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ATA 21 Lesson 2

introduction cont.
The basic idea of cooling is that because heat is a form of energy it cannot be
made or destroyed, it can only be transformed.
Heat can only flow from an object to a cooler object.
There are three types of cooling device used on aircraft. They are the heat
exchanger, the vapor--cycle machine and the air--cycle machine.
Heat exchangers are very effective, but they do not have sufficient power to
cool all of the cabin air, especially on the ground.
Vapor--cycle machines are used in aircraft when engine bleed air is not
available.
The cooling principle is basically the same as in a refrigerator. An expansion
valve expands a special pressurized cooling fluid by a specific amount.
The special cooling fluid expands which results in the fluid becoming colder.
This cold fluid flows through an evaporator, which is a special heat
exchangerand is heated by the cabin air which flows across the evaporator. So
the result is that the cabin air temperature decreases.
The cooling fluid, which is now heated by the cabin air, changes its state from a
fluid to a gas.
The special cooling fluid, which is now a gas, is compressed in the compressor.
This compression gives the gas a higher temperature. This hot gas flows
through a condensor, which is a special heat exchanger.
In the condenser the special cooling gas is cooled down by ambient air. It
becomes liquid and the cycle starts again.
You can find vapor cycle machines on small aircraft with propellers, on aircraft
without an APU and on older aircraft.

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TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW

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ATA 21 Lesson 2

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COMPRESSOR

Figure 11
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VAPOR CYCLE MACHINE


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ATA 21 Lesson 2

introduction cont.
Air--cycle machines use bleed air which comes from the pneumatic system.
The air is under pressure and hot.
The hot, pressurized air flows into a compressor, which increases the pressure
and the temperature.
The heat exchanger receives hot air from the compressor.
The heat exchanger has ambient air flowing across it. Heat decreases but
pressure remains equal.
After the air has been through the heat exchanger, it flows into a turbine. Here,
the air which is now warm, but still highly pressurized, expands and cools.
This cold air then goes to the cabin.
Air--cycle machines are driven by the turbine.
The turbine and the compressor are mounted on one shaft.These machines
are used in most jet aircraft.
In the following lessons there are further details about air--cycle machines.

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ATA 21 Lesson 2

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW

Figure 12
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AIR CYCLE MACHINE


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ATA 21 Lesson 3

COOLING DESCRIPTION
COOLING PACK
The function of the cooling pack is to cool hot bleed air to a value given by the
pack controller.
The cooling pack has a pack valve, which is the tap of the pack, an ozone
converter which is located upstream of the pack valve and a heat exchanger
which usually has two units, the primary and secondary or main heat
exchanger.
There is also an air--cycle machine and a bypass valve also called temperature
control valve.
The cooling pack also has a ram air system which has ram air ducts with ram
air inlet and exit doors and a fan.
Cooling pack sensors sense the temperature in the pack and these permit the
pack to be controlled and monitored.
There is an anti--ice valve or sometimes an anti--ice function which eliminates
icing conditions in the water separator and so, of course, there is a water
separator.
The cooling pack has a pack check valve which is located downstream of the
water separator.
The pack check valve prevents backflow into the pack. Each pack has a pack
controller which controls pack operation.

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ATA 21 Lesson 3

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


COOLING DESCRIPTION

Figure 13
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COOLING PACK
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

OZON CONVERTER
The ozone converter is built in upstream of the cooling pack.
Ozone converters are found particularly in aircraft which fly at high altitudes,
because there is a lot of ozone in the atmosphere. Because ozone harms a
persons health, the function of the ozone converter is to minimize the amount
of ozone in the cabin.
The ozone converter minimizes the amount of ozone in the cabin by using a
catalyst which converts the ozone to harmless oxygen.

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ATA 21 Lesson 3

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


COOLING DESCRIPTION

Figure 14
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CATALYTIC OZONE CONVERTER


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ATA 21 Lesson 3

PACK VALVE
The pack valve is a flow control valve, so it is sometimes named the pack flow
control valve or FCV.
It determines the amount of air going to the cabin.
For this reason it is located upstream of the air conditioning packs.
The pack valve is a venturi--type butterfly valve, which is controlled by a
solenoid. It is pneumatically operated and spring--loaded to closed.

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COOLING DESCRIPTION

Figure 15
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PACK VALVE
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

packvalve cont.
The pack valves have also a shut--off function.
It is controlled to close from the fire handle, during engine start and from the
pack switch.
Each pack has its own pack switch. These switches are located on the air
conditioning panel in the cockpit. Our example shows the air conditioning panel
of an Airbus A320, which has 2 packs.
Please recognize that in the aircraft you must always follow a check list before
you switch on the pack switch. In a later lesson you will learn more about the
necessary precautions.
When a pack switch is operated the pack valve solenoid is de--energized and if
there is bleed air available the pack valve opens. Because of the fail--safe
philosophy, the pack valve also opens when the electrical power supply is
broken. Otherwise, if pneumatic power is not available the pack valve closes.
This is because the actuator spring closes the valve.
There is a microswitch built into the pack valve, it shows whether the pack
valve is fully closed or in the open position.
The pack valve also has a manual override which lets you fix the valve in a
closed position.

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ATA 21 Lesson 3

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


COOLING DESCRIPTION

Figure 16
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PACK VALVE & SWITCH


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ATA 21 Lesson 3

PACK VALVE FUNCTION


The main function of the pack valve is to control the airflow to the cabin.
This is done with a regulating assembly.
The regulating assembly gets the airflow signal from a venturi tube.
From the aerodynamic unit you should remember that a venturi always
measures a mass flow.
Unfortunatly with a constant mass airflow to the cabin you get an increasing air
velocity when you fly higher because of the decreasing cabin pressure.
But for a high passenger comfort you need a constant velocity of airflow what
means that the volume of airflow must be constant. Therfore the valve gets a
correction signal from the cabin pressure to allow the regulation of the constant
volume of airflow.

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ATA 21 Lesson 3

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


COOLING DESCRIPTION

Figure 17
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REGULATING ASSEMBLY
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packvalve function cont.


To clarify this for you, lets look at a diagram showing airflow into the cabin of
an narrow--bodied aircraft.
On the ground, the mass flow on this aircraft is about 1,1 kg/s and at 8000 ft,
which is the maximum permitted cabin altitude, the mass flow is about
0,86 kg/s.
The density of air at sea--level is about 1,225 kg/m3 and air density at 8000 ft
is about 0,96 kg/m3.
You can find volumetric flow by dividing the mass flow by density.
So at sea--level, the mass flow of 1,1 kg/s divided by the density of
1,225 kg/m3 gives volumetric flow of 0,9 m/3.
At 8000 ft the mass flow of 0,86 kg/s divided by the corresponding air density
of 0,96 kg/s gives volumetric flow of 0.9m 3/s.
So, as you can see, volumetric flow is constant at all cabin altitudes.
You probably remember, from the first lesson, that regulations require a minimum of 0,283 m3/min per person in the cabin. So let us make sure that the
regulations are fulfilled here.

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Our aircraft, which is an Airbus A 320, supplies 0.9m 3 of fresh air per second to
the cabin .
So first, lets convert the volume flow to minutes by multiplying by 60 s per minute then divide by the assumed maximum number of persons, which is, for this
aircraft type 150, this gives us 0,36 m/3 per minute per person.
So this meets the regulations.

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ATA 21 Lesson 3

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


COOLING DESCRIPTION

Figure 18
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AIRFLOW DIAGRAMM
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

packvalve function cont.


Nowadays, air conditioning systems are able to save energy by adjusting the
airflow according to the number of passengers.
When the aircraft is fully loaded the total capacity of conditioned air is
necessary.
To change the airflow there is an air conditioning panel in the cockpit, where
you can select the necessary airflow.
If the aircraft is not fully loaded, all of the conditioned air is not necessary, so
the pushbutton is set to low flow and the pack valve closes partially.
If the aircraft is fully loaded, all of the conditioned air is necessary, so the
pushbutton is set to hi flow and the pack valve is more open.

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


COOLING DESCRIPTION

Figure 19
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HI FLOW SELECTION
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

packvalve function cont.


On some aircraft you can select high, normal or low airflow. When the pack
flow selector is on normal, this means that the cabin is receiving 100% airflow.
When the pack flow selector is in high--position, then the pack valves supply
the cabin with more than 100% percent airflow.
When the pack flow selector is in LO-position then the pack valves supply the
cabin with 80% airflow.

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


COOLING DESCRIPTION

Figure 20
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PACK FLOW SELECTOR


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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 3

HEAT EXCHANGER
Cooling in the cooling packs is a system of heat exchangers and a cooling
machine, the air--cycle machine, which we study in the next segment.
Modern packs have two heat exchangers to improve the cooling effect. So you
can see what the two heat exchangers look like we have separated them for
you.
They are named the primary heat exchanger and the secondary or main
heat exchanger.
Normally, as we have mentioned, the two heat exchangers are mounted
together so they appear to be one component.
The advantage of the two heat exchangers being mounted together is that only
one cooling duct is necessary.

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


COOLING DESCRIPTION

Figure 21
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HEAT EXCHANGER
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

AIR CYCLE MACHINE


Now lets look closely at the air--cycle machine.
Its primary components are the compressor, the turbine and the fan.
Lets follow the air through the cooling system and find out the function of the
air--cycle machine.
Hot pneumatic air flows from the pack valve to the primary heat exchanger
where it is cooled down.
Air then goes to the compressor and is compressed, increasing its pressure
and temperature.
The air then flows to the secondary or main heat exchanger where the
temperature is decreased, but the pressure stays the same.
The air then goes to the turbine where it expands, causing the pressure and
temperature to decrease. The air then goes to the cabin.

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ATA 21 Lesson 3

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


COOLING DESCRIPTION

Figure 22
HAM US hr

June 1998

AIR-CYCLE MASCHINE
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

air zycle machine cont.


When the air expands in the turbine it turns the turbine wheel.
This turns also the compressor wheel and the fan wheel, because they are all
one component.
As the air--cycle machines components are air--carried no more lubrication is
necessary. You can see one tapping of the air bearing ventilation.
Once the process has started, air--cycle machines are self--sustaining if air is
available, because of this they are usually named boot--strap air--cycle
machines.

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ATA 21 Lesson 3

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Figure 23
HAM US hr

June 1998

CONSTRUCTION
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

air zycle machine cont.


You can now see the operation of the air--cycle machine again by looking at a
graph that shows the temperature and pressure dependence.
In our example the aircraft flies at an altitude of thirtynine thousand feet.
When pneumatic air goes to the pack valve it has a temperature of 200E C and
a pressure of 45 psi.
After leaving the pack valve the pressure has changed but the temperature
stays the same.
After passing through the primary heat exchanger the air pressure is almost the
same but the temperature has decreased by about 70E C.
After passing the compressor temperature and pressure increase.
The air then flows through the secondary or main heat exchanger where the
temperature decreases dramatically.
Now the turbine expands the air which causes the pressure and temperature to
decrease.
The pressure is now a little above the cabin pressure and the temperature is
below 0EC.
We explain how the pack outlet temperature becomes about 20E C in the next
segment which deals with the bypass valve.

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ATA 21 Lesson 3

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Figure 24
HAM US hr

June 1998

OPERATION
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

BYPASS VALVE
To adjust the temperature in the pack there is a turbine bypass valve built in.
This valve is also called temperature control valve in some aircraft types.This
valve determines the air mass to the turbine.
The more air that flows to the turbine, the higher the turbine speed and the
more the cooling effect.
The location of the bypass valve can change with aircraft type. Sometimes,
only the turbine is bypassed . If this is the case, a bypass check valve is built in
to bypass the compressor, so only part of the air is compressed.
Sometimes, you can find a bypass valve which bypasses the whole air--cycle
machine.

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Figure 25
HAM US hr

June 1998

BYPASS VALVE
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

bypass valve cont.


The bypass valve is a butterfly type valve with a manual override, which also
operates as a position indicator.
The bypass valve is always electrically operated.
The pack controller determines the opening range of the valve by using the
pack outlet temperature, you find out more about this later.
The bypass valve closes more when the turbine outlet temperature is too high
and its opens more when the temperature is too low.

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Position Indicator

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and manuel Override

Figure 26
HAM US hr

June 1998

BYPASS VALVE
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

RAM AIR
The temperature in the cooling pack can be adjusted by the bypass valve, but
as we mentioned before, adjusting the ram air flow through the heat exchanger
influences the efficiency of the heat exchanger and therefore the temperature
in the cooling pack.
Here you can see a heat exchanger more closely.
The heat exchanger has a cooling air inlet and it has a cooling air outlet.
As ram air is used as cooling air, the air inlet is named the ram air inlet or R.A.I
and the air outlet is named the ram air outlet or exit or R.A.E.
Here you can see a different type of heat exchanger. On this type of heat
exchanger the principle is the same, but the airflow is different from the other
type.

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Figure 27
HAM US hr

June 1998

HEAT EXCHANGER
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ATA 21 Lesson 3

ram air cont.


Ram air is guided through ducts.The inlets and exits have adjustable doors.
Ram air door position affects the cooling effect of the heat exchangers.
When the doors are fully open the cooling effect of the heat exchangers is
highest. Here you see the two types of doors , they can be fully open,
modulating and fully closed.
Pack outlet temperature is determined by the position of the ram air inlet door,
the ram air exit door, and the bypass valve.
The ram air inlet is a naca--type air intake.
The movement of the ram air inlet door increases or decreases the size of the
naca scope. This movement lets more or less cooling airflow across the heat
exchangers.
The ram air outlet door is also adjustable. It can be just a flap or it can be a
louvre.
Ram air inlet and exit doors are opened and closed by electrically driven actuators.
Potentiometers and limit switches --normally integrated into the actuators supply data for pack controller control and for indication functions.
The operation of the ram air doors with the bypass valve is shown in lesson 5
pack control.
A fan is found in the ram air system because on the ground there is no ram
effect. The fan is usually mounted on the same shaft as the compressor and
the turbine, so the fan runs when the pack is operative.

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ATA 21 Lesson 3

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


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Figure 28
HAM US hr

June 1998

RAM AIR INLET / EXIT DOORS


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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 4

WATER SEPARATION
INTRODUCTION
In this lesson we examine why and how the cooling packs separate water from
bleed air in the cooling cycle.
Water has to be eliminated because temperatures can reach --50E C in the
cooling packs and any water droplets in lines and valves could freeze. Also,
any water in the cabin could end up as fog or water droplets causing passenger
discomfort and corrosion in the cabin and the distribution lines.
As you can see from the diagram, the amount of water in the air depends
mainly on temperature.
The warmer the air, the more water it can carry. So, as you have probably realized, air near the ground has a large amount of water dissolved in it. This water
condenses in the cooling cycle.
At high flight altitudes the air is very cold and, therefore, very dry so there is no
water which can condense in the cabin. This very dry air is good for the aircraft,
but not so good for the passengers who would prefer more humidity.

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ATA 21 Lesson 4

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WATER SEPARATION

Figure 29
HAM US hr

June 1998

WATER CONTENT IN AIR


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ATA 21 Lesson 4

introduction cont.
Water separation happens in the cooling pack.
There are two ways to separate water. Which system is used depends on the
manufacturer of the cooling pack.
Water can be separated in the high pressure loop, after the air is compressed
by the compressor and before it goes into the turbine. Or water can be
separated in the low pressure loop, which means the water droplets are
separated after leaving the air--cycle machine and before leaving the pack.
In any system the separated water is then collected and sent to the ram air inlet duct to increase the cooling efficiency of the heat exchanger.

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WATER SEPARATION

Figure 30
HAM US hr

June 1998

WATER SEPARATION
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ATA 21 Lesson 4

LOW PRESSURE WATER SEPARATION


Lets now look closely at the low pressure water separation system.
This is the design of a typical B747 pack. It has a water separator and a jet
pump.
The jet pump sprays the condensed water into the ram air inlet duct.
This condensed water increases the cooling efficiency of the heat exchanger.

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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 4

Jet Pump

Figure 31
HAM US hr

June 1998

LOW PRESSURE WATER SEPARATOR


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ATA 21 Lesson 4

low pressure water separation cont.


The basic operating principle of a water separator is that water droplets are
heavier than air.
The first step, in the process of water separation, is to make the water droplets
bigger. So the air passes through a coalescer, which combines the water
particles, and makes larger water droplets.
The air with the water droplets is then circulated by swirl vanes. The result is
that the water droplets are centrifugally forced to a collector from where the
water is drained.
The coalescer is a type of a strainer or a gauze filter, so it could become
clogged by dirt or ice. Because of this, a pressure relief valve is built in which
lets the air bypass the coalescer.
Ice formation on the coalescer is prevented by controlling the air temperature
to the water separator.

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Figure 32
HAM US hr

June 1998

WATER SEPERATOR
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ATA 21 Lesson 4

low pressure water separation cont.


The separated water is sent through the water line to the ram air inlet, which
increases the cooling efficiency of the heat exchanger.
There is a water aspirator, a type of jet pump, mounted at the heat exchanger
cooling air inlet. This aspirator sprays the water into the air stream.
Air is tapped downstream of the compressor, to induce water flow through the
aspirator.

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Figure 33
HAM US hr

June 1998

WATER ASPIRATOR
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ATA 21 Lesson 4

HIGH PRESSURE WATER SEPARATOR


The other type of water separation is high pressure water separation.
Here the fact is used that the cooler the air is, the less water it can dissolve.
With this method only compressed air from the compressor, which has been
cooled by the main heat exchanger, goes into the water separation loop.
Bypassed air is not used and does not go through the water separation loop.
Air from the pneumatic system passes through the open pack valve.
The first component in the pack which the air passes is the primary heat exchanger. The air flows through the compressor and then goes to the secondary
or main heat exchanger.
Next, the water--loaden air flows to the reheater, which is an air to air heat
exchanger. The cooling air is air--cycle machine inlet air. The cool air is then
cooled even more by the condenser, which is also an air to air heat exchanger.
The cooling air, which the condenser uses, is turbine outlet air. This air, which
comes from the air--cycle machine turbine outlet, has a sub--zero temperature.
This very cold air, cools the air in the condenser down to dew point, which is,
approximately zero degrees Celsius, at sea--level.
The condensed water is collected in the water extractor. The water is then
sprayed on the ram air inlet side of the main heat exchanger.
After the water extractor, the air passes through the reheater again where it
increases in temperature.
The air then goes to the air--cycle machine turbine inlet.
Air passes the condenser after leaving the turbine.
The air then goes to the cabin.

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Figure 34
HAM US hr

June 1998

HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATOR


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ATA 21 Lesson 4

high pressure water separator cont.


The water extractor has swirl vanes which rotate the air.
Centrifugal force causes the heavier water droplets to collect in the drain sump.

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Figure 35
HAM US hr

June 1998

WATER EXTRACTOR
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ATA 21 Lesson 4

high pressure water separator cont.


The collected water is sent to the ram air inleT and because it is the high
pressure loop a jet pump is not necessary here.
As you know, air expansion in the turbine decreases the temperature and
pressure of the air. This temperature decrease causes extra condensation on
the ground or at low flight altitudes. This condensation occurs normally as
snow. Therefore, the condenser is made large enough to prevent the snow
from clogging it.
The mixing of the dry conditioned air and the warm unconditioned bypassed air
makes the dew point of the air about 10E C. This makes sure that no
condensation occurs in the cabin air supply ducting and leaves a small amount
of humidity in the cabin.
Note that in the high pressure loop all water droplets are removed.

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ATA 21 Lesson 4

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WATER SEPARATION

Figure 36
HAM US hr

June 1998

DRY CONDITIONED & WARM BYPASSED AIR


Page 73

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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 4

ICE PROTECTION
Here is a pack with a low pressure water separator.
A pressure transmitter sends differential pressure information between the
water separator inlet and outlet to the pack controller.
When the differential pressure increases, the pack controller assumes there is
ice and opens the turbine bypass valve more.

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ATA 21 Lesson 4

Pressure

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Transmitter

Figure 37
HAM US hr

June 1998

ICE PROTECTION
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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 4

ice protection cont.


In systems with a water separator in the high pressure loop, the differential
pressure is also measured to show an icing blockage.
The condenser is the component which could clog with ice. So the differential
pressure above the condenser is measured, on the high pressure side and on
the low pressure side. If the increasing differential pressure reaches a
predetermined value, the pack controller assumes an icing condition.
In the high pressure system a separate anti--ice valve is built in as a back--up
to the bypass valve, which usually prevents icing.
The anti--ice valve is usually closed, it opens if the delta--P sensors across the
condenser find an unusual pressure difference above the high pressure
delta--P sensors and the low pressure delta--P sensors.
The anti--ice valve supplies hot bleed air to the air--cycle machine turbine outlet to melt the ice in the condensor and downstream equipment.

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Figure 38
HAM US hr

June 1998

ANTI ICE VALVE


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ATA 21 Lesson 4

ice protection cont.


Here you can see where the air conditioning pack is located on the aircraft and
you can see in summary all the cooling components of the air conditioning
pack.

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Water Injector

Figure 39
HAM US hr

June 1998

AIR CONDITIONED PACK


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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 5

PACK CONTROL
INTRODUCTION
Each air conditioning pack has its own pack controller and each pack controller
has a back--up controller.
The pack controller and its back--up can be designed as two separate black
boxes or as one device. Each pack has its own pack switch in the cockpit.
Normally the pack controllers are located in the electric and electronic
compartment.
Each pack controller controls its pack completely and independently including
the pack outlet temperature with all associated operations.

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PACK CONTROL

Figure 40
HAM US hr

June 1998

PACK CONTROL
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ATA 21 Lesson 5

PACK SENSOR
There are several sensors built--in to each pack.
The minimum number of sensors you could have in a pack is 3.
These sensors are, the compressor discharge temperature sensor, the pack
discharge temperature sensor and the compressor overheat switch.
This switch is installed for safety reasons and informs the pack controller of
abnormal conditions. In some aircraft types you can find an overheat sensor
instead of a switch.
The pack controller also receives other signals.
The pack controller monitors the pack flow control valve position and sends it
to the ECAM or EICAS for indication.
The pack controller controls the position of the bypass valve and signals the
valve to open more or less depending on the temperature necessary. The valve
position is measured by limit switches and a position potentiometer.
The pack controller controls the position of the ram air inlet door depending on
the temperature required and the flight mode.
The ram air inlet door position is measured by limit switches and a position potentiometer.
The pack controller controls the position of the ram air exit door, depending on
the temperature required and the flight mode: The ram air exit door position is
measured by limit switches and a position potentiometer.
So, in summary, the pack controller receives signals from the pack flow control
valve, the bypass valve, the ram air inlet door and the ram air exit door.
The cockpit also sends a flow demand signal to the pack controller. So,
together with signals from these sensors, the pack controller receives all this
data about the pack.
Pack regulation starts when the flow control valve opens. When the pack
switch in the cockpit is set to ON, the signal goes directly to the pack valve.
The pack valve opens if bleed air is available.

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June 1998

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PACK CONTROL

Figure 41
HAM US hr

June 1998

PACK SENSORS
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ATA 21 Lesson 5

PACK TEMPERATURE CONTROL


Now we are going to find out about the pack temperature control circuit.
Here we use a pack with a low pressure water separator to show the pack
regulation principle; it is almost the same on all aircraft.
During normal operation, the zone controller signals the required pack outlet
temperature. The zone controller receives its information from sensors in the
cabin. The zone controller then sends the required pack temperature demand
to the pack controller.
The pack outlet temperature is achieved by the pack controller modulating the
bypass valve, the ram air inlet door and the ram air exit door. This modulation
happens in a pre--determined sequence.
The modulation sequence is a compromise between minimum ram airflow and
sufficient pack airflow, while keeping sufficient heat transfer.
In flight, for maximum cooling, the ram air doors are open and the bypass valve
is fully closed.
For maximum heating the bypass valve is fully opened and the ram air doors
are nearly closed.
The modulation of the ram air doors and the bypass valve follows a scheduled
sequence, which is programmed into the pack controller. The sequence can be
different from aircraft to aircraft; this depends on aircraft design and the
manufacturer.
In flight, usually, the ram air doors never fully open or fully close. This
minimizes the ram effect of the aircraft what saves fuel. It makes sure of a
minimum cooling airflow through the pack.
The bypass valve is modulated by the pack controller when the necessary
temperature can not be reached by modulating the ram air doors.
In some systems the bypass valve is controlled first when fast temperature
changes are needed.
On the ground, the ram air doors are fully open and the bypass valve is
modulated by the pack controller to get the required pack outlet temperature.
The ram air doors can only be modulated together but during take--off and
landing, in any case the ram air inlet door closes completly to prevent ingestion
of foreign matter.

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June 1998

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ATA 21 Lesson 5

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Pack Temperature Demand

Figure 42
HAM US hr

June 1998

PACK TEMPERATURE CONTROL


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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 5

pack temperature control cont.


Lets think about three examples of failure conditions that can occur in the
pack.
These conditions are pack controller failure, compressor overheat and bypass
valve failure.
If the pack controller is not operating, the alternate pack controller takes over.

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ATA 21 Lesson 5

BACK-UP CONTROLLER

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PACK CONTROLLER FAILURE

COMPRESSOR OVERHEAT

BYPASS FAILURE

Figure 43
HAM US hr

June 1998

FAILURE CONDITIONS
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ATA 21 Lesson 5

pack temperature control cont.


If the compressor overheat sensor detects a temperature that exceeds for
example 220E C, than the pack valve reduces the airflow.
When the overheat condition stays on the FAULT light comes on in the pack
switch and the pilot must switch off the pack.
If the bypass valve is not operating, it is shown by the out of sequence
schedule of the ram air doors and the bypass valve.
The pack controller triggers the ram air doors to open more, but only by a limited amount.
On some aircraft types the anti--ice valve can be used as a back--up for the
bypass valve.
You now know that the pack control and the pack outlet temperature regulation
is done by the pack controller. It modulates the bypass valve, the ram air inlet
door and the ram air exit door. You also know that the modulation happens in a
pre--determined sequence.

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ATA 21 Lesson 5

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PACK CONTROL

Figure 44
HAM US hr

June 1998

PACK FAILURE
Page 89

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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 5

PACK INDICATION
You know that all these signals about components and temperatures are used
for pack control, and you have probably worked out that they are also used for
indication.

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PACK CONTROL

Figure 45
HAM US hr

June 1998

INDICATION
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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 5

pack indication cont.


Let us use a realistic Boeing example to show you the pack indications.
They are shown on the lower displays. Here in our example, the system page
is named the ECS page which stands for environmental control system.
The parts that concern us, are the on and off indications for the packs and the
information which comes from the pack flow control valve.
If one pack is inoperative or off, the pack controller automatically switches the
remaining pack or packs to high flow mode.
If all the packs are on, the flow is set to normal.
Hi flow mode can also be selected manually.

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Figure 46
HAM US hr

June 1998

ECS PAGE
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ATA 21 Lesson 5

pack indication cont.


On Airbus aircraft the related synoptic page is named the bleed page.
This is the bleed page of an A320. Let us concentrate on the pack related
indications.
The pack valve indication and the pack flow indication is here.
The bleed page shows pack valve indication, pack flow indication and also the
compressor discharge temperature and gives the position indication of the
bypass valve.
C stands for cold and H for hot.
The bleed page also shows the pack outlet temperature.

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PACK CONTROL

Figure 47
HAM US hr

June 1998

BLEED PAGE
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ATA 21 Lesson 5

pack indication cont.


All the same information is available on Boeing aircraft, but not on a synoptic
page.
You find all the data about the pack on the ECS maintenance page.
The ECS maintenance page shows the pack outlet temperature and the pack
flow indication which is measured by a flow sensor.
The turbine bypass valve status is, referenced to 100 % heat. This is fully
open.
The ram air doors position is referenced to 100 % heat, which is fully closed.
The compressor discharge temperature is here and the differential pressure
above the water separator is shown here.
The ECS maintenance page also shows the compressor discharge
temperature, differential pressure above the water separator, inlet and outlet
temperature of the primary heat exchanger and the outlet temperature of the
secondary or main heat exchanger.
The PTC channel shows which pack controller is in control of the pack. P.T.C.
stands for pack temperature controller.
On this aircraft, the pack controllers alternate with their back--up controllers on
each flight.
If there is a malfunction in the pack or an overheat condition occurs, the pack
controller switches off the affected pack and the fault light comes on.

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ATA 21 Lesson 5

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


PACK CONTROL

Figure 48
HAM US hr

June 1998

MAINTENANCE PAGE
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ATA 21 Lesson 6

DISTRIBUTION
INTRODUCTION
The cold air from the packs goes into the mixing chamber unit also called the
plenum chamber and is then distributed to the different zones in the aircraft.
The mixing unit is a large chamber, like a big duct which has ports for incoming
air and outgoing air.
The mixing unit lets the cold air from the packs mix with discharged cabin air. It
directs the mixed air through the primary supply ducts to the different aircraft
zones.

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Figure 49
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June 1998

MIXING UNIT
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AIR FLOW
Mixing unit location and output requirements are different on different aircraft
types.
You can see here the location of the mixing unit on a small aircraft, the Airbus
320. It only has 2 cabin zones to supply the forward zone and the aft zone.
From the mixing unit the air flows along the primary supply ducts that are
located horizontally along the fuselage. Then the air goes through riser ducts
which are located vertically along the fuselage.
The air finally goes to the zones through the outlets in the cabin.
The air for the cockpit supply goes through seperate ducts that you will look at
more closely later in the lesson.

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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 6

Large Aircraft (e.g. B 747

Figure 50
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AIR FLOW FROM MIXING UNIT


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airflow cont.
In this example of an Airbus the passenger cabin air distrbution uses primary
supply ducts that are located on both sides of the cabin under the cabin floor.
From the primary supply ducts, small riser ducts go between the windows to
the outlets above and below the hatracks.

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Figure 51
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June 1998

PASSENGER CABIN AIR DISTRIBUTION


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ATA 21 Lesson 6

airflow cont.
Here you can see a distibution system that uses the same components, but
has a different layout.
In this example the air first goes through big riser ducts to the ceeling and is
then distributed by primary supply ducts.

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Figure 52
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June 1998

AIR DISTRIBUTION
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ATA 21 Lesson 6

airflow cont.
On some aircraft, the passengers have an individual air supply system.
The passengers individual air supply system, also named a gasper system, is
below the hatracks.
In this system you can adjust the outlets to change the quantity and direction of
the air.
The system is supplied by normal cabin air or an individual supply duct.

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DISTRIBUTION

Figure 53
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June 1998

PASSENGERS INDIVIDUAL AIR SYSTEM


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ATA 21 Lesson 6

RECIRCULATION SYSTEM
As you have already seeen the mixing unit also gets discharged cabin air to
increase the airflow rate to the cabin.
This system is called recirculation system.
The system supports the airflow from the packs, so that the packs do not have
to run on high airflow each time. This reduces the operational costs of the
aircraft.
When the recirculation system is on there is an airflow through the mixing unit
and through the cabin.
The recirculation fans suck discharged cabin air from the underfloor area, clean
it with filters and feed it back into the mixing unit.

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Figure 54
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June 1998

RECIRCULATION SYSTEM
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ATA 21 Lesson 6

recirculation system cont.


Here you can see the location of the main components of a typical recirculation
system and what they look like: The air filters, the electrical recirculation fans
and the check valves that prevent a reverse airflow to the underfloor area.

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Figure 55
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June 1998

RECIRCULATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS


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ATA 21 Lesson 6

COCKPIT AIR
Now lets have a look at air distribution in the cockpit.
As the cockpit crew are responsible for the safety they need the very best
working conditions possible.
The cockpit area mainly gets fresh air from the packs. There are 2 different
ways to ensure that the cockpit only receives fresh air.
One way is to take air directly from the pack before it goes into the mixing unit.
The second method is the aerodynamic way. Here the air is taken from the
mixing unit but because of the location of the cockpit supply duct it gets only
fresh air.

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Figure 56
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June 1998

FRESH AIR TO THE COCKPIT


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ATA 21 Lesson 6

cockpit air cont.


The cockpit can become very cold in flight and sometimes very hot on the
ground because it has a large skin surface area and many windows.
This means that the cockpit needs a good air distribution system with many air
outlets to decrease these effects.
The air for the cockpit is distributed by a primary air supply duct that divides
into smaller riser ducts.
The riser ducts supply air to several different air outlets.
On some outlets the airflow direction and mass can be adjusted, this makes it
possible for the crew to optimize their work enviroment.
On other outlets only the air mass can be adjusted, this type is found, for
example, above the windows.
On some cockpit outlets you can switch on individual electrical heaters to
improve the comfort.
There are also elecrical heaters in the passengers cabin to heat fuselage areas
that can become very cold during flight.
Located for example in the door areas.

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Figure 57
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June 1998

AIR DISTRIBUTION COCKPIT


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ATA 21 Lesson 6

RAM AIR AND GROUND SUPPLY


On some aircraft types you find an emergency ram air inlet that can supply
fresh ambient air to the mixing unit when all packs fail during flight.
When you open the emergency ram air inlet during flight, it guides fresh
ambient air into the mixing unit via a check valve. In the mixing unit the air is
mixed with the recirculated cabin air and distributed to the different aircraft
zones.
The emergency ram air inlet has an electrical actuator which extends the inlet
flap into the ambient airflow.
When the aircraft is on the ground you can supply conditioned air to the mixing
unit from an external airconditioning unit via a ground connector port. This
means that, on the ground, it is not necessary to use the packs to get
conditioned air.

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Figure 58
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June 1998

EMERGENCY RAM AIR INLET


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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL


INTRODUCTION
To understand the need for a zone temperature control system you should
remember the parameters that effect the cabin temperature.
These are the ambient temperature, the radiation of the sun, the cabin
insulation, he heat from equipment, the heat from the passengers and the
temperature and rate of the air that is supplied to the cabin.
To compensate for all the different cooling and heating effects on the aircraft
zones we need a zone temperature control system.
The air supply to the zones must have different sources because of the
different conditions in each zone.
The cockpit usually gets fresh cool air directly from a pack.
The supply ducts for the cabin zones are connected to the mixing unit which
receives air from the packs and also usually from the recirculation system.
The air temperature in the mixing unit is different to the cockpit duct
temperature because of the recirculated cabin air. The mixing unit supplies all
cabin zones.

The air source for the trim air system is usually downstream of the pack valves.
Remember that the pack valves are flow control and shut--off valves so the trim
air is usually part of the calculated airflow for the cabin.
When all packs are switched off the supply for the trim air system also stops,
because the trim air valves and the pressure regulating valve close. This
means that the cabin zones only get the recirculated cabin air and there is no
temperature control.

For Training Purposes Only

TRIM AIR SYSTEM


To allow for individual control of all zone temperatures you need a trim air
system.
Each zone has one or more electrically operated trim air valve that controls the
amount of hot air that is mixed with the cold supply air.
A variation in the trim air valve position changes the temperature in the zone
supply duct. The temperature depends on the amount of hot trim air that is
added.
A change of the trim airflow will not only change the temperature but also the
pressure in the trim air supply duct. This change would also affect the flow
through the other trim air valves.
To minimize this effect the trim air system has a pressure regulating valve.
The trim air pressure regulating valve maintains a stable pressure in the trim air
supply duct. It also has a shut--off function to isolate the trim air system, for
example when there is a failure.
When the trim air pressure regulating valve closes then all trim air valves also
close.
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Figure 59
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June 1998

TRIM AIR SYSTEM


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ATA 21 Lesson 7

MANUAL TEMPERATURE CONTROL


The Zone Temperature Control System work in automatic mode, but in many
aircraft types there is also a manual mode.
In the manual mode you can control the trim air valve directly with a
corresponding selector switch.
The switch is spring loaded in the center position, here labeled with OFF. When
you turn the switch, for example to the warm position, then the valve opens as
long as you hold the switch.
When you release the switch the valve stops in the new position.
When you select a new valve position the duct temperature changes quickly
and the cabin temperature changes slowly. Therefore you must monitor the
duct temperatures carefully to prevent a system overheat.

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Figure 60
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June 1998

MANUAL TEMPERATURE CONTROL


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AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE CONTROL


In the automatic mode a computer does the control and monitoring of the
system.
Usually it is called the zone controller.
You must only select the required zone temperature on the selector. Usually
you can select a temperature between 18C in the cool position and 30C in
the WARM position.
The zone controller receives the zone temperature demands from the
selectors and compares it with the actual zone temperature, which is measured
by temperature sensors in the cabin.
From the result of this comparison the computer calculates the temperature of
the supply duct that is necessary to reach the selected cabin temperature. This
is called the duct temperature demand.
From all duct temperature demands the controller selects the coolest demand,
because this defines the necessary pack outlet temperature also called the
pack temperature demand. This signal is used by the pack controllers to
control pack operation.
When duct temperature demands are identical, the coolest demand for the
pack temperature regulation comes from the passenger cabin zones.
The reason for this is that the air from the pack that enters the mixing unit must
be cooler, than the air that is needed for the cockpit supply duct, because of
the recirculated warm air from the cabin.
To take into account the effect of the recirculated air, the zone controller needs
a temperature feedback from the mixing unit.
When the cockpit supply duct temperature becomes the coolest demand, the
zone controller can use a temperature feedback from the cockpit duct to
improve the regulation.

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Zone Temperature Demands


Actual zone
Temperatures

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Duct Temperature
Demand

Figure 61
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June 1998

AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE CONTROL


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ATA 21 Lesson 7

automatic temperature control cont.


When you select a higher zone temperature demand then you need to add hot
trim air to the air in the supply duct.
For this task there is an automatic trim air control circuit which changes the
position of the trim air valve.
The new position of the valve is calculated from the difference between the
duct temperature demand and the actual duct temperature.
A damping circuit prevents temperature cycling and overshoot. The circuit uses
the rate of the temperature signal from the duct temperature sensor for the
damping calculation.
In some systems there is a special temperature rate sensor called the
anticipator which is used to carry out this task.
The trim air valve control circuits have also a duct temperature limitation circuit.
This circuit limits the duct temperature in our example to about 60C to prevent
a duct overheat.
There are identical trim air valve control circuits for each individual zone.
Some zone temperature controllers have additional circuits to compensate for
environmental changes during flight.
The first circuit is called the altitude correction. It compensates for the cooling
effects of decreasing cabin air humidity and outside temperature. This is done
by automatically adding a temperature value to the selected temperature of all
zones when the flight altitude increases.
The second circuit is the cruise correction. It compensates for reduced passenger activity during cruise flight. This is done by giving an extra increase to the
passenger cabin temperature demand.

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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL

Figure 62
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June 1998

TRIM AIR VALVE CONTROL CIRCUTS


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ATA 21 Lesson 7

PROTECTION CIRCUTS
The protection circuits of the zone temperature control system protect the
system from duct overheat in the event of component malfunctions or
miscontrol in manual mode.
The protection circuits are independent of the temperature control circuits. The
circuits can be either external or internal to the zone temperature controller.
The protection circuits use sensors or overheat switches in the air supply ducts
located downstream of the trim air valves.
When the duct temperature exceeds a critical level, which in this example is
about 90C, then the protection circuit becomes active. It triggers a crew alert
in the cockpit, for example a FAULT light in the control pushbutton.
At the same time the protection circuit automatically closes the trim air
pressure regulating valve. This also closes the trim air valves.
The hot trim air therefore stops independently of the failure source.
In some aircraft types you must indicate to the protection circuit that you have
recognized this failure condition by pressing the pushbutton which displays the
fault light.
When the trim air system is off, then the ducts are only supplied from the
packs and the recirculation system. This cools down all ducts.
When the duct temperature decreases below for example 70C, the FAULT
light extinguishes. This indicates that you can reactivate the zone temperature
control system.
When the trim air system is on again, the trim air pressure regulating valve and
the trim air valves move to the position that is defined by the zone temperature
control circuit.

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Figure 63
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June 1998

PROTECTION CIRCUTS
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ATA 21 Lesson 7

COMPONENTS
The zone controller which is the main component is usually a digital computer.
It is located in the electric and electronic equipment compartment.
The other components are usually located behind the forward cargo
compartment.
All trim air valves in an aircraft are generally of the same valve type. They are
usually operated by an electrical stepper motor.
The valves have potentiometers and limit switches for position feedback and
for control and indication.
Usually, there is also a manual override and visual position indicator on the
valve.
The trim air system switches off completely when a trim air valve is blocked in
the open position or when the zone controller doesnt get a feedback signal
from a valve.

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Figure 64
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June 1998

TRIM AIR VALVE


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components cont.
The trim air pressure regulating valve is a solenoid controlled and pressure
actuated valve.
When the solenoid is de--energized, the valve is closed by a spring.
When you energize the solenoid then the valve is openes by air pressure from
the pneumatic system.
The valve regulates the downstream pressure to ,for example, 4 psi above
cabin pressure.
The exact value depends on the aircraft type.
The valve position is always monitored by the zone controller by means of a
limit switch.
There is also often an pressure switch or sensor downstream of the valve
which monitors the trim air pressure.
Our example shows the trim air pressure regulating valve located inside the
pressurized area of the aircraft. In this case the valve receives cabin pressure
directly.

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Pneumatic
Pressure
Cabin
Pressure

Figure 65
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June 1998

TRIM AIR PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE


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ATA 21 Lesson 7

components cont.
In this example which shows another aircraft type, there are 2 valves in the
unpressurized area near the packs.
In this case cabin pressure is supplied via pressure reference tubes.
Some valves have a second solenoid. It is energized when the duct
temperature increases to an overheat condition. This reduces the trim air pressure and also the hot airflow.

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Pneumatic
Pressure

To Zone Controller

Figure 66
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June 1998

VALVE IN UNPRESSURIZED AREA


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components cont.
Finally, we will have a look at the temperature sensors in the zone temperature
control system.
We can differentiate between 2 types of temperature sensor installation. The
duct temperature sensors and the zone temperature sensors. All sensors are
of the thermistor type.
The duct sensors measure the temperature of the airflow directly and send the
signal to the zone controller. If a sensor fails the zone controller usually closes
the corresponding trim air valve.
To prevent this some aircraft types have 2 sensors in one housing.

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL

Figure 67
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June 1998

DUCT TEMPERATURE SENSOR


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components cont.
The zone temperature sensors are installed in the cabin ceiling area.
There is 1 or more in each zone, depending on the size of the zone.
The sensors must be ventilated to measure the real temperature. In some
aircraft types this is done by an electrical fan.
Another way is for the sensors to be connected to the lavatory ventilation or the
equipment cooling system which draws air through the sensors.

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Lavatory Ventilation Duct

Sensor Housing

Cabin Air
Inlet

Sensor
Housing

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Cockpit Zone Sensor

Ceiling Air Inlet

Figure 68
HAM US jk

June 1998

ZONE TEMPERATURE SENSORS


Page 137

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ATA 21 Lesson 7

CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS


The main controls and indications are in the cockpit. The controls are on the
airconditioning panel, located on the overhead panel in modern aircraft and the
indications on the lower display of the central warning system.
Indications on a typical airconditioning system page:
Actual cabin temperature measured by the temperature sensors in the cabin.
Actual duct temperature measured by the duct temperature sensors.
Actual trim air valve position measured by the potentiometer inside the valve.
Valve symbol of the pressure regulating valve. This signal comes from the limit
switch. (here closed)
On the control panel there is a HOT AIR pushbutton used to switch on or
reset the trim air system. 3 control knobs for the zone temperature selection in
automatic mode.
Note that in this aircraft there is no manual mode.
To activate the airconditioning system on the ground. Electrical and pneumatic
power must be available and you have also to perform all safety precautions
specified by the check list. You must also make sure that a window or cabin
door is open to prevent pressure build--up in the cabin.
The trim air pressure regulation valve and the trim air valves stay in the closed
position, when the pack valves are closed.
The packs of some aircraft types start with a predetermined start sequence.
This can give you unexpected indications. For example the duct temperatures
decrease even with a higher temperature selection. This happens because the
trim air valves stay closed for a certain time to increase the airflow through the
packs. This gives a faster acceleration of the aircycle machine.
After several minutes the system reaches the stabilized situation.

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AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM


ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL

Figure 69
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June 1998

CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS


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controls and indications cont.


We will now have a look at the controls and indications on a wide bodied
aircraft, the 747.
The location of the components in the cockpit is the same as the A320 but
obviously they look different.
The temperature control knob for the cockpit, known here as the flight deck,
has an automatic and a manual mode.
There are 2 temperature indications for the cockpit on the EICAS display.
The left and smaller one gives the selected temperature and the right one gives
the actual temperature.
For the passenger zones there is a master temperature selector on the cockpit
panel with an automatic and an alternate mode
The selected master temperature is also shown on the display. During cruise
flight you can select individual passenger zone temperatures from a panel on
the purser station.
There is the trim air pushbutton which you can use to switch off the trim air
system manually and the zone reset pushbutton, which allows you to reset a
temperature control system fault, here indicated by the amber light. This must
be done for example when there has been an overheat or other system failure.

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ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL

Figure 70
HAM US jk

June 1998

CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS ON 747


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ATA 21 Lesson 8

VENTILATION
INRODUCTION
You can find several different types of ventilation systems on an aircraft.
There is a ventilation system for the galleys and lavatories which removes hot,
humid and stale air.
Another type of ventilation system in the cargo compartments can change the
air when necessary, for example, when carrying live cargo.
There is also a separate system for equipment cooling, we learn about this in
the next lesson.
The first system we are going to study is the cargo ventilation.
The various cargo compartments can be sub--divided into 4 different ventilation
types, the non--ventilated cargo compartment, the ventilated cargo
compartment,.which can be heated or unheated and the air--conditioned cargo
compartment.

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VENTILATION

Figure 71
HAM US hr

June 1998

VENTILATION SYSTEMS
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NON VENTILATED CARGO COMPARTMENT


The non--ventilated cargo compartment is airtight and, therefore, can only be
used for goods and baggage.
This type of cargo compartment gets very cold in flight. Cabin air cannot enter
this type of cargo compartment.
The discharged cabin air flows through grills, goes around the outside of the
cargo compartment and then goes overboard through the outflow valves.

VENTILATED CARGO COMPARTMENT

For Training Purposes Only

In a ventilated cargo compartment system, cabin air goes through exit grill and
enters the cargo hold.
The air is extracted from the compartment by differential pressure or by fans
and it then goes overboard through the outflow valves.
Another way to ventilate the forward cargo compartment is to supply it with
discharge air from the equipment cooling system via a duct.

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Ventilated Cargo Compartment

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Non Ventilated Cargo Compartment

FUNDAMENTALS

Figure 72
HAM US hr

June 1998

CARGO COMPARTMENTS
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ATA 21 Lesson 8

ventilated cargo compartment cont.


Here is a typical ventilated cargo compartment for you to study.
Note the two motor--operated isolation valves. These valves must close in the
event of a cargo fire to stop the airflow. You can learn about this in more detail
in unit 26 fire protection.
Usually the isolation valves are open and the cabin air can flow through the
cargo compartment to the outflow valve.
To increase the airflow a blower fan and an extraction fan can be built--in. This
type of ventilation system can be used in most cargo compartments.

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VENTILATION

Figure 73
HAM US hr

June 1998

VENTILATED CARGO COMPARTMENT


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ATA 21 Lesson 8

ventilated cargo compartment cont.


Here you can see another view of a ventilated cargo compartment.
A blower fan sucks the cabin air through a cabin air inlet. The air then goes
through the inlet isolation valve and enters the cargo compartment through air
inlets on the left wall.
The air is extracted through 2 ceiling outlets at the rear wall and leaves through
an extraction fan and an outlet isolation valve.

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VENTILATION

Figure 74
HAM US hr

June 1998

VENTILATED CARGO COMPARTMENT


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ATA 21 Lesson 8

ventilated cargo compartment cont.


For controlling the cargo ventilation system there is a cargo ventilation panel in
the cockpit.
The cargo ventilation panel is located on the overhead panel.
The aft isolation valve pushbutton initiates the fans and valves in the aft cargo
compartment.
When the aft isolation valve is selected to on, the off light goes out, the system
is activated and the cargo ventilation controller opens the isolation valves.
When the controller receives the fully open signal from the two isolation valves,
then the fans begin to operate.
The cargo ventilation controller checks the position of the isolation valves. If
they are not in agreement, the controller closes the 2 valves, stops the blowers
operating and activates a fault light in the isolation valve pushbutton.
The cargo ventilation controller also sends data to the ECAM display so the
failure can be monitored.

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VENTILATION

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CARGO VENTILATION
CONTROLLER

Figure 75
HAM US hr

June 1998

CARGO VENTILATION CONTROLLER


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ATA 21 Lesson 8

CARGO COMPARTMENT HEATING


Some ventilated cargo compartments also have heating systems which are
used, for example, to prevent freezing during long distance flights.
2 different types of heating systems are used.
One way to heat the cargo compartment is by using hot bleed air from the
pneumatic system. This gives the high temperatures needed.
You can heat the cargo compartment by using an electrical heater which can
be combined with blowers to heat the cabin air.
In this case, the air comes from the cockpit and the Electric and Electronic
compartment through an equipment cooling exhaust duct passes the heater,
and then the air goes through a distribution duct into the cargo compartment.
Electrical heaters start heating the cargo compartment when it gets too cold
during flight. In this system the heater is activated automatically by a
temperature switch when the temperature decreases below about 7 Celsius.

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VENTILATION

Figure 76
HAM US hr

June 1998

ELECTRICAL HEATING SYSTEM


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ATA 21 Lesson 8

cargo compartment heating cont.


Now lets examine an heating system which uses bleed air for cargo
compartment heating.
In this system, hot pneumatic air flows through a control valve and an override
valve to the cargo compartment. Air then enters the cargo compartment
through the distribution duct, leaves over flapper doors and goes overboard via
the outflow valve.
Cargo heating is activated by the cargo heat pushbutton switch on the air
conditioning panel in the cockpit.
When the cargo heating system is activated, the ON light illuminates in the
switch.
A signal is then sent to the control system relays which open the override
valve. The override valve acts as a normal shut--off valve.
You can select 2 different temperatures with the temperature selector switch in
the cargo compartment. Which temperature you select depends on the freight
type. This selector switch activates either a 7 C or 21 C temperature control
switch in the cargo compartment which regulates the temperature.
When the temperature selector is set to 21E C and the temperature control
switch detects a temperature lower than 21E C then the control system relays
open the control valve.
Hot air then enters the cargo distribution duct and the temperature increases.
When the selected temperature is reached, then the temperature switch sends
a signal via the temperature selector to the control system relays that close the
control valve.

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Hot Air
from Pneumatic
System

Figure 77
HAM US hr

June 1998

CARGO HEATING SYSTEM


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ATA 21 Lesson 8

cargo compartment heating cont.


If there is a problem in the system and there is a dramatic temperature
increase in the cargo compartment an overheat circuit is activated.
An overheat switch detects the high temperature and sends a signal to the
control system.
The result is that the on light on the aft cargo heat pushbutton extinguishes and
an amber light illuminates. At the same time the control system closes the
override valve which shuts off the hot air and the zone temperature controller
gives the advisory message of aft cargo heat to the EICAS display.

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Hot Air
from

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Figure 78
HAM US hr

June 1998

CARGO OVERHEAT
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ATA 21 Lesson 8

AIR CONDITIONED CARGO COMPARTMENT


Sometimes aircraft transport sensitive freight which need a selectable constant
temperature.
In this case you also need an air conditioned compartment, which can be
cooled.
Most of the air comes from the cabin and enters the cargo compartment
through an inlet isolation valve.
To achieve the temperature that is needed you can add either cold air from the
packs through an isolation valve or hot air which is supplied from the pneumatic
system via a hot air valve.

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VENTILATION

Figure 79
HAM US hr

June 1998

AIR CONDITIONED CARGO COMPARTMENT


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ATA 21 Lesson 8

air conditioned cargo compartment cont.


In this example of an air conditioned aft cargo compartment, one pack supplies
conditioned air which goes to the cabin and to the cargo compartment.
Before reaching the cargo compartment this conditioned air flows through a
shut--off valve and, if necessary, mixes with hot bleed air.
The conditioned air then passes a check valve and enters the compartment
through spray tubes in the cargo compartment ceiling. The air then exits
through two flapper doors into the area of the outflow valves and goes overboard. So you can see that in this system no cabin air enters the cargo
compartment.
You can select the necessary cargo temperature with the selector on the cabin
temperature control panel. The rotary switch has a temperature range of 5E C
- 26E C.
The selected temperature is controlled by a computer named the zone
temperature controller, which gets the cargo compartment temperature from
sensors.
The zone temperature controller uses this information to regulate the trim air
modulation valve.

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VENTILATION

Figure 80
HAM US hr

June 1998

AIR CONDITIONED CARGO COMPARTMENT


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ATA 21 Lesson 8

air conditioned cargo compartment cont.


If the aft cargo air conditioning system detects a fault condition, a message
starting with the word cargo is sent to the EICAS display.
If the whole aft cargo air conditioning system does not operate, a separate
ventilation system starts automatically.
This system has 2 blowers and uses cabin air. The system can also be used on
the ground.

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VENTILATION

Figure 81
HAM US hr

June 1998

FAULT CONDITION
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ATA 21 Lesson 8

LAVATORY AND GALLEY VENTILATION


This segment describes the function and layout of a typical lavatory and galley
ventilation system.
Air from the lavatories and galleys must be removed because this air can be
smelly, hot and wet. So there is a ventilation system of ducts and extraction
fans.
Air is removed from the lavatories and galleys by the extraction fan.
The extraction fan transports the air to the area of the outflow valve.The fan
runs continuously when electrical power is available or is switched off when
enough differential pressure is present to transport the air.
Some aircraft have a second fan in reserve in case the first fan does not operate.
In the lavatory, cabin air enters through a grill in the door and the air is
extracted through the duct in the ceiling.
A small quantity of fresh conditioned air comes through a separate duct from
the cabin distribution system.
The galley is ventilated in the same way.

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VENTILATION

Figure 82
HAM US hr

June 1998

EXTRACTION FAN
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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM


OVERVIEW
As you know, a modern aircraft uses many computers, electronic display
systems and other electric systems.
Most of this equipment is located in the cockpit and in the electric and
electronic compartment. This concentration of electric and electronic
components generates a lot of heat.
So the components need a cooling system to keep the temperature within an
acceptable range in order to prevent damage to the equipment.
A typical cooling system blows air around and through the electronic
components using a system of ducts and holes.
To cool the equipment you can use discharged cabin air or conditioned air from
the packs or air from outside the aircraft.
The hot air produced by the equipment is then transported directly out of the
aircraft or to the underfloor area from where it will be transported out of the
aircraft via the outflow valves or it is used to heat the forward cargo
compartment.
Sometimes the air remains in a closed loop and is reused after cooling by a
skin heat exchanger.
The equipment cooling system is completely independent of the air conditioning
system. It is usually fully automatic and controlled and regulated by its own
equipment cooling computer. But a manual override on the panel in the cockpit
is always avaiable.

For Training Purposes Only

SYSTEM COMPONENTS
The equipment cooling system uses electrically operated valves to control the
air flow for the different modes of operation. These valves work as shut--off
valves, but in some aircraft they can also be moved to a partially open position.
There are two similar fans in this cooling system which transports the air. They
guarantee system operation even if one fan is not operating.
Sometimes there is a skin heat exchanger installed which increases the cooling
efficiency. The skin heat exchanger is a duct or duct system directly under the
aircraft skin. It works as an air -- to -- air heat exchanger. Warm air flows
through this duct and is cooled by the cold skin when the aircraft is flying at
high altitudes.
HAM US hr

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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM

Figure 83
HAM US hr

JUNE 1998

EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM


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ATA 21 Lesson 9

system components cont.


For abnormal situations such as smoke there are extra valves in the equipment
cooling systems.
For example there is an override valve.
When it is open the differential pressure forces the surrounding air through the
panels and equipment out of the aircraft.
In some aircraft types there is also an air conditioning inlet valve which allows
use of conditioned air for cooling the equipment.

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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM

Figure 84
HAM US hr

JUNE 1998

ABNORMAL SITUATIONS
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ATA 21 Lesson 9

AUTOMATIC OPERATION
Usually the equipment cooling system works automatically in two different
modes.
These modes depend mainly on the ambient temperature and whether the aircraft is on the ground or in flight.
In automatic operation there are 2 normal modes.
One is called inboard, which means that the exhaust air goes to the underfloor
area or to the forward cargo compartment.
The second mode is called outboard, which means that the air goes out of the
aircraft.
The outboard mode is normally used on ground.
The electric equipment is cooled by air from outside the aircraft which enters
through the skin air inlet valve.
The 2 fans transport the air, which exits the aircraft via the extractor valve. All
other valves are closed.
When the outside temperature is so cold that the equipment could be damaged
by ice or humidity, cabin air is used instead of ambient air.
The inboard mode is normally used during flight, take off and landing. In this
mode the skin inlet and extractor valves are closed and discharged cabin air is
used.
In this inboard mode, as you can see, the air flows through the electric equipment and then goes to the underfloor area or to the forward cargo compartment.
During automatic operation, the equipment cooling system computer receives
all the data necessary to ensure that the equipment cooling system operates in
the best and safest way for the equipment.
In addition to the two modes shown, in some aircraft types there are several
other submodes available.
These Modes are defined by the manufacturer for each aircraft type.

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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM

Figure 85
HAM US hr

JUNE 1998

MODES OF EQUIPMENT COOLING


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OVERRIDE OPERATION
The override operation occurs for example when the equipment cooling system
has a component failure or if smoke is detected.
In these abnormal situations the cockpit crew gets an indication from the
controller. When this happens they must manually operate the cooling system.
If there is a component failure, for example if 1 fan is damaged then a low flow
situation is detected by a low flow detector. This low flow detector sends a
signal to the equipment cooling system computer. In this case, the cockpit crew
gets a caution message on the ECAM/EICAS display.
On some aircraft types a fault light is also displayed.
In our example the blower push button switch has to be pushed to close the
valves.
The equipment continues to be cooled by the one operational fan which moves
the air in a closed circuit around the equipment and by the surrounding air from
the cockpit.
On some aircraft this configuration is selected automatically.
The cooling efficiency can be increased by supplying conditioned pack air or by
using a skin heat exchanger.
If a smoke detector detects smoke you get a smoke warning in the cokpit, a
caution message appears on the ECAM/EICAS displays and on some aircraft a
fault light also illuminates.
When this happens the equipment cooling system must be set to the override
mode and the air sent out of the aircraft for safety.
There is further information in lesson 26--3 about smoke detection in the
equipment cooling system.
The switch or switches for putting the system in override operation are on the
ventilation panel.
You must press the blower and extract pushbutton switches to put the system
in override operation.
The override operation turns off the 2 fans opens the extractor valve and on
some aircraft also the air conditioning inlet valve. All other valves are closed.
The cabin differential pressure gives an air flow through the equipment and
causes the air to flow out of the aircraft.
The system operates in the same way if the two fans are damaged.

HAM US hr

JUNE 1998

A ground crew call horn alerts the ground crew when the cooling air gets too
hot or a blower is not working correctly.

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EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM

Figure 86
HAM US hr

JUNE 1998

OVERRIDE OPERATION
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PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM


DEFINITIONS
As you probably already know from the aerodynamic lessons the atmospheric
pressure decreases with a function of increasing altitude.
Modern jet aircraft operate at altitudes of about 40000 ft.
Human beings prefer an atmospheric environment near sea--level, but they can
usually compensate the effects of decreasing pressure up to an altitude of
10000 ft. Therefore we need a pressurized aircraft cabin.
The cabin pressure is usually expressed by the cabin pressure altitude or cabin
altitude for short.
The aviation regulations for commercial aircraft limit the maximum cabin
altitude during flight to 8000 ft. This is a compromise between acceptable
environmental conditions and the structural stress applied to the fuselage as a
result of the pressurized cabin.
Atmospheric pressure is usually measured in hecto Pascal. But in the cabin
pressurization many values are given in psi, so we will mainly use the psi scale.
For example the pressure difference between the absolute pressure inside the
cabin and the ambient pressure, called differential pressure or delta p, is
measured in psi.
The differential pressure is the parameter for the structural stress from cabin
pressurization.
To make the amount of stress easier to understand you must calculate the
force that acts on 1m2 of fuselage area.
The standard dimension for force is the Newton and you should remember that
14.5 psi corresponds to 10 Newton per cm2. . This gives for a differential
pressure of 8.2 psi a force of about 56500 Newtons that act on 1m2.
This corresponds to a weight of 5.700 liters of water that act on the earth
surface that is 5.7 tons.

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3
8,000

Figure 87
HAM US jk

June 1998

CABIN ALTITUDE DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE


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ATA 21 Lesson 10

definitions cont.
When the aircraft is on ground with open doors the ambient pressure and the
cabin pressure are the same.
Now the aircraft climbs to 40000 ft in 20 minutes. This means that the aircraft
has a positive rate of climb of 2000 ft /min, this is also called vertical speed.
In the same time the cabin has to climb only to 8000 ft. This is called the cabin
rate or cabin vertical speed. In our example the cabin climbs, with a positive
climb rate of 400 ft/min. This means that the pressure in the cabin decreases
at the same time
When there is a negative cabin rate, like during a descent, then the pressure
increases. This means that an increase of cabin altitude is always a decrease
of the cabin pressure and a decrease of cabin altitude is an increase of cabin
pressure.
The pressure changes and therefore the cabin rates must not exceed a certain
value for a longer period of time. This is because the human ear needs some
time to compensate for the pressure inside the inner ear. Therefore the positive
cabin rate should not exceed 500 ft /min and the negative cabin rate should
not exceed 300 ft/min per minute.

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PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

Figure 88
HAM US jk

June 1998

CABIN RATE
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SYSTEM LAYOUT
As you have learned already the pressurized cabin gets a constant airflow from
the air conditioning system.
The pressure in the cabin is regulated by one or more outflow valves, which
limit the amount of air leaving the cabin. You can find the valves on the aft
fuselage or on some aircraft there is one aft valve and one forward valve.
Air also leaves the cabin via leakages and overboard vents for example from
the lavatories. This is taken into account by the control circuits.
The cabin pressure and therefore the cabin altitude is stable when the amount
of air which enters the cabin and the amount of air which leaves the cabin are
the same.
When pack number 2 is switched off the cabin air supply is decreased.
Without any reaction the cabin altitude increases.
To stabilize the cabin altitude you must also decrease the amount of air that
leaves the cabin.
When the outflow valves are driven to a more closed position the airflow that
leaves the cabin is decreased. This stabilizes the cabin altitude again at for example 6000 ft.
Another parameter that influences the cabin pressure is the flight altitude,
because it determines the differential pressure at the outflow valves.
When the aircraft flies higher, for example at 40000 ft, the differential pressure
increases. This also increases the airflow through the outflow valves if they
stay in the same position. Therefore to hold the cabin altitude at the same level
you must drive the outflow valves toward closed.
Note that some aircraft types have a reduced maximum flight altitude when
only one pack is operating. This is for when you cannot hold the cabin altitude
even with fully closed outflow valves.

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PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

Figure 89
HAM US jk

June 1998

CABIN PRESSURIZATION
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

definitions cont.
Some aircraft types have an overboard shutoff valve instead of a forward
outflow--valve.
Usually the valve is closed and the recirculation fans suck the air from the forward cabin underfloor area back into the distribution.
When the recirculation fans are switched off the valve opens to extract the air
from the forward area to overboard.

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PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM

Figure 90
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June 1998

OVERBOARD SHUTOFF VALVE


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ATA 21 Lesson 10

PROTECTION FUNCTIONS
The aviation regulations require that pressurization systems have protection
functions.
They must prevent damage to the aircraft and injury to the people on board,
when the system has a failure or when extreme environmental conditions appear.
The protection functions must become active when there is an excessive cabin
altitude, or excessive differential pressure, or negative differential pressure.
When the cabin altitude increases above normal values -- 3 things must
happen at different altitudes.
Before reaching 10000 ft the flight crew gets a warning to put on the oxygen
masks.
At 14000 ft the oxygen masks are automatically released from the passenger
cabin ceiling.
At 15000 ft the outflow valves must close automatically and independently of
the normal control signal.
When the differential pressure increases the stress on the aircraft structure
also increases.
To prevent structural damage the aircraft must have at least 2 safety valves
also called positive pressure relief valves. You can find the valves for example
in the area of the aft pressure bulkhead.
The valves open against a spring when the differential pressure exceeds a
maximum allowed value. This value depends on the aircraft type and starts at
about 8.5 psi.
Below this value the valve closes again so that the differential pressure is
limited to this value.
A negative differential pressure means that the pressure in the cabin is lower
than the ambient pressure. This is very dangerous because the fuselage is only
constructed for a positive differential pressure.
A negative pressure relief valve prevents this, because it opens when the
ambient pressure is higher than the cabin pressure.
In some aircraft types you do not find a separate negative pressure relief valve,
because this is also a function of the safety valve. You will see this in more
detail later in this lesson.

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ATA 21 Lesson 10

Cockpit Warning

Outflow Valves close

For Training Purposes Only

Exessive Differential Pressure

Negative Differential Pressure

Figure 91
HAM US jk

June 1998

Negative
Pressure
Relief
Valve

EXCESSIVE CABIN ALTITUDE OR PRESSURE


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protection functions cont.


Pressure differences can also happen between different pressurized areas
inside the aircraft.
For example between the airtight cargo compartments and the underfloor area.
To prevent damage to walls you can find equalization valves in these
compartments.
The valves are springloaded flapper valves that open when there is a small
pressure difference.
In the event of a rapid pressure change the equalization valves are not large
enough. Therefore additional blowout panels blow out of their frames and allow
pressure equalization. This can happen for example in a rapid decompression
or an explosion.

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Figure 92
HAM US jk

June 1998

EQUALIZATION VALVES
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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 10

CONTROL AND INDICATION


In the cabin pressurization systems on modern aircraft the control panel is on
the overhead panel in the cockpit.
The main indications appear on the system synoptic of the ECAM or EICAS.
Here we will use the ECAM display as an example.
The cabin pressurization system usually works in 3 different modes, the
automatic mode, the semiautomatic mode and the manual mode.
In the automatic mode, the system operates fully automaticaly and requires no
manual inputs.
On the system display the indication of the landing field elevation has changed
from auto to manual and shows the selected value of 2000 ft.
Cabin pressurization is controlled in the auto and semi automatic mode by one
of the 2 redundant cabin pressure controllers, also called CPC.
When 1 controller fails the other controller takes over control and you can see
the result on the system display.
In the semi automatic mode the system operates primarily automatic but needs
some manual inputs, for example you must select the landing field elevation.

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Figure 93
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June 1998

INDICATION
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

control and indication cont.


When both cabin pressure controllers fail the flight crew gets a failure message
and must select the manual mode.
The manual mode always has priority over the automatic modes even when the
controllers are ok.
In manual mode you directly control the outflow valves with a toggle switch.
The switch is springloded to neutral.
In our example the aircraft flies at 30000 ft with a stable cabin altitude of
6000 ft. This means that the cabin vertical speed is zero and the differential
pressure is about 7.4 psi and the outflow valve is partially open.
As long as you hold the toggle switch in the up position the outflow valve drives
to open at about 3E /s . This decreases the cabin pressure which, increases
the cabin altitude with a positive cabin vertical speed until a new stabilized
situation is reached.
As long as you hold the toggle switch in the down position the outflow valve
drives to closed at about 3E/s. This increases the cabin pressure which,
decreases the cabin altitude with a negative cabin vertical speed until a new
stabilized situation is reached.
Normaly you should only toggle the manual control switch for short periods to
prevent rapid pressure changes.
You have now seen all indications of the cabin pressurization system in the
manual mode.
In the automatic modes the same indications are used.

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Figure 94
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June 1998

CABIN PRESSURE CONTROLLER


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ATA 21 Lesson 10

DITCHING MODE
In some aircraft types you can find a ditching pushbutton on the control panel.
You can use this button to isolate the cabin from entering water during an
emergency landing on sea
When you press the ditching pushbutton you close all valves below the flotation
line of the aircraft, and also the pack valves, so water cant enter the aircraft via
these valves.
When the negative pressure relief valve is located below the flotation line, as in
our example, a standpipe prevents water entering the cabin.
When you press the ditching pushbutton with the aircraft on the ground you
must be very careful, because the closing valves can injure personnel that are
near the valves.
You must also ensure that the cabin is not pressurized by an external air
conditioning unit, because an uncontrolled cabin pressure can build up .
Note that the equipment cooling is also effected when their valves are closed.
During the aircraft normal ground time the outflow valves are fully open to
prevent unintended cabin pressurization.
You can see on the indication that the valves for the equipment cooling system
are also open.

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Figure 95
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June 1998

DITCHING MODE
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

AUTOMATIC MODE
As you already know a cabin pressure controller automatically controls the
normal pressurization.
To do this the controller uses the atmospheric ambient pressure. It receives the
pressure from the air data system or from a static port. It also uses the cabin
pressure from a direct pressure port on the controller.
The controller converts pressure signals into altitudes.
For an average value it uses the references of the international standard atmosphere which you know from other units such as aerodynamics and oxygen.
To get exact values you must take into account the actual weather conditions
which influence the pressure. This is acheived by a reference pressure signal
called the barometric correction.
In modern aircraft either the flight management or the air data system delivers
this signal automatically.
On other aircraft you must select this barometric correction value on the
pressurization panel.

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BAROMETRIC
CORRECTION

Figure 96
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June 1998

AUTOMATIC MODE
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

automatic mode cont.


To study the normal operation of the cabin pressurization system we look at the
cabin altitude in relation to the flight altitude during different phases of a flight.
We start our flight with the aircraft parked on the ground. During this time the
pressurization system works in the ground mode.
The controller usually gets the ground information automatically from the air /
ground sensing system.
On some older aircraft types you must set a switch on the control panel to the
ground position to go to the ground mode. In the ground mode the outflow
valves are commanded to the fully open position to prevent unintended cabin
pressurization.
The result is that the aircraft and the cabin altitude are the same as the airport
elevation, which is 1000 ft in our example .

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ATA 21 Lesson 10

1000 ft
Sea
Level

Figure 97
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June 1998

GROUND MODE
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

automatic mode cont.


When take off is initiated the pressurization system starts the pre
pressurization mode.
This situation is usually detected on the ground by the throttle position and the
engine parameters.
On some aircraft types pre pressurization starts when the aircraft accelerates
to a certain speed.
On aircraft with the flight ground switch on the panel you must select the flight
position to start the pre-pressurization. The pre-pressurization mode increases
the cabin pressure which decreases the cabin altitude to below the airport
elevation.
The higher cabin pressure stabilizes the fuselage, as shown in our example
with perkies balloon. It also proves that there are no air leaks from the cabin,
for example at the doors. It also prevents pressure fluctuations during aircraft
rotation when the airflow hits open valves.

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ATA 21 Lesson 10

T/O

Sea
Level
HAM US jk

-Throttles
-Engine
Parameters
-Aircraft
Speed

Pre-Pressurization
Figure 98
June 1998

PRE-RESSURIZATION MODE
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

automatic mode cont.


When the aircraft leaves the ground the air ground logic activates the climb
mode.
Modern pressurization systems have an internal and an external climb mode.
In the internal climb mode the controller calculates the cabin rate in proportion
to the aircraft altitude rate, so that at the maximum flight altitude, here for
example 40000 ft, you reach the maximum cabin altitude of 8000 ft. This mode
is therefore also called proportional mode.
A disadvantage of the internal mode is that the cabin rate is sometimes high
and changes during the climb which is not comfortable for the passengers.

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Sea
Level

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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 10

Climb

Figure 99
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Beijing

INTERNAL CLIMB MODE


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automatic mode cont.


In the external climb mode the controller calculates a smooth and constant
cabin rate. This is more comfortable for the passengers.
This calculation is based on information from the flight management system
which calculates the time to reach the top of climb.

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Time to
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Time to Reach

Figure 100
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June 1998

EXTERNAL CLIMB MODE


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ATA 21 Lesson 10

automatic mode cont.


2 abnormal situations can stop the external climb mode:
When there is no flight management data available the pressure controller
automatically switches to the internal mode.
When the pilot interrupts the climb and the aircraft starts to descend the
controller activates the abort mode. In this mode the cabin altitude is
automatically decreased to the value for a landing at the take off airport. This
decreases the workload for the pilots during an unplanned flight abortion.

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Sea
Level

Figure 101
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June 1998

ABORT MODE
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

automatic mode cont.


In normal flights the cruise phase follows the climb phase.
The pressure controller switches to the cruise mode when the aircraft reaches
the top of the climb or when the pilot stops the climb early for example due to
advice of air traffic control.

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Top of Climb

Sea
Level

Figure 102
HAM US jk

June 1998

CRUISE PHASE
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

automatic mode cont.


In cruise mode the cabin altitude is regulated to a determined level.
Normally the pressure controller uses the cabin altitude with the maximum differential pressure because this gives the best passenger comfort.
A safety margin allows to keep a constant cabin altitude even when the aircraft
makes small altitude changes.
When the planned cruise altitude is lower than the maximum flight altitude, for
instance during short flights, than the cabin altitude is also calculated with the
maximum differential pressure.
Only when the cabin altitude for landing will be higher than the cabin altitude for
maximum differential pressure than the cabin altitude for landing is already
used as the cabin cruise altitude.

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FUNDAMENTALS
ATA 21 Lesson 10

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SAFETY
MARGIN

Sea
Level

Sea
Level

Figure 103
HAM US jk

June 1998

CRUISE MODE
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

automatic mode cont.


When the aircraft begins to descend the controller starts the descent mode.
This mode can work again in either internal or external mode, with basically the
same functions as the climb mode.
In the external descent mode the controller needs additional data from the flight
management system. These are the landing field elevation which is the
elevation of the landing airport and the time to arrival, which is the time to fly
from the top of descent to the airport.
The final cabin altitude is calculated to between 100 and 200 ft below the field
elevation. This is for the same reason already shown for the pre pressurization
mode.
The internal descent mode is used when FMS data is not available. In this
situation you must select the field elevation manually, which you learned in the
semi--automatic operation.
The cabin rate is recalculated in proportion to the aircraft altitude rate.
After touchdown, which is detected by the air ground logic, the controller
switches back to the ground mode. This means that the outflow valves drive to
the fully open position which depressurizes the cabin over a defined time
period.
In aircraft with the flight--ground switch you must select the ground position
after touchdown to activate the ground mode.
In aircraft with 2 cabin pressure controllers the controller in command is
changed at touchdown
The standby controller becomes the active one and vice versa.

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ATA 21 Lesson 10

Sea
Level

Figure 104
HAM US jk

June 1998

DESCENT MODE
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

OUTFLOW AND SAFETY VALVES


Outflow valves have independent electrical motors with gears and position
sensors.
The outflow valve in our example has 3 motors, 2 AC motors and 1 DC motor.
Only 1 motor can be active at a time.
Outflow valves of modern aircraft also have electronic circuits that convert
digital signals from the pressure controllers into analog control signals for the
2 AC motors.
When cabin pressure controller number 1 is active AC motor number 1 drives
the outflow valve. AC motor number 2 is disabled by a brake.
When cabin pressure controller number 2 is active AC motor number 2 drives
the outflow valve. AC motor number 1 is disabled by a brake.
When the cabin pressurization system is switched to manual mode the
DC motor is used. This allows manual pressure control at any time even when
only DC power is available from the electrical power system

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Figure 105
HAM US jk

June 1998

OUTFLOW VALVES
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

outflow and safety valves cont.


Here you can see a safety valve which has an overpressure and negative
pressure relief function.
The valve has the following main parts: A controller assembly and a diaphragm
assembly which is normally pressed by a spring to the valve body.
Please note, the valve only works correctly if the airflow is not blocked.
Sensitive parts are the filter, the fixed orifice and the static pressure port.
During normal operation the valve is kept closed by the spring force which is
assisted by the cabin pressure. This ensures no air can go from the cabin to
ambient and vice versa.

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Figure 106
HAM US jk

June 1998

SAFETY VALVE
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

outflow and safety valves cont.


When the positive differential pressure limit is exceeded the controller
assembly vents the control chamber to ambient.
This decreases the pressure above the diaphragm which allows the cabin
pressure on the lower side to lift the diaphragm assembly. This releases the
excessive cabin pressure to ambient.
When there is a negative differential pressure the higher ambient pressure lifts
the diaphragm assembly, so that ambient air can enter the cabin. This
equalizes the different pressures.

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Figure 107
HAM US jk

June 1998

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

CABIN PRESSURE LEAKAGE TEST


During this test you pressurize the cabin to a pressure which is about 4 psi
higher than the ambient pressure.
This gives a very high absolute cabin pressure which is not reached during the
normal operation of the aircraft. This pressure can damage pressure sensitive
equipment inside the pressurized area of the aircraft.
Pressure sensitive equipment includes computers with pressure ports, oxygen
regulators and masks, sensitive pressure switches and fluid tanks for example
water tanks and auxiliary fuel tanks.
To prevent damage to equipment always follow the instructions in the
maintenance manual very carefully.
For example you must remove pressure sensitive components such as the
oxygen regulator and masks. You must also remove components like this
computer which has cabin pressure ports or you must seal the cabin pressure
ports as shown here on the pressure switch.
Components that are connected to external pressure ports such as the air data
computer must have airtight connections to the pitot static system.
You must also protect the liquid tanks against pressure damage, for example fill
the water tanks.
You must also ensure all aircraft skin outlets are closed to pressurize the cabin.
This means you have no normal equipment cooling. This can cause overheating in electrical and electronic equipment

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Figure 108
HAM US jk

June 1998

LEAKAGE TEST
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

cabin pressure leakage test cont.


Prior to pressurization inform other personnel and put safety barriers in
position.
This keeps people out of the working area and prevents for example that anybody tries to open a door from the outside.
On some aircraft types you can find a red warning light on the door which
illuminates when the cabin is pressurized.
You can do the pressurization with special external equipment via the low
pressure ground connector. In this example no personnel is needed inside the
cabin or cockpit to monitor the pressurization.
Another possibility for pressurization is to use normal pressure sources for
example the APU and switch on the packs. In this case 2 personnel must be in
the cockpit for safety reasons to operate and monitor the system. These
personnel must be healthy and must not have influenza.
You need also a person outside the aircraft with an interphone connection to
monitor the aircraft and cockpit personal.
Before the pressurization starts you must switch on the aircraft beacon lights.
The pressurization is done in the manual mode which you have already seen
in this lesson.
Always use the aircraft type related test procedure in chapter 5 of the
maintenance manual and the additional company related procedures.

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Figure 109
HAM US jk

June 1998

SAFETY BARRIERS
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ATA 21 Lesson 10

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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ATA 21 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . .

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRESSURIZATION AND ZONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR CONDITIONING FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYTEM LAYOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
4
8
16

TEMPERATURE CONTROL OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18
18

COOLING DESCRIPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COOLING PACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OZON CONVERTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK VALVE FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HEAT EXCHANGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR CYCLE MACHINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BYPASS VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RAM AIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26
26
28
30
34
42
44
50
54

WATER SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LOW PRESSURE WATER SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HIGH PRESSURE WATER SEPARATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ICE PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58
58
62
68
74

PACK CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80
80
82
84
90

DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RECIRCULATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COCKPIT AIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RAM AIR AND GROUND SUPPLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98
98
100
108
112
116

ZONE TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRIM AIR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MANUAL TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROTECTION CIRCUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

118
118
118
120
122
126
128
138

VENTILATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NON VENTILATED CARGO COMPARTMENT . . . . . . . .
VENTILATED CARGO COMPARTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CARGO COMPARTMENT HEATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR CONDITIONED CARGO COMPARTMENT . . . . . . . .
LAVATORY AND GALLEY VENTILATION . . . . . . . . . . . . .

142
142
144
144
152
158
164

EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYSTEM COMPONENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUTOMATIC OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OVERRIDE OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

166
166
166
170
172

PRESSURE CONTROL SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYSTEM LAYOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROTECTION FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTROL AND INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DITCHING MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUTOMATIC MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OUTFLOW AND SAFETY VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CABIN PRESSURE LEAKAGE TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

174
174
178
182
186
190
192
210
216

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TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19
Figure 20
Figure 21
Figure 22
Figure 23
Figure 24
Figure 25
Figure 26
Figure 27
Figure 28
Figure 29
Figure 30
Figure 31
Figure 32
Figure 33
Figure 34
Figure 35

AIR CONDITIONING FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


PRESSURIZATION AND ZONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRCRAFT ZONES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REGULATIONS FOR AIRFRESHNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CLEANLINESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HUMIDITY OF AIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRESSURIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYSTEM LAYOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR CONDITIONING COMPONENT LOCATION . . . . .
VAPOR CYCLE MACHINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR CYCLE MACHINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COOLING PACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CATALYTIC OZONE CONVERTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK VALVE & SWITCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REGULATING ASSEMBLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIRFLOW DIAGRAMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HI FLOW SELECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK FLOW SELECTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HEAT EXCHANGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR-CYCLE MASCHINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BYPASS VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BYPASS VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HEAT EXCHANGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RAM AIR INLET / EXIT DOORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WATER CONTENT IN AIR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WATER SEPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LOW PRESSURE WATER SEPARATOR . . . . . . . . . . . .
WATER SEPERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WATER ASPIRATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HIGH PRESSURE SEPARATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WATER EXTRACTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55
57
59
61
63
65
67
69
71

Figure 36
Figure 37
Figure 38
Figure 39
Figure 40
Figure 41
Figure 42
Figure 43
Figure 44
Figure 45
Figure 46
Figure 47
Figure 48
Figure 49
Figure 50
Figure 51
Figure 52
Figure 53
Figure 54
Figure 55
Figure 56
Figure 57
Figure 58
Figure 59
Figure 60
Figure 61
Figure 62
Figure 63
Figure 64
Figure 65
Figure 66
Figure 67
Figure 68
Figure 69
Figure 70

DRY CONDITIONED & WARM BYPASSED AIR . . . . .


ICE PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ANTI ICE VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR CONDITIONED PACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FAILURE CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PACK FAILURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ECS PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BLEED PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MAINTENANCE PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIXING UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR FLOW FROM MIXING UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PASSENGER CABIN AIR DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . .
AIR DISTRIBUTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PASSENGERS INDIVIDUAL AIR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . .
RECIRCULATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RECIRCULATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS . . . . . . . .
FRESH AIR TO THE COCKPIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR DISTRIBUTION COCKPIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EMERGENCY RAM AIR INLET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRIM AIR SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MANUAL TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUTOMATIC TEMPERATURE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . .
TRIM AIR VALVE CONTROL CIRCUTS . . . . . . . . . . . .
PROTECTION CIRCUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRIM AIR VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TRIM AIR PRESSURE REGULATING VALVE . . . . . . .
VALVE IN UNPRESSURIZED AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DUCT TEMPERATURE SENSOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ZONE TEMPERATURE SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CONTROLS AND INDICATIONS ON 747 . . . . . . . . . . .

73
75
77
79
81
83
85
87
89
91
93
95
97
99
101
103
105
107
109
111
113
115
117
119
121
123
125
127
129
131
133
135
137
139
141

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TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 71
Figure 72
Figure 73
Figure 74
Figure 75
Figure 76
Figure 77
Figure 78
Figure 79
Figure 80
Figure 81
Figure 82
Figure 83
Figure 84
Figure 85
Figure 86
Figure 87
Figure 88
Figure 89
Figure 90
Figure 91
Figure 92
Figure 93
Figure 94
Figure 95
Figure 96
Figure 97
Figure 98
Figure 99
Figure 100
Figure 101
Figure 102
Figure 103
Figure 104
Figure 105

VENTILATION SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CARGO COMPARTMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VENTILATED CARGO COMPARTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . .
VENTILATED CARGO COMPARTMENT . . . . . . . . . . . .
CARGO VENTILATION CONTROLLER . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ELECTRICAL HEATING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CARGO HEATING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CARGO OVERHEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AIR CONDITIONED CARGO COMPARTMENT . . . . . .
AIR CONDITIONED CARGO COMPARTMENT . . . . . .
FAULT CONDITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXTRACTION FAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EQUIPMENT COOLING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ABNORMAL SITUATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MODES OF EQUIPMENT COOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OVERRIDE OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CABIN ALTITUDE DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE . . . . .
CABIN RATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CABIN PRESSURIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OVERBOARD SHUTOFF VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXCESSIVE CABIN ALTITUDE OR PRESSURE . . . . .
EQUALIZATION VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INDICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CABIN PRESSURE CONTROLLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DITCHING MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUTOMATIC MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GROUND MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRE-RESSURIZATION MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INTERNAL CLIMB MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EXTERNAL CLIMB MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ABORT MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CRUISE PHASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CRUISE MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DESCENT MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
OUTFLOW VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

143
145
147
149
151
153
155
157
159
161
163
165
167
169
171
173
175
177
179
181
183
185
187
189
191
193
195
197
199
201
203
205
207
209
211

Figure 106
Figure 107
Figure 108
Figure 109

SAFETY VALVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LEAKAGE TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SAFETY BARRIERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

213
215
217
219

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