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Diffusion and Osmosis

Diffusion of solid in a liquid was conducted with the use of potassium permanganate
crystals. When placed in water, the solid crystals tend to move from a region of low
concentration to a region of high concentration.
The process of diffusion and osmosis account for much of the passive movement of
molecules at the cellular level. In this section of the lab, we studied some of the
basic principles of molecular movement in solutions of different concentrations and
performed a series of activities to investigate these processes. This experiment was
conducted with the use of four decalcified eggs. The four eggs were put in separate
beakers containing different concentrations of sugar solutions and one containing
only pure water. The original weight of the eggs were measured before being placed
in the separate beakers for an interval of 15min and then removed and weight. This
process was carried out six times and the weight was measured six times. All the
eggs had different masses after left in the beaker containing the solutions. Some
had an increase in their mass whereas, others had a decrease in their mass. The
eggs placed in the water and a 0.5M glucose solution had increase in their masses,
and the other eggs which were placed in 1.5M and 2.0M of glucose had a decrease
in their masses because of water leaving the egg cell.
We also conducted osmosis in plants with the use of elodea leaf. The leaf was
viewed under the microscope. All the organelles in the plant were in normal shape
with its chloroplast all over the cell.. A drop of NaCl. was then added to the leaf and
then viewed for the second time under the microscope. The cell wall was still the

same but the cells chloroplast were concentrated in one place. The cell had
undergone plasmolysis.
1) Explain how diffusion went from an area of high concentration to an area of
Diffusion works with respect to concentration gradient. The solute particles
obey Brownians motion. The particles bombard each other from where there are
concentrated to where there are least concentrated.
Decalcified Egg Osmosis
1) Using the graph of your data, describe each solution as to its tonicity.
(Hypertonic, hypotonic or isotonic to the egg). Be sure to explain how you
arrived at your conclusion. Support with data.
a) From my data, the solution with the lowest slope is the hypertonic
solution. The solution had 2.0M of glucose and the solution of 1.5M of
sugar had similarities in the way the behaved with the eggs. This data lets
us understand that water left the egg into the solution because the
solution was hypertonic and the content of the egg was hypotonic. Water
left the egg to the solution in order to maintain equilibrium and thus, the
mass of the egg was reduced. Both solutions were more concentrated
than the content of the eggs and thus, water had to leave the eggs.
b) From the graph, water and the solution with 0.5M of glucose had some
similarities with the way they behaved with the egg. The slope of the
graph tells us that there is an increase in mass of both eggs. This implies
that the eggs were hypertonic to the solution. So, the solution is hypotonic
solution. Water moved from the solution into the eggs by osmosis. Water
moved in to maintain equilibrium in the beaker.
2) Presuming the contents of the eggs were identical, what is the sugar content
of the eggs? Explain (using your data) how you came to your conclusion.
a) The sugar content of the egg placed in water was hypertonic because
water moved into the egg and increased its mass
b) The sugar content of the egg placed in 0.5M of solution is hypertonic
because its mass increased due to the movement of water into the egg.
c) The sugar content is hypotonic because the slope of the graph is negative
implying that water left the eggs into the solution.
d) The sugar content of the egg placed in 2.0M of sugar is hypotonic because
water left the egg and there was a decrease in the mass of the eggs.
3) Which solution created the most osmotic pressure?
The solution of 2.0M created the most osmotic pressure.
4) Describe how the decalcified egg acts as a semi-permeable membrane.

The shell of the eggs has been chemically removed those exposing its plasma
membrane. Plasma membranes are all semi-permeable thus, allowing certain
molecules to passively move across them.
5) To prepare 100ml 0f the following, how much glucose is needed:
a) 2.0M glucose from the molecular mass glucose which is 180g.
b) 1.5M glucose. 1801.5=270g
c) 0.5M glucose. 1800.5=90g

Osmosis in Elodea Leaf

1) Why did the overall shape of the plant cell remain the same after the leaf was
placed into a concentrated salt solution?
The overall shape of the plant cell remained the same because the plant cell
has a rigid cell wall made of cellulose. The cell wall is hard to broke or get deformed.
2) What would happen to the elodea cell if it was placed into distilled water?
If the cell was placed in distilled water, water will move into the cell. Water
will move into the cell and if in water, the cell will swell and burst.