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# ELECTROMAGNETIC

SPECTRUM
Chapter 12

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
State that all electromagnetic waves
are transverse waves that travel
with the same speed in vacuum and
state the magnitude of this speed.
Describe the main components of
the electromagnetic spectrum.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
State examples of the use of the following components:
microwaves(eg. microwave oven and satellite television)
infra-red(eg. infra-red controllers and intruder alarms)
light(eg. optical fibres fro medical uses and
telecommunications)
ultra-violet(eg. sunbeds and sterilisation)
gamma rays(eg. medical treatment)

WHAT IS ELECTROMAGNETIC
SPECTRUM?
to electromagnetic spectrum

12.1 PROPERTIES OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum?
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of
electromagnetic waves of a continuous range of
wavelength/frequency.

12.1 PROPERTIES OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

12.1 PROPERTIES OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
What type of Waves are Electromagnetic Waves?
Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves.
The electric and magnetic fields are oscillating
perpendicular to each other and to the direction
of propagation of the wave.

12.1 PROPERTIES OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
How do Electromagnetic waves propagate?
Electromagnetic waves transfer energy from
one place to another without the need for a
physical medium.
Electromagnetic waves travel at a speed of
3.00 x 108 m/s in vacuum.
All electromagnetic waves obey the laws of reflection
and refraction.

12.1 PROPERTIES OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
How do Electromagnetic waves propagate?
The speed v of electromagnetic waves is related to the
wavelength and frequency by the following wave
equation:

## The frequency of an electromagnetic wave depends only on

its source. The wavelength and speed of an electromagnetic
wave depends on the refractive index of the medium in which it
is travelling.
All electromagnetic waves except for visible light are invisible
to the human eye.

12.2 COMPONENTS OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

12.2 COMPONENTS OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
The electromagnetic spectrum is a continuous
range of waves with extremely short
wavelengths and high frequencies at one end
and extremely long wavelengths and low
frequencies at the other end.
The components of the electromagnetic spectrum
are classified according to increasing
wavelengths or frequencies. The frequencies
determine the amount of energy and
behaviour of the type of radiation.

12.2 COMPONENTS OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Gamma rays

X-rays

Ultra-violet
waves

Visible light

Infra-red

Microwaves

Increasing wavelengths
Increasing frequencies

waves

12.2 COMPONENTS OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

## How do you remember the order

of the components of the
electromagnetic spectrum?
How about a singing a song to
remember the order?

12.2 COMPONENTS OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

## How do you remember the order

of the components of the
electromagnetic spectrum?
Using Mnemonic

12.2 COMPONENTS OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Using Mnemonic
Example:
Raging Martians Invaded Venus Using X-ray
Guns

EXAMPLE 1
Gamma
rays

Ultra-violet

Visible

rays

light

waves

## The diagram represents the range of radiations in

the electromagnetic spectrum.
Name the two radiations labelled P and Q.
P :

X-ray

Q :

EXAMPLE 1
Gamma
rays

Ultra-violet

Visible

rays

light

waves

## The diagram represents the range of radiations in

the electromagnetic spectrum.
Complete the following:

higher
shorter
__________________ wavelength;
same
__________________ frequency;

## 12.3 APPLICATIONS & USES OF

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Description
Lowest frequencies and
longest wavelengths.
Used for transmission of
signals and data. An
antenna is used to

Uses
Telecommunication
Wireless networking
Television
transmission

## 12.3 APPLICATIONS & USES OF

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Microwaves
Description
Uses
Easy to control and direct Satellite
communication/
In a microwave oven,
absorbed microwaves
cause water molecules in For cooking food
the food to vibrate rapidly, Remote sensing
which then heats up the
food.

## 12.3 APPLICATIONS & USES OF

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Infrared waves
Description
Produced by hot objects.
Some animals can see in
infrared red light to enable
them to detect warmblooded animals.

Uses
Night vision
binoculars
Thermal imaging
Remote controls
Motion detectors (in
security systems)

## 12.3 APPLICATIONS & USES OF

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Visible Light
Description

Uses

Produced by luminous
Optical fibres for data
objects (e.g. burning items
transmission
and stars such as the Sun). Endoscopy (visual
inspection of internal
Crucial for normal human
sight.
organs)
Used in data transfer in
Photography
telecommunications and by
electronic devices such as
television sets and computer
monitors.

## 12.3 APPLICATIONS & USES OF

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Ultraviolet rays
Description

Uses

## The human skin produces vitamin D Sunbeds (tanning

naturally when exposed to ultraviolet
machines for indoor
rays.
tanning)
Also causes tanning by stimulating
In black lights for
the production of the skin pigment
medicine, forensics,
known as melamine. Can cause
lighting effects,
sunburn.
polymerization and insect
attraction
Some chemicals absorb ultraviolet
radiation and then appear to be
Fluorescence effect.
glowing. This fluorescence effect is
Fluorescent objects like
used to create markings on bank
diamonds absorb UV rays
notes, paints and dyes.
and convert it to visible

## 12.3 APPLICATIONS & USES OF

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

X-ray
Description
Uses
High frequencies.
In scanners in
airports to check the
Able to penetrate many
materials.
contents of luggage
bags
Used in the medical
field to obtain images
Detecting cracks in
of the internal parts of
pipes and buildings
our bodies.
(diagnostic X-ray
images in medicine)

## 12.3 APPLICATIONS & USES OF

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Gamma Rays
Description

Uses

## Waves with the highest frequency Sterilisation of

and most energy.
medical
equipment
Dangerous rays coming from
nuclear explosions and atomic