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Drainage

Notice:
This document is issued for the sole purpose of stakeholder engagement in advance of a
stakeholder workshop to be held on 18 and 19 June 2013.
The contents of the document are draft and must not be used for any purpose other than
preparation for the said workshop.
Note that the document is a work-in-progress and as such may contain inaccuracies in cross
referencing, table and figure referencing and page numbering. It may also contain rough drafts of
figures and could include inconsistencies and areas of text yet to be developed.

Drainage

Contents
Glossary ............................................................................................................................................... 1
1

Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 5
1.1

Overview ........................................................................................................................... 5

1.2

Scope ................................................................................................................................. 5

1.3

Scope of manual ................................................................................................... 5

1.2.2

Responsibilities ..................................................................................................... 6

Drainage design philosophy .............................................................................................. 6


1.3.1

Minor system........................................................................................................ 6

1.3.2

Major system ........................................................................................................ 7

1.4

Functions of Highway Drainage ........................................................................................ 7

1.5

Climatic and physical considerations ................................................................................ 9

1.6
2

1.2.1

1.5.1

Resilience and urban creep .................................................................................. 9

1.5.2

Climate change ................................................................................................... 11

Policies and environmental controls ............................................................................... 11

Project Initiation ........................................................................................................................ 13


2.1

Gateway 1 summary ....................................................................................................... 13

2.2

Data gathering ................................................................................................................. 15

2.3

Catchment assessment ................................................................................................... 16


2.3.1

Overview ............................................................................................................ 16

2.3.2

Flood Risk Assessment ....................................................................................... 18

2.4

Consideration of road geometry ..................................................................................... 21

2.5

Determine viable outfalls ................................................................................................ 22

2.6

Consideration of treated sewage effluent (TSE) ............................................................. 22

2.7

Identify pollution control requirements ......................................................................... 22


2.7.1

Background......................................................................................................... 22

2.7.2

Scope .................................................................................................................. 23

2.7.3

Purpose............................................................................................................... 23

2.8

Develop Strategy ............................................................................................................. 23

2.9

Initial stakeholder engagement ...................................................................................... 23

Pre-design work ......................................................................................................................... 25


3.1

Gateway 2 summary ....................................................................................................... 25

3.2

Design criteria ................................................................................................................. 26


3.2.1

Flood return periods........................................................................................... 26

3.2.2

Acceptable highway flood standards ................................................................. 26

Drainage

3.3

Hydrological data............................................................................................................ 27
3.3.1

Rainfall characterisation .................................................................................... 27

3.3.2

Run-off coefficients (C) ...................................................................................... 30

Figure 3.43: Run-off coefficients for Urban Catchments ............................................... 31

3.4

3.5

3.3.3

Catchment area (A)............................................................................................ 31

3.3.4

Surface run-off (Q) ............................................................................................. 32

3.3.5

The Colebrook-White equation ......................................................................... 32

3.3.6

Manning's equation ........................................................................................... 33

3.3.7

Time of concentration (Tc) ................................................................................ 33

3.3.8

Hydrogeology (P) ............................................................................................... 34

Hydraulic analysis processes .......................................................................................... 35


3.4.1

Overview ............................................................................................................ 35

3.4.2

The rational method .......................................................................................... 35

3.4.3

Mathematical models ........................................................................................ 37

Pollution control process................................................................................................ 38


3.5.1

3.6
4

Method .............................................................................................................. 38

Review process ............................................................................................................... 46

Detailed design work ................................................................................................................ 47


4.1

Gateway 3 summary ....................................................................................................... 47

4.2

Design in urban areas ..................................................................................................... 48

4.3

4.4

4.2.1

Urban catchments ............................................................................................. 48

4.2.2

Positive drainage ............................................................................................... 49

4.2.3

Drainage of the carriageway ............................................................................. 49

4.2.4

Design of traditional drainage capture techniques ........................................... 53

4.2.5

Drainage of medians, foot-ways and verges ..................................................... 64

4.2.6

Emergency flood areas (EFA) ............................................................................. 65

4.2.7

Swales -sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) ........................................ 66

4.2.8

Retention of storm-water .................................................................................. 66

Design in rural areas ....................................................................................................... 67


4.3.1

Rural catchments ............................................................................................... 67

4.3.2

Drainage of the carriageway ............................................................................. 67

4.3.3

Drainage of medians and verges ....................................................................... 68

4.3.4

Natural surface drainage ................................................................................... 69

Junction Drainage ........................................................................................................... 70


4.4.1

Considerations for drainage at junctions .......................................................... 70

ii

Drainage

4.5

4.4.2

T junctions ....................................................................................................... 71

4.4.3

Roundabouts ...................................................................................................... 73

4.4.4

At grade junctions .............................................................................................. 74

4.4.5

Grade separated junctions ................................................................................. 74

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) ............................................................................. 74


4.5.1

Introduction to SuDS .......................................................................................... 74

4.5.2

Infiltration Guidance .......................................................................................... 78

4.5.3

Specification of Suitable Vegetation .................................................................. 79

TBC

79

4.5.4

Pervious Surfaces ............................................................................................... 80

4.5.5

Soakaways .......................................................................................................... 83

4.5.6

Swales ................................................................................................................. 86

4.5.7

Filter Trenches and Drains .................................................................................. 89

4.5.8

Bioretention Areas ............................................................................................. 92

4.5.9

Sand Filters ......................................................................................................... 96

4.5.10 Basins................................................................................................................ 100

4.6

Pollution control............................................................................................................ 105

4.7

Maintenance strategies................................................................................................. 105


4.7.1

Planned maintenance....................................................................................... 106

4.7.2

Re-active Maintenance..................................................................................... 106

Subsurface Drainage ................................................................................................................ 107


5.1

Introduction .................................................................................................................. 107

5.2

Subsurface drainage methods ...................................................................................... 108


5.2.1

General design considerations ......................................................................... 108

5.2.2

Considerations for fin drains and narrow filter drains: ....................................108

5.2.3

Considerations for combined carrier filter drains: ...........................................108

5.2.4

Special considerations for coastal areas ..........................................................109

Appendix A .............................................................................................................................. 110


6.1

Doha .............................................................................................................................. 111

6.2

Al Ruwais ....................................................................................................................... 112

6.3

Al Saliyah ....................................................................................................................... 113

6.4

Dokhan .......................................................................................................................... 114

6.5

Abu Samra ..................................................................................................................... 115

6.6

Umm Bab ....................................................................................................................... 116

Appendix B............................................................................................................................... 117

iii

Drainage

7.1

Doha ............................................................................................................................. 118

7.2

Al Ruwais ...................................................................................................................... 119

7.3

Al Saliyah ...................................................................................................................... 120

7.4

Dokhan ......................................................................................................................... 121

7.5

Abu Samra .................................................................................................................... 122

7.6

Umm Bab ...................................................................................................................... 123

Tables
Table 1.1: Considerations for the design life of roads...................................................................... 10
Table 2.1: Typical permeability values by soil type (From QHDDM) ................................................ 17
Table 2.2: Flood risk classification .................................................................................................... 18
Table 2.3: Flood risk vulnerability classification (based on NPPF Technical Guide P9) ................. 21
Table 3.1: Required levels of flood protection for each road classification ..................................... 26
Table 3.2: Guidelines for flood standards on Qatar roadways......................................................... 27
Table 3.3: Likely viable software packages for mathematical modelling ......................................... 38
Table 3.4: Pollution control requirements ....................................................................................... 41
Table 3.5: Levels of treatment options for pollution control ........................................................... 42
Table 3.6: Spillage rates (SS) ............................................................................................................. 43
Table 3.7: Probability of a serious pollution incident occurring as a result of a serious spillage .... 44
Table 3.8: Spillages and risk reduction factors (indicative) .............................................................. 45
Table 4.1: Design flow widths on various road types (typical values of B) ...................................... 57
Table 4.2: Design flow widths for special situations (typical values of B) ........................................ 58
Table 4.3: Typical values of Mannings n for various surfaces ........................................................ 59
Table 4.4: Maintenance factor m ................................................................................................... 59
Table 4.5: Grating type design values .............................................................................................. 60
Table 4.6: Grating bar pattern coefficient ........................................................................................ 61
Table 4.7: Limiting parameters to equation for design of level of nearly level roads ..................... 63
Table 4.8: Values for index W ........................................................................................................... 63
Table 4.9 - Potential suitability for SUDS installation on Urban Roads ............................................ 76
Table 4.10 - Potential Suitability for SUDS Installation on Rural Roads ........................................... 77
Table 4.11: Potentially suitable locations for a pervious surface..................................................... 80
Table 4.12: Pervious surface maintenance requirements ............................................................... 82
Table 4.13: Potentially suitable site locations for soakaway installation......................................... 84
Table 4.14: Soakaway maintenance requirements .......................................................................... 86
Table 4.15: Potentially suitable locations for installing a swale....................................................... 87
Table 4.16: Swale maintenance requirements ................................................................................. 89
Table 4.17: Potentially suitable locations for trenches .................................................................... 90
Table 4.18: Potential suitable locations for bioretention areas ....................................................... 93
Table 4.19: Maintenance requirements for bioretention areas ...................................................... 94
Table 4.20: Potential site locations for sand filters .......................................................................... 97
Table 4.21: Sand filter maintenance requirements........................................................................ 100
Table 4.22: Potentially suitable locations for a basin ..................................................................... 102
Table 4.23: Maintenance requirements for basins ........................................................................ 105

iv

Drainage

Figures
Figure 1.1: Design gateways process overview .................................................................................. 5
Figure 1.2: Functions of highway drainage ....................................................................................... 8
Figure 2.1: Project initiation process steps ...................................................................................... 14
Figure 2.2: Data gathering process steps ......................................................................................... 15
Figure 2.3: Catchment assessment process steps............................................................................ 16
Figure 2.4: Stakeholder engagement process steps ........................................................................ 24
Figure 3.1: Pre-design process steps ................................................................................................ 25
Equation 3.1: IDF relationship equation (from Section 11.1, study of regional design rainfall, Qatar,
2013) ................................................................................................................................................ 28
Figure 3.2: Intensity-Frequency-Duration relationship for Al Ruwais (current climatic condition)
(from Study of Regional Design Rainfall, Qatar- Volume 1, Chapter 11, Figure 11-6) ..................... 29
Figure 3.3: Intensity-Frequency-Duration relationship for Al Ruwais (2070-99) (from Study of
Regional Design Rainfall, Qatar- Volume 1, Chapter 12, Figure 12-16) ........................................... 30
Figure 3.43: Run-off coefficients for Urban Catchments ................................................................. 31
Figure 3.4: Rational method process ............................................................................................... 36
Figure 3.5: Pollution control procedure flowchart .......................................................................... 40
Figure 4.1: Detailed design process steps ........................................................................................ 47
Figure 4.2: Typical Road Cross-section ............................................................................................. 50
Figure 4.3: Typical Detail of Rolling Crown across a Single Carriageway ......................................... 51
Figure 4.5: Combined kerb drainage ................................................................................................ 52
Figure 4.6: Side outlet outfall unit ................................................................................................... 53
Figure 4.7: Gully design parameters ................................................................................................ 57
Figure 4.8: Effective catchment width ............................................................................................. 59
Figure 4.9: Terminal gully design parameters .................................................................................. 62
Figure 4.10: Typical median ditch cross-section .............................................................................. 68
Figure 4.11: Permissible depths of flow for unlined channels ......................................................... 69
Figure 4.12: Typical drainage at T Junctions .................................................................................... 72
Figure 4.13: Large signalised junction drainage ............................................................................... 73
Figure 4.14: Roundabout Drainage .................................................................................................. 74
Figure 4.15: Sustainable drainage objectives................................................................................... 75
Figure 4.16: Consideration of infiltration ......................................................................................... 78
Figure 4.17: Pervious surface design steps ...................................................................................... 82
Figure 4.18: Soakaway design steps ................................................................................................. 85
Figure 4.19: Diagram of typical swale .............................................................................................. 88
Figure 4.20: Infiltration trench design steps .................................................................................... 91
Figure 4.21: Infiltration trenches maintenance requirements ........................................................ 92
Figure 4.22 - Typical Cross Section through a Bio-retention Area ................................................... 94
Figure 4.23: Diagrams of a typical surface sand filter (left) and a typical underground sand filter
(right)................................................................................................................................................ 96
Figure 4.24: Typical sand filter bed construction ............................................................................. 98
Figure 4.25: Sand filter design steps ................................................................................................ 99
Figure 4.26: Plan view of a typical basin ........................................................................................ 101
Figure 4.27: Typical cross section of a detention basin. ................................................................ 103

Drainage

Figure 4.28: Basin design steps ...................................................................................................... 104


Figure 4.29: Typical vortex grit remover ........................................................................................ 106

Equations
Equation 3.1: IDF relationship equation (from Section 11.1, study of regional design rainfall, Qatar,
2013)................................................................................................................................................. 28
Equation 3.2: Surface run-off (Q) for catchments <50 Ha................................................................ 32
Equation 3.3: The Colebrook-White equation ................................................................................. 33
Equation 3.4: Mannings Equation ................................................................................................... 33
Equation 3.5: Time of concentration (Tc) ......................................................................................... 34
Equation 3.6: Annual probability of a spillage with the potential to cause a major pollution event
.......................................................................................................................................................... 44
Equation 3.7: Probability of spillage event resulting in serious pollution event.............................. 44
Equation 4.1 .................................................................................................................................... 55
Equation 4.2 .................................................................................................................................... 55
Equation 4.3 .................................................................................................................................... 55
Equation 4.4 .................................................................................................................................... 56
Equation 4.5 .................................................................................................................................... 56
Equation 4.6 .................................................................................................................................... 56
Equation 4.7 ..................................................................................................................................... 60
Equation 4.8 ..................................................................................................................................... 60
Equation 4.9 ..................................................................................................................................... 61
Equation 4.10 ................................................................................................................................... 63
Equation 4.11 ................................................................................................................................... 64
Equation 4.12: Filter area size calculation........................................................................................ 98

vi

Drainage

Glossary
Term

Description

Capillary break layer

Spacing left wide enough between two layers to prevent water moving through
capillary action.

Capillary rise

The upwards movement of water molecules along the surface of a solid.

Carrier drain (CD)

A sealed pipe for the conveyance of surface water

Carrier filter drain


Catchment area (A)

A (half or fully) perforated pipe used in order to collect and convey both
surface water and subsoil water to the outfall.
A defined area, determined by topographic features, drainage patterns and
land use, within which all rain will contribute run-off to a specific point or
system.

CFD

Computational fluid dynamics.

Colebrook-White
Equation

A method for determining flows in conduits (pipes or open channels). This


method is the most appropriate for flows in smoother bore pipes.

Collecting system

A system of conduits that collects and conveys surface water.

Concentration (points
of/ time of)

The spatial or temporal point of peak flow within a drainage system.

Collector channel

System of channels which collects and conveys surface water.

Control structures

Devices designed to control the outflow from an attenuation or storage facility,


such as sluice gate valve, aperture or vortex flow control device.

Crown

When considering the high point of a road in either long section or cross
section, the point at which water will run in opposite directions.

Culvert

A circular, ovoid, arched or rectangular closed conduit used to convey water


from one area to another, usually from one side of a road to the other side.

DA

Public Works Authority, Drainage Affairs.

Detention tank

A tank built to store runoff and release it at a controlled rate so that the peak
flow is reduced and the flow is spread over a longer period.

Discharge rate

Volume of water per second passing out of the system at a specific point.

Domestic waste water

Waste water from residential settlements and services which originates


predominantly from the human metabolism and from household activities.

Drainage basin

An extent of land where water from precipitation drains into a body of water.

Drainage routes
(natural)

The route flow will naturally take if not intercepted or diverted by drainage
measures.

EFA

Emergency flood area used to contain safely large and sudden accumulations
of storm water. This is additional to any sustainable drainage systems.

Effluent

Storm or foul water discharge.

Filter drain

A linear drainage feature consisting of a trench filled with permeable materials,


designed to capture and convey surface water.

Filter membrane

A type of geotextile that allows the unimpeded flow of water through its surface
but prevents the onward passage of silt and other small particles. This
prolongs the life of drainage medium, such as in filter drains.

Final effluent

The treated liquid resulting from a waste water treatment process, at the point
of discharge to a watercourse. See also treated sewage effluent (TSE).

Flood

Inundation of the road and surrounding areas with storm water or effluent from

Page 1 of 119

Drainage

Term

Description
a burst pipe.

Ford
Foul sewer

A shallow place where a river or stream formed by storm water may be


crossed by wading or in a vehicle.
A sewer conveying waste water of domestic and/or industrial origin and
groundwater infiltration.

GRC

Glass reinforced concrete.

Groundwater

Water located beneath the earths surface in soil pore spaces and in the
fractures of rock formations.

Groundwater table

The level below which the ground is saturated with water. The elevation of this
layer will vary seasonally and spatially.

Gully

An opening, usually covered by a grate, which allows surface water to enter a


drainage system.

Hydraulic controls

Factors which control fluid mechanics; namely conveyance.

IDF

Intensity Duration Frequency relationship.

Impermeable surface

Surfaces or ground unable to absorb rainfall; e.g. concrete, most asphalt


surfaces and hardstandings.

Infiltration

The process whereby water seeps into the ground or a part of the drainage
system.

InfoWorks CS

Urban drainage network modelling software.

Irrigation

The artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops


and other plants. Treated sewage effluent is commonly used for irrigation in
Qatar and as such there is a low risk of contact with pathogens.

Major system

Surface water trunk sewer network, surface water pumping stations,


groundwater control networks and surface water storage and retention
areas/tanks.

Mannings equation

A method for determining flows in conduits (pipes or open channels). This


method is the most appropriate for flows in rougher open channels.

Median (carriageway)

The piece of land on a roads project that sits between the carriageways.
On smaller roads medians are usually omitted.

Minor system

Road drainage, comprising gullies, soakaways, ditches, connecting pipework


and storage areas required prior to connection to the major system.

Outfall

Point of discharge from a pipe or channel system.

Pathogens

Disease-causing organisms.

Peak flow

The most voluminous period of flow at a location during a set time period,
usually in the period during or directly after a storm.

Penstock

A sliding plate which regulates flow through movement to vary the size of an
opening.

Percolation

The downwards movement of water into or through a permeable layer.

Permeable surface

Surfaces or ground able to absorb rainfall; e.g. open textured ground, soil,
grassed areas, open spaces.

Ponding

The accumulation of surface water.

Page 2 of 119

Drainage

Term

Description

Pore water pressure


Positive drainage
Public sewer

A piped system operating by gravity flow associated with an urban situation


and used in conjunction with gullies and kerbs/footways.
A sewer that is owned and maintained by one of the UK water and sewerage
undertakers.

Pumping station

Facility including pumps, power supply and control equipment for pumping
liquids from one place to another.

Real time control

The control or management of flow within a piped system.

Return period

An estimate of the likelihood of an event occurring. This is a statistical


measurement, typically based on historical data, denoting the average
reoccurrence interval over an extended period of time.

Roundabout

A type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic is slowed and


flows almost continuously in one direction around a central island to several
exits onto the various intersecting roads.

ROW

Rights of way (e.g. of utilities).

Run-off (surface)

Water which flows over the ground following rainfall. This occurs when the
ground is saturated or impermeable, and during intense rainfall, where rainfall
exceeds the rate of infiltration.

Run-off coefficient (C)

A measure of the amount of rainfall which is converted to run-off. This varies


depending on factors such as the roughness and permeability of a surface.

Sabkha

A salt flat, characteristic of saline intrusion in coastal areas of Qatar.

Saline

A liquid mixture of salt and pure water; or in the context of soils those which
contain or are impregnated with salt.

Sewerage

A system of pipes and drains for the collection and transportation of domestic
and industrial waste water.

Soakaway

A sub-surface drainage feature which water is conveyed to, designed to


facilitate infiltration.

Source control

Methods of managing and reducing storm water runoff at site level.

Storage

Water which is strategically held in a specific area.

Storm hydrograph

A graph which records the rate of flow through a catchment during a storm
event.

Storm water

Surface water resulting from precipitation during a storm event.

Subgrade

Material, usually natural in situ, but may include a capping layer (ie below the
formation level of a pavement.

Sustainable urban
drainage systems
(SuDS or SUDS)

Techniques to try to replicate natural systems that use cost effective solutions
with low environmental impact to drain away dirty and surface water run-off
through collection, storage, and cleaning before allowing it to be released
slowly back into the environment..

Surface water

Water that travels across the ground and hard surfaces rather than seeping
into the soil, e.g., from paved roads and buildings.

Swale

A shallow vegetated channel designed to capture, retain and encourage the


infiltration of surface water. The vegetation also works to filter out particulate
matter.

Treated sewage effluent


(TSE)

Effluent treated to a standard suitable for plant irrigation under controlled


conditions, which minimises or eliminates contact with humans.

Page 3 of 119

Drainage

Term

Description

Trunk sewer

A sewer that receives many tributary sewers and serves a large area.

Urbanisation

Agglomerations of buildings and infrastructure for human accommodation and


commercial, social and industrial activities leading to the reduction in
permeable areas.

Urban drainage

Removal of surface water within a city or settlement.

Utility corridor
Wadi

Wadi is the Arabic term traditionally referring to a valley. In some cases, it may
refer to a dry riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain.

Waste water

Domestic waste water or the mixture of domestic waste water with industrial
waste water, infiltration and/or run-off rain water.

Verge

The strip of land at the edge of the carriageway that separates the
carriageway from the earthworks / tie in to surrounding ground.

Vortex grit remover

Page 4 of 119

Drainage

1
1.1

Introduction
Overview

This document sets out the standard approach required to identify and provision adequate
surface and sub-surface drainage measures when designing highways within Qatar. This
approach details the relevant methodologies and specifications required to meet standards.
The approach is divided into 3 gateways, which reflect the three key design stages. Each of
these stages includes a number of process steps designed to meet appropriate standards.
The process is outlined within Section 1.2.1.

1.2

Scope

1.2.1

Scope of manual
This document will outline the process required to meet drainage standards for all roads
within Qatar. This will be presented as an approach split into three key design stages; this is
outlined within Figure 1.1 (below).

GATEWAY 1
Project initiation
Section 2, Page 13

GATEWAY 2
Pre-design work
Section 3, Page 25

GATEWAY 3
Detailed design work
Section 4, Page 47

Figure 1.1: Design gateways process overview

Page 5 of 119

Drainage

1.2.2

Responsibilities
Drainage of highways is the joint responsibility of the Civil Engineering Department's Roads Division
and Drainage Division. Each Division has defined responsibilities and procedures which shall be
adhered to when designing highway drainage. These are explained in the following diagram: (Illustrate
with diagram showing forward links to other sections).

1.3

Drainage design philosophy

When designing drainage measures it is important to consider the size and type of system
which will be best suited to the conditions and characteristics of the project area.
A more sustainable approach to drainage needs to be considered in an effort to minimise the
impact of future road construction. Such techniques are becoming common place globally
and are referred to as Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS). SuDS mimic natural drainage
processes to reduce the effect on the quality and quantity of runoff from developments and
provide amenity and biodiversity benefits. When specifying SuDS, early consideration of the
potential multiple benefits and opportunities will deliver the best results.
Where it is not possible to accomodate drainage using only SUDS, traditionaloptions can be
applied either to complement SUDS measures or to provide standalone solutions where
necessary. Assistance on viable SuDS options can be found in Error! Reference source not
found. and Error! Reference source not found..

1.3.1

Minor system
The Roads Division is responsible for the design of the Minor System, namely the road
drainage comprising gullies, soakaways, connecting pipework, SUDS features and storage
areas required prior to discharge into the Drainage Division Network. The highway drainage
system shall be designed using parameters defined in this section. The point of discharge
and discharge parameters listed below will be provided by the CED Drainage Division:

Diameter of trunk sewer


Allowable discharge volume
Invert level of trunk sewer
Location of trunk sewer
Acceptable method of discharge into the trunk sewer
Consideration of SUDS features

It is also important to consider flow constraints within a minor system. Predominant limiting
factors are likely to be:

Permeability of ground
Underlying geology (including issues with contamination and saline intrusion)
Rates of evaporation
48 hour drain down of storage
Allowable discharge rate into trunk sewers

Page 6 of 119

Drainage

1.3.2

Major system
CED Drainage Division is responsible for the Major System which comprises all the drainage
components beyond the agreed interface point with the minor system. This includes:

Trunk sewers, surface water sewer network.


Surface water pumping stations
Ground water control networks
Surface water storage retention areas/tanks.

The preferred drainage method is by a positive system. However should this not be practical
due to distance from a suitable discharge point or economics, agreement to discharge water
to the ground or adjacent areas may be sought from the Director of the Civil Engineering
Department.

1.4

Functions of Highway Drainage

The requirement for satisfactory road drainage has a direct bearing on (a) the ability to use
the road during and after a rainfall event, (b) the long-term serviceability of the road
structure, (c) the provision of an acceptable urban environment and (d) minimising health
risk caused by long term surface ponding. The construction of a highway shall not be allowed
to increase the risk of flooding to properties.
The highway drainage system must therefore be considered as providing four primary
functions which, due to land use constraints, are usually dealt with differently in urban and
rural situations, namely:

Page 7 of 119

Drainage

Collection
and control

Collect storm and surface water run-off from the highway,


adjacent side roads and wider catchment and convey to a
suitable outfall:
Reduces the danger of standing water to traffic
Maintains the use of all trafficked lanes
Reduces sediment build up at the road side, this can be
further controled using swales
SuDS features can provide effective flow control

Sub-surface
drainage

Remove water percolating through the pavement, lower


ground water and prevent capillary rise:
Reduces the damaging affect of pore water build up in the
pavement, formation or subgrade
Prevents pavement weakening due to ingress of salt lenses
from the lower subgrade layers

Conveyance

Convey surface water run-off safely across or under


roadways:
Minimises disruption to traffic
Minimises damage to the pavement or embankment
structure
Guides surface water run-off to suitable discharge points
Minimises road impact on the natural surface hydrology in
rural areas

Flood risk
management

In the case of exceptional rainfall events the road surface


itself can be used as a storm carrier:
Prevents damage to property in flood prone areas
Concentrates flood water to discharge basins for easy
removal
Drainage should be designed to route flows and assist in
mitigation in 'above the design events'

Figure 1.2: Functions of highway drainage

Page 8 of 119

Drainage

1.5

Climatic and physical considerations

The topography of Doha is relatively flat but undulating, and thus catchment boundaries and
natural drainage routes are often poorly defined. Recent extensive development has caused
flooding to become more problematic, especially in the Greater Doha area, due to:

Changing rainfall patterns with more intense rainfall becoming more frequent;
Increased roofed and paved areas producing greater and quicker surface water
runoff flows;
Reduced permeable areas for surface waters to soak into the ground;
Interference with natural flood paths by urban development and road
construction;
Little provision within the roads services hierarchy for surface or groundwater
drainage systems;
Development becoming increasingly distant from natural drainage outlets on the
coast;
Greater public awareness of flooding;
High groundwater tables which are rising to close to ground level in places, due to
the impact of irrigation, reducing the ability of surface waters to soak into the
ground;
Nature of the groundwater, which is variously saline and formerly treated sewage
effluent (TSE);
High and saline groundwater can affect foundations and the stability of highway
sub-grades;
Development within dry valleys (wadis) reducing the extent and availability of
natural water courses required during storms;
Development of underpasses, over-bridges and large grade-separated junctions
which interrupt natural water courses;
Underpasses which require separate drainage arrangements and pumping stations.

1.5.1

Resilience and urban creep

1.5.1.1

Background
In Qatar urban expansion is taking place at a significant rate at present, and is likely to
continue for the foreseeable future. In order to guard against infrastructure being outdated
shortly after its construction it is essential to build in resilience by accounting for urban
creep.
Urban creep is a term used to describe the phenomenon of where developments are
constructed and then at a later date additional impermeable area is added to the existing
thus increasing surface water runoff.

1.5.1.2

Scope
This section of the manual provides guidance on how to take account of urban creep within
roads projects.

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1.5.1.3

Purpose
By incorporating an allowance for urban creep within the road drainage design will ensure
the long term resilience to future urban expansions.

1.5.1.4

Method

Urban creep should be allowed for within a road drainage design by applying a percentage increase to
rainfall intensities during the design phase. The proportion rainfall intensities should be increased by
is directly related to the road projects design life. The values to be applied are given in Table 1.1:
Considerations for the design life of roadsTable 1.1below;
Design life of road

Rainfall intensity (%
increase for urban creep)

10 years

25 years

>50 years

+10%

+20%

+30%

Table 1.1: Considerations for the design life of roads

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1.5.2

Climate change

1.5.2.1

Background
Within Qatar, climate change is likely to result in increased variability within weather
patterns, both spatially and temporally. This polarisation within weather is expected to
manifest itself in both more extreme droughts and more extreme rainfall events. It is
therefore vital to provision for these effects in order to ensure the long term effectiveness of
drainage measures.
Within this approach the effects of climate change have been assessed using two climate
scenarios for Qatar (global dry and global wet), according to results from four emissions
scenarios. This approach originates from the study of regional design rainfall , Qatar
(2013).

1.5.2.2

Scope
This section of the manual provides guidance for the consideration of the effects of climate
change within the design of highways drainage.

1.5.2.3

Purpose
Through incorporating an allowance for climate change within drainage design the engineer
will provision the long term resilience of drainage solutions.

1.5.2.4

Method
Climate change should be considered with reference to Chapter 12 of the study of regional
design rainfall, Qatar- Volume 1 (2013). This states that to account for climate change,
engineers should use corrected IDF relationships, which represent changes to rainfall events
over an extended time period, within drainage design. This is outlined within Section 3.3.1.1.
For a detailed explanation of the limitations associated with this specific modelling approach
refer to the Study of Regional Design Rainfall, Qatar- Volume 1 (2013).

1.6

Policies and environmental controls

The difficulty in draining catchments that have no natural outlet to the sea or to low-lying
inland areas is recognised. The advantages of controlling surface runoff at source are also
accepted. The policy principles for design of surface water and groundwater control systems
are:

Surface water and groundwater systems should use common facilities where
possible;
Where stormwater discharges above ground level, such as from bridges and
flyovers, runoff control systems (i.e. source control) should be installed;
Runoff control systems should be installed at source to regulate discharge to the
public infrastructure drainage systems;
Where development is likely to be slow, soakaway systems and / or use of
retention areas should be used as an interim solution.
Positive drainage systems should be provided to drain flows to the sea or other
approved discharge areas;

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Where a stormwater system is planned or already exists, the permissible peak flow
from the new sub-catchment into the stormwater system will be determined by
DA. If the calculated peak flow exceeds this figure, the difference must be catered
for by a combination of attenuation tanks and soakaways;
Rate of runoff should be attenuated by the use of short-term flooding of roads,
storage areas or tanks;
Soakaways to drain surface waters may be required to attenuate runoff to positive
drainage systems or retention areas;
Flood plains and routes are to be identified and kept clear of development to
facilitate runoff of surface waters;
Positive drainage systems, using pipes and culverts should be constructed where
possible in carriageways in accordance with the agreed services hierarchy. The
designer should note that there is currently no allowance for positive drainage
systems within the road hierarchy and therefore the location of all drains must be
agreed with the Public Works Authority, Drainage Affairs (DA).

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2
2.1

Project Initiation
Gateway 1 summary

In order to ensure effective and reliable design standards it is important to establish a


consistent and well documented approach for determining design criteria. The following
section details the method required to calculate and identify appropriate criteria by
establishing standard methodological requirements for drainage requirements. This process
corresponds to Gateway 1 of the summary process diagram (Figure 1.1) this is expanded in
Figure 2.1 (below). The steps outlined within this figure are then expanded upon and
explained in detail in the following sections.

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Data gather
Section 2.2, Page 15

Catchment assessment
Section 2.3, Page 16

Design consideration

Internal liason

Road geometry
Section 2.4, Page 21

Determine viable outfalls


Section 2.4, Page 21

Consider TSE
Section 2.6, Page 2215

Pollution control requirements


Section 2.7, Page 22

Liaise with others re constraints


Section 2.4, Page 23

Develop strategy and submit for


review

Approval

Figure 2.1: Project initiation process steps

The purpose of this design stage is to assemble the raw data required for a preliminary
design, and to produce a strategy which will facilitate drainage requirements.

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2.2

Data gathering

It is imperative that the engineer has a comprehensive understanding of the drainage


requirements for each project. In order to achieve this it is important to collect high quality
data which can be relied upon to represent the characteristics of the catchment. These data
requirements are outlined below within
Figure 2.2, and are expanded upon within the relevant sections of this chapter.

Existing 3D topographic data to review


catchment extent

Site investigation
Permeability
Groundwater
Sensitive geology
Contaminated land
Flood risk

Records of flooding

Existing drainage asset data

Existing utilities data


Proposed road horizontal & vertical alignment
Proposed utilities and 3rd party assets
Figure 2.2: Data gathering process steps

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2.3

Catchment assessment

2.3.1

Overview
Once data has been gathered, this should be used to identify and assess the catchment(s)
and sub-catchments relevant to the area which requires drainage planning. This process is
outlined within Figure 2.3.

Scale sets
modelling approach
See text below

Determine catchment extent (whole


project)

Breakdown into sub-catchments based


on high and low points and available
outfalls

Calculate existing run-off per catchment


for a range of return periods

Flood risk assessment

Agree/ seek approval for discharge rates


Figure 2.3: Catchment assessment process steps
The engineer must first determine the catchment extent of the entire project. This can be
calculated using the 3D topographic data gathered within the previous step of the initiation
process. Once this is complete the engineer should then utilise the same data to identify
high and low points across the catchment, this will then be used in conjunction with the
locations of outfalls to define sub-catchments appropriate for the project.
The scale of the catchment will determine the modelling approach required. For smaller
simple catchments, defined for this purpose as less than 50 Ha, programmes such as
Microdrainage, Inforworks and Isis could be used. Where catchments are
Once suitable catchments have been identified the engineer should calculate runoff rates
(refer to Section 3.3.2), which will be used to calculate provisional drainage volumes
required. In some locations local flood assessments may already be undertaken and run off
volumes may already be available; where this is the case these should be reviewed as
outputs may be suitable for use as part of the design initiation stage.
During project initiation it may be useful to use preliminary values for permeability. To do
this reference can be made to Table 2.1 and to records held by CEO Roads and Drainage

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Divisions. However, it should be noted that this is only sufficient for the initial scoping of the
project, and that detailed site investigation (as detailed above) is required for all projects.
Soil Type

Permeability (m/s)
1

Clean gravels

10-1
10-2

Clean sands and sandgravel mixtures


Desiccated and fissured
clays

10-3
10-4

Very fine sands, silts


and clay-silt laminate

10-5
10-6
10-7
10-8

Unfissured clays and clay-silts (>20% clay)*

10-9
10-10

*Special measures required in this range


Table 2.1: Typical permeability values by soil type (From QHDDM)

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2.3.2

Flood Risk Assessment

2.3.2.1

Background
It has been common practice in Qatar to construct roads without the provision of a surface
water drainage system, which has in some instances lead to severe flooding, damage to
buildings and other important infrastructure, and on occasion loss of life. For these reasons
during the road design consideration of flooding related to new roads both within the design
criteria and beyond the design event (exceedance) are of paramount importance.

2.3.2.2

Purpose
This section of the manual focuses on directing those preparing the road design towards
minimizing the risk of flooding to the road user, adjacent land owners, critical infrastructure
and the surrounding environment.

2.3.2.3

Scope
Inappropriate road construction within areas at risk of flooding should be discouraged with
lower risk areas being favoured, but where this is unfeasible the road should be made safe
(in accordance with the guidance set out in table 3.2) without worsening flooding
elsewhere.
The term areas at risk of flooding means land that is prone to flood during more frequently
experienced storm events (high and medium risk), such as the 2 - 10yr return period (high
risk areas), and the 10 - 25yr return period (medium risk areas). Areas outside of these
parameters are classed as low risk (i.e. greater than 25yr return period)
The term flood risk means the risk from all sources of flooding including surface water
runoff, surcharged sewers systems, groundwater, and the sea.
Risk level

Return periods

High

2 year 10 year

Medium

10 year 25 year

Low

> 25 year

Table 2.2: Flood risk classification


In addition to the consideration of whether the road corridor falls within an area at risk of
flooding, the purpose and hence vulnerability classification of the road should also be borne
in mind. For example if the road was serving a hospital then it would have a higher
vulnerability classification than say a road serving a supermarket car park. (See Please note :
Roads that combine a mixture of uses should be placed into the higher of the relevant
classes of flood risk sensitivity. Table 2.3 below).

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By considering the flood risk area and the flood risk vulnerability together the design should
be amended and / or mitigation measures proposed to manage the residual risk. The output
from this process should be a flood risk assessment report which clearly sets out the existing
flood risk for the land proposed for the road construction, together with the subsequent risk
(incorporating any mitigation measures proposed and exceedance flow routes) post road
construction.
2.3.2.4

Method
Obtain flood records from the Drainage Division for sewerage infrastructure, roads,
groundwater and the sea where appropriate. Following receipt of these flooding records
determine the risk category (high, medium, or low). Based upon primary road usage
determine the vulnerability classification from the Please note : Roads that combine a
mixture of uses should be placed into the higher of the relevant classes of flood risk
sensitivity.
Table 2.3 below;
Essential Infrastructure
Essential transport infrastructure (including mass evacuation routes) which has to cross
the area at risk
Essential utility infrastructure which has to be located in a flood risk area for operational
reasons, including electricity generating power stations and grid and primary substations;
and water treatment works/ desalinisation plants that need to stay operational in times
of flood.
Highly vulnerable
Police stations, ambulance stations and fire stations and command centres and
telecommunications installations required to be operational during flooding.
Emergency dispersal points.
Basement dwellings.
Installations requiring the use, storage or onward transmission of hazardous substances.
(Where there is a demonstratable need to locate such instaltions for bulk storage of
materials with port or other similar facilities, or such installations with energy
infrastructure or carbon capture and storage installations, that require coastal or waterside locations, or need to be located in other high flood risk areas, in these instances the
facilities should be classified as essential infrastructure).
More vulnerable
Hospitals

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Residential institutions such as residential care homes, childrens homes, social services
homes, prisons and hostels.
Buildings for dwelling houses, students halls of residence and hotels.
Non-residential uses for health services, nursaries and educational establishments.
Landfill and sites used for waste management facilities for hazardous waste.
Sites used for camping, subject to a specific warning and evacuation plan.
Less vulnerable
Police, ambulance or fire stations which are not required to be operational during
flooding.
Buildings used for shops, financial, professional and other services, restaurants and cafes,
offices, general industry, storage and distribution, non-residential institutions not
included in more vulnerable, and assembly and leisure.
Land and buildings used for agriculture.
Waste treatment (except landfill and hazardous waste facilities).
Mineral working and processing (except for sand and gravel working).
Water treatment works which do not need to remain operational during times of flood.
Sewage treatment works (if adequate measures to control pollution and manage sewage
during flooding events are in place).
Water compatable development
Flood control infrastructure.
Water transmission infrastructure and pumping stations.
Sewage transmission infrastructure and pumping stations.
Sand and gravel working.
Docks, marinas and wharves.
Navigation facilities.
Defence installations.

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Ship building, repairing and dismantling, dockside fish processing and refrigeration and
compatable activities requiring a waterside location.
Water-based recreation (excluding sleeping accommodation).
Lifeguard and coastguard stations.
Amienity open space, nature conservation and biodiversity, outdoor sports and
recreation and essential facilities such as changing rooms.
Essential ancillary sleeping or residential accomodation for staff required by uses in this
category, subject to a specific warning and evacuation plan.

Please note : Roads that combine a mixture of uses should be placed into the higher of the
relevant classes of flood risk sensitivity.
Table 2.3: Flood risk vulnerability classification (based on NPPF Technical Guide P9)

Propose mitigation measures based on flood risk area, vulnerability classification, and
surrounding land use and submit to overseeing organization for comment / approval. On
larger scale roads projects, or for special corridors the overseeing organization may require
more comprehensive hydrological studies and drainage investigations to support the design.
This requirement should be discussed with the overseeing organization at gateway 1 project
initiation to ensure enough time is allowed to undertake the work prior to commencing predesign work (gateway 2).
Once discharge rates have been calculated stakeholder engagement should take place in
order to approve/ re-evaluate acceptable rates. Contacts for the correct approval procedure
are laid out within Section 1.2.2.

2.4

Consideration of road geometry

Drainage design is intrinsically linked to road type and classification, and therefore requires
an understanding of road geometry and footprint in order to develop effective drainage
measures.
During project initiation geometric design of carriageway and road type should be identified
in order to ensure appropriate drainage measures are developed. This should be an iterative
process where highways and drainage engineers work together to develop a robust solution.
This information should then be taken forward to ensure correct flood return period and
depth standards are used (see Sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2), and that appropriate pollution
control requirements are applied.

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2.5

Determine viable outfalls

As part of the project initiation it is important to develop a strategy for placing outfalls.
Outfalls should be positioned in a location where they pose no negative effects upon the
local community, highway or environment. Because of the range of parties who may
potentially be affected by outfall location stakeholder engagement should take place to
approve outfall locations.
When determining provisional outfall locations it is important to consider a range of factors,
including:

2.6

Outfall method (to watercourse, sewer or through infiltration).


High and low points of topography and road geometry.
Access for maintenance.
Safety screens (required if there is a risk of children/ animals gaining access to
large diameter pipes).
Velocity of water (control this to prevent scour or damage to system).
Pollution risk (build up of particulates in dry conditions could be washed through
the system in a rainfall event).

Consideration of treated sewage effluent (TSE)

Within Qatars cities It is commonplace to find TSE used for the irrigation of planted
flowerbeds. When designing drainage features it is therefore important to consider whether
spills or run-off from this could enter SuDS systems and either contribute to dry weather
flow or leach and potentially contaminate groundwater supplies. This is of particular
importance where groundwater is extracted for use as potable supplies.
Consideration of this should be made through consultation with overseeing organisations
and through the investigation of local aquifers. Where the potential for groundwater
contamination is identified this should be taken forward as a key design consideration.

2.7

Identify pollution control requirements

2.7.1

Background
Qatar is characterised by its arid climate, with infrequent high intensity storms during the
rainy season (October - May), which when considered in conjunction with the absence of
watercourses and high levels of salt in the ground can lead to serious pollution incidents
emanating from roads if surface water runoff is not appropriately controlled.
Due to the long dry periods pollutants build up on the road surface which leads to the first
storms of the rainy season being the most severe from a pollution perspective. This is
particularly the case on rural roads that are not prone to runoff created from irrigation by
treated sewage effluent (TSE). However, in urban locations TSE can itself run into the surface
water drainage system and during the dry periods can result in potential pollution.
For these reasons it is important to provide pollution control measures for all roads
schemes. The extent and type of control measures to be provided will be selected

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dependent upon the risk posed by the location type and the numbers of vehicles using the
given road.
2.7.2

Scope
This section of the manual gives guidance on the selection of pollution control measures
dependent upon the road location and the risk associated with the number of vehicles.
The road location type relates to the risk level posed by the given location, for example,
over-turning or collision at junctions, roundabouts etc.
The number of vehicles criteria has been simply linked to the type of road in question as
certain types of road by their very nature will convey higher numbers of vehicles and as such
pose a far greater risk than smaller roads.

2.7.3

2.8

2.9

Purpose
By providing guidance on the selection of pollution control measures for new roads it is
envisaged that pollution incidents will be minimized and the frequency of groundwater
pollution from roads sources reduced.

Develop Strategy

At this stage the engineering team responsible for planning drainage measures should
incorporate the findings from all previous sections in order to outline a high level drainage
strategy which suitably meets stakeholder and overseeing authorities expectations. It is
expected that this strategy will put forward the main reccommendations for further work.

Initial stakeholder engagement

Ongoing internal consultation within design teams (highways, geotechnical, structures,


utilities, etc) should take place throughout all stages as a matter of course. However, on
completion of a draft strategy it is important to re-engage with stakeholders to ensure the
strategy is robust and meets all necessary requirements.
The purpose of this stakeholder engagement will be to outline the provisional drainage plan
and iteratively refine this based on stakeholder feedback concerning possible constraints (for
example, inappropriate discharge rates/ outfall locations) and potential opportunities (for
example, possibilities of collaborative work with other nearby developments or schemes).
The process is shown below in Figure 2.4. Ultimately this step will result in approval of a
strategy, which will then be taken forward into the design work at Gateway 2.

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team consultation

Ongoing internal design

Discuss opportunities/
constraints with client

Liaise with external parties

Develop and agree/ seek


approval for strategy

Figure 2.4: Stakeholder engagement process steps


This step is included at the end of the gateway 1 process in order to highlight the necessity
to obtaining sign off approval from relevant parties regarding the strategy; however, in
practice ongoing stakeholder engagement throughout the entire process, through regular
constructive dialogue, is likely to be the most efficient and effective method of ensuring the
strategy remains consistent with the expectations of all parties. Section 1.2.2 details the
relevant parties responsible for approvals; however, it should be noted that it is likely that
smaller, location specific parties will also be important stakeholders to involve; this should
be assessed on a project by project basis, and is supplementary to the standard parties
required for approval.

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Pre-design work

3.1

Gateway 2 summary

The following section outlines the process and standards required in order to develop the
pre-design information necessary to define detailed design criteria. Pre-design work
primarily focuses on a detailed and specific determination of catchment hydrology,
hydraulics and flow, and follows on from the strategy outlined within the project initiation
stage. The overall process is outlined below within Figure 3.1.
Determine site hydrological data and design criteria
Sections 3.2 and 3.3, Pages 26 and 27

Assess highway design/ geometry


High and low points
Develop typical cross sections
Geotechnical

Design consideration

Internal liaison

Section 2.4, Page 20

Undertake hydraulic analysis


Section 3.4, Page 35
Determine pollution control requirements
Section 3.5, Page 38
Develop pre-design strategy
SuDS SuDS and traditional traditional

Stakeholder engagement and review


Section 3.6, Page 46
Seek approval

Figure 3.1: Pre-design process steps

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3.2

Design criteria

3.2.1

Flood return periods


The levels of flood protection required by the DA, arranged by road classification, are shown
in Note: it is likely that in some instances the overseeing organisation may require higher
return periods for these road types. This should be discussed at gateway 1, project initiation.
Table 3.1 below. For a full description of highway classifications please refer see QHDM Part
3.3 3.6 and Tables 3.1 3.2.
Special corridors, as characterised in QHDM Part 1 Section 3.5, should have their level of
storm return period resilience agreed by the overseeing organisation at gateway 1.
Storm event return period

Location and road type


Urban

Rural

1 in 2 Years Storm

Local roads
Service roads

Local roads
Collectors
Arterials

1 in 5 Years Storm

Collectors

Freeways

1 in 10 Years Storm

Arterials
Expressways

Note: it is likely that in some instances the overseeing organisation may require higher return
periods for these road types. This should be discussed at gateway 1, project initiation.
Table 3.1: Required levels of flood protection for each road classification

When using this classification, where an urban road becomes a rural road the point of
transition shall be defined as the limit of the settlement or city boundary. It should also be
noted that where multiple road types (ie urban to rural) exist in one drainage catchment,
then the worst case return period should be selected.
Due to the intense rainfall within Qatar it is acceptable to temporarily flood highways to the
depths and extents set out in Table 3.2.
3.2.2

Acceptable highway flood standards


DA guidelines for acceptable flooding levels are laid out below within Table 3.2. It should be
noted that, as with acceptable flood return periods, where an urban road becomes a rural
road the point of transition shall be defined as the limit of the settlement or city boundary;
and that where multiple road types (ie urban to rural) exist in one drainage catchment, then
the lesser level of acceptable flooding outlined within Table 3.2 should be selected.
Special corridors, as characterised in QHDM Part 1 Section 3.5, should have their level of
acceptable flooding agreed by the overseeing organisation at gateway 1.

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Road location and type

Acceptable Flooding

Urban Areas
Local Roads

Flood depth of 0.15m maximum depth and duration of 1 hour

Service Roads

Flood depth of 0.15m maximum depth and duration of 1 hour

Collectors

Flood depth of 0.10m maximum and duration of 30 minutes

Arterials

Flood depth of 0.10m maximum and duration of 10 minutes

Expressways

Flood depth of 0.10m maximum and duration of 10 minutes

Rural Areas
Local Roads

Flood depth of 0.15m maximum depth and duration of 2 hours

Collectors

Flood depth of 0.15m maximum and duration of 1 hour

Arterials

Flood depth of 0.10m maximum and duration of 30 minutes

Freeways

Flood depth of 0.10m maximum and duration of 10 minutes

Table 3.2: Guidelines for flood standards on Qatar roadways


It should be noted that acceptable flood depths and times are only acceptable where they
exist as a direct result of periodic surface water inundation at the return periods specified
within Note: it is likely that in some instances the overseeing organisation may require higher
return periods for these road types. This should be discussed at gateway 1, project initiation.
Table 3.1. It is not acceptable for groundwater flow to collect within drainage measure and
thus contribute to flooding.

3.3

3.3.1

Hydrological data

The Qatar Sewerage and Drainage Design Manual (QSDDM), State of Qatar - Public Works
Authority, Drainage Affairs (DA) must be referred to for the design of highway drainage, in
particular Section 1.5 - Design Storms (Rainfall, Intensity & Rainfall Depth), for the
information on hydrological data and design methodology.
Rainfall characterisation
It is important to accurately characterise rainfall and storminess in order to quantify the
drainage capacity required to compensate for runoff.
Qatar lies in an arid region and annual rainfall may vary from 20mm to over 200mm per
annum. Individual storms occasionally as intense as 124mm in a 24 hour period and 54mm in
a 3 hour period have been recorded. Rainfall is therefore characterised by:

High variability
Severe thunderstorms of limited geographical extent

For the purpose of highway drainage design the country shall be considered as having the
same rainfall characteristics for all regions.
For design purposes reference should be made to the study of regional design rainfall, Qatar
(2013). IDF relationships from this study are shown in Section 3.3.1.1 (below).

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3.3.1.1

Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF)
It is important to establish the relationship between rainfall event intensity, duration and
frequency in order to reliably identify the drainage capacity required for each design.
Current IDF values should be extracted from relevant figure dependent upon the location of
the proposed road. Where a road passes between two cities the figures for the city each
catchment is closest to should be used, and if there is any doubt the worst case scenario
should be selected. The figures referenced in this section are taken from the recent study of
regional design rainfall, Qatar (2013). Figure 3.1 shows the IDF relationship for Al Ruwais,
which is located on the north coast of Qatar. Specific IDF relationships for 5 other areas
within Qatar are also available within the study of design rainfall for:

Doha
Al Saliyah
Dokhan
Abu Samra
Umm Bab
Al Ruwais

All six cities demonstrate a close correlation within IDF relationships. Data from Al Ruwais
has been presented within this section as this represents the most extreme rainfall intensity.
The remaining five cities curves can be viewed in Appendix A.
11.182 () + 11.267
(, ) = 1 24

0.8477 + 7.0636

Where:
T=

return period (years)

t=

duration of rainfall event (minutes)

(, ) =

rain intensity (mm/hour)

1 =

24 hour average rainfall at site


discretization adjustment factor

Equation 3.1: IDF relationship equation (from Section 11.1, study of regional design rainfall,
Qatar, 2013)

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Figure 3.2: Intensity-Frequency-Duration relationship for Al Ruwais (current climatic


condition) (from Study of Regional Design Rainfall, Qatar- Volume 1, Chapter 11,
Figure 11-6)
In order to ensure future resilience of drainage solutions climate change should be
incorporated within drainage design. This should be undertaken with reference to the
relevant IDF relationship presented in the curves for the 2070-2099 period (Appendix B) as
illustrated in Figure 3.33 also from the study of regional design rainfall (chapter 12) (2013).
As with relationships for current day IDF, this document also describes the likely effects of
climate change in Doha, Al Saliyah, Dokhan, Abu Samra and Umm Bab. For the methodology
for devising these relationships and the specific limitations of the approach please refer to
this document.

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Figure 3.3: Intensity-Frequency-Duration relationship for Al Ruwais (2070-99) (from Study of


Regional Design Rainfall, Qatar- Volume 1, Chapter 12, Figure 12-16)

3.3.2

Run-off coefficients (C)


Typically, for densely built up areas, there is a high run-off for all rainfall intensities.
However, as development becomes more sparse or ground conditions more pervious the
total runoff will reduce. Run-off is also affected by storm intensity.
Calculation of surface water run-off shall be made using Figure 3.4 which gives values for
run-off coefficients which reflect the above situations

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Figure 3.44: Run-off coefficients for Urban Catchments

3.3.3

Catchment area (A)


Both rural and urban catchments will exhibit different constraints and opportunities for
drainage design. As such it is important to define the catchment area and treat it
accordingly.

3.3.3.1

Rural
The area to be considered shall incorporate two parts:

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The area of the road corridor subject to direct precipitation


The broader natural catchment area within which the road runs. Specifically, the
effect the road may have on the natural surface and sub-surface drainage of the
area.

Reference to topographic mapping should be made to assess the catchment area.


3.3.3.2

Urban
The area to be considered shall incorporate two parts:

The area of the road corridor subject to direct precipitation


The additional adjacent area assessed by reference to the Development Plans and
topographic mapping for the area.

The additional area will be dependent on factors such as intensity of development, provision
of flood storage areas, and contribution from adjacent roads and developments.
3.3.4

Surface run-off (Q)


Highway drainage areas to be considered in Qatar are typically less than 50 Hectares. For
these areas surface run-off (Q litres/second) shall be calculated using the formula:

Q = 2.78 C I A
Where:
C = Run-off coefficient
I = Rainfall intensity (mm/h)
A = Area (ha)
Equation 3.2: Surface run-off (Q) for catchments <50 Ha
For areas larger than 50 Hectares, mostly rural conditions, consideration should be given to
assessment of run-off by a combination of historic observation and generation of storm
hydrographs. The method used shall be agreed with CED.
3.3.5

The Colebrook-White equation


The Colebrook-White equation allows calculation of velocity of flow (v) in a gravity drain
flowing full for any given gradient, diameter, and roughness coefficient, as follows;

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Where :

= () log
.

()

g = Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)


D = Diameter, (m)
S = Slope or headloss per unit length (UNIT?)
ks = Roughness coefficient, (mm)
V = Kinematic viscosity of water (m2/s)
Equation 3.3: The Colebrook-White equation
When considering short duration storms the rainfall intensity changes rapidly with only a
small change in storm duration, (QSDDM). Therefore it is important that for small drainage
areas an accurate assessment of Time of Concentration is made. However, due to the
necessity for the surface to receive rainfall and reach a flowing condition the Time of
Concentration shall not be reduced to less than 3 minutes.
3.3.6

Manning's equation
A number of equations have been developed for computation of the Time of Concentration
for various methods of flood analysis. However, it is recommended that where the Rational
Method is employed, Manning's equation is used for the calculation of flow velocity in
gutters, drainage channels or pipes.
V = R2/3 S1/2
n

Where:

V
n
R
S

=
=
=
=

Mean velocity of flow (m/s)


Manning's coefficient of roughness
Hydraulic radius (m)
Slope (percent)

Equation 3.4: Mannings Equation

3.3.7

Time of concentration (Tc)


The engineer wishing to size a drainage system must ascertain the peak rainfall run-off from
the catchment under consideration for the designated design storm return period.

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At a chosen point the peak flow generally occurs at the instant all parts of the catchment are
contributing to the flow.
The Time of Concentration (Tc) is defined as the interval in time from the beginning of the
rainfall to the time when water from the most remote part of the catchment reaches the
point under consideration by the engineer. The Time of Concentration is a function of the
average slope, length and roughness of the catchment.

Tc = L
V
Where:

Tc = Time of concentration (s)


V = Mean velocity of flow (m/s)
L = Length of flow path from the point of consideration
to the furthest catchment extremity (m)

Equation 3.5: Time of concentration (Tc)

3.3.8

Hydrogeology (P)
It is important to investigate hydro-geological conditions at each site as part of the predesign stage. To investigate site hydrogeology, local aquifer types and extents should first be
identified in order to ensure testing is undertaken at suitable locations, and that consultation
takes place with the correct stakeholders. It should be possible to determine local aquifers
through the investigation of geological maps as part of a preliminary desk study.
Once aquifers have been identified stakeholder consultation should be undertaken in order t
ensure drainage design poses no risk to water quality within groundwater supplies, this is
particularly important where aquifers are, or are planned to be, used for drinking water
abstraction .It is necessary that approval is obtained for all projects as part of stakeholder
engagement; this approval process is outlined within Section 1.2.2.
It is also necessary to measure permeability at sites in order to identify appropriate drainage
measures. For the project design stage it is necessary that site testing is undertaken to
determine hydraulic conductivity across the site. Hydraulic conductivity should be
investigated through permeability testing undertaken at multiple borehole locations.
Testing can be undertaken through a variety of methods which all relate the rate of flow to
differences in hydraulic pressure between the borehole and ground levels. These methods
include: falling head, where water is first increased by pumping into the borehole; rising
head, where water is pumped out of the borehole; or through variable or constant head
testing. These will be applied as appropriate by the site investigation contractor.

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In some areas point testing may be weak as a result of predominantly impermeable geology
underlying the site. Where this is the case it may be more suitable to determine permeability
using an extended linear infiltration trench. This method will cover a larger area and will be
likely to identify where small fissures in the geology or localised soil types and features
facilitate a higher hydraulic conductivity. Once identified, these areas will be more suitable
for infiltration features such as soakaways, or trenches can be filled with gravel and be
converted to permanent linear infiltration features.

3.4

Hydraulic analysis processes

3.4.1

Overview
[Explain and introduce decision making process regarding appropriate methods to use, and
what data (of what quality) is required]

3.4.2

The rational method


The rational method for hydraulic analysis has the following aspects:

It depends on a thorough knowledge of the local rainfall characteristics;

It requires accurate IDF curves from which rainfall intensities can be deduced for
different storm durations for the design return period;

It assumes that, for a given return period, longer storms have lower intensities and
shorter storms have higher intensities;

It assumes that rain falls uniformly across the catchment;

Contributing impermeable areas are required for each pipe length;

A time of entry must be determined in order to avoid unrealistically high rainfall


intensities;

Base flows from groundwater can be included in the design;

Iterative process for design;

Pipe sizes and gradients are adjusted to provide appropriate self-cleansing


velocities;

Half pipe flow velocity is numerically equal to full pipe flow velocity;

The user must be aware of the limitations of this method of design;

The Modified Rational Method is suitable for catchments up to 150ha. Over this
area detailed hydraulic computer modelling should be undertaken

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Determine and confirm with DA:


Design rainfall return period (T)
Pipe roughness (ks)
Time of entry (te)
Run-off coefficient (C)

Prepare preliminary layout of drains and inlet locations

Mark pipe numbers on plan in accordance with numbering


Estimate impervious areas for each pipe

Assume approximate gradients and pipe diameters for each


pipe

Calculate pipe full velocity (vf) and pipe full capacity or


discharge rate:
Qf = ND2vf/4

Calculate time of concentration from time of entry and time


of flow:
tc = te + tf
For downstream pipes compare alternative feeder branches
and select the branch resulting in the maximum tc

Read rainfall intensity from the IDF curves for t = tc for design
storm return period T
Estimate the cumulative contributing impervious area

Calculate Qp from the formula:


Q = 2.78 C I A
Figure 3.5: Rational method process

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The following aspects need to be considered:

3.4.3

Pipes should be of sufficient size to carry maximum design flows at a depth D, i.e.
at pipe full condition;
Surface water drains require higher velocities than foul sewers for self-cleansing
purposes because of the higher density of solid material to be transported;
Surface water drains should not be less than 300mm in diameter;
Self-cleansing velocities increase with pipe size;
Pipe sizes should not decrease downstream even when the calculations indicate
that this would be hydraulically satisfactory;
Pipes should be designed to run parallel to the ground surface wherever possible.

Mathematical models
Sewerage and drainage models use construction record data to build representations of the
system as linked pipes and nodes, with specific modules for ancillaries such as pumping
stations and overflows. Inflows from connected developments and contributing areas are
directed to the nodes, and a computerised hydraulic engine simulates the hydraulic
performance of flows around the system.
The veracity of the model is established by verifying flows and depths predicted by the
model against actual measurements taken by flow monitors temporarily installed at
hydraulically significant points around the system. After the model has been verified, then
simulations of future changes and system modifications are run to check the effect on the
system and the effectiveness of proposed upgrading.
It should be noted that the rainfall characteristics in Qatar will not make it possible to verify
models in accordance with common practice. The WRC Guide to Short Term Flow surveys
recommends minimum survey duration of five weeks; however, surveys in Qatar should be
planned to commence in October and may need to last up until April to capture a sufficient
number of discrete rainfall events. Should these occur early in the survey, then it can be
curtailed before the forecasted completion date, but conversely the survey may need to be
extended for another rain season if insufficient rainfall occurs.
Sensitivity analysis may be performed on the verified model by varying some of the input
parameters to indicate their impact on the theoretical outcomes. This is used to determine
more cost effective and / or efficient design options.
Mathematical models used for hydraulic analysis should be agreed with the relevant
approving authority (see Section 1.2.2). Discussion should be made as to the benefits of
certain modelling software relevant to the particular project scale and scope.
Hydraulic models shall be constructed, verified (where possible) and reported in accordance
with the Code of Practice for the Hydraulic Modelling of Sewer Systems, as published by the
Waste Water Planning Users Group (WaPUG).
Models shall be retained electronically by the designer for a minimum period of 12 years
from the date on which the last modifications for which the model was used have been

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commissioned and taken over by the DA. DA proposes to model all of the trunk mains, and
follow with infill models of local areas during the coming years.
Current software packages which are likely to be viable for mathematical modelling are laid
out within Table 3.4. The final selection of which model to use is likely to be dependent on
the scale of each project and the availability of relevant expertise.
The following table suggests several options for hydraulic models and suggests likely project
scales for which they would be suitable. This list is neither exhaustive nor specific, as
modelling software is continually updated and new products made available. When deciding
which model to use the engineer should appraise the benefits and limitations associated
with the selection and confirm choices with the overseeing authority (see Section 1.2.2).
Software package

Likely scale best suited to

ISIS

> 50 Ha or by agreement with overseeing


organisation (sites </> this area may be suitable)

Infoworks

>50 Ha or by agreement with overseeing


organisation (sites </> this area may be suitable)

Microdrainage WinDES

<50 Ha or by agreement with overseeing


organisation (sites up to 100Ha may be suitable)

Table 3.3: Likely viable software packages for mathematical modelling

3.5

Pollution control process

3.5.1

Method
As a general rule Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) should always be the preferred
approach unless there are particular reasons for their exclusion. Justification for the
exclusion of SuDS will need to be provided to the overseeing organization at approvals stage
gateway 2 and again at gateway 3. Please see Section 4.5 with respect to the SuDS
management train, SuDS selection, and SuDS limitations.
Table 3.4 (below) details the levels of treatment to be provided, dependent upon the road
type and AADT (Average Annual Daily Traffic). Once the number of levels of treatment has
been derived from Table 3.4 for each sub-catchment, Table 3.5 should be used to select the
combination of types of treatment for each catchment.
The final step in deriving the pollution control required for each catchment is the
consideration of pollution impacts from spillages. The methodology used is based upon that
set out in the UK DMRB Volume 11, Section 3, Part 10 HD45/09. Annex I of HD45/09 sets out
a method (Method D) for determining the pollution impact on receiving water bodies which
in this case will be groundwater. Furthermore, it then provides a means of taking into

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account the pollution control devices already provided for general pollution control due to
their mitigating effects on any given spillage. By applying the risk reduction factor a
corrected risk can be calculated; to be acceptable the annual probability predicted needs to
be less than 1%. If the consequence of such a spillage occurring is severe, i.e. drinking water
abstraction could be affected, then a higher standard of protection could be stipulated so
the annual probability of such an occurrence happening reduces to <0.5%. The acceptable
level of risk should be approved by the overseeing organization at gateway 1.
The flow chart below shows the process of determining the levels of treatment required for
roads projects in Qatar, the flow chart also details when guidance should be sought from the
overseeing organization.

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Road types
Junctions
AADT
% HGVs

H &V alignment
Topographic survey
LiDAR

Determine catchments for road drainage


based on road H & V alignment or
topographical survey

Ground
contamination
Salt
Sand
Water abstraction

From data gathering define key


constraints for selection of pollution
control feature(s) including level of
protection for groundwater from
overseeing organisation

Ascertain proposed road data

Using Error! Reference source not found.


and previous steps determine number of
treatment levels required

Using Error! Reference source not found.


and Section 4.5 (SuDS) determine
pollution control features to be provided

Calculate risk of spillage and apply


mitigation where required*
*Where risk is > 1% apply additional mitigation
Figure 3.6: Pollution control procedure flowchart

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Drainage

Location and
road type

Pollution control levels of treatment required

AADT traffic flow

1 level

2 levels

3 levels

Urban
Local Roads

<5000

Service roads

<5000

Collector roads
(minor)

5000 20000

Collector roads
(major)

10000 50000

>20000

Collector roads
(distributor)

5000 50000

>20000

Arterials (minor)

20000 50000

Arterials (major)

30000 60000

Arterials
(boulevard)

30000 60000

Expressways

50000 80000

Local roads

<1000

Collector

1000 2000

Arterial

2000 8000

Freeway

>8000

Rural

>20000

Figures for AADT have been extracted from the QHDM Part 1, Section 3, Tables 3.1 & 3.2.
Table 3.4: Pollution control requirements
Once the level of treatment has been established using Error! Reference source not found.
adequate control measures should be identified using Error! Reference source not found..
SuDS options should be used in preference over traditional options; however, where
justification is supplied, it is acceptable to use combinations of both techniques. To prevent
mosquitoes SuDS features which retain water at surface level should drain within 48 hours.

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Where proprietary systems are used for a level of treatment they should not be used for
subsequent levels of treatment.
Levels of treatment
Level 1

SuDS

Level 2

Level 3

Permeable pavement

Permeable pavement

Detention basin

Filter strip

Filter strip

Bio-retention

Bio-retention

Sub-surface storage/
infiltration

Filter drain

Filter drain

Infiltration trench

Infiltration trench

Swale

Swale
Detention basin
Sub-surface storage/
infiltration
Soakaway

Modified gully (Funkee


Gruppe)
Traditional

Downstream defender

Class 1 bypass separator

Class 1 bypass separator

Up-flow filter (Hydro


International)

Downstream defender

Storm treat (Storm Treat


Systems)
Storm x4 (polypipe)

Table 3.5: Levels of treatment options for pollution control


Having determined the number of levels of treatment required from Error! Reference source
not found. and subsequently selecting the types of treatment for each level usingError!
Reference source not found., the probability of spillage should now be calculated. In order
to calculate the annual probability of spillage for each section of road it is first necessary to
gather the following data:

Length of road for each category in Error! Reference source not found. below
AADT two way flow for each section of road (other than slip roads) identified in
step 1
Percentage of Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGVs) as a proportion of AADT

When considering the length of road in each category the risk factor from Error! Reference
source not found. applies to all lengths of road within 100m of these junctions types. To

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demonstrate how the designer has determined this a sketch of the road types in relation to
junctions should be provided to the overseeing organisation at gateway 2.
Junction type
Road type

No junction

Slip road

Roundabout

Cross road

Side road

Local roads

0.29

0.83

3.09

0.88

0.93

Service roads

0.29

0.83

3.09

0.88

0.93

0.31

0.36

5.35

1.46

1.81

0.36

0.43

3.09

1.46

1.81

Expressways

0.36

0.43

3.09

Local roads

0.29

0.83

3.09

0.88

0.93

Collector roads

0.29

0.83

3.09

0.88

0.93

Arterial

0.29

0.83

3.09

0.88

0.93

Freeway

0.36

0.43

3.09

Urban

Collector roads
Minor
Major
Distributor
Arterials
Minor
Major
Boulevard

Rural

Table 3.6: Spillage rates (SS)


Using the data gathered above the annual probability of spillage for each section of road can
now be calculated using the following formula:

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PSPL =

RL x SS x (AADT x 365 x 10-9) x (%HGVs/100)

Where:
PSPL =

Annual probability of a spillage with the potential to


cause a serious pollution event

RL =

Road length in kilometers

SS =

Spillage rates from Error! Reference source not found.

AADT =

Annual average daily traffic (based upon design year


for a new road)

%HGV =

Percentage of heavy goods vehicles

Equation 3.6: Annual probability of a spillage with the potential to cause a major pollution
event
Having calculated the probability of a spillage event the probability of that spillage resulting
in a serious pollution incident should be determined by using the following equation:
PINC =

PSPL x PPOL

Where:
PINC =

The probability of spillage event resulting in a serious


pollution event

PPOL =

The probability that once a spillage has occurred that it


will result in a serious pollution event. This value
should be selected Error! Reference source not found.

Equation 3.7: Probability of spillage event resulting in serious pollution event

Receiving water
body

Urban (response time to


site <20 minutes)

Rural (response time


to site <1 hour)

Remote (response
time to site >1 hour)

Groundwater

0.3

0.3

0.5

Table 3.7: Probability of a serious pollution incident occurring as a result of a serious spillage
If the proposed levels of treatment determined from Table 3.5 include any of the systems
shown in Table 3.8: Spillages and risk reduction factors (indicative) below then a further risk
reduction factor should be applied before determining the final risk. So, if the risk of a
serious pollution event without the mitigation provided by the pollution control level of

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treatment is PINC, then the adjusted risk incorporating the levels of treatment is determined
by PINC x RF, where RF is the risk reduction factor for that system. For values of RF, see below
(based on table 8.1 from HD45/09)

Pollution control

Risk reduction factor RF (%)

SuDS
Filter drain

0.6 (40%)

Swale

0.6 (40%)

Detention basin

0.6 (40%)

Infiltration trench

0.6 (40%)

Bio-retention

0.7 (30%)

*Sub-surface storage/ infiltration

0.6 (40%)

Traditional
Penstock/ valve

0.4 (60%)

Bypass separator (Class 1)


(or other proprietary system delivering water
quality filtering over and above class 1 from BS EN
858)

0.5 (50%)

Table 3.8: Spillages and risk reduction factors (indicative)


Note: In some situations a higher factor signifying a lower risk reduction may be more
appropriate due to the limited extent of the given type of pollution control type selected. An
example of this would be where a short length of swale is proposed which only serves a
proportion of the road under assessment. In such instances it would be appropriate to use a
lesser reduction factor, say 20% or a factor of 0.8.
After calculating the adjusted figure for PINC add the annual probabilities for each section of
road discharging to an outfall. If this figure is greater than the figure agreed with the
overseeing organization (default value 1%) then look at each section of road to determine
the highest risk. Consider whether any of the factors need amending, or if an additional form
of mitigation can be included to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Recalculate the risk
using this iterative process until an acceptable level is reached.

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3.6

Review process

After design criteria have been established it is necessary to review findings with appropriate
stakeholders. Engineers should continue to engage with relevant consultations originating
from the project initiation stage as well as following the standard approvals procedure as
laid out within Section 1.2.2.
As with the previous approval process, this stage of design is likely to be inherently iterative
in order to include and balance the interests and feedback of key stakeholders within the
approval list.
To best achieve the required outputs and to facilitate an efficient approval process
continued engagement should be undertaken throughout the process.

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Detailed design work

4.1

Gateway 3 summary
Within the detailed design phase the comprehensive design criteria, as established within
the two previous stages of work, are utilised to develop a final working design. The process
for this is outlined within Figure 4.1
As Stage 3 +

Design calculations
Hydraulic modelling
Drainage asset sizing
Load capacity
Pump/ STW
Floatation
Structural

Drawings
Plans
Cross-sections/ Long sections
STD details and schedules
M & E (pump station)

Specification

Review and amend

Apply for approval

Figure 4.1: Detailed design process steps

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Drainage

As each design will vary according to the location and drainage requirements specific to each
project, not every stage within this chapter will necessarily be relevant for all designs. The
engineer using this guidance should utilise
Figure 4.1 to follow the correct procedure, and then reference the standards laid out within
this chapter as appropriate.

4.2

Design in urban areas

The term Urban Drainage is the terminology used for road drainage for all roads, where
major or minor (as defined in Section 7.1.3) in built up urban areas. These are roads
maintained by the Civil Engineering Department (CED) for Roads and Drainage.
The objective of providing highway drainage for this area is to collect precipitation fallen on
to the impervious road areas and semi-impervious verges and direct flows to an approved
outfall. Surface water runoff shall not be allowed to stand within the highway reservation for
an extended period of time so as to cause public nuisance or a health hazard. Surface water
discharges from the highway will not be allowed to be disposed of onto private land outside
the highway curtilage. The exception to this is when land has been purchased for the
purpose of storage / attenuation and controlled release of water. There are situations where
the highway curtilage has no available space for storage / attenuation and in that situation
extra land will need to be purchased outside of the existing highway land.
Early planning of highway drainage in the design process is essential to establish drainage
corridors and ROWs which will not clash with other planned utility corridors. (See Section 5)
. [discuss early stakeholder participation]
Good highway planning and drainage considerations, which take into account any natural
topographical restraints, will resolve many of the drainage problems associated with
highway design. Highways have the following advantages when it comes to provisioning
drainage measures:

Provides a natural drainage area to a discharge point.


Will direct surface water run-off flows to discharge points.
Provide a lengthened drainage path and increased the time of concentration.
Provide extra surface water storage area within the highway curtilage.
Provide isolated drainage catchment areas.
Potential to reroute flood flows to relieve / reduce flood risk in other key areas.

At the planning and design stage it is important to carefully consider other amenity areas
such as parks and car parks, which may have the potential to be used for strategic storage.
There is also the potential to incorporate SuDS options, such as run-off collection, at nearby
public realm sites to alleviate surface water flows.
4.2.1

Urban catchments
The increase in housing, roads and amenities is regarded as urban development and as such
this changes the nature of the existing land and the drainage surface water runoff process.

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When considering new roads for urban development the engineer should consider the total
catchment area either side of the road. An assessment of the existing surface water runoff
from the catchment needs to be established to ascertain if this runoff will contribute to the
overall highway drainage system. Part of the assessment process is to establish the
availability of discharge points for the collection of water and any potential pollution
problems caused by the intake of surface water runoff into the highway drainage system.
What is of great concern is the intake of blown sand into the drainage system causing
blockages and potential flooding problems. The highway designer will need to provide
suitable strategies to reduce this potential hazard.
4.2.2

Positive drainage
Positive drainage is the term used to describe surface water being collected by gullies and
piped or channeled directly to a low point in the network system, before being discharged
away from the highway to an approved discharge point.

4.2.3

Drainage of the carriageway


It is important to remove rainfall off road surfaces as efficiently as possible to reduce the risk
of aquaplaning to road vehicles. Aquaplaning occurs when a vehicle travelling at a certain
speed hits standing water on a road and the wheels are then lifted from the road by a thin
layer of water. In this situation, which is similar to skidding on ice, the vehicle loses control
which can result in a serious accident.
The typical road cross-section is as shown in Figure 4.2, although this does not indicate a
means of SuDS collection for surface water which should be considered in preference to
traditional techniques such as gullies where site constraints allow. For a balanced road
section the road falls away from the centre line and crown of the road to the channel and
kerb line. This fall is known as the transverse gradient and 2% is considered as normal for
drainage design.
Longitudinal gradient for the channel line to the discharge point (SuDS technique or
traditional technique such as a gully pot), can be a minimum of 0.3%. This reduces the
peaking of the vertical alignment of the road. However, a desirable minimum longitudinal
gradient of 0.5% is to be provided, where practical.

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Figure 4.2: Typical Road Cross-section


The road designer needs ensure that no flat zones are created at road junctions. Where
conflicting longitudinal gradients occur then to avoid a flat zone a Rolling Crown can be
used. The length of the rolling crown is determined using the same formula as that for
applying super elevation. (See Figure 4.3)

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Drainage

Figure 4.3: Typical Detail of Rolling Crown across a Single Carriageway


For the purpose of collection of surface water from road areas at low points gullies should be
provided along the kerb line or gutter. On slack longitudinal road gradients, typically less
than 0.5% channel blocks can be used to facilitate the surface water to the gully (see Figure
4.4).

Figure 4.4: Kerb and block channel arrangement


Gully spacing is a function of grating size, road gradient and cross-fall and acceptable flow
width at the channel. Standard gully spacing and criteria are given in Error! Reference
source not found..

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Drainage

To maintain gully performance under the influence of wind borne debris and dust and to
improve collection under the effect of high rainfall intensity, it is preferred that gullies are
constructed as pairs. It is also important to design an appropriate maintenance schedule,
which will prevent the build up of sand causing sub-optimal operation of drainage measures
(See Section X).
Other forms of road surface water drainage are the combined kerb drainage systems. Where
the kerb is the conduit for the transfer of water and the top section of the kerb allows free
passage of surface water into the conduit. (See Figure 4.5).

Figure 4.5: Combined kerb drainage


Connections from the conduit to the discharge surface water system is made using a side
outlet outfall unit (Figure 4.6).

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Drainage

Figure 4.6: Side outlet outfall unit


Utilities shall be located so as not to provide a hindrance to the drainage system installation
and maintenance or increase the chance of damage during utility maintenance works.
Storm sewer design shall be in accordance with CED Roads and Drainage Divisions' design
guides and specifications. Storm sewers shall cater for the flows computed from the design
criteria in this Section and any additional flows advised by CED Roads or Drainage Divisions
at the project initiation stage (gateway 1).
4.2.4

Design of traditional drainage capture techniques


This section of the manual covers the methods for determining the sizing /spacing of
traditional roadside surface water drainage capture techniques. It also describes the
limitations to each approach to enable the designer to select the most appropriate method.
These techniques fall within the 'traditional' approach to drainage, but can legitimately be
considered in conjunction with the SuDS techniques detailed in section XXX, or with
appropriate modification could be considered as SuDS in their own right.
INCLUDE EXAMPLES??? Funkee Gruppe gully insert / Permavoid bio filter channel and
crate....

4.2.4.1

Gully design:
The purpose of this section is to allow designers to space road gullies at a distance which
provides the best balance between adequate drainage and minimising the number of gullies
required.
The design is based upon the equations provided within the UK Design Manual for Roads and
Bridges, volume 4, section 2, part 3, HA102/00, Spacing of Road Gullies.

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There are two primary equations, the choice of which is most applicable to a design is based
upon whether or not the gradient of a road is uniform. These equations contain several
variables which also need to be derived the process for which is also included.
In order to complete this design the following inputs shall be required: The longitudinal
gradient of a road (as a fraction); the cross fall of a road (as a fraction); the acceptable flow
width (m) to be agreed with the overseeing organisation; Mannings roughness coefficient
for the surface of the road to be drained (typical road surface values are provided in this
guidance); the maintenance factor (the selection of which is outlined later in this guide)
which is dependent on the roads future maintenance; the rainfall intensity (see section 3.2
for details on its derivation); the width of catchment (m) for the area which drains to the
road kerb; the grating parameter (the calculation of which is outlined further in this section);
the gratings waterway and the gratings slot dimensions and pattern must be known, these
may be provided by the manufacturer. All other variables are calculated using these inputs
with equations provided in the following section.

a)

Limitations of Design Method:

The slots in the grating may not have a total waterway area which is less
than 30% of the gratings clear area.
The distance between the edge of kerb face and the first slot of a gully
grating may not be greater than 50mm.
The portion of the total waterway area within 50mm of the kerb face may
not be less than 45cm2.
Gullies should be either rectangular or triangular (rectangular preferred)
with one side of the frame positioned hard against the kerb face. Circular
gullies, and other shapes which cannot for-fill this will not be accepted.
Where a pedestrian crossing exists, a gully must be placed directly upstream
to minimise flow and therefore minimise disturbance to pedestrians.
On steep sections of road, the maximum allowable spacing between gullies
may not be determined by the collection efficiency of the grating but by the
flow capacity of the gully pot beneath it. Generally a gully pot can accept
about 10 litres/s without surcharging if the outlet pipe has a diameter of
100mm, and 15 litres/s if it has a diameter of 150mm.
The design method given in this section is appropriate for the range of
longitudinal gradients between 1/300 (0.33%) and 1/15 (6.67%) and can
reasonably be extended to a gradient of 1/12.5 (8.00%). For gradients flatter
than 1:300 this approach is not applicable and alternative methods should
be applied such as Whiffin AC and Young CP. Drainage of level or nearly
level roads. TRRL Report LR 602, 1973.
Road gullies have an advantage over surface water channels since the
gradient to carry the road runoff from the gully to the outfall is not
dependent on the gradient of the road. They do not however usually provide
the best drainage solution for long lengths of flat gradients; this should be
considered during design.

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b)

Intermediate Gratings/inlets:

For intermediate gratings/inlets where there is a uniform gradient throughout the section to
be drained then the maximum allowable spacing between adjacent gratings (Sp) may be
calculated from the equation below:

3.6 106

100

Equation 4.1

Where:
Q = Flow Rate (m3/s)
= Flow Collection Efficiency (%)
We = Effective Catchment Width (m)

= Maintenance Factor
= Design Rainfall Intensity (mm/hr)

Where there is a non-uniform gradient between gullies, the spacings are calculated (starting
with the upstream gully) with the equation below:

3.6 106 1

100

Equation 4.2

Where:
Q = Flow Rate (m3/s)
= Flow Collection Efficiency (%)
We = Effective Catchment Width (m)

= Maintenance Factor
= Design Rainfall Intensity (mm/h)

Where Qus, mus and us refer to the upstream grating, calculations using this equation
should commence at the upstream end. If the upstream end is at the top of a crest with
no gully, Qus becomes zero.

c)

Calculating Flow Rate:

The flow rate, Q (in m3/s) approaching the grating is calculated from Mannings equation:

2 1

3 2

(9)

Equation 4.3

Where:
Af = Cross-sectional area of flow (m2)
R = Hydraulic radius (m)

Page 55 of 119

= Longitudinal gradient (fraction)


= Mannings roughness coefficient

Drainage

d)

Hydraulic Radius and Cross Sectional Area:

In order to calculate the hydraulic radius and cross sectional area, the depth of water against
the kerb must first be calculated using the equation below:
=

Equation 4.4
The cross sectional area can then be calculated using the equation below:
=

Equation 4.5
This now allows for the calculation of the hydraulic radius using the equation below:
=

+ 2 + 2

Equation 4.6

Where:
B = Maximum allowable flow width (m)

e)

SC = Cross fall (fraction)

Maximum Allowable Flow Width:

The flow of water parallel to the kerb should not exceed an allowable width as shown in the
figure below:

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Drainage

Figure 4.7: Gully design parameters


An allowable width of flow may be designated by the overseeing organisation, below is a
table of typical values of B.
Road type:

Flow width (m):

Note:

Expressway

1.0

Where there is a hard


shoulder the flow width may
be extended to 1.5m

Arterial Roads

1.5

Collector Roads

2.0

Service Roads

2.5

Local Roads

Half the width of


the total road.

This width of flow is only


acceptable where there are
low volumes of traffic, not
travelling fast.

Table 4.1: Design flow widths on various road types (typical values of B)
Note that these are typical values and the actual value for B should be site specific and
dependent on the speed and volume of traffic, rainfall intensity, road maintenance and
gradients. The following should also be considered:

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Situation:

Flow width (m):

Note:

Pedestrian
crossings or bus
stops

0.45

A gully should be placed


directly upstream of these
points to ensure this is not
exceeded

Kerb returns

1.0

Other

As determined by
local authority

As determined by overseeing
organisation

Table 4.2: Design flow widths for special situations (typical values of B)

f)

Mannings coefficient (n):

Mannings roughness coefficient or Mannings n value is related to the roughness of a


surface and different values will need to be applied depending on the surface of the road.
The table below provides typical values of n for commonly used surface materials for flow
in triangular channels:
Surface type

Concrete gutter (trowelled finish)

0.012

Asphalt pavement:
smooth texture

0.013

rough texture

0.016

Concrete pavement:
float finish

0.014

broom finish

0.016

Brick and Pavement Blocks

0.016

Gutter with vegetation and cracks

0.020

Sprayed Seal

0.018

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Table 4.3: Typical values of Mannings n for various surfaces

g)

Maintenance Factor (m):

Reduced maintenance and the build up of debris will lower the efficiency of an inlet or
grating as the hydraulic area is reduced. The maintenance factor m is introduced to allow
for this effect. The higher the level of maintenance and condition of the road, the closer the
value of m tends to 1.0. Below is a table showing suggested values for m:
Situation

Maintenance factor (m)

Well-maintained urban roads

1.0

Roads subject to less frequent maintenance

0.9

Roads subject to substantial leaf falls or vehicle


spillages (eg at sharp roundabouts)
Sag points on road gradients

0.8
0.7

Table 4.4: Maintenance factor m

h)

Design Rainfall Intensity:

The design rainfall intensity should be given in mm, refer to section 3.2 in this manual for
how to calculate it.

i)

Effective Catchment Width:

The effective catchment width of a gully should be given in m and represents the width of
area that shall be draining to the grating/inlet and all paved and un-paved areas should be
included.

Figure 4.8: Effective catchment width


Where un-paved areas are being included, provided the un-paved area does not exceed the
paved area then it can be assumed that the contribution of unpaved areas is 20% of paved
areas.

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j)
4.2.4.2

Flow Collection Efficiency:

Kerb Inlets:
The flow efficiency (as a %) is calculated using the equation below:
= 100

36.1
1.5

Equation 4.7

4.2.4.3

Gully Gratings:
The flow efficiency (as a %) is calculated using the equation below:

= 100

Equation 4.8

Where:
Q = Flow Rate (m3/s)
H = Water Depth against Kerb (m)
Li = Length of the Opening in the Line of the Kerb Provided by the Inlet (m)
Gd = The Grating Parameter (Value is Determined by the Grating Type)

If the grating efficiency is less than about 80% for an intermediate gully, the most effective
solution is likely to be redesign with an improved grating type.

a)

Determining the Grating Type:

The design value of Gd is based upon the grating type and can be read from the table below:
Grating type

Range of G
(s/m2)

30

30.1 - 45

45.1 - 60

60.1 - 80

80.1 - 110

Design value
Gd (s/m2)

30

45

60

80

110

Table 4.5: Grating type design values


As there are a large number of possible grating designs that could be manufactured, these 5
grating types were created in order to allow designers to specify specific hydraulic
requirements for the gratings to the contractor. The grating types are as per the HR
Wallingford report, Spacing of Road Gullies, report SR 533.
The value of G can be calculated from the equation below:

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Drainage

69

0.75

Equation 4.9

Where:
Cb = Bar pattern coefficient
Ag = The area of the smallest rectangle parallel to the kerb that includes all the slots (m2)
p = The waterway area as a % of the grating area (Ag)

The grating bar pattern coefficient can be found using the table below:
Grating Bar Pattern

Cb

Transverse bars

1.75

Other bar alignments


(i.e. longitudinal, diagonal and bars in curve plan)

1.5

Table 4.6: Grating bar pattern coefficient

b)

Terminal gullies:

A terminal gully is required at the end of drainage runs or low points, they differ from
intermediate gullies as it is important for them to have a high flow collection efficiency in
order to collect a high percentage of the water and thus prevent the build up of water
interfering with traffic. This is usually done with a double gully.
Kerb inlets are not advised for use as terminal gullies unless used in conjunction with a
grating.
Equation 4.3 should be used to determine which side of a sag point will provide the greater
flow (if using a single terminal gully this flow should be doubled), and Equation 4.1
or Equation 4.2 used to determine the flow collection efficiency , (for a terminal gully to be
effective, then each gully to be used should have a value of 95%).
If the grating efficiency of a terminal grating is less than 95%, redesign is essential and an
improved grating type should be used. If the required efficiency is still not achieved then the
permitted width of flow (B) should be reduced. This will decrease the design flow
approaching the grating and increasing the grating efficiency, however it may result in
additional intermediate gullies being needed.

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Figure 4.9: Terminal gully design parameters

4.2.4.4

Design of surface water capture on flat or shallow gradients:


The process described in the sections above is only suitable within the limitation described.
Designers may be faced with scenarios which fall outside of these limitations. The design
outlined in this section is a guide to gully spacing along roads which are level or nearly level.
This section is based on the design approach set out in Drainage of level or nearly level
roads, by Whiffin AC and Young CP, TRRL Report LR 602, 1973. This report should be
referred to for any queries extending beyond the scope of this section. This study was
carried out using the following parameters:
Parameter

Minimum

Maximum

Road width (m)

5.43

14.00

Crossfall (%)

0.5

5.0

Longitudinal gradient (%)

0.00

0.50

Rainfall intensities
(mm/hr)

38.1

57.0

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Maximum width of flow


along the edge of road
kerb (m)

0.5

3.0

Table 4.7: Limiting parameters to equation for design of level of nearly level roads
Use of this approach beyond these parameters cannot be guaranteed to provide a suitable
design and an alternative approach may be considered.
3

3 4 23
4
= 545 16 1 +
7

()8
Equation 4.10

Where:
J = Outlet spacing (m)
I = Rainfall intensity (mm/hr)
C = Crossfall (%)
W = Index depending on crossfall

Crossfall, %

N = Maximum flow width (m)


W = Carriageway & hard shoulder (m)
Y = Longitudinal gradient (%)
B = Coefficient depending on crossfall

= 2.32 0.1
Coefficient, B

Index, w

0.5

117

2.26

1.0

190

2.19

1.5

265

2.125

2.0

326

2.06

2.5

380

1.995

s3.0

416

1.93

3.5

448

1.80

4.0

448

1.67

Table 4.8: Values for index W


4.2.4.5

Linear Drainage Design


In places, highway geometry may be such that the longitudinal gradient of the carriageway is
such that there is minimal or no longitudinal fall and a linear drainage system may be

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required. These systems can be provided in many forms, the most common of which is an
combined kerb drainage unit or CKD where a series of holes or a continuous grating is used
as the inlet.
Whilst linear drainage can be a useful solution to overcoming flat or nearly flat longitudinal
gradients, a higher frequency of maintenance can be required to retain the self cleansing
conditions and to ensure the units operate as designed.
This design process is based on upon the HR Wallingford report Hydraulic Capacity of
Drainage Channels with Lateral Inflow. Report SR581.

= 2.661.25 6.74 0.7 + 0.4 +

Equation 4.11

Where:
Q = Hydraulic capacity (m3/s)
A = Channel cross-sectional area (m2)
S = Longitudinal slope (expressed as a fraction)
with:
= 0.132 0.00022 for
= 0.00044 for

200

<

30

L = Channel length (m)


h = Design depth of water (m)

200

4.2.5

Drainage of medians, foot-ways and verges

4.2.5.1

Medians
The median of a road system is the middle area of the road, which is usually paved or
landscaped in urban areas. As such these areas need to be contained with kerbing to contain
any soil within this area and have a cross-fall for the finished level to ensure any surface runoff is directed to the carriageway and the surface water drainage system.

4.2.5.2

Foot-ways & cycle-ways


Foot-ways and cycle-ways are usually paved areas adjacent to the carriageway in urban
areas and should be designed to have a 2% cross-fall towards the carriageway. The cross-fall
will allow surface water run-off to be discharged onto the carriageway and into a surface
water system.
For highway construction in existing urban areas the highway designer must take into
account the finished road levels in relation to property owners access to the pavements and
road areas. Where there are wide pavements extra pavement drainage may be required
away from the carriageway and the finished pavement levels must be suitable for pedestrian
access and maintenance of the drainage system.

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Adjacent property owners to the carriageway need to be advised that it is their responsibility
to ensure that excessive run-off from their properties does not run across the footway,
inconveniencing the passage of pedestrians. Such flows should be suitably channelled into
collector channels and then directed to a surface water system. Any run-off from forecourts
areas of petrol stations in to the highway drainage system needs to have oil/petrol
interceptors installed and also grit traps.
4.2.5.3

Verges
Verges with hard landscaping shall be sloped to shed water towards the carriageway. Where
soft- landscaping is provided then it shall be edged and sloped to prevent run-off from
depositing soil and plant debris onto the adjacent pedestrian or trafficked surfaces, or into
property thresholds. Areas of raised planting which incorporate drain holes shall incorporate
a filter membrane to prevent washout of soil onto adjacent areas.

4.2.6

Emergency flood areas (EFA)


EFAs are areas of land either external to the carriageway or where space is available, within
the highway curtilage that are used for the storage of rain water which has surcharged the
normal drainage system and has backed flowed into a EFA. They can also be used to catch
and store water from the external catchment area to the carriageway to prevent flooding of
road areas and damage to properties. There are a number of design consideration required
for large storage areas which are:

Water should not be allowed to pond for extended periods so as to cause a health
hazard.
Water should be stored in a location where it can be easily pumped by tanker or
temporary pumping station.
Borehole soakaways to aid discharge to the ground water table, where
investigation has shown this is achievable.
Permanent surface water pumping station and rising main connected to the trunk
sewer system.
Where there is a gravity connection to the main surface water system some form
of control mechanism is required. Vortex spinners as flow control mechanisms are
recommend as they give a constant discharge flow rate under variable head
conditions and have no moving parts for maintenance issues.

In order to make the best use of land in developed areas it is normal practice to design EFA's
as sports fields, parks, playing fields, car parks etc. EFA's that are not landscaped or utilised
for other purposes have a tendency to collect rubbish and become an eyesore.
EFA's should be considered a potential drowning and disease hazard. Where possible they
should be kept shallow and spread over a large area. This helps evaporation and dissipation
and presents a less deep water hazard. Side slopes should be gentle to allow easy exit and
marker posts should be located around the rim to identify the deeper area in times of heavy
flooding.
Prior to designing EFA's the prevailing groundwater table should be ascertained to ensure
the excavation does not allow standing water to remain. Soakaways or boreholes can be

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constructed in the base of the EFA to encourage water dissipation. Discharging run-off water
to lower aquifers is subject to Ministry of Environment (MOE) approval.
4.2.7

Swales -sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)


Swales are shallow extended ditches, which run in verge areas usually trapezoidal in crosssection. These features are designed to collect run-off water from the carriageway store and
control a flow back to the main surface water system. The storing and delaying the flow of
water and controlled discharge back to the surface water system, has the effect of reducing
the peaking factor of high intensity storms and ultimately this reduces the effects of road
flooding. Again the preferred controlling mechanism is the vortex spinner.

4.2.8

Retention of storm-water

4.2.8.1

Minimising or eliminating mosquitoes


Mosquitoes lay their eggs on fresh or stagnant water, although some species are able to lay
their eggs on damp soil and salt water tides. In usual conditions it takes 10 days for an egg to
develop into an airborne adult, these eggs typically take 48 hours to hatch into larvae.

a)

Standing water

To minimise the presence of Mosquitoes, manmade temporary sources of surface water


must not be left to stand for longer than 48 hours.
This includes but is not limited to: subsurface storage, temporary wetlands, detention basins,
conveyance swales, wet swales and within rainwater harvesters.

b)

Water conveyance

Water conveyance systems must be designed to minimise the potential for allowing
Mosquitoes to hatch.
Conveyance structure gradients must be such that water is not allowed to stand for more
than 48 hours. Routine maintenance should occur to ensure that this gradient is maintained
throughout the life of the structure.
Conveyance structures should be designed to ensure that scour does not create depressions
that may hold standing water.
Electric pumps should not be used as these systems are prone to failure and as such may
cause standing water.
Where a large ditch or swale is to be designed slopes of at least 3:1 or steeper should be
used along with a minimum of 1.2m wide bottom. This will discourage burrowing animals,
seepage and vegetation growth problems.

c)

Access

Sealed manhole covers should be used where possible to prevent mosquitoes accessing
below ground structures; this is especially important in places where a sump or basin may be
used as these are ideal situations for Mosquitoes to lay eggs.

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Where the sump or basin is sealed it is important to remember that female Mosquitoes can
fly through pipes, as such, where it is possible the inlet and outlet should be submerged.
Where possible below ground sumps should be designed with the equipment necessary to
allow for the unit to be dewatered.

d)

Inspections

In order to ensure that drainage systems can drain freely they must be kept clear of debris
and vegetation. Channels, gutters, ditches and drainage facilities should be inspected
regularly to ensure they remain clear. Inspections should also be carried out to ensure that
no standing water has developed and that immature Mosquitoes arent developing.
As such it is important that maintenance access is considered during the design.

4.3

Design in rural areas

The designer for highway drainage needs to consider two basic requirements which are:

The precipitation falling on to the harden areas of the road and reservation areas.
Drainage flows from the full drainage catchment area.

Surface water run-off from rural roads is normally achieved by dispersion to road verges.
4.3.1

Rural catchments
The highway drainage for rural roads does not normally require the storage of run-off water
during times of high intensity rainfall events as required in the urban situation. The general
principle is to allow surface water run-off from the road areas to the verge areas and into
the natural drainage paths. However rural catchment can be considerable areas and
generate vast quantities surface water run-off during storms of high intensity precipitation.
The highway drainage designer needs to ensure that any over land flooding does not impede
traffic flow and it may be appropriate to install culverts under rural roads to link natural
drainage paths.

4.3.2

Drainage of the carriageway


Drainage of the carriageway for the rural situation amounts to basic vertical alignment of
finished road levels allowing surface water run-off to natural verge areas. There are two
requirements for this provision, which are:

Transverse gradients of 2% are provided as normal for drainage of the travelled


way.
Longitudinal gradients are not considered for drainage purposes on un-kerbed
roads. However, care must be taken during the design of super-elevated sections
to avoid flat zones in the carriageway.

Any areas on route of a rural road where surface water could damage embankments then
kerbing and positive drainage may be required.

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4.3.3

Drainage of medians and verges

4.3.3.1

Medians
Medians in rural areas will normally be open land with no paving and should be sloped away
from the carriageway to avoid soil washing on to the road in times of rainfall. Where run-off
is collected from long sections of gradient, median outlets should be provided at Wadi and
valley points. This is to prevent water ponding and flooding on to the carriageway.
Alternatively the median may be broken into individual catchment segments and surface
water allowed to percolate into the ground or evaporate. Median ditches, if required, should
have a maximum side slope of 1 in 6 and shall be designed such that water in the ditch
cannot percolate into the road construction. (See Error! Reference source not found.).

Figure 4.10: Typical median ditch cross-section


4.3.3.2

Verges and ditches


Verges adjacent to rural roads sloped to direct surface water away from the carriageway. At
the back of the verge a shallow ditch may be provided to both collect and transport
carriageway run-off and catch minor area run-off for disposal to natural drainage paths along
the route of the road.
The highway drainage designer shall ensure that ditches are located such that surface water
is introduced into the pavement construction. Normal practice is to provide a ditch with
ditch invert 0.3m below carriageway formation at the edge of the carriageway.
Rural ditches generally will be unlined and the shape will be dependent on highway safety
issues and the following hydraulic considerations:

Contributing catchment area.


Appropriate storm duration.
Gradient.

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Drainage

Roughness coefficient of lining/surface.

Permissible depths of flow for unlined channels are given in Error! Reference source not
found.. Shallow side ditches are not normally graded to provide a fall but follow the road
profile.

Figure 4.11: Permissible depths of flow for unlined channels


Ditch slopes should present a significant hazard to traffic leaving the road during an accident.
Slide slopes of 1 in 6 or shallower should suffice for this. In areas of steep cutting, ditches
should be located so they are not filled with loose debris from the cutting. In areas where
natural surface run-off is high it may be necessary to install a ditch setback from the top of
the cuttings to prevent rainfall damaging the cutting face.
4.3.4

Natural surface drainage


Where a highway crosses a wadi, the wadi catchment characteristics, design storm and class
of road will determine the type of road crossing required. It is normal practice to allow runoff even from small catchments, to cross under the road so as to minimise disruption to the
natural surface flow.

4.3.4.1

Culverts
A culvert is a covered channel or pipeline used to convey a watercourse under the road. It
consists of an inlet, one or more barrels and an outlet.
Typically, culvert barrels will be constructed from concrete or steel pipes or boxes. Inlets and
outlets may be constructed with gabions, mattresses, stone pitching or concrete.

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The hydraulic characteristics of a culvert are complex due to the number of flow conditions
that can occur. The highway engineer shall consult specialist literature in his design of
culverts and shall choose the most appropriate culvert for the specific purpose considering
the following general constraints:

Preferred minimum pipe culvert diameter 800mm.


Minimum pipe culvert diameter 450mm.
Flooding against embankments is acceptable short term. Freeboard to edge of
carriageway to be a minimum of 0.5m for the design storm.
Embankment slopes of 1 in 6 or greater do not normally require protection against
washout due to short term ponding. Long term ponding may require embankment
slopes of 1 in 10.

The engineer shall balance embankment height with culvert height to provide a satisfactory
technical and economic solution.
4.3.4.2

Fords
Where wadi flows are exceptionally high or the road requires a low storm design return
period and is lightly trafficked, culverts may prove impractical. The engineer may therefore
consider incorporating a dry ford or vented dry ford. In designing a dry ford, care must be
exercised to ensure driver awareness of the potential hazard. Guide posts should be
positioned adjacent to the carriageway to assist traffic positioning and advance signing
should be used to indicate the dry ford to approaching drivers.
Specific attention must be paid to minimising scour and the prevention of carriageway
surfacing and edge loss. Verges, medians and embankment slopes should be protected by
impervious layers or rock. Washout of embankment fines should be prevented by the use of
filter layers or impermeable membranes.

4.4

Junction Drainage

4.4.1

Considerations for drainage at junctions


Effective drainage of the carriageway at junctions is particularly necessary for two reasons:

The need to retain surface grip to enable the safe stopping, starting and turning
manoeuvres routinely undertaken by vehicles at these locations.
The need to maintain the traffic system capacity, particularly at major junctions
makes it essential that flooding of lanes and reduction in junction capacity is
avoided.

The following criteria must be considered to satisfy the above requirements:

Satisfactory transverse gradients must be maintained, particularly on the approach


to "Stop" or "Give Way" lines
Longitudinal gradients must be carefully chosen to keep slack sections of channel
to a minimum

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Where slack gradients are unavoidable the transverse gradient should be a


minimum of 2%
Collection points must be carefully sited to avoid ponding or run-off across
carriageways from one channel to another
Collection points must link to an easily maintainable disposal system with
adequate capacity.

Junctions should preferably be situated away from valley points for large catchments to
prevent flood concentration at these points. Locating junctions adjacent to trunk sewers or
EFA's to provide additional drainage facilities should also be considered.
Urban junctions should always be kerbed and are therefore drained by gullies to the disposal
system.
Rural junctions would normally be kerbed however an economic collection and disposal
method may be achieved by flush kerbs located at collection points with shallow lined
channels removing the water to the adjacent ground.
Lightweight Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) embankment channels are easily installed to
prevent washout of embankment slopes at areas of run-off concentration such as at kerb
ends.
Carriageway cross-falls and longitudinal gradients at junctions are used to channel water to
collection points. The following are examples of satisfactory cross-fall layouts with typical
collection points:
4.4.2

T junctions
The following features are required for effective drainage design at T junctions (also see
Error! Reference source not found.):

Constant camber maintained on major road.


Longitudinal gradient on major road maintained across minor road throat.
Longitudinal gradient maintained on minor road to major road channel line.
Constant transverse gradient on minor road maintained to radius tangent points.
Gully positions chosen to prevent flow crossing the minor road entry/exit.
It is preferred to maintain the major carriageway transverse gradients through
cross roads or small signalized junctions.

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Figure 4.12: Typical drainage at T Junctions


4.4.2.1

Large signalized junctions


The following features are required for effective drainage design at Large Signalized
Junctions (also see Figure 5.2):

Transverse gradients to be maintained at approach to "Stop" lines & pedestrian


crossings.
Longitudinal gradients to be satisfactory to prevent a large flat area being created
at the intersection point.
Transverse gradients on right turn slips to provide super-elevation.
Valleys created in slips to have adequate collection and disposal points.
Additional gullies placed at collection points serving a large surface area.
Gully positions chosen to prevent flow crossing carriageways.

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Figure 4.13: Large signalised junction drainage

4.4.3

Roundabouts
The following features are required for effective drainage of roundabouts (also see Error!
Reference source not found.):

Transverse gradients maintained at approach to "Give Way" lines.


Longitudinal gradients to continue to be maintained on approaches and
departures.
Channel of Central Island to fall to one collection point.
Transverse gradients provide super elevation for right turners or those circulating.
Gullies positioned to prevent cross carriageway run-off.

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Drainage

Figure 4.14: Roundabout Drainage

4.4.4

At grade junctions
Ongoing.

4.4.5

Grade separated junctions


Ongoing.

4.5

Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS)

4.5.1

Introduction to SuDS
Drainage systems which mimic the natural drainage process within a site before
development and which promote sustainable development are collectively referred to as
sustainable drainage systems (SuDS).
Within a given location these sustainable drainage systems are designed so that
environmental risks resulting from urban surface water runoff are managed in a way which
will also promote environmental enhancement.

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Drainage

So SuDS objectives are to minimise the impacts from the development on the quantity and
quality of the runoff, and maximise amenity and biodiversity opportunities. This three-way
concept, as shown in Figure 4.15, highlights that these main objectives should all take equal
precedence and the ideal solution will achieve benefits in all three categories, however this
may be achieved to varying degrees depending on site characteristics and constraints.

Quantity

Quality

Amenity and
biodiversity

Figure 4.15: Sustainable drainage objectives

SuDS designers should always endeavor to reduce runoff by integrating multiple stormwater
controls throughout a site in small, discrete units. Through effective control of runoff at the
source, the need for large flow attenuation and flow control structures may be minimised.
Advice on applicable SuDS techniques for each road type can be found below in Error!
Reference source not found. and Error! Reference source not found..

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Drainage
Table 4.9 - Potential suitability for SUDS installation on Urban Roads
Source Control
Site Control

Technique

Regional Control
Pervious
surfaces

Filter
drains

Filter
Strips

Soakaways

Swales

Infiltration
Trenches

Bio retention
Areas

Sand
Filters

Pipes,
Subsurface
Storage

Ponds

Detention
Basin

Infiltration
Basins

Service
Roads

Local Roads

Urban Road
Classification
Expressways
Major
Arterial
Roads
Minor
Arterial
Roads
Boulevard
Arterial
Roads
Major
Collector
Roads
Minor
Collector
Roads
Distributor
Collector
Roads

P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P

Page 76 of 119

Drainage
Table 4.10 - Potential Suitability for SUDS Installation on Rural Roads
Source Control
Site Control

Technique

Regional Control
Pervious
surfaces

Filter
drains

Filter
Strips

Soakaways

Swales

Infiltration
Trenches

Bio retention
Areas

Sand
Filters

Pipes,
Subsurface
Storage

Ponds

Detention
Basin

Infiltration
Basins

Freeway

Arterial
Roads

Collector
Roads

Local Roads

Rural Road
Classification

Page 77 of 119

Drainage

4.5.2

Infiltration Guidance
Infiltration of storm water runoff into the surrounding soil is a useful way to help reduce the
volume of runoff at or close to source. It can help to promote groundwater restore, improve
water quality through physical filtration and absorption, and reduce the need for further
drainage to be installed downstream to convey flows away from the site.
However, infiltration is not appropriate in all circumstance and care is needed to ensure that
the infiltration device is suitable for the specific site location.
As a general guide, infiltration is advisable where:

pre treatment and emergency control, such as an oil interceptor or being situated
offline, can be used to prevent groundwater from becoming polluted.
where the groundwater table is more than 1m below the base of the proposed
infiltration device.
the infiltration rate of the surrounding soil is greater than 0.001mm/hr (e.g. clay
and most rocky soils are not generally appropriate).
the structure of the soil is suitably stable to support large volume of runoff
infiltrating into it without the risk of failure.

To aid decision making it is advisable to consult with a geotechnical engineer to determine


whether infiltration is likely to be appropriate. The outline process in Table 4.22 helps
highlight the main steps which should be considered when specifying an infiltration device.
Consult a geotechnical engineer to discuss whether
an infiltration device is likely to be suitable based on
a high level review of available site data.

Determine the type of device suitable for the site and


design the outline of the system based on default
values.

Conduct an onsite trial pit investigation to determine


the actual infiltration rate of the soil and take soil
samples for analysis.

Discuss findings with a geotechnical engineer and


feed back into the design.

Figure 4.16: Consideration of infiltration

Page 78 of 119

Drainage

4.5.3

Specification of Suitable Vegetation


TBC

Page 79 of 119

Drainage

4.5.4

Pervious Surfaces
Pervious surfaces allow rainfall to infiltrate through their surface and into the sub base. This
provides a level of attenuation, water quality treatment and provides point of source
collection which reduces the need for other drainage systems to be constructed.
The sub base layers can either be drained via infiltration and/or a piped drainage system.
Porous asphalt and porous concrete are the most suitable forms of pervious surface for use
on highways.

4.5.4.1

Location Setting
Careful attention needs to be paid to vehicular loading and road speeds as due to the more
permeable nature of the sub base compaction of material can lead to depressions and
damage to the functionality of the system.
Also, where high sedimentation loads are expected, and unlikely to be regularly dispersed or
cleaned, then these surfaces may prove less effective and may be subject to failure.
Road location and type

Potential Suitability

Urban Areas
Local Roads

Service Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Expressways

Rural Areas*
Local Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Freeways

Table 4.11: Potentially suitable locations for a pervious surface


* Please note that these locations are only likely to be suitable where frequent sweeping or
dispersion of the sediment along the road can be maintained.

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Drainage

4.5.4.2
4.5.4.3

Benefits and limitations

Can help to attenuate flows and


improve water quality.

Require regular maintenance


where sediment loads are likely to
high in order to prevent clogging.

Dual purpose and reduces the


need for additional installation
space e.g. drainage and road
surface in one.

Vehicular loading, volumes and


road speed need careful
consideration to avoid failure of
the road surface.

If the geotextiles becomes blinded


with fine silt it will adversely affect
the infiltration rate into the sub
base.

Limitations

Aids the removal of rainfall at


source.

4.5.4.4

Benefits

Reduces surface ponding on the


road surface.

Key Design Elements

The pervious surface and sub-base should be structurally designed for the specific
site and excepted vehicular loading. This should be done inline with the
manufactures recommendations.

Guidance should be sort by a suitably qualified geotechnical engineer as to


whether infiltration should be allowed or whether a liner should be installed to
provide an impermeable barrier.

Surface infiltration rates should normally be an order of magnitude greater than


the design rainfall intensity. Manufactures guidelines should be referred to in
order to clarify this.

The subsurface storage volume should be adequate to ensure that the infiltration
and/or discharge rate through the continuation pipe will not become a limiting
factor and create surface ponding during an event equivalent to its design event.

Angular, crushed material with high surface friction should be used for sub base
construction. Sand and gravel with rounded particles should not be. This is in order
to maintain voids and limit compaction of the material which would reduce
permeability. Guidance should be sort by a geotechnical engineer about suitable,
local material where possible.

The sub-base should usually be laid in 100150 mm layers and lightly compacted
to ensure that required void ratio is achieved for the particular material used.
Guidance should be sort by a geotechnical engineer and/or the surface
manufacture about a suitable sub base construction.

A geotextile may be specified as a filtration treatment component near the top of


the sub base. Where this is done, care should be taken to ensure that the rate of
infiltration is greater than the rate through the pervious road surface.

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Drainage

4.5.4.5

Soil and other material must be prevented from contaminating the pavement
surface and sub-structure.This can be achieved by ensure adjoining land slopes
away from the road surface.

Design Stages
Is a pervious surface suitable?

Are high
sediment
loads
expected?

Will regular
cleaning be
possible?

Is vehicle
loading
expected to be
high?

Use manufactures instructions to design the pavement and


use the key design criteria in section 4.5.3.3 as a guide of
consideration.

Figure 4.17: Pervious surface design steps


4.5.4.6

Maintenance requirements
Action
Maintenance Type

Regular

Occasional

Frequency

Inspection of pervious surfaces


for evidence of structural
defection or reduced infiltration
efficiency.

Quarterly/ as the
manufacture recommends.

Cleaning/ sweeping of the


pervious surface

As stated by manufactures
instructions.

Remediation of any surface


depressions

As required

Reconstruction of the pervious


surface and sub base

When total failure of the


structural integrity or ability
to absorb runoff occurs.

Table 4.12: Pervious surface maintenance requirements

4.5.4.7

Construction Advice

Care needs to be taken to suitably prepare the formation level inline with
manufacture guidelines.

Any noticeable soft spots in the formation level should be excavated and backfilled with suitable well compacted material prior to laying the sub base layers.

Impermeable membranes must be treated with care during installation to ensure


that it is not damaged.

To maintain permeable properties the sub base must not be compacted. This with
reduce the void ratio and effectiveness of the system.

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Drainage

4.5.5

Geotextiles should be laid in accordance with manufacturers instructions and with


overlaps between adjacent strips without any folds or creases to ensure full
coverage.
Contaminants should be prevented from entering the pavement surface and subbase both during and after construction. This is in order to ensure that the
pavement remains permeable throughout its design life.
To do this, silt fences and temporary drainage which diverts runoff away from the
area should be considered to manage these risks during construction and
landscaping should be carefully designed to prevent deposition of materials from
adjacent land e.g. sloping sides away from the highway.

Soakaways
Soakaways are excavated pits or chambers usually filled with rubble. They can be lined with
brickwork, pre-cast concrete or polyethylene rings which are perforated storage structures
surrounded by granular backfill.
They can be grouped and linked together to drain large areas including highways.
Soakaways provide stormwater attenuation, stormwater treatment and groundwater
recharge.

4.5.5.1

Location Setting
Soakaways can be designed to fit with site constraints, but an important feature is that
infiltration into the ground is acceptable at this should be considered at an early stage.

Table 4.13 highlights potentially suitable site locations.


Road location and type

Potentially Suitability

Urban Areas
Local Roads

Service Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Expressways

Rural Areas
Local Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Freeways

Page 83 of 119

Drainage

Table 4.13: Potentially suitable site locations for soakaway installation

4.5.5.2

4.5.5.3

Benefits and limitations


Benefits

Minimal land take is needed for


installation.

Can be designed in series or


individually for the needs of the
site.

Help to provide groundwater


recharge.

Good volume reduction and peak


flow attenuation.

Easy to construct and operate.

Limitations

Not suitable for poor draining soils.


Not suitable where infiltration is
not acceptable.
Not appropriate for draining
polluted runoff.
There is some uncertainty over
long-term performance as
continual observations are limited.
Reduced performance during long
wet periods is likely as the ground
becomes heavily saturated.

Key Design Elements

Field investigations are required at an early stage to confirm the infiltration rates
and acceptability of infiltration to the soil. A geotechnical engineer should be
consulted during this assessment.

Inspection of the soakaway should be made possible during the design phase. This
can either be through an inspection well or opening in the cover.

A perforated pipe can be incorporated to provide a point of discharge to drain


small soakaway. This should be visible and access should be provided to allow
debris and sediments to be cleared from the pit.

Soakaways can simply be built as simple excavations that are backfilled with high
voids media, or supported perforations pre-cast concrete or plastic chambers
which can help improve stability and maximise infiltration to the surrounding
ground.

A suitable geotextile lining should be specified to ensure that granular material can
be separated from the surrounding soil and to prevent migration of fines into the
soakaway.

Soakaways must be of sufficient strength to cater for the loads acting on them,
especially where they are required to be traffic bearing. A structural engineer
should be consulted to assess this.

Storm events in excess of the design return period will need to be considered to
ensure that floodwater can safely be conveyed downstream. This may require
additional drainage components to be specified as the infiltration rate will present
a limiting factor.

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Drainage

4.5.5.4

The soakaway should be designed to discharge from full to half-volume within 24


hours so that sufficient capacity is available to receive runoff from subsequent
storms.
The soakaway should fully discharge within 48 hours so that mosquito breeding is
minimised.

Design Stages
Consider if a soakaway is suitable for the site
location? (e.g. is infiltration appropriate)

Use a model* to determine the volume of storage


required to attenuate a design event in accordance
with Table 3.1.

Determine whether the infiltration rate is sufficient


to ensure the soakaway will be drain fully in 48 hours?
(use the model or convert the infiltration rate to a
volume over 48 hours and subtract this from the
design volume)

Ensure the key design considerations in section


4.5.4.3 are considered during design.

Figure 4.18: Soakaway design steps


* a model is recommended for use as can provide a better understanding of the likely
response of drainage features at the time design and during its lifetime.
Hand calculations for design purposes can be used where the drainage catchment is small
and a model would be inappropriate for the size of the scheme. The storage required will be
a function of inflow minus outflow over time and can be determined using the level pool
routing technique.
4.5.5.5

Maintenance requirements

Maintenance Type

Action

Frequency

Regular

Inspect and identify areas that


are not operating as designed
and remediate them.

Monthly for the first 3


months, then six monthly

Page 85 of 119

Drainage

Maintenance Type

Occasional
Remedial

Action

Frequency

Remove debris and blockages.

Monthly

Remove sediment from pretreatment structures.

Annually (or as required)

Detailed inspection of all


structural elements

Annually and after large


storms

Repairs to structure elements

As required

Table 4.14: Soakaway maintenance requirements

4.5.5.6

Construction Advice

Untreated drainage from construction sites should not be discharged into


soakaways during construction as this can cause the soakaway to become
ineffective.

It is recommended that the exposed surface of the soil should be manually cleaned
to ensure the geotextile and granular fill surrounding the chamber are installed in
optimal conditions.

4.5.6

Swales
Swales are wide, shallow, gently sloping channels usually covered by grass or other suitable
vegetation, although reinforced earth or rip rap be can also used.
Standard swales are designed to incept flow from the highway and convey runoff slowly
along their surface. Infiltration can be encouraged through the use if check dams or berms
installed across the flow path.
Infiltration can be conducted in standard swales or by the use of a dry swale. These
incorporate a filter bed and under drain system under the base of the swale to improve the
capacity of the system.
Where infiltration is not permitted, the swale can be lined with an impermeable membrane.

4.5.6.1

Location Setting
Swales are usually situated parallel to the highway, but need to be kept relatively wide so
that shallow depths can be maintained. This usually makes them most suited to areas where
there are wide verges available, but it is still useful to consider them where there are only
narrow corridors, such as in urban areas.

Road location and type

Suitability

Urban Areas
Local Roads

Service Roads

Collectors

Page 86 of 119

Drainage

Road location and type

Suitability

Arterials

Expressways

Rural Areas
Local Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Freeways

Table 4.15: Potentially suitable locations for installing a swale

4.5.6.2

Benefits and limitations

4.5.6.3

Benefits
Help to reduce urban pollutants
in runoff.

Can help reduce runoff rates


(and volumes where infiltration
is permitted).

Not suitable where vehicles may


park on the swale and damage
their construction.

Potential risk of blockages when


connecting swales with pipe work.

Vegetation requires regular


maintenance.

Pollution and blockages are


visible and easily dealt with.

Limitations
Not suitable for where the
longitudinal gradient of the
highway is steep.

Key Design Elements

Vegetation in the flow channel should typically be maintained at a height of 100


150 mm.

The shape of a swale should be trapezoidal or parabolic in cross section as these


are easiest to construct and maintain, and offer good hydraulic performance.

Swale side slopes should be no greater than 1 in 4 to promote sheet flow and low
velocities, and to maximise the wetted perimeter, promote filtration and minimise
erosion.

The normal maximum dry swale depth is between 400 and 600 mm (providing all
technical and safety issues have been considered)

A freeboard of 150 mm should be provided over the design flow depth to allow for
blockages.

Conveyance swales should have a minimum longitudinal slope of 1 in 300.

The base width of the swale should preferably be between 0.5 and 2 m.

Page 87 of 119

Drainage

The design event runoff volumes should half empty within 24 hours to ensure
runoff from further storms can be accommodated.
The design event runoff volumes should fully empty within 48 hours to reduce
stagnation and mosquito breeding.
The maximum flow velocity in the swale for events below a 1 year return period
should be 0.3 m/s to promote settlement.
Flow velocities for extreme events should be kept below 1.0 m/s to prevent
erosion.
Check dams and appropriate pre-treatment systems should be used to improve
both the hydraulic and water quality performance of a swale system by reducing
velocities, increasing residence time, increasing infiltration and promoting storage.
Where required, check dams are typically provided at 10 20 m intervals and the
water level at the toe of the upstream dam should be the same level as the crest
of the downstream dam.
Check dams should be constructed into the sides of the swale to ensure that water
does not bypass the structure and a small orifice or pipe at the base of the dam
will allow low flows to be conveyed downstream.

Figure 4.19: Diagram of typical swale

4.5.6.4

Maintenance requirements
Action
Maintenance Type
Regular

Occasional
Remedial

Frequency

Litter and debris removal

Monthly/ as required.

Watering of vegetation.

Daily

Check for areas of poor


vegetation growth and re-seed
accordingly.

Half yearly/ as required

Inspect inlets, outlets, overflows,


check dams for signs of erosion,
silting, blockages also check for
areas of ponding.

Half yearly

Repair structure

As required

Remove pollutants and sediment


build up

As required

Re-level uneven surfaces.

As required

Page 88 of 119

Drainage

Table 4.16: Swale maintenance requirements

4.5.6.5

Construction Advice

Swales should not receive any storm runoff until vegetation in the system is fully
established and construction at the site has reached a state where sediment from
the site will not cause siltation of the swale.

4.5.7

Filter Trenches and Drains


Filter trenches are shallow excavations, lined with a geotextile and usually back filled with
stone to create an underground reservoir to drain runoff from small catchment areas. Runoff
can then infiltrate into the surrounding soil.
Filter drains are similar, but use a porous or perforated pipe placed at the base of the trench
to allow flow to pass forward into a further drainage system. Infiltration can be permitted, or
an impermeable liner used to omit this.
These systems are designed to provide attenuation by promoting slow infiltration through
their fill material and into the ground where infiltration is allowed. They also provide storage
in the trench itself.

4.5.7.1

Location Setting
Filter drains and trenches are suitable for installation at the edge of highways and can be
designed to site characteristics.
Care is needed to ensure high speed vehicles do not veer onto the drain or park on top of
them. This can cause stone scatter which will be dangerous to other road users and heavy
loading on the trench median which can cause compaction and is not advisable.
Care should also be taken to ensure that they are not located where stones are likely to be
scattered by human intervention.
Road location and type

Potential Suitability

Urban Areas
Local Roads

Service Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Expressways

Rural Areas
Local Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Freeways

Page 89 of 119

Drainage

Table 4.17: Potentially suitable locations for trenches

4.5.7.2

Benefits and limitations

4.5.7.3

Benefits
Help slow the flow rate and
provide attenuation.
Where infiltration is
permitted, runoff volumes
will be significantly reduced
and can aid groundwater
recharge.
Filtration aids treatment of
contaminated runoff leading
to improved water quality.
Can be easily installed close
to the highway to reduce the
need for further drainage.
Relatively low land take and
cost of installation.

Limitations
Stable subsurface material is
essential to reduce the risk of
trench collapse.
Pipe collapses in filter drains
are very common due to the
nature of the pipe material.
Not suitable for sites where
filter clogging is likely (e.g
clay/silt in the upstream
catchment).
Failure of the system is
difficult to see in the early
stages.
Regular maintenance is
required to reduce the risk of
failure due to clogging.

Key Design Elements

To maximise the life time effectiveness of these systems, it is recommended that


runoff be pre treated to remove heavy solids before arrival at the trench as it is
difficult to restore the operation of trenches once clogged.

Trenches should not be constructed on steep slopes where there is an increased


risk of stability concerns.

Where designed to allow for infiltration, the maximum groundwater level should
be greater than 1m below the trench to avoid continued saturation of the filter
median and risk of groundwater infiltrating into the drainage network.

A full geotechnical assessment should be conducted to ensure that ground


conditions are suitable for the trench excavation and that infiltration is
appropriate (see section 4.5.2).

The trench should be designed to by half emptied within 24 hours from being full
to ensure capacity is made available for subsequent events and reduce the risk
that the trench will be waterlogged for long periods.

Trench depths should normally be between 1 and 2m.

Locally available granular stone or rock fill should be specified where possible.

The geotexile should have greater permeability than the surrounding soil where
infiltration is allowed to ensure the geotexile doesnt present a barrier to flow.
Manufactures guidance should be used to assess this.

Page 90 of 119

Drainage

4.5.7.4

Measures should be put in place to ensure stone scatter due to vehicles or human
interaction does not occur. This could simply include locating the trench slightly
away from the highway and not constructing this type of system in highly urban
areas or close to settlements.
Infiltration trenches should be constructed with a high level outlet for exceedance
conditions, and appropriate drainage designed to convey flows safety
downstream.
The base of the trench should be gently sloping to encourage flow movement and
avoid ponding.
Adequate access to the trench should be provided for maintenance as this will
include the need for washing and replacement of the top layers regularly.

Design Stages
Is a trench suitable for the site location?
Is stone
scatter
likely?

Is the filter
likely to get
clogged

Are ground
conditions
suitable?

A trench which can be accommodated along the


highway based on site constraints should be
modelled* and design to accommodate a design
storm in accordance with Error! Reference

Determine whether the trench can be drained


by half via the outlet pipe or infiltration in 24 hrs
Use the key design consideration laid out in
section 4.5.6.3 to ensure the trench is designed
inline with best practice.

Figure 4.20: Infiltration trench design steps


* a model is recommended for use as can provide a better understanding of the likely
response of drainage features at the time design and during its lifetime.
Hand calculations for design purposes can be used where the drainage catchment is small
and a model would be inappropriate for the size of the scheme. The storage required will be
a function of inflow minus outflow over time and can be determined using the level pool
routing technique.

Page 91 of 119

Drainage

4.5.7.5

Maintenance requirement
Maintenance Type

Regular

Occasional

Action

Frequency

Removal of litter and debris from


the trench surface.

Monthly

Inspection of trench surfaces for


evidence of ponding and silt
accumulation.

At least quarterly.

Washing of exposed stone.

Annually

Remediation of filter median and


geotextiles when clogging occurs.

As required

Inspection of pipe work for


evidence of operation and failure.

As required/ half the


expected asset life

Re-excavation of trench walls

As required

Figure 4.21: Infiltration trenches maintenance requirements


4.5.7.6

Construction

Trenches should be constructed after highways have been installed to minimise


compaction of surrounding soil. Where soil has been compacted during previous
construction activity, this needs to be improved to ensure that the effectiveness of
the infiltration properties of the ground are maintained.

Stone fill and geotextile should be clean before installation and care should be
taken to ensure the geotexile covers all sides of the trench and is not damaged
during installation.

Health and safety consideration should be paid close attention to during


construction in order to ensure trench collapse does not occur during excavation
or prior to installation of fill material. This is of particular importance when the
trench depth is greater than 1.2m or ground conditions are weak. Support should
be used to stabilise the trench in both cases.

After installation, an infiltration test should be performed to ensure that the


trench is operating as expected.

4.5.8

Bioretention Areas
Bio-retention areas are shallow landscaped depressions which comprised of several
components which act together in order to improve water quality.
Grass filter strips or channel help to reduce runoff velocities; a ponding area is normally
incorporated to provide temporary storage; an organic layer and planting is provided to
encourage filtration and pollutant uptake; and a sand bed is provided to promote aerobic
conditions.
They are aimed at managing and treating runoff from frequent rainfall events. Excess runoff
from extreme events passed forward to other drainage facilities.

Page 92 of 119

Drainage

4.5.8.1

Location Setting
As vegetation is incorporated, daily watering will be required to maintain their efficiency. As
a result they are perhaps only suitable for installation where this is likely.
Road location and type

Suitability

Urban Areas
Local Roads

Service Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Expressways

Rural Areas*
Local Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Y
Freeways
Table 4.18: Potential suitable locations for bioretention areas

* Only suitable where regular watering can be conducted.


4.5.8.2

Benefits and limitations

4.5.8.3

Benefits
Provide aesthetic appeal and
can be incorporate as a
landscape feature.

Very effective in removing


urban pollutants.

Can reduce volume and rate of


runoff.

Flexible layout to fit into


landscape.

Good retrofit capability.

Limitations
Requires landscaping and
management.

Susceptible to clogging if
surrounding landscape is
poorly managed.

Not suitable for areas with


steep slopes.

Key Design Criteria

Typically the system is drained via an under drain and relies on engineered soils
and enhanced vegetation. Individual units can be supplied for site needs and a
suitable manufacture should be consulted during the design phase.

The storage volume of the system should be designed so that it will be half
emptied within 24 hours. This can either be via infiltration or through the outlet
pipe.

Page 93 of 119

Drainage

The shape of a bio-retention area is not a critical feature in design, but a minimum
width of 3 m and length to width ratios of 2:1 is recommended to aid planting.
The soil bed should have a minimum depth of 1 m. Where trees are planted, the
depth should be 1.21.5 m.
The soil should be a sandy loam mixture with a permeability of at least 12.6 mm/h
and pH ranging between 5.2 and 7.
The sand filter should have a minimum thickness of 0.3 m and consist of sand with
a grain size of 0.5 to 1 mm.
The gravel around the under drain should comprise 20 mm to 5 mm aggregate. A
typical cross section is presented in Figure 4.22.

Figure 4.22 - Typical Cross Section through a Bio-retention Area


4.5.8.4

Maintenance requirement
Maintenance Type
Regular

Occasional
Remedial

Action

Frequency

Watering of plants

Daily

Litter and debris removal

Monthly or as required

Weeding

As required

Replacing mulch and spiking of


soil

Annually

Inspection of inlets, outlets and


overflows

Half yearly

Restoration of vegetation /
eroded areas

As required

Clearing of blockages and


removal of silt and built up
vegetation.

As required

Repair to structure

As required

Table 4.19: Maintenance requirements for bioretention areas

Page 94 of 119

Drainage

4.5.8.5

Construction

Bioretention areas should ideally be constructed at the end of development, to


minimise erosion and sediment generation.

Care should be taken not to compact the soils below the bioretention area, and
particularly the filter and soil planting bed, as this will reduce infiltration
capacities.

To excavate a bioretention area, a backhoe excavator should be used and


construction plant should avoid running over the bioretention area.

If soil for the filter layer is imported, soil testing should be carried out: the test
should include a particle size distribution, pH and organic matter test for each
retention area.

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4.5.9

Sand Filters
Sand filters are designed to treat surface water runoff through filtration and can be used to
significantly improve water quality.
The filter median is usually sand, but gravel, peat and compost also be used.
Surface sand filters (as shown on the left of Figure 4.23) are above ground structures, usually
constructed as offline facilities which incorporate a sand filter bed at the base of the
excavation. The filters can be designed with an impervious lining and drained via a drainage
system, or can be designed to allow infiltration into the surrounding soil.
Underground sand filters, as shown on the left of Figure 4.23, can also be used where space
is limited. These are essentially chambers which are improved to help to aid water quality
treatment prior to flow passing forward through the drainage system

Figure 4.23: Diagrams of a typical surface sand filter (left) and a typical underground sand
filter (right)

4.5.9.1

Location Setting
The design of sand filters is flexible and allows the opportunity for incorporation into
multiple locations. However, care should be taken to ensure adequate pre-treatment or
emergency control can be made such as installing them offline.
Table 4.20 below highlights road types where sand filters could potentially be incorporated.
Road location and type

Suitability

Urban Areas
Local Roads

Service Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Expressways

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Rural Areas
Local Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Freeways
Table 4.20: Potential site locations for sand filters
4.5.9.2

Benefits and limitations

4.5.9.3

Benefits
Flexibility of design.
Efficient in removing a range
of urban runoff pollutants.
Suitable for retrofits and in
tightly constrained urban
locations.

Limitations
Not recommended for areas
with high debris content in
runoff.

Waterlogged conditions can


support algae growth, filter
clogging and mosquito
breeding.

Negative aesthetic
appeal/possible odour
problems.

Not suitable for large


catchment areas.

High capital cost and


maintenance burden.

Key Design Elements


Surface Sand Filter

Pre-treatment is required to remove debris and heavy sediment prior to entering


the filter bed.
A flow separating device should be used to ensure flow is distributed evenly across
the filter bed to avoid disruption of the bed material.
A series of under drains should be installed parallel to the direction of flow to
promote flow transfer. These should be 150 mm diameter perforated PVC pipes
installed in a gravel layer. They must have a minimum slope of 1 per cent and
spacing should not exceed 3 m.
The filter bed should consist of a 0.450.6 m layer of washed medium sand.
Topsoil or gravel can be installed on the top to prevent erosion. Where this is done
this layer should be approximately 75mm deep. Figure 4.24shows the typical
construction of the bed layers.

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Figure 4.24: Typical sand filter bed construction

A permeable filter fabric should be placed both above and below the sand bed to
prevent clogging of the filter and under drain system.
The length to width ratio of the filer should ideally be a minimum of 2:1.
The sides of the excavation should be a minimum of 1:6
The design should allow for easy access for maintenance. There may be a need to
remove heavy wet sand from the system, usually by hand, and the access should
be designed to facilitate this.
Inspection/cleanout wells should be provided to the under drain.

The filter area should be sized to completely drain in 48 hours or less. This area can be
determined using the principles of Darcys Law and the Equation 4.12

Where:
Af
Vt
L
k

()

(+)

Surface area of filter bed (m2)


Water quality treatment volume (m3)
Filter bed depth (m) typically 0.45 0.6m)
Coefficient of permeability of filter medium for water (m/s)
= 0.001 (approx) for 0.5mm sand
= 0.006 (approx) for 1.0mm sand
Average height of water above filter bed (half maximum height, where hmax is typically 2m) (m)

Equation 4.12: Filter area size calculation

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Under drain Filters

4.5.9.4

A sedimentation chamber should be incorporated into the design to promote


settling of heavier solids to avoid clogging the sand filter.
To prevent backflow of water in the system the maximum head of water that can
develop in the sedimentation must be at least be twice the average height of
water above the filter device.
These systems should be set offline and/or an overflow should be provided to
allow for exceedance conditions.

Design Stages
Is a sand filter suitable for the site location?
Will runoff have
a high debris
content?

Can the filter be


designed to be
offline?

Determine the volume of storage required to


retain runoff from a critical duration design
event in line with Error! Reference source not
Can the basin be drained via piped outlet or
infiltration within 48 hours? (use the model or
Equation 4.12 )

Use the key design consideration laid out in


section 4.5.8.3 to ensure the basin is designed
inline with best practice.

Can the basin be accommodated in the space


available on site?
Figure 4.25: Sand filter design steps
* a model is recommended for use as can provide a better understanding of the likely
response of drainage features at the time design and during its lifetime.
Hand calculations for design purposes can be used where the drainage catchment is small
and a model would be inappropriate for the size of the scheme. The storage required will be
a function of inflow minus outflow over time and can be determined using the level pool
routing technique.

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4.5.9.5

Maintenance requirements
Maintenance Type

Regular

Remedial

Action

Frequency

If vegetated, watering of plants.

Daily

Check for odors indicating


presence of anaerobic conditions.

Monthly.

Monitoring of sediment
accumulation and vegetation, as
appropriate.

Monthly.

Removal of sediment, litter and


debris from the inlet and outlet.

As required/ after a storm


event

Check that the sedimentation


chamber is <50% full.

As required/ at least
annually

Check that filter bed has <15 mm


surface sediment accumulation.

Quarterly

Washing of the top layers of the


sand to maintain efficiency

As required/ at least
annually

Repair of eroded surfaces.

As required/ after a storm


event

Realignment of erosion
protection.

As required/ after a storm


event

Repair of inlet/ outlet.

As required

Table 4.21: Sand filter maintenance requirements

4.5.9.6

Construction Advice

Filters should not receive any runoff until vegetation in the system is fully
established and construction at the site has reached a state where sediment
concentrations in the runoff will not cause clogging.

It is important that the top of the filter bed is constructed completely level,
otherwise filtration will be localized and early failure may occur.

4.5.10

In areas where groundwater protection is a concern, the completed tank structure


(concrete or membrane) should be filled with water for 24 hours to ensure that
there is no leakage.

Basins
Detention and infiltration basins are surface storage basins that are designed to detain a
certain volume of runoff for a particular attenuation period. They also provide a level of
water quality treatment through settling of particulate pollutants. A typical layout is shown
in Figure 4.26.
Basins are dry during normal conditions and either lined to prevent infiltration (detention
basin), or unlined to encourage infiltration (infiltration basin). Rip rap or geotextile matting
protections could potentially be used to improve the soil structure, and reduce or replace
the need for a fully vegetated system.

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Figure 4.26: Plan view of a typical basin

4.5.10.1

Location Setting
The size of the basin depends on the catchment being served and can be designed to
accommodate varying volumes. They are therefore suitable for a range of situations.
Opportunities to incorporate basins in narrow corridors or in densely urbanized zones may
be challenging, but they offer benefits from a water quality and ease of maintenance
perspective that should be considered when selecting an appropriate technique.
Table 1 shows where a detention pond is potential suitable, but ultimately it will depend on
site constraints.
Road location and type

Potential Suitability

Urban Areas

Local Roads

Service Roads

Collectors

Arterials

Expressways

Y
Rural Areas

Local Roads

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Road location and type

Potential Suitability

Collectors

Arterials

Freeways

Table 4.22: Potentially suitable locations for a basin

4.5.10.2

Benefits and limitations

Can cater for a wide range of


rainfall events.

Detention basins can be used


where infiltration is inappropriate
or groundwater could become
polluted as a result of
contaminated runoff.

4.5.10.3

Benefits

Limitations

Little reduction in runoff volume


where detention basins are used or
infiltration rate into the soil is low.

Detention depths are limited by


the drain down time and health
and safety considerations.

Infiltration basins can contribute to


groundwater recharge and reduce
the need for further drainage.

Likely to be subject to heavy


siltation, particularly in rural areas,
and require regular maintenance.

Simple to maintain, design and


construct.

Vegetation , where applicable, will


require regular watering and
maintenance to be undertaken.

Structural improvement is likely to


be required where the soil is loose
and not structurally stable.

Safe and visible capture of


accidental spillages.

Key Design Elements

The basin should be sized to delay peak runoff. It should however be designed to
be drained within 48 hours to avoid stagnation and minimize the opportunity for
mosquitoes to breed.

Pre-treatment should be provided where possible and especially where infiltration


is allowed. This should be done to avoid reducing the infiltration properties of the
soil and to ensure heavily polluted accidental spills can be captured prior to
infiltrating into the ground.

Basins should usually be implemented as off line systems, but where they are online, an emergency spillway should be designed to safety convey exceedance flow.

The maximum depth of water in the basin should not normally exceed 1.5m due to
health and safety concerns. Adequate protection should also be provided around
the pond to prevent the risk of motorists or other road users from accidently
entering.

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Adequate access must be provided to the detention basin for inspection and
maintenance, including for appropriate equipment.
Side slopes should not usually exceed 1 in 4 unless site conditions and/or safety
arrangements allow for steeper slopes.
The bottom of the basin should be gently sloping towards the outlet to prevent
standing water. It should have a gradient shallower than 1 in 100.
A minimum length/width ratio of 2:1 is recommended.
A liner may be specified to prevent infiltration in unstable locations e.g. infiltration
rates < 50mm/hr or where groundwater could become contaminated by polluted
runoff.
If soil conditions are unsuitable and an embankment is required to impound the
water, the embankment fill material should use inert natural soil that will not
leach contaminants into the stored runoff.
Rip rap or other scour protection should be used to dissipate energy of incoming
flows. Velocities of incoming flows should be < 1 m/s.
Outlet flows should be controlled via a control device. This could be a v-notch
weir, orifice plate or vortex flow control device. The device should be built into a
dyke or berm with easy access for maintenance.
The bottom and side slopes should be structurally stable and where soil conditions
do not allow for this, an embankment from improved material should be
constructed.
Consideration should be given to how flows in exceedance of the design event will
be accommodated. If there is adequate space then consideration could be given to
providing volume in the basin, or could include bypassing the basin and routing the
flow safely a downstream.
An emergency overflow should be designed to safely convey excess flows in
emergency situations. This is will need to be designed specifically for the basin.

Figure 4.27: Typical cross section of a detention basin.

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4.5.10.4

Design Steps
Is a basin suitable for the site location?
Is pretreatment
of flow
possible?

Is there
likely to be
adequate
space?

Are ground
conditions
suitable?

Model* the basin to determine the volume of


storage required to retain runoff from a critical
design storm in line with Error! Reference
Can the basin be drained via piped outlet or
infiltration within 48 hours? (use the model or
Equation 4.12 if specifying an infiltration basin)

Use the key design consideration laid out in


section 4.5.9.3 to ensure the basin is designed
inline with best practice

Can the basin be accommodated in the space


available on site?

Figure 4.28: Basin design steps


* a model is recommended for use as can provide a better understanding of the likely
response of drainage features at the time design and during its lifetime.
Hand calculations for design purposes can be used where the drainage catchment is small
and a model would be inappropriate for the size of the scheme. The storage required will be
a function of inflow minus outflow over time and can be determined using the level pool
routing technique.

4.5.10.5

Maintenance requirements

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Maintenance Type

Regular

Remedial

Action

Frequency

If vegetated, watering of plants.

Daily

Monitoring of sediment
accumulation and vegetation, as
appropriate.

Monthly.

Removal of sediment, litter and


debris from the inlet and outlet.

As required/ after a storm


event

If vegetated, maintenance of
vegetation e.g. cutting, pruning.

As required/ at least
annually

Repair of eroded surfaces.

As required/ after a storm


event

Realignment of erosion
protection.

As required/ after a storm


event

Repair of inlet/ outlet.

As required

Table 4.23: Maintenance requirements for basins

4.5.10.6

Construction Advice

Where a liner is to be used, care should be taken to avoid damage during


construction activities.

Construction should be timed to avoid periods of heavy rainfall to ensure stability


of the basin is maintained.

Care should be taken to ensure the slopes are stable and that material is unlikely
to fall away during storm conditions.

Side slopes should be kept shallower than 1:4 whilst constructing the pond to
avoid collapse during excavation.

The base of the basin should be carefully prepared to an even grade with no
significant undulations.

All excavation and levelling should be performed by equipment with tracks


exerting very light pressures to prevent compaction of the basin floor, which may
reduce infiltration capacity.

Construction of the infiltration basin should take place after the site has been
stabilised in order to minimise the risk of premature failure of the basin.

4.6

Pollution control

4.7

Maintenance strategies

All drainage systems require planned and re-active maintenance in order to perform in an
efficient manner. The following section outlines the required steps required to develop an
effective maintenance strategy. This should be a balanced strategy which takes into account
both planned and reactive maintenance requirements.

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4.7.1

Planned maintenance
Planned maintenance for highway drainage takes into account activities which will ensure
the drainage system is operating when its needed. In Qatar rain events are in-frequent and
are usually not severe. However the highway designer needs to consider worse case events.
One of the major problems of maintenance is blown sand into the drainage system. Catchpits and vertical vortex spinners should be employed to remove grit from the highway
drainage system. (See Figure 4.29). From a planned maintenance perspective maintenance
activities should be increased before the on-set of the rainy period. Catch pits and pipe
systems should be de-silted to ensure the free passage of disposable water.
[Consider detailing maintenance requirements when out of season rain events are forecast]

Figure 4.29: Typical vortex grit remover


4.7.2

Re-active Maintenance
Re-active maintenance is non-planned activities usually associated with blockages in highway
drainage systems. It is important to optimise this type of activity to a minimum to avoid
maintenance budget over-spend. Some re-active maintenance will always be necessary and
so it is important to accommodate this, especially within the short rainy season.
CEO Highway Maintenance Section are the responsible authority for the maintenance of the
highway drainage system, including EFA's and storage areas not in the Trunk Storm Sewer
System.
CEO Drainage Division is the responsible authority for maintenance of the Trunk Storm
Sewer System.

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Subsurface Drainage

5.1

Introduction

Historically sub-surface drainage was not detailed in Qatar as it was not considered to be a
problem, with low lying areas being filled prior to construction to raise them above the
groundwater table. However, with the rapid urbanization of Qatar in recent years,
groundwater levels have been noted as rising significantly. As such it is essential for ground
investigations to be undertaken to establish the extent of sub-surface drainage necessary for
new roads throughout Qatar, but especially within the urban environment.
Sub-surface drainage is provided to allow the removal of any water that permeates through
the pavement layers, and also to control groundwater where it is sufficiently high so as to
have a negative effect on the pavement design life.
Sub-surface drainage can take a number of forms but is typically longitudinal drains located
at the low edges of the road pavement, which serve to drain the pavement layers and the
pavement foundation as well as controlling ingress of water from road verges. Adequate
drainage of these layers and of formation and sub-formation can be achieved by the shaping
of each so as to direct flows to the sub-surface drainage in the verge or median, and to
prevent the creation of low points elsewhere for water to collect.
There are five primary types of sub-surface drainage which include fin drains, narrow filter
drains, filter drains (essentially a large narrow filter drain), combined carrier filter drains, and
drainage blankets. This section focuses on the first four; the design of drainage blankets
should be undertaken in close consultation with a geotechnical engineer and approval
sought from the overseeing organisation in advance of developing such a solution. It is likely
that drainage blankets will be required in locations that have high groundwater levels and /
or are in deep cuttings.
The following measures are key factors when developing the design of sub-surface drainage;

Slope the formation to drain away from the carriageway to the verge or median.
Avoid steps in the formation that could lead to water concentration points.
Keep planting areas separated from the pavement construction to prevent
moisture transfer.
Ensure planting area watering is effectively controlled to prevent over watering.
Utilise surface water drainage details that will reduce the chance of accidental
damage and maintenance problems.
Ensure soakaways do not introduce water to the pavement construction.

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5.2

Subsurface drainage methods

5.2.1

General design considerations


Due to seasonal variations groundwater will vary overtime in relation to rainfall, underlying
strata permeability, gravity, capillary action and proximity to the coast. In order to develop a
suitable approach to sub-surface drainage, it is essential to gain a thorough understanding of
ground conditions by undertaking robust ground investigations.
If ground conditions are not established and as a result suitable sub-surface drainage
proposals are not developed it is likely that failure of the road structure will occur before the
design life is reached. Furthermore, it is likely that any corrective action at a later stage will
be more costly as full reconstruction could be required. By allowing the build up of water in
the pavement layers, formation and sub-formation, pore water pressure will increase and
can result in the pavement being weakened by;

Washout of fines by movement of pore water


Increase in salt content in pavement layers resulting in swelling due to capillary
rise when significant concentrations of salt are present in the underlying material
Swelling of susceptible material followed by shrinkage or drying out

During the design of the road, pavement engineers will base their calculations on CBR values
for the subgrade, these CBR values will be affected by any increase in groundwater levels.
Where groundwater is allowed to rise unchecked by sub-surface drainage the bearing
capacity of the formation and sub-formation will be diminished.
5.2.2

Considerations for fin drains and narrow filter drains:


Fin drains and narrow filter drains should be installed at a minimum depth determined by
the nominal pipe diameter (DN) + 50mm to invert beneath sub-formation level, or 600mm to
invert below formation level. If no capping layer is present the drains should be laid to the
greater of the two depths. If groundwater is within 300mm of the sub-formation level these
minimum depths will be insufficient, and the fin or narrow filter drain should be installed at
a greater depth. A geotechnical engineer should advise on the design depth of such
drainage. Where large quantities of groundwater are encountered a filter drain is likely to
provide a better solution than either the fin or narrow filter drain options.
As the topography of Qatar is typically gently undulating a further consideration is to ensure
that sub-surface drainage can discharge from all low points to a suitable outfall.
STANDARD DETAIL OF FIN DRAINS AND NFDS TO BE BASED UPON UK DMRB TYPES 5-10.

5.2.3

Considerations for combined carrier filter drains:


It is usual practice to keep surface water drainage separate from sub-surface drainage to
attempt to prevent large volumes of water entering into the road foundation and pavement
layers. Where this approach is not viable such as in cuttings an alternative philosophy to use
combined carrier filter drains is acceptable.
The use of combined filter drains offers a number of benefits including;

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removal of groundwater to a greater depth than possible using fin or narrow filter
drains due to their comparatively large hydraulic capacity
simpler construction than having to lay both a carrier drain and fin or narrow filter
drains
easier access for inspection and maintenance than possible with both fin and
narrow filter drains

Where combined carrier filter drains are to be constructed they should consist of half
perforated or slotted pipes laid with their perforations or slots face up, with sealed joints to
minimise the loss of water through the trench base. The base of the trench should also be
lined with impermeable membrane up to pipe soffit to reduce loss of water to the soil below
that is likely to be dry otherwise. The trench is backfilled with permeable material which is
wrapped in a geotextile to prevent ingress of fines.
As already mentioned it is viewed as best practice where possible to keep surface and subsurface drainage separate due to the potential problems in performance with the combined
approach. It has been noted in the UK that issues with stone scatter, pavement failure,
earthworks failure and maintenance problems have arisen where the combined approach
has been adopted. However, these issues can be mitigated by appropriate maintenance of
the system, and implementing design measures to control stone scatter as detailed below;

Either spraying the exposed filter medium with bitumen, or using a bitumen
bonded filter material for the top 200mm of the trench.
Use of geogrids to reinforce the top layer of filter medium
Use of lightweight aggregate for filter material in the top 200mm of the trench

A further design consideration with the combined approach is where attenuation is required
at the downstream end of a system to meet discharge rate constraints. Such attenuation
requirements can result in the surcharging of the surface water drainage network, and
where this is formed of a combined system any surcharging of the carrier pipe can cause
backflow into the filter medium. Therefore where combined systems are proposed the
designer must demonstrate that surcharging of pipe due to downstream flow control will not
occur.
5.2.4

Special considerations for coastal areas


In tidal coastal areas, sabkha is likely to be present as an indication of a high groundwater
table. In these situations capillary rise of up to 1.0m can draw saline water up to the road
formation level, depositing salt lenses and increasing pore pressure.
This is generally prevented by:

Construction of high embankments


Introduction of a granular capillary break layer below the formation.

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Appendix A
Current climatic condition design IDF curves

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6.1

Doha

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6.2

Al Ruwais

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6.3

Al Saliyah

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6.4

Dokhan

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6.5

Abu Samra

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6.6

Umm Bab

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Appendix B
Future climatic condition (2070 2099) design IDF curves

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7.1

Doha

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7.2

Al Ruwais

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7.3

Al Saliyah

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7.4

Dokhan

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7.5

Abu Samra

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7.6

Umm Bab

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