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LIBERA UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DELLA SICILIA CENTRALE KORE ENNA

thesis in

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt


(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)

By
Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil

Supervisors
Prof. Teotista Panzeca
Prof. Emanuela Garofalo
Prof. Daniela Villari

Thesis submitted to University Kore of Enna to obtain


Second level master degree in architecture restoration
A.A. 2008-2009
Supervisors

Thesis title: The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt


(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)

Researcher name: Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil


Assistant lecturer, Department of Architectural Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Supervisors

name profession signature

Prof. Teotista Panzeca

Prof. Emanuela Garofalo

Prof. Daniela Villari

The Master Director The president of Kore University

ii
Examination Committee

Thesis title: The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt


(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)

Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil


Researcher name: Assistant lecturer, Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty
of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Supervisors
name profession signature
Prof. Teotista Panzeca

Prof. Emanuela Garofalo

Prof. Daniela Villari

Examination Committee
Name profession signature

The Master Director The president of Kore University

iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The researcher would like to express his sincere and profound gratitude to the following
persons and instituutions who, in many ways have generously contributed to the successful
completion of the study:

Prof. Teotista Panzeca, the director of the course. for his sincere concern, assistance and
for his continues support.

Prof. Emanuela Garofalo & Prof. Daniela Villari, the research supervisors. for their
invaluable suggestions in the improvement of the study, this humble research would not have
been completed with out their support.

Prof. Infranca, Prof . M. Al-KHouri, Prof. M. Salerno, Prof. L. Zito, Dr. Messina.
the scientific Committee of the course for their support and cooperation.

University Kore of Enna, for offering this generous grant and for care and supporting
during the course.

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To Prof. T. Panzeca

my Parents

My Gulfillmrnt and preseverance wife Eman

My sweetheart son Eiad

With love and respect

v
ABSTRACT
Thesis title: The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt
(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)

Researcher: Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil


Assistant lecturer, Department of Architectural Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Second level master degree in architecture restoration (2008-2009)


University Kore of Enna, Sicily, Italy.

Supervisors: Prof. Teotista Panzeca, Prof. Manuela Garofalo, Prof. Daniela Villari

This research is an integral part of a study that conceived to further awareness of the long
history of cultural relations between Italy and the Italian culture and Egypt to create new
spaces of comparison and bolster shared interests so as to enhance the already-existing
climate of collaboration and mutual understanding.
The research problem is that most of European residential buildings that shapes the city center
of most Egyptian cities suffer from the lack of protection because many of them are private
and they are not considered till now as monuments by the Egyptian laws and also there is no
maintenance or restoration programs to this kind of building.
The research aims to highlight the importance of the nineteenth and early twentieth century
residential buildings made by Italians in Alexandria. Determine the deterioration in these
buildings and what is the basic maintenance procedures that can done to protect them. And to
make some documentation of these building to make it easy for a future rehabilitation.
The study concentrate on the residential buildings at Alexandria, Egypt designed or built
Italian architects and engineers from the nineteenth and early twentieth century till now. The
research consists of three parts and one appendix.
The first part contains the historical study and include three chapters; the first illustrates the
history of the city of Alexandria from the city's founding by Alexander the great in 331 BC
till the beginning of the twenty-one century to identify the influence of Alexandrian history
on it’s built environment, the second chapter studies the Italian architects at Egypt and their
contributions to the Egyptian architecture and modern heritage, And the third chapter
concentrates on the residential building made by Italian in Alexandria to illustrate its
importance in the Alexandrian heritage.
The second part of the research contains the theoretical study about damage diagnosis on
stone buildings and includes two chapters; the first one illustrates the in-site investigation and
laboratory studies and the comprehensive documentation important in the field of stone
monument preservation. And at the end of the study there is one appendix about weathering
forms on stone buildings with photos about each form. And the second chapter studies the
structural types of failure and interventions in stone building in the critical parts that may
suffer from structural problems.

vi
The third part includes the applied study on Alexandrian heritage and consists of two
chapters; the first one studies the current situation, the problems and the Future of
Alexandrian built environment and some examples of rehabilitation of building in Alexandria
city center, and the second chapter is a case study of El Manshieh or “Mohamed Ali Square”
which is one of the main commercial districts at Alexandria city center and was redesigned by
Italian architect, also the square contains now five Italian buildings three of them are private
residence. The study of the Italian buildings in the square illustrate the current situation of the
buildings and the problems that they suffer from.
The research concluded that the Alexandrian built heritage as all suffer from neglecting and
are threaten with elimination and destruction due to mainly economical condition that leads to
lack of maintenance and that are more presented at the private residential building because
there isn’t clear vision to mange and protect those building, And if their isn’t immediate
movement to protect and conserve that heritage it will disappear soon.

vii
Table of contents
Page
Contents
No.
preface. viii
Introduction. viii
Research problem. viii
Aim of the research. viii
Hypotheses. viii
Geographic limitation and scope of study. viii
Research organization. viii

1- Historical study. 1

1-1- History of Alexandria. 3


1-1-1- Hellenistic Alexandria (332 BC-30 BC). 3
1-1-2- Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 BC-30 BC). 4
1-1-3- Roman Annexation and the Byzantine Period (30 BC-641). 7
1-1-4- Early Islamic Period (639-1250). 9
1-1-5-Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (1250-1517). 12
1-1-6-The Ottomans and Muhammad 'Ali Pasha (1517-1882). 12
1-1-7-British Occupation and Contemporary Alexandria (1882-2009). 14
1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 18
1-2-1- The first Italian architects and engineers in Egypt. 18
1-2-2- The pursuit of modern architecture for Egypt. 22
1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 29
1-3-1- Italian architects and private residential buildings. 29
1-3-2- Italian contributions in modern Alexandria. 39

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 42

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 43


2-1-1- Documentation within the scope of anamnesis. 43
2-1-2- Documentation within the scope of diagnosis. 44
2-1-3- Mapping of weathering forms. 46
2-1-4- Therapeutical steps. 48
2-1-4-1- Preconsolidation. 48
2-1-4-2- cleaning. 48
2-1-4-3- sealing – plastering. 50
2-1-4-4- consolidation. 51
2-1-4-5- protection. 51
2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 52
2-2-1- Mechanism of break down in stone building. 52
2-2-1-1- Mode (I): Failure due to the collapse of the façade. 52

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Page
Contents
No.
2-2-1-2- Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending. 52
2-2-1-3- Mode (III): Failure due to the wall cut. 53
2-2-1-4- Collapse on the isolated walls. 54
2-2-2- Structural improvement integrations in stone building. 55
2-2-2-1- Reinforcement of the structure with steel. 55
2-2-2-2- Interventions on the wooden beams. 56
2-2-2-3- Interventions on the wooden roofs. 58
2-2-2-4- Recovery of arches and vaults. 59
3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 62

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment. 63


3-1-1- Mutations in Alexandria built environment. 63
3-1-2- Selected examples of recent architectural restoration and
67
renovation projects in Alexandria.
3-1-2-1- Villa Bassili - Alexandria National Museum (re-use). 67
3-1-2-2- Rehabilitation and Restoration of the Mohamed A1i Theater. 68
3-1-2-3- Mohamed A1i Club (renovation and re-use). 69
3-1-2-4- The branches of the National Bank of Egypt. 69
3-1-2-5- Palazzina Aghion (renovation and re-use). 70
3-1-2-6- Cinema Amir - Twentieth Century Fox (transformation). 71
3-1-3- Principle guidelines for architectural conservation 71
3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. 73
3-2-1- History of the square “place d’armes”. 73
3-2-2- Current Situation of “Ahmed Orabi & Manshieh Squares”. 75
3-2-2-1- Okalle Monferato. 75
3-2-2-2- Mixed Tribunals. 78
3-2-2-3- Okalle Menasce. 79
3-2-2-4- Waqf Yacoub Dahan. 81
3-2-2-5- Ismail Monument (unknown soldier). 82
Conclusion 83

References 86

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings. 88


Group 1 - Loss of stone material. 88
Group 2 – Discoloration / Deposits. 90
Group 3 – Detachment. 92
Group 4 – Fissures / deformation. 94
Recearcher C.V. 95

ix
List of Tables
Table Page
Description of the Table
No. No.
Table (A-1) Italian Community population statistics. x
Table (2-1) Items of documentation within the scope of anamnesis. 44
Table (2-2) Scales of stone deterioration. 44
Table (2-3) Items of documentation within the scope of diagnosis. 45

List of Figures
Figure Page
Description of the figure
No. No.
1- Historical study.
1-1- History of Alexandria.
Fig (1-1) The Palestrina a roman mosaic. 2
Fig (1-2) Map of classical Alexandria by Dr.Tassos Neroutsous. 3
Fig (1-3) Imaginary sketch of the lighthouse of Alexandria. 4
Fig (1-4) Imaginary sketch and prespective of library of Alexandria. 6
Fig (1-5) plans of Serapeum reconstruction Ptolemaic and Roman phase. 7
Fig (1-6) photos of Pompey column, (Amoud al Sawary) at Kom al-Shugafa. 7
Fig (1-7) Site plan of Kom el Dikka. 8
Fig (1-8) photos Roman Theatre Restoration at Kom Al-Dikka. 9
Fig (1-9) Plans, site plan and Elevations of the mosque of 1000Columns. 10
Fig (1-10) Map of Alexandria by J. Helffrich 1566. 11
Fig (1-11) Map of Alexandria in the late Roman period by A. Adriani. 11
Fig (1-12) Photos of Fort Qaitbey. 12
Fig (1-13) Daguerreotype and photo of Ras el Tin palace. 13
Fig (1-14) Map of the Turkish town by the French Expedition in 1798-1801. 14
Fig (1-15) Map of contemporary Alexandria. 15
Fig (1-16) panorama view and photos of corniche of Alexandria. 15
Fig (1-17) Photos of the Montaza Royal palace. 16
Fig (1-18) Photos of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. 16
1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.
Fig (1-19) Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th century. 18
Fig (1-20) Photos of the entrance of Ras el Tin palace and detail of coat of arms. 19
Fig (1-21) Old postcards (1883) of “Stock exchange- Borsa”. 19
Fig (1-22) Plan and photo of the Bourse of Minet el Bassal. 20
Fig (1-23) Photo of the Zizinia theatre. 20
Fig (1-24) Drawings of the proposal for the competition of a theatre in Alexandria. 21
Fig (1-25) Photo of sabil-Kuttab Al-Walda. 22
Fig (1-26) Photo of the Tossiza palace. 22
Fig (1-27) Photos of Al-Rifaiy Mosque (the tombs of Royal family). 22
Fig (1-28) photos of Haramlek- Montazah palace. 23
Fig (1-29) photo of castle Mackenzie, Genoa and Montazah palace, Alexandria. 23
Fig (1-30) Photos of Misr Bank in Mohammad Farid street in Cairo. 24

x
Figure Page
Description of the figure
No. No.
Fig (1-31) Elevations and photo of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque. 24
Fig (1-32) Plan of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque. 25
Fig (1-33) photos of Qaid Ibrahim Mosque. 26
Fig (1-34) Photo and plan of El sayed Mohamed Korayem Mosque. 26
1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:
Fig (1-35) Photo of The palace of Count Zizinia. 29
Fig (1-36) Photos of place d' Armes before and after the bombardment of 1882. 30
Fig (1-37) plan of the Place des Consuls in late 19th century. 30
Fig (1-38) Photo and plans of Villa Lutzzatto Pasha. 31
Fig (1-39) Photo and plans of Palazzina Pini Bey. 31
Fig (1-40) Elevations, Photo and plans of “Mixed Tribunals”. 32
Fig (1-41) Photos, Elevations and plans of “okalle Monfrato”. 33
Fig (1-42) Photo of “Primi Building”. 34
Fig (1-43) Photo of “Societe des immeubles d’Egypte”, at Rue Sherif. 34
Fig (1-44) Photo, and plans of “Gallery Menasce”. 34
Fig (1-45) Photo, Elevation and plans of “Palazzina Aghion”. 35
Fig (1-46) Photos of “Villa mazloum Pasha”. 35
Fig (1-47) Photo, Elevation and plans of “Villa laurens”. 36
Fig (1-48) Photos of “Villa H. Lindeman. ” and “villa Baron J.De Menasce”. 36
Fig (1-49) Photos of building on Venice style awarded the Municipality Prize. 37
Fig (1-50) Photo of “ElNokaly apartment building”. 37
Fig (1-51) Photo of “Cecil Hotel”. 37
Fig (1-52) Photo of “M. Saleh building”. 38
Fig (1-53) Photo of “Heikal apartment building”. 38
Fig (1-54) Photo of “Villa Adda”. 38
Fig (1-55) Photo of “Villa Awad and Abani”. 38
Fig (1-56) Photo of “Fumaroli building” on Avenue Fouad I. 38
Fig (1-57) Photo of “fumaroli building” on Rue Sherif. 38
2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.


Fig (2-1) Diagram of the approach to monument preservation. 43
Fig (2-2) Diagram of the three categories of diagnosis. 45
Fig (2-3) drawing of Lithological mapping “monastery of Benedettini, Catania”. 46
Fig (2-4) Classification of weathering forms. 47
Fig (2-5) diagram of definitions of damage categories. 47
Fig (2-6) Map of damage categories. 47
Fig (2-7) photos of Preconsolidation presses. 48
Fig (2-8) photo of vegetable disinfestations. 48
Fig (2-9) photos of cleaning with nebulized and atomized water. 49
Fig (2-10) photos of cleaning with absorbing materials. 49
Fig (2-11) photos of cleaning with mechanic method and micro sand blasting. 49
Fig (2-12) photos of cleaning with laser. 50
Fig (2-13) photos of sealing process with stone mortar. 50
Fig (2-14) photos of integrations of small elements that are broken or lost. 50
Fig (2-15) photos of consolidation of fragile materials and separated parts. 51

xi
Figure Page
Description of the figure
No. No.
2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.
Fig (2-16) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the collapse of the façade. 52
Fig (2-17) photos of building at “Messina, Sicily” after the earthquake (1908). 52
Fig (2-18) photo the cracks in the connection between the façade and the building. 52
Fig (2-19) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall bending. 53
Fig (2-20) photos of buildings at “Messina, Sicily” after the earthquake (1908). 53
Fig (2-21) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall cut. 53
Fig (2-22) photos of buildings at “Messina, Sicily” after the earthquake (1908). 54
Fig (2-23) photos of Collapse on the isolated walls. 54
Fig (2-24) photos of cracks on the isolated walls due to over loading. 54
Fig (2-25) photos and sketch of using steel bar in ancient buildings. 55
Fig (2-26) photos of the corrosion of old steel bars that damage the nearby stones. 55
Fig (2-27) Sketches of using steel bar inserted at the corners of the building. 55
Fig (2-28) photos of the steel bars inserted at the top corners of outer walls 56
Fig (2-29) photos of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls. 56
Fig (2-30) Sketches of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls. 56
Fig (2-31) photos of damages on old wood beams that support the roofs. 57
Fig (2-32) Sketches of using steel cases to support wooden beams. 57
Fig (2-33) photos of the steel cases that contain the wooden beams. 57
Fig (2-34) photos of upper cover of the steel cases that prevent it from sliding . 58
Fig (2-35) Sketches of wooden truss supported on stone arches. 58
Fig (2-36) Sketches of wooden beam of the truss directly supported on the walls. 58
Fig (2-37) photos of the wooden beams supported only on the walls. 59
Fig (2-38) photo of the intermediate connection of the beams throw steel part. 59
Fig (2-39) photo of covering the roof with thin layer of wood. 59
Fig (2-40) photos of the final finishing layer supported on sheets of isolation. 59
Fig (2-41) photo of crack in the arch and separation between it’s stones. 59
Fig (2-42) photo of supporting the arches during the restoration process. 59
Fig (2-43) Sketches of supporting the arch, and replacement of damaged parts. 60
Fig (2-44) photos of connecting the carrying walls of the arch or vaults with steel. 60
Fig (2-45) Sketches of supporting the loads above the arch during restoration. 61
3- Applied study.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.


Fig (3-1) Photos of “High and Low conventional style” in Alexandria. 63
Fig (3-2) Photos of badly conceived addition: Faculty of agriculture, Alexandria. 64
Fig (3-3) Photo of “Art studio of Gilda Ambron” in Ruins. 64
Fig (3-4) Photo of “Villa Baron de Menasce” demolished. 64
Fig (3-5) Photo of “Villa Aldo Ambron” in Ruins. 64
Fig (3-6) Plan and Photo of “Graeco-Roman museum” in Alexandria. 65
Fig (3-7) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. 66
Fig (3-8) Photo of details in buildings at city center in Alexandria. 66
Fig (3-9) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. 66
Fig (3-10) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. 67
Fig (3-11) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. 67
Fig (3-12) Photos of “Villa Bassili” before and after renovation. 68

xii
Figure Page
Description of the figure
No. No.
Fig (3-13) Photos of “Cordahi Complex” before and after renovation. 68
Fig (3-14) Photos of piazza and façade of “Mohamed Ali theatre”. 69
Fig (3-15) Photos of “Mohamed Ali club” before and after renovation. 69
Fig (3-16) Photos of “Banco di Roma” before and after renovation. 70
Fig (3-17) Photos of “bank of Athens” before and after renovation. 70
Fig (3-18) Photos of “palazzina Aghion” before and after renovation. 71
3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.
Fig (3-19) Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th century 73
Fig (3-20) Photos of Place des Consuls in late 19th century 73
Fig (3-21) Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square. 74
Fig (3-22) Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square. 74
Fig (3-23) Photos of “Manshieh square” showing the status of “Mohamed Ali”. 74
Fig (3-24) Part of Alexandria’s Google earth map. 75
Fig (3-25) Photos of ‘Okalle Monferato” at Manshieh square. 75
Fig (3-26) Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows 76
Fig (3-27) Photos of the structural problems at the top Cornish. 76
Fig (3-28) Photos of the bad conditions of the internal court. 77
Fig (3-29) Photos of the iron dome that cover the main court. 78
Fig (3-30) Photos of the interventions by the users by adding some coverings. 78
Fig (3-31) Photos of “Mixed Tribunals” at Manshieh square. 78
Fig (3-32) Photos of the side facades that suffer from degradation. 79
Fig (3-33) Photos of “Okalle Menasce” at Manshieh square. 79
Fig (3-34) Photos of disfiguring the building Entrance and main façade 80
Fig (3-35) Photos of the deterioration in the internal façade on the main court. 80
Fig (3-36) Photos of damage and degradation of the wooden roof of the staircase. 80
Fig (3-37) Old photo of “Waqf Yacoub Dahan” at Manshieh square. 81
Fig (3-38) Photos of current situation of “Waqf Yacoub Dahan” at Manshieh. 81
Fig (3-39) Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows. 81
Fig (3-40) Photos of the constructions added on the roof. 82
Fig (3-41) Photos of the original and current state of “Ismail Monument”. 82

xiii
preface.
1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Preface ______________________________________________________________________________________ Preface
___________________________________________________________________________
Introduction
This research is an integral part of a study that conceived to further awareness of the long
history of cultural relations between Italy and the Italian culture and Egypt to create new
spaces of comparison and bolster shared interests so as to enhance the already-existing
climate of collaboration and mutual understanding.
Egypt, along with Turkey and Tunisia, is one of the three countries of the eastern and
southern shore of the Mediterranean that have recorded the strongest presence of Italian
architects and engineers. Italy and other European countries had a numerous contribution to
Egyptian architecture and city planning over a period of almost two centuries. It is
exceptional in terms of the quantity and quality of projects and realizations: from nineteenth-
century plans for the European core of Alexandria to the eclecticism swinging between
Venetian neo-gothic, Florentine neo-fifteenth century and Roman neo-sixteenth-century
styles of buildings constructed for the Italian community and its representative institutions;
from the modernism of the years around the turn of the century to the re-occurring
eclecticism of the sumptuous residences of Cairo's young aristocracy as well as royal palaces;
from the Art Deco of the 1920s to the rationalism of the second half of the 1930s; from post-
World War II urban planning studies and projects for the country's tourist development, the
safe guarding of Pharaoh’s monuments and the improvement of museum structures to the
substantial Italian participation in international competitions for the Alexandrian Library and
the Great Egyptian Museum of Giza1.
Many works that marked significant milestones in Egyptian architecture from the second half
of the Nineteenth Century were planned by Italians. Their activity in the public and religious
architecture sector over the course of the Twentieth Century was particularly remarkable,
numbering several hundred mosques (Mario Rossi alone designed 260 mosques for various
Egyptian cities) and their participation expand the private sector not only in the royal palaces
but also in designing many apartments and villas for private residence.
The contribution of the Italian architects and Engineers was a result of the political,
economical and cultural changes, that leads to start in Egypt the “importation” of European
architecture, with regard not only to official buildings but also to residential private buildings,
in the city center of Cairo, Alexandria and some neighborhoods in most of the Egyptian cities
with a high concentration of foreign and specially Italian inhabitants.
The next table shows the Italian Community population statistics during the nineteenth and
twentieth centuries, from that we noticed that Alexandria had about (50%) of the Italian
migration in Egypt. Also it had a significant and noticeable presence of Italian architect and
contractors whom shaped the architecture of modern Alexandria.
Table (A-1)Italian Community population statistics
Year Egypt Cairo Alexandria
1871 13906 3367 7539
1882 14251 4969 11579
1897 24454 8670 11743
1907 34926 13296 16669
1917 40198 15655 17860
1927 52462 18571 24280
1937 47706 16443 22881
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.95) & ( Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on
Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." P.77)

1
Frattini, Franco. Italian minister of foreign affairs, introduction for the project “Mediterranean Crossroads”.

xiv
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Preface ______________________________________________________________________________________ Preface
___________________________________________________________________________
Because of the good organization and efficiency of constructors, and also as a consequence of
geographic proximity, there was a special link with Italian architecture in that period. Many
Italian architects were involved in the design of these buildings, and some Italian contractors,
builders and handicrafts were employed in their construction. Most of these residence
buildings still exist and represent a significant part of Alexandrian architectural heritage, but
they are threatened with elimination because of neglecting and lack of maintenance.

Research problem:
• At the present the most of European residential buildings that shapes the city center of
most Egyptian cities suffer from the lack of protection because many of them are private
and they are not considered till now as monuments by the Egyptian laws and also there is
no maintenance or restoration programs to this kind of building.

Aim of the research:


• To enlightenment with importance of the nineteenth and early twentieth century
residential buildings made by Italians in Alexandria.
• Determine the deterioration in these buildings and what is the basic maintenance
procedures that can done to protect them.
• Make some documentation of these building to make it easy for a future rehabilitation.

Hypotheses:
• Making documentation of these building will keep this kind of architecture from getting
lost.
• With continues maintenance to these building we can prevent them from elimination and
reduce the cost of restoration.

Geographic limitation and scope of study:


The study will concentrate on the residential buildings at Alexandria, Egypt designed or
built Italian architects and engineers from the nineteenth and early twentieth century till
now.

Research organization:
The study consists of three parts and one appendix; The first part contains the historical
study and include three chapters; the first illustrates the history of the city of Alexandria, the
second chapter studies the Italian architects at Egypt and the third chapter concentrates on the
residential building made by Italian in Alexandria. The second part contains the
theoretical study about damage diagnosis on stone buildings and includes two chapters; the
first one illustrates the in-site investigation and laboratory studies, and the second chapter
studies the structural types of failure and interventions in stone building. The third part
includes the applied study on Alexandrian heritage and consists of two chapters; the first
one studies the current situation, the problems and the Future of Alexandrian built
environment, and the second chapter is a case study of El Manshieh or “Mohamed Ali
Square” to study the Italian buildings in the square and to illustrate its current situation. And
at the end of the study there is one appendix about Weathering forms on stone buildings with
photos about each form.

xv
preface.

1- Historical study.
1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Part (1): Historical study
____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Part one: Historical study.


This part contains the historical study and include three chapters; the first illustrates the
history of the city of Alexandria from the city's founding by Alexander the great in 331 BC
till the beginning of the twenty-one century to identify the influence of Alexandrian history
on it’s built environment, the second chapter studies the Italian architects at Egypt and their
contributions to the Egyptian architecture and modern heritage, And the third chapter
concentrates on the residential building made by Italian in Alexandria to illustrate its
importance in the Alexandrian heritage.
Introduction:
Alexandria extends about 32 km (20 miles) along the coast of the Mediterranean sea in north-
central Egypt. It is home to the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (the new Library), and is an
important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez, another city
in Egypt. Alexandria was also an important trading post between Europe and Asia, because it
profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
In ancient times, Alexandria was one of the most famous cities in the world. It was founded
around a small pharaonic town c. 334 BC by Alexander III of Macedon. It remained Egypt's
capital for nearly a thousand years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641 AD when a
new capital was founded at Fustat (Fustat was later absorbed into Cairo).
Alexandria was known because its lighthouse (Pharos) – one of the Seven Wonders of the
Ancient World –, its library (the largest library in the ancient world) and the Catacombs of
Kom el Shoqafa (one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages). Ongoing maritime
archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of
Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhakotis existed there,
and during the Ptolemaic dynasty1.

1
http://www.alexandria.gov.eg/default.aspx (Official website of Alexandria governorate).

1
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.


1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


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Introduction:
The history of Alexandria dates back to the city's founding by Alexander the great in 331 BC
(the exact date is disputed). It was the seat of the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt, and quickly
became one of the greatest cities of the Hellenistic world second only to Rome in size and
wealth. It fell to the Arabs in 641 AD, and a new capital of Egypt, Fustat, was founded on the
Nile. After Alexandria's status as the country's capital ended, it fell into a long decline, which
by the late Ottoman period, had seen it reduced to little more than a small fishing village. The
city was revived by Muhammad Ali as a part of his early industrialization program. The
current city is Egypt's leading port, a commercial, tourism and transportation center, It is
often described as Ad Aegyptum or “near Egypt”, suggesting an alienation from Egyptian
influences and its Nilotic civilization. Alexandria implies a long tradition in the diversity of
its society and established interaction with other cultures. And for that matter it was the
gateway to Egypt and the point of contact with other civilizations, especially those of the
Mediterranean1.

Fig (1-1) The Palestrina (fund in a small town Praeneste near Rome) a roman mosaic covering an area of 20
square meters, dating back to the second century BC and attributed to the Alexandrian artist Demetrius the
topographer, depicts the Nile delta, the imperial palace of Alexandria, other buildings and temples, sailing ships
and flora along the upper Nile. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.8)

1
Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation trust,
Alexandria, Egypt,2008, p9.

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1-1- History of Alexandria:


Alexandrian urbanism spans the great political empires; its history can be divided into several
often-overlapping periods. Alexandria was established as Egypt's capital in the Hellenistic
period (332 BC- 30 BC), which encompassed the Ptolemaic Dynasty, giving way to the
Romans (30 BC-641), including the Byzantine period. The early Islamic period saw a new
capital in Egypt (639-1250); the city's fortunes changed again under the Mamluk Sultanate
(1250-1517) and the Ottoman Period (1517-1882), which was ended by the French invasion
under Napoleon (1798) and the initial British invasion following their victory at the Battle of
Alexandria (1801). Subsequently, the city witnessed the British occupation (1882-1922) and
Egyptian independence in June 1956.

Fig (1-2) Map of classical Alexandria by Dr.Tassos Neroutsous, 1888 showing the location of the Roman camp.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.16)

1-1-1- Hellenistic Alexandria (332 BC-30 BC):


After Alexander's departure for Asia Minor, infrastructural development for the city of
Alexandria began in full force. The greatest of these undertakings was that of an artificial
causeway built to connect the nearby island of Pharos to the mainland. This causeway, known
as the Heptastadion, was designed and constructed by Dinocrates of Rhodes. The
Heptastadion separated the Great Harbor from the Eunostos Harbor and was built at the
enormous scale of seven stadia long (1,260 meters).
The foundations of the city were laid with the construction of a city wall measuring 15.8 km.
At the time of its erection, this city wall was the third largest known urban enclosure, after
those of Athens and Syracuse. (Two successive city walls were built after the Hellenistic
wall: the Roman wall and the 9th c. medieval wall built by Sultan Ahmed Ibn Tulun).
Archaeological evidence shows that in Alexandria, the urban street grid seems to have been
rotated 25 degrees off the cardinal axes, essentially exposing the city to the prevailing winds
from the north. Archaeological evidence has further shown that block sizes during
Alexandria's Hellenistic period were 10 meters smaller in perimeter than the classic Hellenic
stade block.
The city was physically divided by the intersection of two main thoroughfares: the east-west
Canopic Way and the Street of the Soma (Sema). The surrounding streets of the ancient city
were laid out in a Hippodamian grid. The Canopic Way connected the Canopic Gate and the
Necropolis Gate of the city wall. The Street of the Soma ran between the Moon Gate and the

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Sun Gate of the city wall. Archaeologists estimate that both streets measured between 25 and
70 meters, and were lined with marble colonnades and paved with granite blocks.
The original city may have initially covered an area of 840 hectares. There was no consensus
among ancient historians, and population estimates for Alexandria during Hellenistic rule
vary between 75,000 to 500,000. Upon Alexander's death in 323 BC, the construction of the
city was still not complete.
1-1-2- Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 BC-30 BC):
Ptolemaic rule over Egypt, began with Ptolemy I in 305 BC and ended with Cleopatra VII in
30 BC, was the period of greatest infrastructural and cultural development in Alexandria. The
Ptolemies' emphasis on urban development and expansion followed the Greek tradition;
however, this strategy had to contend with pre-existing Ancient Egyptian codes of urban
development. These codes were established during the Old Kingdom of Egypt (2575-2130
BC), where differentiated settlement patterns and orthogonal town planning methods were
already in practice .
Ptolemy I major construction projects included the lighthouse of Pharos, a series of
fortification walls around the city's perimeter, and new temples for two Alexandrine cults
adopted during his reign. The first temple was dedicated to Serapis, the tutelary god of the
dynasty, and the second temple constructed in Alexandria was dedicated to Alexander
himself, the guardian genius of the city. Of all of these, Ptolemy I's most famous project was
the lighthouse of Alexandria at the island of Pharos. Situated on the eastern end of the island
where the Qaytbay Fort stands today, the lighthouse was constructed at the entrance of the
Great Harbor and is considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Destroyed in a
13th century earthquake, the lighthouse is described in historical texts as rising to over 120
meters high. It was designed with three setbacks, an elevator, a staircase, and a powerful light
that projected out to sea for up to 55 kilometers .

Fig (1-3)Imaginary sketch of the lighthouse of Alexandria.


Source: http://www.flickr.com

For 300 years the Ptolemies controlled Egypt from Alexandria. During this time, the city's
close proximity to the sea had caused much of the original city foundations, including the
ancient docks and parts of the Royal Enclosure, to sink. The marble used in the first city, built
under Ptolemy I, would later be reused; in one example, this marble would be ground up to
make cement as Mohammed 'Ali Pasha rebuilt Alexandria from 1810-1850 under the
Ottomans.

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Under Ptolemaic rule, Alexandria became a major center for the arts and sciences:
astronomy, medicine, literature, philosophy, and religious studies. Many of the urban
undertakings in Alexandria were not completed during Ptolemy I Soter's rule, but rather by
his successors. Theaters, zoological gardens, the gymnasium (with porticos more than a
stadium long) were constructed under Ptolemy II Philadelphus. The Ptolemies' monopolistic
policies saw state and royal funds controlling most of the major industries, not only in
Alexandria, but throughout Egypt. Salt, oil, linen textiles and papyrus paper were royal
monopolies, while lesser industries such as woolen textiles, glass, wine, perfumes were
marginally state controlled, but lay mostly in private hands. Another important characteristic
of Alexandria was its function as a polis (city-state). However, a contradiction in power
existed under Ptolemaic rule; Alexandria had its own citizenship and constitution, yet its
autonomy and its city government were restricted in scope.
The land use program for the city under the Ptolemaic dynasty was primarily residential. This
street grid was divided into insulae (blocks), each averaging 36.5 by 182.5 meters, or 100 by
500 Ptolemaic feet. In Alexandria, a quarter accommodated six insulae intersected by two
minor roads. Housing plots measured 22 by 22 meters, and each insula could hold as many as
20 houses.
As a polis, Ptolemaic Alexandria had a very cosmopolitan population, drawn from
Alexander's Macedonian forces, older Greek Naukratis and Memphis, and Egyptian towns
such as the former Rhakotis and nearby Canopus. In lesser numbers, immigrants would later
arrive from Syria, Asia Minor, Italy, Syracuse, Libya, Carthagenia, and Massillia
(contemporary Marseilles) in the western Mediterranean. Alexandria's Egyptians formed the
largest ethnic community in Alexandria, and lived mainly in the southern district around the
precinct of the Serapeum, the original location of the village of Rhakotis. However, the
cosmopolitan nature of the populace did not greatly impact the architecture and spatial
planning of Hellenistic Alexandria.
Early Alexandria was divided into five districts, or quarters, named after the first five letters
of the Greek alphabet (A-E). The Jewish Quarter was known as 'Delta.' Dating almost from
the founding of the city, Jewish scholars began translating the Old Testament from its
original Hebrew into Greek. This group of scholars would later produce the standard
orthodox version known as the Septuagint. Under Ptolemaic rule, the Jewish community was
allowed to form an association (politeuma) to freely practice their faith and manage their
affairs according to Jewish law. The south-west quarter of Rhakotis (Rhacotis) took its full
name from the former fishing village that predated Alexandria's founding, and was occupied
almost entirely by native Egyptians. Brucheum (the Brucheion), also known as 'Beta,' was the
royal or Greek quarter, and it comprised nearly a third of the city. Beta was situated in the
northeast, and its Royal Palace complex also contained its own administrative buildings and a
harbor, as well as the Musaeum (Mouseion), the Temple of the Muses that was commissioned
by Ptolemy I Soter. Similar to a modern university or research institute with colleges,
laboratories and observatories, the Musaeum attracted many mathematicians, scientists, poets
and dramatists. These included Euclid, Archimedes, Strato and Zenodotus; consequently, the
Musaeum was comparable in scholarly fame to top institutions in Athens.

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Fig (1-4)Imaginary sketch and prespective of library of Alexandria, housed a museum and held about 500,000
papyrus scrolls. Source: http://www.utexas.edu/courses/introtogreece/cc301/alexlibext.jpg

Of particular importance in the planning of the Musaeum was the Library of Alexandria
(constructed 288-280 BC), planned by Ptolemy I's chief advisor, Demetrius El Phalerum.
Historical texts indicate that although the library was conceived of during Ptolemy I Soter's
regime, it was completed under his son Ptolemy II. This library reportedly encompassed
multiple buildings in the Musaeum. Books were housed in several depositories, and although
a definitive number was never recorded, some scholars believe that its full collection
comprised circa 500,000 scrolls. According to some sources, the "Mother Library" at the
Musaeum included the collections and research institutes, while the "Daughter Library",
situated at the Serapeum, (a colonnade which enclosed the original Temple of Serapis, in
addition to the shrines of Isis and Harpocrates) housed the overstock of books from the
Musaeum and Cleopatra VII Philopator's two hundred thousand volumes from the library of
Pergamum, a wedding gift from Mark Anthony. However, the story of this wedding gift is
itself disputed. The construction of the Serapeum itself is attributed to Ptolemy III, and is
supported by the discovery of inscription plaques at the site.
The exact fate of the Library of Alexandria is unknown, and general consensus holds that its
collections were lost in a fire. Contemporary Egyptologists continue to debate the fire, and
the loss of the Alexandrine texts; one ancient story holds that Julius Caesar accidentally set
the fire during a 48 BC visit to Alexandria, and this is corroborated by some ancient texts.
Another ambitious late Ptolemaic project is the Caesareum. A temple commissioned by
Cleopatra VII Philopator in honor of Mark Anthony, was later completed by Octavian, who
dedicated it to himself. Ptolemaic rule in Egypt ended with the suicide of the celebrated
Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. Roman rule in Egypt began under Octavian, and would continue
until Constantine I (618).

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Fig (1-5)plans of Serapeum reconstruction Ptolemaic and Roman phase by Alan Rowe& Judith Mckenzie.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.24)

Fig (1-6)photos of Pompey column, (Amoud al Sawary) at Kom al-Shugafa (30-48 B.C.).
Source: http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=9170

1-1-3- Roman Annexation and the Byzantine Period (30 BC-641):


Power over Egypt was ceded to Octavian (Augustus Caesar) following his 30 BC defeat of
the Ptolemaic forces at Actium. Roman dominium over Egypt would last for the next 670
years. Throughout this period, Alexandria remained the capital of the province of Egypt
under Roman rule. The city's ports were kept busy with exports of grain, particularly to
Roman territories, and Alexandria functioned as Rome's breadbasket. According to an

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account from Strabo's time, Alexandrian architectural landmarks included the Royal Palaces,
the grand Theater (on modern Hospital Hill, near the Ramleh station), Poseidon's temple
(located close to the Theatre), the Emporium (Exchange), the Navalia (the docks), the
aforementioned Caesareum, the Gymnasium and the Palaestra, the Temple of Saturn, the
Mausoleum of Alexander at Soma built by Ptolemy I, the Musaeum, and the Serapeum .

fig(1-7) Site plan of Kom el Dikka, The plan reveals a complex including an amphitheatre,
roman baths, cisterns, house district ,shops and classrooms of the philosophical schools. Source:
(Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.28 &p.30)
While residences dominated ancient Alexandrian land use patterns, 2300 sanctuaries could be
counted by the end of the Roman period. The Canopic Way and the Street of the Soma served
as the main thoroughfares, and civic buildings lined them both. In total, the city was served
by 18 main streets, with 7 running east-west and 11 running north-south. The agora
(marketplace) was at the center of the city, which extended for 16 kilometers. Outside of
these areas, Alexandria was predominantly residential. Archaeological findings estimate that
the average residential footprint under Roman rule was 200 square meters.

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Fig (1-8)photos of Roman Theatre Restoration at Kom Al-Dikka (2nd c., restored 1980s).
Source: http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=776

1-1-4- Early Islamic Period (639-1250):


In 616 Alexandria fell to the Sassanid Persians until 628. By 639 Roman Byzantine rulers had
ceded power to the Arab army commanded by 'Amr ibn al-As. Under al-Als, Alexandria saw
a wave of rebuilding, but the city subsequently lost influence as al-Fustat became the
economic and political capital of the country. Thereafter, geomorphological changes
compounded the political neglect of Alexandria: several branches of the Nile silted up, the
coastal fringe sank, and earthquake tremors caused significant damage to the island of
Pharos. The city's four gates (the West Gate, East Gate, Rashid Gate, and the Green Gate)
were closed at night to prevent Bedouin raids.

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fig(1-9)Plans, site plan and Elevations of the mosque of 1000Columns, Originally the Church of St. Theonas, and
retransformed into a Franciscan convent and the church of st. Rita.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.62&p.63)

Major urban changes during this period included the fortification of the coast and the new
city walls under Ibn Tulun, who also completed renovations on the lighthouse in 797.
Following the establishment of Islamic law, many Roman citizens left the city, and the city's
economy continued its decline. The new city wall built described a shrinking Alexandria, one
that occupied just under half the city's urban footprint under the Romans. In 912, the Temple
of Serapis was demolished. Although nothing remains of the temple today, two obelisks,
known as "Cleopatra's needles," were retained. Formerly located at the seaward end of the
Street of Soma, one was presented to the British and erected along the Thames Embarkment
(1878) and the other was offered to the USA, and stands in New York's Central Park (1881).

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fig(1-10) Map of Alexandria by J. Helffrich 1566. (A)Cairo gate, (B)Pepper gate, (C)Sea door, (D)The canal,
(E)The Fort, (F)A mosque used by Turks, (G)Small fort, (G)new port, (G)old port.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.67)

fig(1-11) Map of Alexandria in the late Roman period by A. Adriani.


Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.64)

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Generally speaking, little of Alexandria's urban fabric was changed through the end of the
Fatimid dynasty (1171). Under the Ayyubids (1171-1260), Salah al-Din fortified the city
walls (1181) and converted Alexandria into a military base. He ordered ruined columns to be
thrown into the harbor to prevent enemy ships from approaching, and he also began to
improve the city's standard of living, which had been so drastically affected during the
transition from Roman rule. New "suburban" districts were created to the west and south of
the city, and their development followed urban patterns in the Islamic world, with narrow
streets and covered markets. Although Alexandria continued to be Egypt's principal port, and
experienced a brief revival in the twelfth century, the city itself would continue to shrink until
Ottoman times.
1-1-5-Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (1250-1517):
Under the Mamluks, the lighthouse at Pharos was destroyed during an earthquake, and Sultan
Qaytbey built a fort to defend the harbor in its place. Architecturally, Alexandria expanded
under the Mamluk mosque building programs; 88 mosques could be counted in the late 18th
century. In 1517, the Mamluks gave way to the Ottomans, who ushered in a policy of
isolationism. This isolationism was founded in the idea of trade as leading to Western
colonization, and this policy continued until Napoleon Bonaparte invaded in 1798. With
Napoleon came French ambitions to use Alexandria to open up a trade route to the East. At
the time of his arrival, the city approximated a village of 4,000. The 1798 invasion disrupted
Alexandria's limited industry and commerce, which at that time sustained the small Egyptian
port. Subsequent invasions of Egyptian territories came as a result of the instability of power
in Napoleonic Europe and Ottoman attempts to re-establish control over Egypt.

fig(1-12)Photos of Fort Qaitbey.


Source: http://archnet.org

1-1-6-The Ottomans and Muhammad 'Ali Pasha (1517-1882):


In (1805) Mohammad Ali Pasha recognized Alexandria's proximity to Constantinople and
consequent economic potential. He made the city his summer capital and subsequently
initiated a rebuilding and restoration program for the city, beginning with a canal (the
Mahmudiyya canal, named for the Ottoman sultan, Mahmud II) to allow access to the Nile.
This canal marked a renewal of Alexandria's social and cultural development: during this
period, the city's population grew from 60,000 (1821-40) to 270,000 (1874).
Mohammad Ali reconstructed the harbor, built a palace and a famously beautiful lighthouse
on the Ras al-Tin peninsula, and, with the help of French engineers, erected a series of
commercial and industrial buildings. He also supervised the construction of a new shipyard

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facility, which would become one of Egypt's greatest military and naval establishments. He
established a committee for traffic control, to promote cleanliness and public health
initiatives, and to improve urban conditions overall. Mohammad 'Ali Pasha's planning
strategies focused on infrastructure (railways, roads) to facilitate economic development.
However, this did not extend to preventing unplanned thoroughfares and other spontaneous
development, which played a role in destroying some of the city's historic urban fabric.
As governor, Mohammed Ali's grandson (1848-1854) built a railway from Alexandria to
Suez that continued as far as Kafr al-Zayat. Alexandria grew rapidly thereafter: 1850 saw
high numbers of Europeans taking up residence in the city and becoming influential citizens.
The next governor, Mohammed Said Pasha (1854-1863) extended the railway line to Cairo
and connected Alexandria and Cairo with modern telegraph lines. Construction on the city's
tramway system was completed in 1860; today, this system is the oldest of all such networks
in Africa. It was under the government of Ismail Pasha (1863-1879), also known as Ismail the
Magnificent, that the Europeanization of Alexandria began. Ismail built new roads and laid
out new districts, improved trade relationships, and granted many plots of land in the new
Raml suburb, where numerous lavish palaces were built. Alexandria was one of the first
Egyptian cities to have an underground sanitary sewerage system; during Ismail's reign,
purified water from the Mahmudiyyah canal was piped throughout the city from a filtering
station. As Alexandria expanded, its Arab walls were torn down.

fig(1-13) Daguerreotype and photo of Ras el Tin palace.


Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.81)

By 1870, Alexandria was the fourth leading Mediterranean port after Istanbul, Marseilles,
and Genoa. The city's expansion in trade and infrastructure followed the assimilation of
Egypt into the European world economy, and the city witnessed the Industrial Revolution of
the nineteenth century. Although agricultural exports had always played a major role in its
economy, during the nineteenth century Egyptian trade with Europe flourished. From 1860-
70, over two-thirds of Egypt's export earnings came from cotton trading, while the trade of
other agricultural products increased dramatically. Under Mohammad 'Ali Pasha, the
Ministry of Commerce offices moved to Alexandria. By the late nineteenth century,
Alexandria was successfully disengaging itself from the Ottoman commonwealth, and was
moving into the orbit of Europe. It is of equal importance to note that it was not until the turn
of the nineteenth century that contemporary Alexandria exceeded the size of Greek
Alexandria.

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fig(1-14) Map of the Turkish town as documented by the French Expedition in 1798-1801.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.72)

1-1-7-British Occupation, Egyptian Independence, and Contemporary


Alexandria (1882-2009):
In the 1880s a nationalist trend rose in Egypt, and 'Urabi Pasha, a military officer, gathered
enough energy within the army ranks to resist the Turkish establishment. Large numbers of
Europeans died in the ensuing violent chaos, bringing British troops, and then British
occupation, to Egypt. Under the British, Alexandria experienced a new wave of urban
growth: Alexandria was developed into a major British Royal Naval base, with the strategic
Suez Canal (1869) to the east of the city. Between 1922 and 1956, the national independence
movement saw the British Declaration (1922), the Treaty of Alliance between Egypt and
Britain (1936), and the 1952 July 23 revolution.
Throughout the struggles for independence, urban development in Alexandria continued at a
rapid rate. In 1925, Lake al-Hadara was drained, and the suburb of Smouha founded. The
city's Corniche, a twenty-kilometer-long seacoast promenade, was built in 1934, influencing
Alexandria's summer tourism industry. The Corniche houses a series of informal beach huts,
bathing clubs and cafes, facing high-end holiday resorts and apartments across the street.
Other major building projects of the period included the Al Muntazah Palace, the small
Salamlek Palace, and the impressive Palestine Hotel. Two of the royal palaces, the Ras al-Tin
Palace on Pharos Island and the Al-Muntazah Palace at the eastern end of Al-Jaysh Avenue,
were restored and are today open to the public. The modern plan of Alexandria follows the
ancient grid, and below these streets run subterranean canals, originally dug in the pre-
modern city to service waste. These canals, together with a vast, active network of cellars,
tunnels, and catacombs form a great part of the city's infrastructure. The commercial center of
the city was located at Liberation Square (Midan at-Tahrir), between the Cotton Exchange
and the Bourse (Stock Exchange). The center has since moved to Saad Zaghlul Square.

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fig(1-15)Map of contemporary Alexandria. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.410)

fig(1-16)panorama view and photos of corniche of Alexandria.


Source: http://archnet.org/library/sites/one-site.jsp?site_id=9173

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Alexandria's post-independence urban expansion (following the 1936 British withdrawal)


was unprecedented in the city's history. The city now occupies a 70-kilometer strip along the
Mediterranean coast line in the northwest Nile Delta, covering approximately 2,679 square
kilometers. Its urban form is that of a T-shaped peninsula, the urban center (including the old
city and its newer suburbs) occupying about 100 square kilometers. The remaining area is 40
percent croplands, 35 percent desert, and 25 percent water from Lake Maryut. Some
segments of the lake shore are used for saltworks and fisheries. The presence of the lake
directed the expansion of the city along a relatively linear pattern. The two main streets of
ancient Alexandria, the east-west Canopic Way (now Hurriya Street or Al-Hurriya Avenue),
and the Street of the Soma (now Nabi Daniel Street or An-Nabi Danyal Street), continue to
be the principal streets of the city. Alexandria's main public spaces in the early twenty-first
century fall along the waterfront and the squares adjacent to the harbor; the western port of
the city is primarily industrial.

fig(1-17)Photos of the Montaza Royal palace.


Source: http://archnet.org & (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.346)

fig(1-18)Photos of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina.


Source: http://archnet.org

Residential building typologies in contemporary Alexandria fall into formal categories:


researchers count the linear (El Hokma and Ahalee housing type), the square (Rabaa housing
type), the rectangular (Ashia housing type), the L-shaped, the walk-up flats (El Dekhila), and
the Aimaras Rabba housing types. Existing ancient architectural monuments include the
Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa, a late second-century burial site carved out of solid rock and
located as deep as three levels below ground. These tombs are sited adjacent to the ancient
Temple of Serapis (Serapeum). Modern building projects in the city include the Bibliotheca
Alexandrina (Snohetta, 2002), designed as a tilting disc rising from the ground. Housing a
library and reading spaces, the Bibliotheca was the winner of a competition run by the library

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sponsors, UNESCO, and the Egyptian government. It is sited on the site of the former Great
Library.
Alexandria's major civic spaces include Ahmed Orabi Square and Saad Zaghlul Square (both
located in the downtown area), Mansheya Square (in Mansheya), Tahrir Square (formerly
Mohammed Ali Square at the Places des Consuls) and Ahmed Zewail Square (near Wabour
El Mayah). The city also hosts the Graeco-Roman Museum, with one of the finest collections
of Graeco-Roman artifacts in the world. The Montaza Royal Gardens are an important urban
green space; the palace garden complex is surrounded by walls on the east, west and south
sides of the complex, and its north side faces the waterfront. Major mosques include Ali ibn
Abi Talib Mosque (in Somouha), Bilal Mosque, El-Gamee el-Bahari (in Mandara), Hatem
Mosque (also in Somouha), Hoda el-Islam Mosque (in Sidi Bishr), Abu el-Abbas el-Mursi
Mosque (in Anfoushi), El-Mowasah Mosque (in Hadara). The ancient Roman amphitheatre
and Pompey's Pillar still stand.
Its urban infrastructure also includes the main airport (Al Nozha airport), located 7 kilometers
southeast of the city center, and five major highways. Its port has the longest history of all its
urban infrastructure: dating to 1900 BCE, it has seen many restorations under multiple
regimes. Today the port is divided into the eastern harbor and the western harbor, which are
separated by a T-shaped peninsula .
The history of Alexandria showcases a broad cast of colonial powers, which each in turn
added to the city's fabric. Today, Graeco-Roman ruins and modern high-rise buildings co-
exist within Alexandria. Elements of the ancient city, such as its main streets and millenia-old
port, combine with geomorphological changes to define and direct its urban growth today.
The city mirrors the issues faced by most developing cities, and stark contrasts in civic
infrastructure and architecture can be seen today between all six of Alexandria's districts:
Montaza, eastern Alexandria, the downtown, Amreya, Western Alexandria and Gumro .

Notes:
www.archnet.org the main recourses are:
1. McKenzie, Judith, et al. "Alexandra." In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online",
http://www.oxfordartonline.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T001722. (Accessed March 16, 2009 ).
2. Alexandria: Hellenistic Age." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2004. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online".
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-26550/Hellenistic-Age. (Accessed May 19, 2008).
3. El-Abbadi, Mostafa. "Alexandria: Thousand-Year Capital of Egypt." Alexandria: The Site and the
History. New York: NYU Press .1993.
4. El-Din, Morsi Saad,"Alexandria: The Site and the History. New York: NYU Press .1993.
5. Haag, Michael. Alexandria. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press .2004.
6. Jobbins, Jenny. 2006. "Alexandria and the Egyptian Mediterranean: a traveler's guide". Cairo:
American University in Cairo Press .
7. Mueller, Katja. Settlements of the Ptolemies: city foundations and new settlement in the Hellenistic
world. Dudley, MA: Peeters .2006.
8. Ramadan, Abdel Azim. C. "Alexandria: French Expedition to the Modern Age." Alexandria: The Site
and the History. New York: NYU Press,1993 .
9. Reimer, Michael J. Colonial Bridgehead: Government and Society in Alexandria, 1807-1882. Boulder,
Colorado: Westview Press .1997.
10. Reimer, Michael J. "Property disputes in 19th century Alexandria". Arizona: Middle East Studies
Association of North America .1989.
11. Harris, W. V. and Giovanni Ruffin. "Ancient Alexandria between Egypt and Greece". Boston: Brill
Academic Publishers, 2004.

17
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and


Engineers in Egypt.
1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt
___________________________________________________________________________

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt:


The first Italian exile architects and engineers in Egypt starts from the Restoration of the
Ottoman Empire, and in particular the Egypt of (Muhammad Ali), offered asylum to Italian
political emigrants, including a considerable number of engineers, architects, building
contractors and specialized workers.
1-2-1- The first Italian architects and engineers in Egypt:
The first exiles were engineers involved with the governments of the Napoleonic Republics
and the first Kingdom of Italy, among them was the author of the plan for the Bonaparte
Forum in Milan, (Giovanni Antonio Antolini), a victim in 1815 along with his friend (Pietro
Giordani) of the purge carried out by the papal government at the Fine Arts Academy of
Bologna (which marked for him the start of a long period of financial difficulties), who
seems to have cultivated the proposition of seeking his fortune in more hospitable lands.
This is confirmed by the existence of a plan for a "large spinning mill in Cairo, Egypt"
(1815) as well as drawings for an embassy in Constantinople.
Also part of the first migratory wave were Livorno native Lorenzo Masi, who made an
important contribution to the introduction of the cadastre in Egypt, restored the canal
linking the Nile and the port of Alexandria to full efficiency with the collaboration of
Girolamo Segato, and left early studies on the excavation or the Suez Canal, and the Papal
subject Francesco Mancini who settled in Egypt and stayed until 1865. From 1837 to 1847
he served as head engineer of the Alexandria “Commissione d`Ornato”, and in during that
coordinated the development of the town plan, which was in use until the start of the
Twentieth Century. Also he designed the organization of the European city heart, and the
"Quartier Franc" centered around the (Place d' Armes) completed around 1855 and
surrounded by buildings -some of which were also designed by him- destroyed by British
cannon fire in 1882.

Fig (1-19) Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th cantury also known as Place d' Armes, place
Mohamed Ali, Manshieh and Liberation square. Source: (www.flicr.com )

The presence of Italian architects in Egypt less considerable in quantitative terms than that
recorded by their rise to important public posts, which put them in contact with top
government (the pasha and later the khedive, the king and members of the royal family).
The first fact can be interpreted as an indirect consequence of Bonaparte's campaign in
Egypt; many artists and intellectuals who had accompanied the Napoleonic armada settled
in the country to participate in the modernization pursued by Muhammad Ali, and they were
joined, during the Restoration, by other technicians and French military men called upon by
the pasha. The presence of this French colony was thus a guarantee of welcome for Italians
forced to leave their own homeland because they had been openly involved with Napoleonic

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administrations, and the familiarity of various Italian architects with the governing elite,
which in some cases went beyond normal relations with clients, constituted an efficacious
channel for the transmission of ideas.
The first important case of an Italian patriot being well-introduced into the pasha's court and
appreciated not only for his professional skills but also for his capacity as an adviser on
relations with European states and on diplomatic matters in commercial and financial
transactions, was that of Pietro Avoscani 1816-91. Self taught through on-the-job practice in
the field of ornamental painting and architectural decoration in his native Livorno, where he
had his first contacts with the "Giovine Italia", in March of 1837 he joined his brother
(Camillo), who had moved to Alexandria in 1825 after having accompanied the first
warship constructed on orders from Mohammad Ali in Livorno's shipyards, and enlisted in
the Egyptian military marines. Twenty-one-year-old Pietro, newly arrived in Alexandria,
was hired to supervise three-hundred workmen in executing the architectural furnishings
and interior decoration of the palace of Ras al-Tin Muhammad Ali's favorite residence.

Fig (1-20)Photos of the entrance of Ras el Tin palace and detail of coat of arms, designed by P. Avoscani.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.90)

Fig (1-21) Old postcards (1883) of “Stock exchange- Borsa” at place des Consuls by F. Mancini.
Source: (Godoli, E. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt” p. 16).& www.flicr.com

This was the start of a brilliant career as a court architect in the service of the founder of
modern Egypt and his successors, the most important achievements of which were, in
Alexandria, the painting and sculptural work for the decoration of the palace of Gabbar
(1846-48), the execution of the coat of arms above the entranceway to the palace of Ras al-
Tin (1847), temporary decorations to welcome Muhammad Ali upon his return from a trip
to Naples (1848) as well as those for the palace of Gabbar commissioned by viceroy (Said
pasha) to celebrate the anniversary of his ascent to the throne (1856); and in Cairo,
decorations for squares, streets and public buildings on the occasion of the wedding of
Kamel pasha (1846), decorations for the palaces of Abbasiyya and Hilmiyya (1849) and for
the palaces of Gazira and Chubra (1860-61), the khedive's Azbakiyya Opera Theatre (1869),
which, quickly constructed of wood on the basis of a plan by architect Andrea Scala to host

19
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt
___________________________________________________________________________
the premiere of Aida in celebration of the opening of the Suez Canal. Also notable among
the public structures the building of International Market of Minia al-Bassal (1871) in
Alexandria, known as the Colton Exchange.

Fig (1-22)Plan and photo of the Bourse of Minet el Bassal, designed by P. Avoscani.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.92)

In 1853 princes Ismaill and Halim sent Pietro to Carrara (Italy) to choose marble for the
entrance door to the palace of Ras al-Tin, and to France to acquire furniture and decorative
elements; on these and other missions Avoscani made his contribution to establishing
commercial relations between Egypt and the Italian art industries and construction material
suppliers. Even when working for private individuals, he never failed to utilize Italian
suppliers: in the theatre built in Alexandria in 1862 for Count Zizinia, the terracotta
ornamental work was produced by the Andrea Boni firm of Milan.

Fig (1-23)Photo of the Zizinia theatre, designed by P. Avoscani 1863.


Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.97)

And in 1857 he was among the financers of the company promoted by banker Carlo Biagini
for the construction of a new Italian theatre in Alexandria, to be built by Luigi Piattoli. A
competition was held in 1858 to choose the plan of the theatre, with four prizes awarded to
Antonio Corazzi, Mariano Falcini and two other unidentified architects.

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Fig (1-24)Drawings of the proposal for the competition of a theatre in Alexandria, by M. Falcini 1858.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.96)

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1-2-2- The pursuit of modern architecture for Egypt:
Most of the buildings planned by Italians who arrived in Egypt in the 1820s and 1830s were
characterized by a re-reading of models of classicism from the latter part of the Eighteenth
Century or the Napoleonic era, the exiles who arrived after (1848) began to show the first
signs of a retrieval - with an eclectic attitude and free from philological preoccupations,
stylistic forms and motifs drawn from the repertoire of Islamic architecture. The earliest
example is probably the Sabil-kuttab al-Walda (public fountain and koranic school) built for
the queen mother in Bab al-Hadid zone (1867-69) in Cairo on plans by architect Ciro
Pantanelli (1833-84), who had come to Egypt in 1853 with his father. This architect also
worked mainly for members of the royal family: for the khedive Said and he designed the
palace of Qasr AI-Nil, and from 1873 to 1879 was in the service of Khedive Ismail's
mother.

Fig (1-25)Photo of sabil-Kuttab Al-Walda, Cairo, by Fig (1-26)Photo of the Tossiza palace by F. Mancini.
C.Pantanelli. Source: (E. Godoli & M. Giacomelli, Source: (Awad, Mohamed F.
"Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt ", P12.) "Italy in Alexandria"p.85)

After the bombing of Alexandria and landing of the English expedition corps in 1882
marked both the defeat of the nationalist movement headed by colonel Ahmed Orabi, who
had been pursued with the complicity of khedive Tawfiq, started the reconstruction of the
core or the European city of Alexandria figures like Antonio Lasciac (1856-1946) from
Gorizia, and Alfonso Maniscalco (1853-?) from Naples, who made contributions to the
revalidation of Islamic architecture in their projects in Cairo. But their contribution to the
reconstruction of Place des Consuls and the adjacent areas after 1882 adopted very different
styles. In the block of flats constructed in Rue Cherif Pacha (1883-88), now Salah Salem
and Nabi Daniel Street (1886-87).

Fig (1-27)Photos of Al-Rifaiy Mosque (the tombs of Royal family) at Cairo by Max Herz .
Source: www.archnet.org

Around 1900 appeared some of the most significant Italian contributions to the Islamic

22
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
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___________________________________________________________________________
revival, which had its main stronghold in Cairo. First and foremost was the demolished villa
for the Danish consul Antonio Zogheb in Qasr AI-Nil (1898-1902), built by the brothers
Antonio Battigelli (1848-1898) and Francesco Battigelli (1861-?), in collaboration with the
Hungarian Max Herz, who in 1890 had become head architect of the Committee for the
conservation of monuments of Arab art, and in 1901 director of the Museum of Arab Art,
and who presumably played a fundamental role in guiding stylistic choices. The oldest of
the two brothers had demonstrated a certain familiarity with Arab art in the tomb of
Khedive Ismail (1896), located in the Al-Rifaiy Mosque, and shortly after the completion of
villa Zogheb Alfonso Maniscalco finished the Egyptian Library (1903-4), later adapted to
host the Cairo Museum of Islamic Art, it associated western plan types and facade schemas
with a very liberal manipulation of elements of Mamluke architecture, this building was an
important affirmation of the neo-Islamic orientation.

Fig (1-28)photos of Haramlek- Montazah palace by Ernesto Verrucci, 1923-1928 .


Source: www.archnet.org

Fig (1-29)photo of castle Mackenzie, Genoa: the original style, and Montazah palace the copy of the Italian
style. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.196)

23
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___________________________________________________________________________
Another Italian, Ernesto Verrucci (1874-1945), who arrived in Egypt in 1897 after having
participated in the Greek-Turkish war, and he made significant contributions to Islamic-
inspired architecture. After initially working on the Greco-Roman Museum of Alexandria,
Verrucci moved to Cairo, probably in (1898), to take over as head department architect at
the Ministry of Public Works. Then he left this position in 1907 to undertake freelance
work. Among his first contributions to the Islamic revival were the mausoleum for doctor
Elui pasha in the necropolis of Imam al Chafiy in Cairo. And in his first decade working his
neo-Mameluke plan won the competition for the new Egyptian University of Cairo (1913-
14), construction of which, assigned to an Italian firm, was impeded by the outbreak of the
First World War. After the ceremony marking the laying of the first stone had been
celebrated with great solemnity on March 13, 1914. And also the tombs of King Fuad and
the queen mother in the Al-Rifaiy mosque in Cairo (1917-19).
Many of the Italian architects residing in Egypt who made significant contributions to the
Islamic revival had an in-depth knowledge of monuments of Arab art, and were also directly
involved in ensuring its safeguarding. Their contribution to the Islamic revival did not end
with the beginning of the great war, but carried on until the have of the Second World War.
Between 1922 and 1927 architect Lasciac built the Misr Bank in (Mohammad Farid) street
in Cairo, the interior of which proposed an eclectic sampling of motifs from Arab and
ottoman art, also displaying a harmonization of precious materials that added a hint of the
Byzantine. And again in the pediatric hospital of Abu al-Rich in Cairo's Sayyida Zaynab
quarter (1930), he proposed a rarefied and extremely distilled version of Mamluke inspired
motifs, adapting them to the reinforced concrete construction and because of the need to
economize on materials and specialized labor.

Fig (1-30)Photos of Misr Bank in Mohammad Farid street in Cairo, by Lasciac, 1927.
Source: www.archnet.org

The '30s saw the development of a tendency due especially to the efforts of Egyptian
architect Mustafa Fahmy towards a modernized Islamic style, based on a simplification of
the lexical elements of the tradition, sometimes with Art Deco influenced stylizations, and
on the adoption of monumental plans characterized by the highlighting of the parts arranged
on the main axes or symmetry. Along the same lines was the School of Arts and Crafts (not
the Department or Engineering of Ayn Shams University) in the Abbassiyya quarter of
Cairo, built in 1932 on plans by Adolfo Brandani, which had an forepart in the middle of the
main facade, characterized by a high loggia with a giant order of columns, surmounted by
an onion dome.
A particularly interesting and largely still unexplored chapter of the Italian contribution to
the Islamic revival, is the sector of religious architecture. For example, there has not yet

24
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt
___________________________________________________________________________
been sufficient investigation of activity in this sphere by Achille Patricolo, to whom we owe
the al-Fath mosque in the palace of Abdin in Cairo (1918), erected to replace an earlier
XIX-century mosque, of which he conserved the minaret and entrance doorway,
reconstructing the rest and adding an Ottoman-style cupola echoing that of the mosque of
Abu Dahab (1774) in the al-Azhar district.
Among the architects who held positions within the Ministry of El-Awqaf, Eugenio
Valzania (1880-1930), who had only recently been re-discovered, after a long period of
ignorance of the role he had played in the planning of works attributed by historiography to
his younger collaborators, like Mario Rossi (1897-1961) and Giuseppe Tavarelli (1883-?).
The finding of drawings dated 1929 now allows us to attribute to Valzania the ideation of
plans of two mosques, the al-Tabbah in Cairo (1929-33) and the Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas in
Alexandria (1929-45), long attributed solely to Rossi who, after Valzania's death continued
the construction.

Fig (1-31)Elevations and photo of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque, by Mario Rossi and Eugenio Valzania,
1928-1938. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.242 -244)

25
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
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___________________________________________________________________________

Fig (1-32) Plan of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque, by Mario Rossi and Eugenio Valzania, 1928-1938. Source:
(Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.242 -244)

According to a bibliographic source usually well-informed on Egypt, the mosque of


heliopolis (1929-31), now known as Masgid al-Thawra Mosque of the Revolution, was also
built by Tavarelli in forms inspired by Fatimid architecture on the basis of a plan by
Valzania. The conception of the mosques of heliopolis and Alexandria seems to indicate
him as the initiator of an approach to the planning of these religious buildings that tended to
combine philological scrupulousness in reusing the Islamic styles of the local tradition with
a rapport between the mosque and its urban surroundings, with green spaces or buffer zones
that isolated it from the surrounding constructions.
This type of urban insertion of the mosque, which sometimes became a dominant presence
in its context with highly spectacular results, was perpetuated by Mario Rossi who, in the
service of the Ministry of El-Awqaf, according to his own declarations, created 260 plans
for mosques in many cities in Egypt, between 1929 and 1955. In this abundant production,
two periods stands out: the first, comprised between 1929 and the start of the Second World
War, was marked by an historicist orientation with architectural elements and ornamental
motifs of Mamluke and Ottoman mosques, while in terms of floor plans, the planimetric
schemas of Italian Renaissance central-plan churches were combined with the Madrasa
plans of the traditional Cairo mosque; the second, coinciding with the decade after the war
and inaugurated in 1946 by Rossi's conversion to Islam, was characterized by greater liberty
in the organization of floor plans, which tended to free themselves from symmetry and from
the simplification of traditional Islamic architectural elements and motifs to adapt new
materials and construction techniques.

26
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___________________________________________________________________________

Fig (1-33) photos of Qaid Ibrahim Mosque, by Mario Rossi, 1949-1950.


Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.336)

Fig (1-34) Photo and plan of El sayed Mohamed Korayem Mosque, by Mario Rossi, 1951.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.340)

27
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
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___________________________________________________________________________

Notes:
1. Awad, Mohamed F. "From Historucism to Modernity (the inter-war period, Alexandria 1918-1939:
The Italian conection", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first
century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 142-153.
2. Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation
trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008.
3. Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." Environmental
Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp. 72-85.
4. Ciranna, Simonetta. "Italian Architecture in Egypt in the Thirties: The Work of Clemente Busiri
Vici." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.114-
119.
5. da Costa, Lucilia Verdelho. "Italian Influence on the Beginnings of Neo-Arabic Revivalism in
Portugal." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990,
Pp.172-177.
6. Dickie, James. "The Works of Mario Rossi at Alexandria." Environmental Design: Journal of the
Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, 94-101.
7. Godoli, Ezio& Giacomelli, Milva, "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to
the twenty-first century", Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 25th November 2008.
8. Godoli, E. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt : a long-lasting political emigration", Italian
Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for
culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 14-72.
9. Jones, Dalu. " Italian Architects in Egypt at the Time of the Khedive." Environmental Design: Journal
of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.86-93.
10. Moussa, Magdy M. "Mario Rossi and the Egyptian School of Architecture in Alexandria."
Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.102-105.
11. Pallini, C. & Scaramuzzi, A. "Italian project for new city of Sidi Gaber, Alexandria", Italian Architects
and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo,
2008 Pp. 154-160.
12. Pallini, C. & Scaccabarozzi, A. "New protagonists: projects for Egypt by Italian architects from 1952
to the present day", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first
century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 198-216.
13. Petruccioli Attilio, ed. Sponde Amate ”Environmental Design: Presence of Italy in the Architecture of
the Islamic Meditterranean”, Journal of Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990.

28
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in


Alexandrian built environment:
2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment
___________________________________________________________________________

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:


1-3-1- Italian architects and private residential buildings:
Having worked for the Pashas, Italian professionals in Egypt such as Francesco Mancini,
Lukovitch and Avoscani, among many others. became increasingly involved also with
private and community developments. This came at a time when a new urban elite of
notables expressed their readiness to sponsor their private projects and also those of their
ethnic communities. The earliest fortunes were mostly those of wealthy Greek families
(such as Tossiza, Zizinia and D'Anastasi), all of them were close friends and confidants of
the Pashas.
For the Tossiza Palace, the most prominent building on the square (later to become the
Stock Exchange, or La Bourse), Mancini continued using his earlier concepts, expressing
his best architecture in Neo-c1assical language. Following the same tradition were his
compatriots, Luigi Storari in the Greek Church, Evangelismos 1847-1856, and Ernesto
Bierotti's developments of the Greek community residential buildings in 1853.
In contrast to Mancini's conservative Neo-c1assicism, already applied to the Tossiza Palace
and marking the architectural language of the square, Lukovitch 's designs for the Count
Zizinia Palace on the same Place des Consuls were rather challenging. While reverting to
his earlier eclectic tendencies, he represented the architecture of the palace in a confused
combination of Moorish arches and classical columns and detailing, thereby reproducing a
Venetian version of Orientalism.

Fig (1-35)Photo by Gustave Le Gray 1862 , The palace of Count Zizinia on place des Consuls by Antonio
Lukovitch, featuring early Venetian influences. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.88)

during the second half of the 19th century, the modifications of the Place des Consuls, now
known as Place Mohamed Ali, meant that elitist residences moved towards Rue Rossette,
Moharrem Bey and further towards Ramleh. (Filipo Pini Bey) is said to have been the
ear1iest promoter of the Quartier Tewfikieh (later known as Quartier Rosette or the Quartier
Latin) in 1875. (Pini) subdivided its plots and developed some of its elite residences,
including his own two Palazzinas in 1890, and that of Lutzzatto Pasha. Another Italian,
(Cesare Scotti), the first visionary of Ramleh suburban potential, had bought land and built
the first European house in 1836. Other Europeans then followed suit.

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Fig (1-36)Photos of place d' Armes before and after the bombardment of 1882 by L. Forillio.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.85)

Fig (1-37)plan of the Place des Consuls in late 19th cantury also known as Place d' Armes, place Mohamed Ali,
Manshieh and Liberation square. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.84)

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Fig (1-38)Photo and plans of Villa Lutzzatto Pasha by Filipo Pini, presently Belqis School.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.98)

Fig (1-39)Photo and plans of Palazzina Pini Bey by Filipo Pini, presently the Spanish Consulate.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.99)

The British bombardment of the city and the events that followed (11 July 1882) completely
destroyed the European centre around the Place Mohamed Ali However, the compensation
and indemnities, paid by the Egyptian government, were crucial in effecting the quick
recovery and rebuilding of the city centre.
In the post-Bombardment era 1882-1918, the Italian role in rebuilding the city was
considerable. Yet, their total monopoly of the building profession and its trades remained
disputable among historians, especially when the increasing competition from other nationals,
such as Greek professionals and contractors, is considered.
On the Place des Consuls, the Italians were the major contributors to the rebuilding of the
square and the design of its most important buildings. The imposing seat of the Mixed
Tribunals in 1887 was designed in the Beaux Arts tradition by Alfonso Maniscalco Bey, and
Augusto Cesarias was its structural engineer.

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___________________________________________________________________________

Fig (1-40) Elevations, Photo and plans of “Mixed Tribunals”, by Antonio Maniscalco Bey, 1887.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.113)

The commercial entity of the square is further emphasized by the two large okalles modeled
on the concepts of Milanian Galleria. These were the Grand Okalle Menasce by Antonio
Lasciac in 1885 and the Okalle Monferato by Luigi Piattoli 1887.
Lasciac's work for the Societe des Immeubles d' Egypte, owners of the Okalle Menasce,
extended to a series of residential buildings along Rue Sherif Pasha in 1887, possibly paving
the way for similar developments along the parallel axis of Rue Tewfik and Attarin Mosque.
The buildings, designed by Lasciac in Neo-Baroque eclectic styles, were described as most
elegant and included all the desirable conveniences of modern Iiving.

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Fig (1-41)Photos, Elevations and plans of “okalle Monfrato”, by Luigi Piattoli, 1887.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.114,116)

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During the same period, Lasciac also designed a building for the Karam brothers on Rue de la
Gare de Ramleh, the Primi building on the Place des Consuls and a residential block owned
by the Jewish community on Rue Nabi Daniel. Yet, his most remarkable residential
achievement was in the high eclectic mannerist architecture of the Palauina Aghion, 1887, at
the corner of Rue Rossette and Rue Nabi Daniel. Lasciac's engineering skills, combined with
aesthetic Renaissance elegance, are expressed in the design of Ramleh Railway Station 1887,
and surprisingly is very historicist in the design of his Italian Renaissance Palauo in Ramleh,
1887 for the French cigarette manufacturer Laurens.

Fig (1-42) Photo of “Primi Building ”, by Antonio Fig (1-43) Photo of “Societe des immeubles
Lasciac, 1886-1887. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. d’Egypte”, at Rue Sherif by Antonio Lasciac. Source:
"Italy in Alexandria" p.117) (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.120)

The Italian influences retained their importance when the Municipality of Alexandria was
created in 1890. Its councils included elite members of the Italian community such as Stagni,
Lumbroso, Bacos, Viterbo, and Campos etc. Italians constituted at least fifty percent of its
technical staff and included prominent engineers such as Guiseppe Ramacciotti. described by
Bonola Bey in 1906 as "Ingenere di Prima classe”.

Fig (1-44) Photo, and plans of “Gallery Menasce ”, by Antonio Lasciac, 1883-1887.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.118,119)

In other public projects, the Italian involvement was also eminent. The Police Headquarters
in Bab Sharki and its dependencies, including the Villa of Baker Pasha, and other police
quarters together with the Fire Brigade Station at Kom el Dikka, were all designed around
the end of the nineteenth century by the Italian architect, Aldo Marelli. His eclectic designs

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were strongly influenced by the designs of medieval Italian castelli. However, he is better
remembered for his other designs: the Prussian Hospital of Diaconasses in Hadra (later
known as Anglo-Suisse), for the design of the Villa Karam in 1898 in Ramleh, and for the
renovation of the Villa Binder Nagel in 1905, built in Neo-C1assical splendour to host the
German Kaiser on his expected visit to Alexandria.

Fig (1-45) Photo, Elevation and plans of “Palazzina Aghion ”, by Antonio Lasciac, 1887.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.122)

Fig (1-46) Photos of “Villa mazloum Pasha”, by Antonio Lasciac, 1898-1899 before and after extention.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.124)

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Fig (1-47) Photo, Elevation and plans of “Villa laurens”, by Antonio Lasciac, 1886-1887.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.125)

The Industrial Building Company of Egypt, a leading land and building company in
Alexandrian and Egyptian activities (1907-1912), included land speculation (such as those
bought from A. campos) in areas such as Ramleh, Gharbaneyat and Gabbari. Presided over
by Amin Karam, the technical administration of the company was mostly Italian.
Industrial Buildings of Egypt were also actively involved in developing public and private
buildings in Alexandria, such as the Egyptian Government School in Moharrem Bey 1909,
and the Egyptian Postal Service building 1909-1910. The Company Construction
Departments in 1911 expanded to include Italian engineers such as G. SiaccL U. Dessberg
and A. Fusignani.

Fig (1-48) Photos of “Villa H. Lindeman. ” and “villa Baron J.De Menasce.”, by The Industrial Building
Company of Egypt, 1907-1912. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.162,163)

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Alexandria became the commitment and practices of Italian Venetian professionals, who
found their clientele within their own community, and among others, specially the Jews and
also increasingly among Egyptians. This was a perfect opportunity and setting for Giacomo
Alessandro Loria 1879-1937 to reproduce his Little Venice in the Alexandrian context.
Loria's S. Salem, M. Douak, and the EI Nokaly's apartment blocks in Ramleh Station 1926-
1928 carry strong Venetian references, such as the Gothic detailing borrowed from its
Palazzo Ducale. Reinvented and decorated with polychromatic brickwork and mosaics
imported from Italy, the Italianated facade won for its architect the Municipality Honorary
Prize for Best Facades.

Fig (1-49) Photos of building on Venice style by G.A. Loria (1929) awarded the Municipality Honorary Prize
for Best Facades. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.204,205).

Reinventing Italy in Alexandria may also be experienced in some private developments


belonging to his Italian clientele such as the Villa Viterbo in Rond Point, 1925. and those of
the Pinto family, on Avenue Fouad I and Cairo Station Square 1925, and Lodolini's
apartment building in Carlton. It extends to influence other non-Italian clients such as those
experienced in the Villa Zalza!. and the Mansour Kelada apartment building 1926.
projecting light and shade contrasts on building facades and their tilted roof epics, featuring
in the Moassat Building in 1929 on the Corniche and the Heikal apartment building on the
Chamber of Commerce Street 1933. In historical revivalism, the Italian villa appears in his
Villa Awad in Glymonopoulo, and also features in other Italian architects' work of the
period, such as Mario Avena in the Villa Giannotti, A. Granato in the Villa Aziza Fahmy
1927 on the Corniche of Glymonopoulo, G. A. Loria in the Villa Adda in Moharrem Bey,
and the Villa Lombardo built by Pietro Campo in Rue Ruffer in Carlton (later renamed
Syria Street in Rushdy). They also feature in the Art Deco treatments of the Villa A.
Farghaly Pasha in Gianaclis by G. Aghion in 1930s.

Fig (1-50) Photo of “ElNokaly apartment building” Fig (1-51) Photo of “Cecil Hotel” by G.A. Loria
by G.A. Loria (1929). Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. (1928). Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in
"Italy in Alexandria" p.208). Alexandria" p.202).

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Fig (1-52) Photo of “M. Saleh building” by R. Smith. Fig (1-53) Photo of “Heikal apartment building” by
Source:(Awad, Mohamed F."Italy in Alexandria" p.214). R. Smith. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in
Alexandria" p.202).

Fig (1-54) Photo of “Villa Adda” by G.A. Loria. Fig (1-55) Photo of “Villa Awad and Abani” by R.
Source:(Awad, Mohamed F."Italy in Alexandria" Smith. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in
p.225). Alexandria" p.225).

Fig (1-56)Photo of “Fumaroli building” on Avenue Fig (1-57) Photo of “fumaroli building” on Rue Sherif
Fouad I by E. Carnevale (1929). Source:(Awad, by E. Carnevale (1929). Source:(Awad, Mohamed
Mohamed F."Italy in Alexandria" p.232). F."Italy in Alexandria" p.232).

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The prominent role of the Italian professionals in Alexandria during the first quarter of the
20th century is further confirmed in Fraser's impression that" Alexandria of 1880-1930 was
largely built by Italian architects and engineers". Most certainly, the case of renovation of
Villa Silvio Pinto in Bulkeley, 1927, by Mario Avena is clearly demonstrative of such
dominance. While ten Italian firms with a total of sixteen contractors and suppliers were
assigned to the job, only a single Egyptian participation is recorded.
Such influence, expressed in the city's identity, with regard to the popularity of Italian
revivalist architecture, identified with the practices of Italian resident professionals
continuing to reflect an architecture, whereby local expression is still overpowered by the
further accidental of the city's built environment.
1-3-2- Italian contributions in modern Alexandria:
The new millennium saw a renewed interest, high hopes and enthusiasm expressed in the
words of Paolo Portoghesi, the chair of urban planning at the University of Rome 'La
Spienza', in the introductory note to The Mediterranean City: a Dialogue among Cultures,
an event organized by the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in 2005 and financed by the World Bank
and sponsored by the Italian Trust Fund for Culture and Sustainable Development:
This enthusiasm can only be activated by a profound reflection on the meaning and
consequences of the choices that are made. The old world can still provide intellectual
energy and qualitative commitment to this reflection: but it cannot be achieved without an
increasingly wide spread participation of the intellectual forces of these new countries. It is
the journey of the Homeric hero reinterpreted by Dante and Joyce that thanks to its open-
mindedness and infinity provides us with the only means available: hope.
Already such enthusiasm across the Mediterranean was expressed in the international
competition for the design of the Library of Alexandria (1988-89). Capitalizing on memory,
the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina was destined to become the new beacon of culture and
means of interaction between cultures and civilizations of the world. The Italian
participation in the competition was certainly significant: 44 final submissions, 3rd highest
number after France (76), and the UK (52), out of a total of 501 submissions, with the
Manfredi Nicoletti team receiving second prize while the Ruggiero Lenci group received an
honorable mention.
The joint venture Rodio/Trevi and Arab Contractors for building the foundations of the new
Bibliotheca Alexandrina brought an Italian participation to the creation of a new future for
the city. There was certainly enthusiasm in the opposite direction, from Alexandria to
Rome, in the competition. organized by the Ministry of Culture for the renovation of the
Egyptian Academy of Arts in Rome 2003, with first prize awarded to the Alexandrian-based
architectural firm Awad & Partners.
In renewed efforts to develop the area around the Library of Alexandria, the Italian studio
Bertocchini and Ruggiero, in collaboration with the Alexandria and Mediterranean Research
Center, set up a vision for the future of the Eastern Harbour. Taken into consideration was
the future of the Library, and the need to develop a hotel, underwater museum, aquarium, a
Euro-Mediterranean Stock Exchange and a museum at Fort Qaitbey, while setting the
standards for the preservation of the morphology of the Eastern Harbor and its architectural
heritage.
Along those lines, the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, in collaboration with the governorate of
Alexandria launched several initiatives and competitions among which Mario Botta's

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The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
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proposal was in competition with a selected group of international renowned architectural
firms put forward by the international Gulf development group IMAAR in 2006. The same
year, renewed interest in Egypt's banking and financial sector saw the Bank of Intesa San
paolo take over the Bank of Alexandria.
More recent initiatives expressing Italian commitment, enthusiasm and renewed interest in
developing the future city focus on capitalizing and reviving the city's rich, yet still to a
great extent undervalued, cosmopolitan heritage. These include initiatives by the
Politechnico of Milan, the “Academia Adrianea di Architettura e Archeologia” and the
“Dipartimento di storia dell'architettura e delia citto”, Universito di Firenze in the form of
conferences, workshops and exhibitions in collaboration with the Alexandria and
Mediterranean Research Center of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina during the course of 2008.
Today a limited Alexandrian Italian community numbers no more than 800 residents. Its
churches and Latin cemeteries “Terra Santa” are now managed by the Catholic Copts, while
the Orthodox Copts have also taken over the “Cimitero Civili”. Only the Casa di Riposo is
still run for its diminished Italian community. The same can be said with regard to cultural
institutions such as the Societa Dante Alighieri di Roma, which is now an Egyptian NGO
under the supervision of the Egyptian Ministry of Social Affairs. All this therefore marks
changing times and the realities of the present.
Modernity, insofar as the majority of the Alexandrian built environment is concerned, still
remains an incomplete mandate, influenced by socio-economic, political and cultural
conditions in society. It is only architects' dreams that can turn Portoghesi's enthusiasm and
hopes into a future reality for an Alexandria striving to revive its historic role as one of the
greatest cosmopolitan cities of the world.

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Notes:
1. Awad, Mohamed F. "From Historucism to Modernity (the inter-war period, Alexandria 1918-1939:
The Italian conection", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first
century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 142-153.
2. Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation
trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008.
3. Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." Environmental
Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp. 72-85.
4. Ciranna, Simonetta. "Italian Architecture in Egypt in the Thirties: The Work of Clemente Busiri
Vici." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.114-
119.
5. da Costa, Lucilia Verdelho. "Italian Influence on the Beginnings of Neo-Arabic Revivalism in
Portugal." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990,
Pp.172-177.
6. Dickie, James. "The Works of Mario Rossi at Alexandria." Environmental Design: Journal of the
Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, 94-101.
7. Godoli, Ezio& Giacomelli, Milva, "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to
the twenty-first century", Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 25th November 2008.
8. Godoli, E. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt : a long-lasting political emigration", Italian
Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for
culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 14-72.
9. Jones, Dalu. " Italian Architects in Egypt at the Time of the Khedive." Environmental Design: Journal
of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.86-93.
10. Moussa, Magdy M. "Mario Rossi and the Egyptian School of Architecture in Alexandria."
Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.102-105.
11. Pallini, C. & Scaramuzzi, A. "Italian project for new city of Sidi Gaber, Alexandria", Italian Architects
and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo,
2008 Pp. 154-160.
12. Pallini, C. & Scaccabarozzi, A. "New protagonists: projects for Egypt by Italian architects from 1952
to the present day", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first
century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 198-216.
13. Petruccioli Attilio, ed. Sponde Amate ”Environmental Design: Presence of Italy in the Architecture of
the Islamic Meditterranean”, Journal of Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990.

41
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study:
Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.
2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Part (2): Theoretical study
___________________________________________________________________________

2-Damage diagnosis on stone buildings:


This part of the research contains the theoretical study about damage diagnosis on stone
buildings and includes two chapters; the first one illustrates the in-site investigation and
laboratory studies and the comprehensive documentation important in the field of stone
monument preservation. And at the end of the study there is one appendix about weathering
forms on stone buildings with photos about each form. And the second chapter studies the
structural types of failure and interventions in stone building in the critical parts that may
suffer from structural problems.
Introduction:
The history of mankind has been accompanied by the use of natural stones for buildings,
monuments and art objects. In the course of time, all natural stones are affected by
weathering. The interaction between stone materials and natural or anthropogenic weathering
factors controls the type and extent of stone damages. Utilization of the building, insufficient
maintenance or inappropriate restoration activities may have contributed to alarming stone
damage. Due to the increasing awareness and respect for our built heritage, preservation of
stone building has become an important public and political concern. Today, all experts agree
that precise damage diagnosis is the prerequisite for understanding causes, processes and
characteristics of stone damage and for sustainable monument preservation. During the last
few decades, interdisciplinary research and new technologies have been introduced in
damage diagnosis and monument preservation activities.

42
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation


and laboratory studies.
2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Part (2): Theoretical study _____________________________ Chapter (1): In site investigation and laboratory studies
___________________________________________________________________________

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies:


Stones are one of the most important materials in the old building as structure element or as
claddings and ornaments. That’s because of its characteristics (strength, texture and
strength), but the alarming increase of weathering damage on the stones and the danger that
a major part of built cultural heritage could be partially or completely destroyed, requires
immediate measures for building preservation.
All stone buildings are affected by stone deterioration, especially by weathering, which
means physical disintegration or chemical decomposition is initiated and controlled by the
interaction between stone and other factors such as climate, biosphere or pollution. The
increasing damage on stone monuments and the danger of irretrievable loss of cultural
heritage has resulted in ever-increasing efforts world-wide for monument preservation.
Hence, profound knowledge of the material properties and the weathering behavior of the
natural stones is necessary, as well as the knowledge of weathering factors and processes
which control this weathering behavior, and high level of scientific knowledge is an
important basis for effective and economic preservation measures.
The well-accepted approach to sustainable monument preservation comprises the steps of
anamnesis, diagnosis and therapy Fig (2-1). Documentation has to be involved in each of
these three steps.
APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE PRESERVATION
OF STONE MONUMENTS

ANAMNESIS DIAGNOSIS THERAPY


Object identification Stone materials Conception, calculation, test-
Location of the object and their properties application of preservation
Description of the object State of deterioration Implementation of preservation
Art history Rating of damage measures
Construction history processes of deterioration Quality control
Restoration history Progression of stone
Monitoring and maintenance
Case history deterioration

DOCUMENTATION
Fig (2-1) Diagram of the approach to monument preservation.
Source: (B. Fitzner, "Documentation and evaluation of stone damage on monuments", p.678)

2-1-1- Documentation within the scope of anamnesis:


The anamnesis is to acquire, compile and evaluate all information, data and documents for
the identification and description of stone buildings and for the portrayal of their history. In
particular, it considers the following objectives:
Object identification: name, designation, owner, responsible authorities.
• Location of the object: geographical and topographical location, geological conditions,
building ground, exposure characteristics, surroundings in the course of time.
• Description of the object: type, age, overall appearance, dimension, architectural style.
• Art history: architectural composition, artistical elements, historical / cultural / artistical

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value of the object.
• Construction history: phases of construction / rebuilding, construction techniques, type
and provenance of building materials, craftwork, artwork.
• Restoration history: concepts and chronology of previous restoration measures,
techniques and materials applied for restoration.
• Case history: utilization and function of the object in the course of time, natural
impacts, history of environmental conditions such as climate and pollution.
Items of documentation with respect to anamnesis are presented in table (2-1).
Table (2-1) Items of documentation within the scope of anamnesis.
Items of documentation
Archive work- Drawings, plans, maps, photographs or other relevant illustrations
Anamnesis

compilation and Publications, reports, journals, newspapers, expertise, files,


evaluation of building logs, records, construction manuals, manufacturing
available documents manuals, suppliers documents, accounts, static calculations etc.
Collection and evaluation of oral information from people professionally involved with
the object and from local people
Collection and evaluation of environmental data from authorities or institutions
Documentation of own observations, elaboration of new documents where necessary

2-1-2- Documentation within the scope of diagnosis:


The diagnosis uses the information provided by the anamnesis and it represents the basis for
the decision and implementation of appropriate preservation measures. The overall aim of
the diagnosis is the characterization, quantification, interpretation and rating of stone
damage on the building, The methodological approach of diagnosis includes laboratory
analysis and in-site investigation, Diagnosis has to consider different scales of stone
deterioration as described in table (2-2).
Table (2-2) Scales of stone deterioration.
Involved
Scales Parameters Investigation
sciences
Non-visible Nanoscale Changes of stone
Geosciences,
deterioration < mm properties Laboratory
material sciences,
Microscale Mass loss, analysis
chemistry, physics,
mm to cm micromorphology
microbiology,
Mesoscale Deterioration
Visible ecology
cm to m phenomena
deterioration In-site
Macroscale Structural
Structural stability, investigation
whole structures engineering,
aesthetic appearance
or monuments architecture
Particular objectives of diagnosis are:
• stone materials and their properties: type and distribution of stone materials, stone
working, surface structure, stone mounting, macroscopical characteristics, mineral
composition, chemical composition, textural properties, porosity properties, hygric
properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, correlations between stone
properties, stone quality.
• state of stone deterioration: stone alteration, physical disintegration, chemical
decomposition, deterioration profiles, type and intensity of deterioration phenomena.

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• factors and processes influencing stone deterioration: natural and anthropogenic
factors, coaction of factors, interaction of processes, mechanisms of deterioration,
threshold levels.
• progression of stone deterioration: stone properties in the course of deterioration,
sequences of deterioration phenomena, rates of deterioration, models of stone
deterioration, prognosis.
• rating of damage: degree of damage, distribution of damage, risk prognosis, need and
urgency of intervention.
Diagnosis can be divided into three categories:
In-site investigation Laboratory analysis Weathering simulation

Building Analysis of Outdoor


mapping physical, chemical exposure
Measurements and mechanical chamber
sampling material properties tests

Fig (2-2) Diagram of the three categories of diagnosis.

The application of these three complementary diagnostical steps and the joint evaluation of
results contribute essentially to reliable damage diagnosis for stone monuments, items of
documentation with respect to diagnosis are presented in table (2-3).
Table (2-3)Items of documentation within the scope of diagnosis.
Items of documentation
Description of all methods applied during the course of diagnosis
including their aims, appropriation / suitability, modes of evaluation,
Description success.
of the Description and graphic documentation of the investigation areas
diagnostical location, dimension, orientation, exposure characteristics, reasons for
concept selection.
Description and graphic documentation of sampling - materials, type
and dimension of samples, places of sampling, reasons for selection.
Stone materials and their properties - classification schemes, data sets,
Diagnosis

files, diagrams, photographs, lithological maps with quantitative


evaluation
State of stone deterioration - characterization of deterioration according
to change of stone properties, classification of deterioration phenomena
considering type and intensity, data sets, files, diagrams, photographs,
maps of deterioration phenomena with quantitative evaluation
Evaluation of
Factors and processes of stone deterioration - qualitative or quantitative
results
/ direct or inferable information, data sets, files, diagrams
Progression of stone deterioration - modes of assessment /
quantification, rating of accuracy / validity / transferability, data sets,
files, diagrams
Rating of damage - considerations / schemes for the rating of damage
and for the appraisal of need and urgency of preservation measures,
maps of damage with quantitative evaluation, data sets, files, diagrams
The building mapping method has been established as a non-destructive procedure for the
precise registration, evaluation and documentation of deterioration phenomena. It can be

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applied to all stone types and to all kinds of stone objects, modern computer programs are
used for the processing of information registered in the course of mapping. They use digital
plans of stone monuments or structures. Digital plans and information files with planimetric
data allow manifold options for the query, illustration, quantitative evaluation and
transformation of information.
In many buildings different stone types were used, due to architectural, constructional or
artistical considerations, or due to availability and workability of stone material, rebuilding
or stone replacement may have also resulted in additional stone types.
The lithological mapping comprises the survey, identification, petrographical
characterization and registration of all stone types, this is very important for the evaluation
of damage in dependence upon stone types. Well-established petrographical schemes should
be used for the description of stone types. The distribution of stone types is illustrated in
maps and is evaluated quantitatively according to number or area of dimension stones.
The objective and reproducible registration and documentation of deterioration phenomena
(weathering forms or weathering features) require precise, It is recommended to also
consider the intensity of deterioration phenomena. However, a standard intensity
classification of deterioration phenomena is not suitable. The classification of intensities has
to be adjusted to each monument or stone structure with respect to the apparent range of
intensities.

Fig (2-3) drawing of Lithological mapping “monastery of Benedettini, Catania”.

2-1-3- Mapping of weathering forms:


Weathering forms represent visible results of weathering processes which are controlled by
interacting weathering factors. This term is used for visible stone deterioration at mesoscale
(cm to m). Damage categories are based on the intensity of the weathering forms, Six
damage categories have been identified. And damage indices are calculated for conclusive

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quantification and rating of damages. the weathering forms are Classified into four levels1:
LEVEL I: includes four groups of weathering forms:
Group 1– loss of stone material. Group 2– discoloration / deposits.
Group 3– detachment. Group 4– fissures / deformation.
LEVEL II: Each group is subdivided into main weathering forms
LEVEL III: Several main weathering forms are further specified by means of individual
weathering forms
LEVEL IV: The individual weathering forms are further differentiated according to
intensities (letters are used for the weathering forms and numbers for intensities).

Fig (2-4) Classification of weathering forms.

Damage categories are based on the intensity of the weathering forms, Six damage
categories have been identified as shown in the next figures.

Fig (2-5) diagram of definitions of damage Fig (2-6)Map of damage categories with rating of urgency of
categories. preservation measures, ”St. Lambertus Church, Monschau-
Kalterherberg, Germany” SW tower and part of west facade.

Damage categories and especially damage indices represent very practical tools for reliable

1
Photos of Weathering forms on stone buildings are included in Appendix (A) at the end of the Report.

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judgement/certification of preservation measures, Damage categories locate those parts of a
building which intervention has to focus on, Damage indices point out need and urgency of
intervention.
2-1-4- Therapeutical steps:
Based on anamnesis and diagnosis, effective and economic therapeutical steps can be
proposed and calculated, Important therapeutical and preventive preservation measures are
the following:
A) Preconsolidation. B) cleaning. C) sealing – plastering.
D) consolidation. E) protection.
2-1-4-1- Preconsolidation:
Complex and difficult operation required when the degradation process is strong, and
obstacles the normal cleaning operations. And It consist in sticking small portions, with
minimum amount of consolidator and utilizing reversible materials like Japanese paper,
gauze, acrylic resins and other materials that can be removed after the cleaning.

Fig (2-7) photos of Preconsolidation presses: sticking Fig (2-8) photo of vegetable disinfestations.
of Japanese paper and adding consolidator.
Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Then must be completely vegetable disinfestations by injection with some chemicals for the
superior plants, and by aerosol or brush for the mask or alga. Before starting the
disinfestations, the surface must be cleaned with a wooden or plastic palette, then many
cycles of product must be done till all the vegetables organism are dead, then removed with
brush and water.
2-1-4-2- cleaning:
The aim of the cleaning is to remove any thing that may damage the stone such as Soluble
salts, Crust, vegetation and Etc. Cleaning must be controllable by the operator, selective and
gradual, non corrosive, and doesn’t leave harmful materials or create breaks. And the main
cleaning methods are:
• Nebulized and atomized water. • Water compress with absorbing materials.
• Mechanic method. • Ultrasonic. • Laser.
atomized water: It cleans and remove the encrustations with effect of a washing of water
mixed with air that produce an aerosol effect. It needs to have low pressure and the nozzle
must not be direct to the surface but must have an angle between 30° to 45°.
Nebulized water: Like atomized water, but without mixing air and water. It is used at low
pressure ( max 2 par.). The nozzle are directed to the surface, and it’s effect is direct and

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stronger than atomized water
To clean deep crust it needs many cycles of washing, each cycle has a duration of about 10
minutes followed by one hour of drying. After each cycle a sample of the waste water must
be taken and continue until the quantity of salt is at demonized water level.

Fig (2-9) photos of cleaning with nebulized and atomized water.


Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Absorbing materials: it absorbs all the soluble salts and alternation products and removes
different types of spots, and it may be made by (Paper Pulp) or (Absorbing Clay).

Fig (2-10) photos of cleaning with absorbing materials.


Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Mechanic cleaning: it is used to remove very consistent crusts that can’t be soluble in
water or chemically, using micro instruments as Scalpel , Micro drills, Micro sand blast or
Ultrasonic instruments.

Fig (2-11) photos of cleaning with mechanic method and micro sand blasting.
Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Laser cleaning: it is anew method of cleaning, and is very good to remove black spots, and
it operates only on the external surface by a laser light without any contact but it very slaw
and expensive.

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Fig (2-12) photos of cleaning with laser.


Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

2-1-4-3- sealing – plastering:


This process consists of the removal of old sealing and wrong intervention with mechanical
methods, then plastering of cracks or joints with mortar made by the same material of the
original stones (smashing the stones at the right grins and may be added some acrylic to
make the mortar stronger as possible.

Fig (2-13) photos of sealing process with stone mortar.


Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Sometimes it necessary to make integrations of small elements that are broken or lost with
material such as acrylic resin, quick lime or smashed stones. For the biggest elements it is
fixed with titanium, Teflon or stainless steel bars.

Fig (2-14) photos of integrations of small elements that are broken or lost.
Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

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2-1-4-4- consolidation:
This process aims to give back the continuity to the fragile materials and separated parts by
applying an appropriate product with a strong adhesive power, that process improve the
properties of the material and make it more resistance to water and humidity.

Fig (2-15) photos of consolidation of fragile materials and separated parts.


Source: (lecture by Prof. D. Villari, Kore university of Enna, Italy).

2-1-4-5- protection:
It is the final operation that aims to slow down the deterioration process and maintain the
restoration, It is applicable with brush or spray.

Notes:
1. B. Fitzner and K. Heinrichs, ”Damage diagnosis on stone monuments – weathering forms, damage
categories and damage indices”, Working group “Natural stones and weathering“,Geological Institute,
Aachen University of Technology, Germany.
2. B. Fitzner, K. Heinrichs, D. La Bouchardiere, ” Damage index for stone monuments”, 5th International
Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, Sevilla, Spain, 5-8 April 2000.
3. Barry A.Richardson, "Defects and Deterioration in Buildings", 2nd edition, SPON PRESS,
London.2001.
4. B. Fitzner, "Documentation and evaluation of stone damage on monuments", 10th international
congress on deterioration and conservation of stone, Stockholm.2004.
5. B. Fitzner, Working group "NATURAL STONES AND WEATHERING", Geological Institute, RWTH
Aachen University , http://www.stone.rwth-aachen.de at 1-2009.
6. Villari, D. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna, Italy, 2008.
7. http://www.irb.hr/korisnici/obelic/euro-med/CA.htm at 5-2009.

51
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and


interventions in stone building.
3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Part (2): Theoretical study ____________________ Chapter (2): Structural failure and interventions in stone building
___________________________________________________________________________

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building:


2-2-1- Mechanism of break down in stone building:
The main types of failure in stone buildings are as followed:
• Mode (I): Failure due to the collapse of the façade.
• Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending.
• Mode (III): Failure due to the wall cut.
• Collapse on the isolated walls.
2-2-1-1- Mode (I): Failure due to the collapse of the façade:
This type of failure happen when separation of the façade due to the motion that involves
one or more of structure panels of the building at the upper floors of the construction.

Fig (2-16) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the collapse of the façade.

Fig (2-17)photos of building at “Messina, Sicily” Fig (2-18) photo the cracks in the connection between the
after the earthquake (28 December 1908). façade and the building.

2-2-1-2- Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending:


This type of failure happen due to frontal cracks in the façade that causes separation of one
part or more of the walls then collapse of the central zone of the wall at the form of (V
shape) at the upper part of the façade.

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Fig (2-19) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall bending.
Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Fig (2-20) photos of buildings at “Messina, Sicily” after the earthquake (28 December 1908).
Source: http://www.grifasi-sicilia.com/messina_terremoto_1908_porta_messina_gbr.html

2-2-1-3- Mode (III): Failure due to the wall cut:


This type of failure happen due to separation of the wall and rotate it out side around the
lower edge leaving the panels and the building and causes collapse in the façade.

Fig (2-21) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall cut.
Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

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Fig (2-22) photos of buildings at “Messina, Sicily” after the earthquake (28 December 1908).
Source: http://www.grifasi-sicilia.com/messina_terremoto_1908_via_porta_imperiale.html

2-2-1-4- Collapse on the isolated walls:


This breakout in walls mainly occurs in presence of an excessive load and/or additional
tension that is created when the foundations is subjected to motion or settlement, It appears
as 45° cracks on one or both sides of the walls. The stability of the structure in this case is
depending on the relation between the length and the dimension of the cross section. This
phenomenon is often tied to the non homogeneity of the building system (stone and mortar).

Fig (2-23) photos of Collapse on the isolated walls.


Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Fig (2-24) photos of cracks on the isolated walls due to over loading or foundation movement.
Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

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2-2-2- Structural improvement integrations in stone building:


Interventions improvements are required in stone building due to the damage level, it’s
place and the structural element that require intervention and some of the basic intervention
are listed below:
2-2-2-1- Reinforcement of the structure with steel:
Using steel bars to reinforcement the stone structure is a traditional process as seen in some
of the ancient building. But sometimes it causes a serious damage to the stone due to the
corrosion of the iron bars that leads to increasing of its volume causing cracks in the stones.

Fig. (2-25) photos and sketch of using steel bar in ancient buildings.
Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Fig. (2-26) photos of the corrosion of old steel bars that damage the nearby stones.
Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

So it is recommended to use steel bars inserted inside a (PVC tubes) that prevent direct
contact between steel and stone also make it possible to maintain the steel when necessary.
The steel bars inserted at the corners of the building in the top of the outer walls and
connected with steel plates and bolts as seen in Fig. (2-?).

Fig.(2-27) Sketches of using steel bar inserted at the corners of the building inside (PVC tubes) and connected
with steel plates and bolts . Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

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Fig. (2-28) photos of the steel bars inserted at the top corners of outer walls and the connection with steel
plates and bolts. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

In cases of deferent thickness in the walls the bars are connected throw intermediate plate
and the cables are inserted in two levels

Fig. (2-29) photos of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls.
Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

Fig.(2-30) Sketches of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls.
Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

2-2-2-2- Interventions on the wooden beams:


floors on the old stone building mostly supported on wooden beams, and those beams suffer
from damage due to over weight that cause buckling at the middle of the beam; or the
damage at connection with walls due to humidity and wood deterioration.

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Fig. (2-31) photos of damages on old wood beams that support the roofs.
Source: (photos by the researcher at “Okalle Monfrato”, Alexandria, Egypt).

When replacing the old wooden beams it is better to introduce the beams into walls throw
steel cases with steel plate and bolts at top as shown in Fig.(2-32) that cases helps to make
strong connection, transforming the loads from beams to the walls and make it easy to
maintain or change the beams when needed.

Fig.(2-32) Sketches of using steel cases to support the connection between the wooden beams and the stone
structure. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Fig. (2-33) photos of the steel cases that contain the wooden beams and connect it with the walls.
Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

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Fig. (2-34) photos of upper cover of the steel cases that prevent it from sliding.
Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

2-2-2-3- Interventions on the wooden roofs:


Final covering in most of the old building are made of wooden trusses and those trusses
transform loads to stone arches and then to the walls, in some cases the arches are damage
or can’t support the load from the truss as in Fig.(2-35).

Fig.(2-35) Sketches of wooden truss supported on stone arches and the damage due to movement of the
truss. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

In that case it better to support the wooden beam of the truss directly on the walls and
connect the parts of the beam together with steel bar to eliminate the horizontal forces.

Fig.(2-36) Sketches of wooden beam of the truss directly supported on the walls and connect the parts of the
beam together with steel bar. Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

After finishing the wooden truss it is covered with layer of wood and fixed on it a layer of
corrugated cartoon sheets covered with water resistance material to isolate the structure
from rains, and on this layer fixed the final finished surface.

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Fig.(2-37) photos of the wooden beams supported only on the walls and separated from the stone arches.

Fig.(2-38) photo of the intermediate connection of Fig.(2-39) photo of covering the roof with thin layer
the beams throw steel part. of wood before the final finishing.

Fig.(2-40) photos of the final finishing layer supported on sheets of cartoon coated with water resistance
material. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

2-2-2-4- Recovery of arches and vaults:


Stone arches and vaults manly consists of cut stones but together to form the arch and
supported on each other with it’s own weight only, so if any stone peace of the arch get
damaged it may cause failure to the whole arch.

Fig.(2-41) photo of cracks in the arch and separation Fig.(2-42) photo of supporting the arches during the
between it’s stones. restoration process.
Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

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In this case, the arch must be supported with external supports –strong enough to carry out
the loads- then remove the damage stone and connect the remaining part s of the arch with
steel pars and then rearrange the arch again, that process transform the loads away from the
damaged stone and keep the arch works as structure element.

Fig.(2-43) Sketches of supporting the arch, reinforce it and replacement of damaged parts.
Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

In some cases the loads transformed from the arch or vault to the walls cause torsion on the
walls and that cause failure to the arch system, so the walls must be connected together with
steel bars to resist the loads.

Fig.(2-44) photos of connecting the carrying walls of the arch or vaults with steel bars.
Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle, Sicily, Italy by Prof. T. Panzeca).

In other the arch are over loaded due to the weight of the filling material above it, and in
this case it is difficult to restore the arch because of the existence of the loads, so the loads
must be temporary transformed with steel supports until the restoration of the arch and then
reload the again and these supports must be located as in Fig.(2-?).

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Fig.(2-45) Sketches of supporting the loads above the arch during restoration.
Source: (lecture by Prof. T. Panzeca, at Kore university of Enna, Italy).

Notes:
1. Barry A.Richardson, "Defects and Deterioration in Buildings", 2nd edition, SPON PRESS,
London.2001.
2. Panzeca, T. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna, Italy, 2008.

61
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study
on Alexandrian heritage.
3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Part (3): Applied study
___________________________________________________________________________

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.


This part includes the applied study on Alexandrian heritage and consists of two chapters; the
first one studies the current situation, the problems and the Future of Alexandrian built
environment and some examples of rehabilitation of building in Alexandria city center, and
the second chapter is a case study of El Manshieh or “Mohamed Ali Square” which is one of
the main commercial districts at Alexandria city center and was redesigned by Italian
architect, also the square contains now five Italian buildings three of them are private
residence. The study of the Italian buildings in the square illustrate the current situation of the
buildings and the problems that they suffer from.

62
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian


built environment.
3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Part (3): Applied study _________________________________ Chapter (1): Future of Alexandrian built environment
___________________________________________________________________________

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment:


As a consequence of the 1952 revolution, old street names were replaced by new
revolutionary names: Gamal Abdel Nasser replacing Fouad I, and Salah Salem replacing
Sherif Pasha. The sequestration and confiscation of foreign and elitist property following the
socialist changes of society in the 1960s and the mass exodus of Europeans from Egypt
resulted in property being transformed into schools, governmental offices and public utilities.
These buildings and the surrounding environment suffered the consequences of neglect,
misuse, ill-conceived additions and remodeling.
3-1-1- Mutations in Alexandria built environment:
In contrast to elitism in the period of Mohamed Ali family, the post 1960s era was
dominated by decolonization and state socialism. The socialist laws of nationalization and
sequestration deprived foreigners of their livelihood and brought about their eventual
exodus, therefore ending 150 years of Alexandrian cosmopolitanism.
As little trace of Alexandria's ancient splendor has survived, it is today difficult to grasp the
importance and beauty of this city in ancient times. The unique nineteenth and early twentieth
architecture remains, but most vestiges of the ancient city have gone.

Fig (3-1) Photos of “High and Low conventional style” in the cotemporary Alexandria’s built environment.
Source: (www.flicr.com)

Most sequestrated private Egyptian and foreign elitist property in the form of building stock
was transformed into government offices and public institutions (such as schools and
hospitals), and consequently suffered the ill fate of degradation due to the lack of
maintenance, ill conceived additions and remodeling. No exception was made for Italian
commercial and industrial ventures and private property, which were nationalized and
sequestrated in the process of Egyptianization (make every thing Egyptian). The only
exception was the home for the elderly, the Casa di Riposo. Though it was turned into an
Egyptian welfare foundation, it continued to function as an old people's home. The same

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can be said for the Don Bosco and Scuola Maria Ausiliatirica, run by the Salessiane, which
were allowed to function, though with an Egyptian curriculum. The Italian Hospital was
donated by the Italian community to the Egyptian military in 1974, in exchange for a
generous donation by the army (300.000 LE), which helped renovate and maintain the Casa
di Riposo, allowing it to function to the present.
A lot of other private property was transferred to private Egyptians, who were unable to
maintain them in the face of increasing economic pressures, and so sacrificed them for high
rise apartment buildings. especially in suburban Ramleh. This process of metamorphosis
resulted in the creation of a dense "common" urban order and a modern conventional style
where the high rise apartment building, devoid of any cultural expressions and the vitality
associated with modernism, is devoid sometimes of external finishing, with the "architecture
of bricks and concrete" dominating its urban morphology.

Fig (3-2) Photos of badly conceived addition: Faculty of agriculture, Alexandria university.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria"p.363)

Fig (3-3) Photo of “Art studio of Gilda Ambron” in


Ruins. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in
Alexandria"p.360)

Fig (3-4) Photo of “Villa Baron de Menasce” Fig (3-5) Photo of “Villa Aldo Ambron” in Ruins.
demolished. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in
Alexandria"p.360) Alexandria"p.361)

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The government imposition of "fair rent" meant the freezing and devaluation of returns on
property value, thereby discouraging owners from maintaining their buildings and
developers from investing in new ones. This deprived old buildings of maintenance, while
increased population and migration pressures aggravated the demand for housing, and
turned into a permanent crisis. Even within the government's intensive industrialization
policies in the successive five year plans there was hardly any significant western interest or
contribution. Moreover, within a state controlled system, and a deficit economy dependant
on external borrowing and remittances from Egyptians working abroad, only small capital
and enterprise was allowed to circulate and function. Insofar as the Italian presence in
building professions and its enterprises were concerned, only a handful of small businesses
and petty contracting survived and continued to function, such as the small ventures of
Sampieri in paint works and Nussoleze in glass works.

Fig (3-6) Plan and Photo of “Graeco-Roman museum” in Alexandria.


Source: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graeco-Roman_Museum )

The one and unique Egyptian/Italian architectural venture of this period was the proposal to
build a Graeco-Roman museum (1964-72) in the Shallalat Municipal parks, proposed by F.
Albini in collaboration with Egyptian architects Salah Zeitoun and Mustafa Shawki. The
unrealized proposal was also quite offensive to the landscape of the gardens.
The most serious problem facing conservation remains the degradation of the building stock
due to the lack of maintenance and repair as a result of the freezing and devaluation of rents
(rents have been blocked in Egypt since the 1940s). Demographic pressure has also taken its
toll on the city as informal habitats spread into the center, and rooftops have been occupied
by haphazard constructions. High density and crowding are also created by the subdivision of
floor space and apartments. Many such spaces have been transformed for petty commercial
activities and industries, contributing to the pollution and general environmental degradation
of the city center. Moreover, the intensity of the traffic and the absence of adequate parking
facilities remain among the major problems that need to be addressed in a comprehensive
preservation policy for Alexandria's city center.

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Fig (3-7) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing bad conditions due to lack of maintenance.
Source: (www.flicr.com)

Fig (3-8) Photo of details in buildings at city center in Alexandria showing the bad conditions due to lack of
maintenance. Source: (photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-9) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing structural problems.
Source: (www.archnet.org)

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Fig (3-10) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing deformation due to adding more floors,
shop windows and commercial signs . Source: (photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-11) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing bad integrations with paints.
Source: (photos by the researcher)

3-1-2- Selected examples of recent architectural restoration and renovation


projects in Alexandria:
Alexandria's city center can be considered well preserved as most of the original buildings of
the late nineteenth and early twentieth century have survived demolition. However, these
buildings do suffer from neglect, lack of maintenance, ill-conceived additions, remodeling
and deformation affecting their original styles. Despite the general atmosphere of neglect,
some buildings have been successfully restored, whereas others are still waiting for their turn.
Recent restorations have proved to be more harmful than beneficial when the use of
inappropriate materials, wrong colors, or the bad restoration of detailed moldings have
disfigured the original style of the building. This is the case of the Luzzatto residence - today
the Bilquis school - and of the Pini residence which is now the Health and Sanitation Office.
The most visible threat to the architectural environment is related to advertisement signage
and decorations depicting commercial activities, usually found on the ground floor of
buildings.
3-1-2-1- Villa Bassili - Alexandria National Museum (re-use):
The property was designed in 1929-31 by V. Erlanger. The American Consulate bought the
property from the successors of A. Bassili in 1960 and sold it to the Ministry of Culture in
1997 at a price of 12 million LE. The project of transforming the building into the Alexandria
National Museum started in 2001, and it was inaugurated in September 2003. The Italian
architect Maurizzio de Paulo was in charge of the museum's interior. The renovation project
in the context of its new use as a museum was certainly a good example of preservation, since

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its showcases and displaced objects did not interfere with the original setting and decor of the
original building, which has remained well preserved.

Fig (3-12) Photos of “Villa Bassili” before and after renovation.


Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.48)

3-1-2-2- Rehabilitation and Restoration of the Mohamed A1i Theater. included


within the Cordahi Complex (upgrading and restoration):
The Mohamed Ali Theater, owned by G. Cordahi, was designed by the architect G. Parcq in
1921 on the location of the old Zizinia Theater. The surrounding two apartment buildings
were. designed by the same architect (1928). In 2003 the whole complex was restored and
additional structures were attached to the backstage area of the theater to provide better
performance facilities. The project highlights the importance of considering the urban context
of the restored edifice, since the surrounding buildings, the piazza and the entrance gallery
were all restored within the process of renovating the theater. However, incomplete pre-
design inception, unrealistic initial budgeting and constant replacement of consulting services
and related drawing and specifications resulted in the disruption of site work and the inflation
of costs from 3.5 to 25 million LE.

Fig (3-13) Photos of “Cordahi Complex” before and after renovation.


Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.49)

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Fig (3-14) Photos of piazza and main façade of “Mohamed Ali theatre” before and after renovation.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.49)

Fig (3-15) Photos of “Mohamed Ali club” before and after renovation.
Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.50)

3-1-2-3- Mohamed A1i Club (renovation and re-use):


Originally known as Club Mohamed Ali, this building was erected in about the 1890s for the
Alexandria Exchange Company and was known as the Bourse Toussoun. Today it is a
government property, called the Horreya Cultural Center. Varied cultural events are held
there including lectures, exhibitions, music concerts and seminars, etc. The original club was
renovated in 2001 under the direction of Dr. Adel Mokhtar. The renovation process seems to
have been more concerned with introducing novelty than preservation. Additional features to
the original exterior architecture have disfigured the original character of the building, yet the
more serious problems associated with the post construction phase seem to have been related
to technical specifications and control of the execution of services, such as air-conditioning,
acoustics and lighting.
3-1-2-4- The branches of the National Bank of Egypt (renovation and restoration):
The National Bank of Egypt took the initiative of renovating two of its branches on Salah
Salem Street, the former Sherif Pasha Street. The first, originally the Banco di Roma, was
designed in 1905 by the architect H. Gorra in the new-renaissance style. The internal
reorganization of the bank seems to have not disrupted the designs, since most of the original
interiors were preserved, whilst most of the furniture was replaced and disposed of. The
exterior restoration carefully retained the original features of the building which still remains
one of the most distinguished buildings of Alexandria's city center. The restoration work
started in 1997 under the consultancy of Aboul Fadl, EI Hadari and EI Kholy, with an
estimated budget of 8 million L.E., and the restored premises were inaugurated in 2001 at a
final cost of 11 million LE.

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Fig (3-16) Photos of “Banco di Roma” before and after renovation.


Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.51)

Fig (3-17) Photos of “bank of Athens” before and after renovation.


Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.50)

The second branch of the National Bank of Egypt, formerly the Bank of Athens, was
designed by N. Paraskevas and P. Gripari in around 1918. It was restored and renovated
under the directions of Moharem and Backhoum Consultants, originally a civil engineering
firm. Unfortunately the renovation process, though preserving the main features of the
facade, entailed a complete destruction of the original interior spaces and detailing within the
newly introduced modern renovations. While these two examples belong to the same client
and were renovated nearly simultaneously, it is obvious that the two approaches to
conservation were quite diverse.
3-1-2-5- Palazzina Aghion (renovation and re-use):
Originally belonging to the Aghion family, the Palazzina Aghion was built in 1887, when the
Aghions had to move to the Rosetta Gate district after the British bombardment of Alexandria
in 1882. It was designed by the Italian architect Antoine Lasciac, following an eclectic New-
Renaissance and mannerist style. The ownership of the building changed later to the Takla
family. Nowadays the property is occupied by the AI-Ahram newspaper, which added a top
floor to the structure. More recently, a study for the complete renovation of the premises was
prepared by Awad & Partners. However, the actual execution of work not only entailed no

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professional supervision, but the client also exercised management of the renovation process,
making changes to specifications and drawings with the aim of reducing costs. In this
particular case most of the proposed works were dismissed and the building only received
some cleaning and a fresh coat of paint applied to its facades and interiors.

Fig (3-18) Photos of “palazzina Aghion” before and after renovation.


Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, "p.51)

3-1-2-6- Cinema Amir - Twentieth Century Fox (transformation):


Cinema Amir is a beautiful example of the grand cinema traditions of Alexandria's Art Deco
period. It was designed by the American architects John & Drew Aberson for Mr. G.
Geordanou, the' promoter and owner of several similar establishments in Alexandria.
Managed by Twentieth Century Fox, the cinema was subdivided into several smaller cinemas
in 2002 by the Italian architect Violante Claudio. While the decorative original roof was
protected and covered by a new false ceiling, the cinema's interiors and elegant cafeteria in
the basement were sacrificed to fit the new space requirements.

3-1-3- Principle guidelines for architectural conservation:


• It is recommended that the process of listing of buildings and groups of buildings of
architectural significance or merit should be encouraged and consolidated with scientific
surveys and documentation.
• Public awareness and concern for conservation should be promoted with the help and
contribution of public organizations, the press and media, and private interest groups.
• The maintenance, repair and safeguarding of the built environment will demand an urgent
review of building and zoning laws and regulations concerning additions, extensions,
materials, styles, building heights and colors, the use of signals, air conditioners and so on.
Zoning laws and regulations should consider new development land uses and building lines.
• The upgrading of building laws must involve provision for periodical maintenance and
repair involving owners and tenants associations. The expropriation of buildings for public
welfare or utility and compensation to property owners and their encouragement in
conservation should be considered in the light of property and ownership rights. Procedures
such as exemption from taxation, building permits and exchange of property procedures
could also be considered.

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• New land uses or re-use should be considered within the actual architectural and urban
suitability. Infill should therefore conform to present zoning and the current uses of the
different sections and identified activities of the building, street and area.
• Renovation and restoration of buildings will have to take into consideration structural
failures, inappropriate use of building materials and colors, bad workmanship, damage due
to failure in services, such as leaking pipes, menace due to vandalism, a general lack of
awareness, disregard and disinterest in the qualitative and aesthetic values of the built
environment such as the commercial use of signals, advertisements and decorations
inappropriate to the original styles of the buildings.
• It is therefore recommended not only to ensure the use of professional expertise and the
appropriate technologies for the process of restoration and renovation, but equally
important is the mobilization and the effective management resources again involving the
general public, users and interest groups together with public and governmental agencies.
• It is therefore recommended to view the European city conservation and regeneration
within their context. Specific legislation must therefore take into consideration the special
character of the area. This should include regulations to control typology, style, building
heights and so on.

Notes:
1. Awad, Mohamed & El Tabbakh, May, “The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city
center”, Patrimoines partage`s En Me`diterrane`e; Ele`ments cle`s de la re`habilitation, EUROMED
Heritage II, Alexandria, 2005.
2. Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation
trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008.
3. Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." Environmental
Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp. 72-85.
4. Godoli, E. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt : a long-lasting political emigration", Italian
Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for
culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 14-72.
5. Petruccioli Attilio, ed. Sponde Amate ”Environmental Design: Presence of Italy in the Architecture of
the Islamic Meditterranean”, Journal of Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990.

72
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh


“Mohamed Ali Square”.
Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Part (3): Applied study __________________________ Chapter (2): Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”
____________________________________________________________________________________________________

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”:


By the turn of the twentieth century, Alexandria had established a reputation as Egypt's
commercial and financial capital and the square of El-Tahrir or El Manshieh is considered
the main commercial district of the Alexandrian city center.
3-2-1- History of the square “place d’armes”:
Francesco Mancini’s early involvement in 1820 with ibrahim basha’s own private
developments, including the Okalle Neuve, the first and most important commercial
building on the grand place -known as place d’armes- possibly influenced his cession in
transforming the character and function of the square from a military exercise and parade
ground to its new commercial entity “plan of the square figures (1-36)& (1-37)”.

Fig (3-19) Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th century also known as Place d' Armes, place
Mohamed Ali, Manshieh and Liberation square. Source: (www.flicr.com )

Mohamed Ali Square, formerly known as the place des Consuls, and the adjacent Sherif
Street, presently Salah Salem Street, were the seat of the Stock Exchange and many bank
premises: the Anglo-Egyptian Bank, Lioyds Bank, the Bank of Athens and the elegant Banco
di Roma designed by Henri Gorra in 1905 and inspired by the Palazzo Farnese in Rome.

Fig (3-20) Photos of Place des Consuls in late 19th century also known as Place d' Armes, place Mohamed Ali,
Manshieh and Liberation square. Source: (www.flicr.com )

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For the design of the new buildings on the square, Mancini adapted a traditional typology of
the okalle, whose ground spaces, grouped round an open court, were usually reserved for
commercial uses. The upper floors served as residences. These new rectilinear block
developments introduced within a street grid pattern and a newly adopted neo-c1assical
language marked the new order and lingua franca of the young cosmopolitan city. Such a
change was certainly a contrast to and a defiance of an already existing and well-established
organic order that had characterized the indigenous quarters of the Ottoman city.

Fig (3-21) Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square showing the court building “Mixed Tribunals”.

Fig (3-22) Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square showing “Okalle Menasce”.
Source: (www.archnet.org )

Because the new urban spaces around this square reflected both the power and wealth of the
vicarage family, and the growing influence of the foreign consuls, the square was renamed
Place des Consuls. More importantly, the new urban: space was embellished with an obelisk
in its center, and with fountains and music kiosks, and was surrounded with hotels, cafe
concerts, and restaurants. All this reflected a newly adopted life style similar to those of the
great European cities. Yet in the mind's eye of many travelers, as apparent from their
description, the character of the city remained to a great extent quite eclectic.

Fig (3-23) Photos of “Manshieh square” showing the status of “Mohamed Ali” and Parking area.
Source: (www.archnet.org )

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3-2-2- Current Situation of “Ahmed Orabi & Manshieh Squares”:


The square that used to contain the city's elitist residences, have been more recently
transformed into cultural centers, banks, and government and administrative offices. Despite
a few individual attempts to preserve some of these buildings, a more effective approach of
listing the buildings and preserving their collective character, while preventing further
deterioration or destruction, remains of the highest priority.

Fig (3-24) Part of Alexandria’s Google earth map showing “Manshieh Square”(A), “Ahmed Orabi Square” (B),
and the places of the Italian building in the squares; (1) Okalle Monferato, (2) Mixed Tribunals, (3) Okalle
Menasce, (4) Waqf Yacoub Dahan, (5) Cotton Palace, (6) Ismail Monument (unknown soldier).

At present the square include some old buildings among them there is five Italian buildings,
and those building suffer from the same problems as all the ancient city center buildings at
Alexandria, The next part will explain the current conditions of those building.
3-2-2-1- Okalle Monferato:
The Okalle is a type of buildings modeled on the concepts of Milanian Galleria where the
ground floor contains commercial activities and the residence at the upper floors and the
building contain large open court that include most of its activities.
Okalle Monferato designed by Luigi Piattoli (1887) was one of the biggest grand commercial
building that still exist “plans and elevations of the building figures (1-41)”, the exterior of
the building is quite in good conditions but the problem is the shop windows and commercial
signs that disfigure the building as shown in the next photos.

Fig (3-25) Photos of ‘Okalle Monferato” at Manshieh square designed by Luigi Piattoli (1887).
Source: (Photos by the researcher & Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.362)

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Fig (3-26) Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows and commercial signs.
Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-27) Photos of the structural problems at the top Cornish and the side elevation.
Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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Fig (3-28) Photos of the bad conditions of the internal court due to lack of cleaning, damaged plumping
systems, electric and phone connections and lack of maintenance . Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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Fig (3-29) Photos of the iron dome that cover the main court, all the glass were removed and the iron suffer from
corrosion . Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-30) Photos of the interventions by the users by adding some coverings at the main court because of the
original covering dome is not functioning. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

3-2-2-2- Mixed Tribunals


The imposing seat of the Mixed Tribunals in 1887 now called “El-Hakaneia palace” was
designed in the Beaux Arts tradition by Alfonso Maniscalco Bey, and Augusto Cesarias was
its structural engineer “plans and elevations of the building figures (1-40)”. The building is
a government property and it is still used as a court, Most of the main façade of the building
are in good conditions but the side facades suffer from some degradations and need
restoration and maintenance.

Fig (3-31) Photos of “Mixed Tribunals” at Manshieh square designed by Antonio Maniscalco Bey, 1887.
Source: (Photos by www.archnet.org & the researcher)

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Fig (3-32) Photos of the side facades that suffer from degradation. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

3-2-2-3- Okalle Menasce:


The other grand commercial Italian building at the square is Okalle Menasce designed in
(1885) by Antonio Lasciac who worked for the Societe des Immeubles d' Egypte, owners of
the building “plans and elevations of the building figures (1-44)”.
The building also like “Okalle Monferato” is suffering from the disfigure due to the shop
windows and commercial signs, The main façade had some degradations and also the
internal facades on the main court suffer from problems.

Fig (3-33) Photos of “Okalle Menasce” at Manshieh square by Antonio Lasciac (1885).
Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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Fig (3-34) Photos of disfiguring the building Entrance, main façade, Back one and the Internal court by the shop
windows and commercial signs. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-35) Photos of the deterioration in the internal façade on the main court .
Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-36) Photos of damage and degradation of the wooden roof of the staircase and the sky light covering it.
Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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3-2-2-4- Waqf Yacoub Dahan:


This residential building was designed and built by the industrial building company of Egypt
from (1907-1912) by architect H.Gorra bey, the building suffer from the deformation due to
the commercial mall in the ground floor, air conditions at the side facades and also the
adding of some constructions randomly on the roof, also the two domes at the top corners of
the façade suffer from degradation and deformation.

Fig (3-37) Old photo of “Waqf Yacoub Dahan” by Fig (3-38) Photos of current situation of “Waqf Yacoub
H.Gorra bey. Source: (Photos by Awad, Mohamed F. Dahan” at Manshieh.
"Italy in Alexandria" p.165) Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-39) Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows, air conditions and commercial signs.
Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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Fig (3-40) Photos of the constructions added on the roof and the bad conditions of the upper domes at the
corners. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

3-2-2-5- Ismail Monument (unknown soldier):


This monument was called the monument of Ismail il Magnifico and was sculpted by Pietro
Canonica (1927- 1938), the Italian contractor was De Farro Contractors. After the 1952
revolution the statue of Khedive Ismail was removed and the monument was renamed to the
unknown soldier Monument.

Fig (3-41) Photos of the original and current state of “Ismail Monument” or the unknown soldier Monument
sculpted by Pietro Canonica 1927.
Source: (Photos by the researcher & Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.197)

Notes:
1. Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation
trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008.
2. Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." Environmental
Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp. 72-85.
3. Awad, Mohamed & El Tabbakh, May, “The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city
center”, Patrimoines partage`s En Me`diterrane`e; Ele`ments cle`s de la re`habilitation, EUROMED
Heritage II, Alexandria, 2005.
4. Godoli, Ezio& Giacomelli, Milva, "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to
the twenty-first century", Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 25th November 2008.
5. Jones, Dalu. " Italian Architects in Egypt at the Time of the Khedive." Environmental Design: Journal
of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.86-93.
6. Pallini, C. & Scaccabarozzi, A. "New protagonists: projects for Egypt by Italian architects from 1952
to the present day", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first
century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 198-216.

82
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion
References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.


The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Conclusion
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion of the historical study:

Influence of The Alexandrian history on its built environment:


Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine influences were inscribed in the Alexandrian context and
however prominent was the classical identity of the city and its planning, distinguishing it
from other Egyptian Cities, the hybrid character of the city remained quite eclectic, where
many of the classical elements scattered in its ruins were reused in the medieval and later
Islamic periods.
Primary sources of Alexandria history of 16th,17th and 18th century are dominated by
traveler’s accounts describing the monuments, defenses of the city, the port, forts and
enclosure walls. In addition, the political, economic and social history of Alexandria and its
relations with the independent princely states of Venice, Naples, Genoa or Ottoman turkey.
The more recent history of 19th and 20th century Alexandria is even more complex and
diverse, and mostly neglected by historians. However, the modern renaissance of Egypt and
Alexandria began in 1805 with Mohamed Ali’s efforts to modernize Egypt. He called in
foreign experts to develop the country’s infrastructure and civil administration. Italian experts
played a major role in that process and Italian was even adopted as the lingua franca in the
Egyptian administration.
While Alexandria grew to become Egypt’s economic capital the Italian community
constituted approximately 25% of the European population around 1897. Italians were
reputed as professional builders and craftsmen as well as the involvement in the public
domain where they constituted an important professional core staff in the ministry of public
works. With the establishment of the “Comissione d`Ornato” Alexandria’s first planning
commission at 1834 and later with the creation of its municipality in 1890, the Italians gained
a sort of monopoly in developing the city’s architecture and directing its urban development.

The Italian architects and engineers in Egypt


The presence of Italian architects in Egypt less considerable in quantitative terms than that
recorded by their rise to important public posts, which put them in contact with top
government. Most of the buildings planned by Italians who arrived in Egypt in the 1820s and
1830s were characterized by a re-reading of models of classicism from the latter part of the
Eighteenth Century or the Napoleonic era, the exiles who arrived after (1848) began to show
the first signs of a retrieval - with an eclectic attitude and free from philological
preoccupations, stylistic forms and motifs drawn from the repertoire of Islamic architecture.
After the bombing of Alexandria and landing of the English expedition corps in 1882 started
the reconstruction of the core or the European city of Alexandria, Around 1900 appeared
some of the most significant Italian contributions to the Islamic revival, which had its main
stronghold in Cairo.
Many of the Italian architects residing in Egypt who made significant contributions to the
Islamic revival had an in-depth knowledge of monuments of Arab art, and were also directly
involved in ensuring its safeguarding. Their contribution to the Islamic revival did not end
with the beginning of the great war, but carried on until the have of the Second World War.
The '30s saw the development of a tendency due especially to the efforts of Egyptian
architect Mustafa Fahmy towards a modernized Islamic style, based on a simplification of the
lexical elements of the tradition, sometimes with Art Deco influenced stylizations, and on the

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adoption of monumental plans characterized by the highlighting of the parts arranged on the
main axes or symmetry.

Italian architects and private residential buildings:


Having worked for the Pashas, Italian professionals in became increasingly involved also
with private and community developments. This came at a time when a new urban elite of
notables expressed their readiness to sponsor their private projects and also those of their
ethnic communities. The earliest fortunes were mostly those of wealthy Greek families all of
them were close friends and confidants of the Pashas.
In the post-Bombardment era 1882-1918, the Italian role in rebuilding the city was
considerable. Yet, their total monopoly of the building profession and its trades remained
disputable among historians, especially when the increasing competition from other nationals,
such as Greek professionals and contractors, is considered.
The Italian influences retained their importance when the Municipality of Alexandria was
created in 1890. Its councils included elite members of the Italian community, Alexandria
became the commitment and practices of Italian Venetian professionals, who found their
clientele within their own community, and among others, specially the Jews and also
increasingly among Egyptians.
Today a limited Alexandrian Italian community numbers no more than 800 residents. Its
churches and Latin cemeteries “Terra Santa” are now managed by the Catholic Copts, while
the Orthodox Copts have also taken over the “Cimitero Civili”. Only the Casa di Riposo is
still run for its diminished Italian community. The same can be said with regard to cultural
institutions such as the Societa Dante Alighieri di Roma, which is now an Egyptian NGO
under the supervision of the Egyptian Ministry of Social Affairs. All this therefore marks
changing times and the realities of the present.

Conclusion of the theoretical study:

In site investigation and laboratory studies


All stone buildings are affected by stone deterioration, especially by weathering, the danger
of the loss of cultural heritage has resulted in ever-increasing efforts world-wide for
monument preservation. Precise diagnosis is required for characterization, interpretation,
rating and prediction of the weathering damages at stone monuments and is vital for remedy
of stone damages and sustainable monument preservation. Quantitative rating of damages
represents an important scientific contribution to reliable damage diagnosis at stone
monuments. Damage indices are introduced as new tool for scientific quantification and
rating of stone damages. Application of damage indices improves stone damage diagnosis
and is very suitable for evaluation and certification of preservation measures and for long-
term survey and maintenance of stone monuments.
Comprehensive documentation important in the field of stone monument preservation. The
approach to the protection of stone monuments can be subdivided into anamnesis, diagnosis
and therapy. According to established international directives, documentation is a necessary
part of all three work steps. The particular objectives and items of documentation within the
scope of anamnesis, diagnosis and therapy are presented. Evaluation and graphic
documentation of stone deterioration is presented by means of examples referring to in-situ
investigation of stone monuments in the framework of diagnosis.

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Structural failure and interventions in stone building:


There are three main types of failure in stone buildings; Mode (I): Failure due to the
collapse of the façade, Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending, Mode (III): Failure due to
the wall cut. And these structural failures require some intervention to protect the building
from collapsing, those interventions include the reinforcement of all the part of the building;
the walls roofs foundations and cantilevers with appropriate material usually steel and this
steel must be inserted in careful way to prevent the damage that caused by steel in the
future.

Conclusion of the applied study:


Alexandria's preservation experiences. while demonstrating the richness and diversity of its
heritage. also exemplify the fragility and the vulnerability of its conservation.
Many problems related to conservation arise from the socio-economic. political and
environmental conditions prevalent in the society - governmental practices, the rule of law,
public awareness and poverty.
Alexandria's most recent heritage remains unprotected because of the lack of legislation and
effective management. hence there is an urgent need to develop mechanisms for its
protection.

El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”:


The square of “Ahmed Orabi and El Manshieh” that used to contain the city's elitist
residences, have been more recently transformed into cultural centers, banks, and
government and administrative offices. Despite a few individual attempts to preserve some
of these buildings, a more effective approach of listing the buildings and preserving their
collective character, while preventing further deterioration or destruction, remains of the
highest priority.

The research concluded that the Alexandrian built heritage as all suffer from neglecting and
are threaten with elimination and destruction due to mainly economical condition that leads
to lack of maintenance and that are more presented at the private residential building
because there isn’t clear vision to mange and protect those building, And if their isn’t
immediate movement to protect and conserve that heritage it will disappear soon.

85
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References
Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
List of References
____________________________________________________________________________________________________

List of References
Publications:
1. Alexandria: Hellenistic Age." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2004. Encyclopaedia
Britannica Online". http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-26550/Hellenistic-Age.
(Accessed May 19, 2008).
2. Awad, Mohamed F. "From Historucism to Modernity (the inter-war period,
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Cairo, 2008 Pp. 142-153.
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Alexandria preservation trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008.
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Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre,
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5. Awad, Mohamed & El Tabbakh, May, “The conservation and rehabilitation of
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la re`habilitation, EUROMED Heritage II, Alexandria, 2005.
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forms, damage categories and damage indices”, Working group “Natural stones and
weathering“,Geological Institute, Aachen University of Technology, Germany.
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5th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean
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8. B. Fitzner, "Documentation and evaluation of stone damage on monuments", 10th
international congress on deterioration and conservation of stone, Stockholm.2004.
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10. Barry A.Richardson, "Defects and Deterioration in Buildings", 2nd edition, SPON
PRESS, London.2001.
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13. Dickie, James. "The Works of Mario Rossi at Alexandria." Environmental Design:
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14. El-Din, Morsi Saad,"Alexandria: The Site and the History. New York: NYU Press .
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15. El-Abbadi, Mostafa. "Alexandria: Thousand-Year Capital of Egypt." Alexandria: The
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19. Harris, W. V. and Giovanni Ruffin. "Ancient Alexandria between Egypt and Greece".
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the Hellenistic world. Dudley, MA: Peeters .2006.
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,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 154-160.
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architects from 1952 to the present day", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt
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Lectures
31. Panzeca, T. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna, Italy, 2008.
32. Villari, D. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna, Italy, 2008.

Web sites:
33. www.archnet.org
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35. http://www.irb.hr/korisnici/obelic/euro-med/CA.htm at 5-2009.

87
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A):
Weathering forms on stone buildings.
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings)
___________________________________________________________________________

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings1


Group 1 - Loss of stone material

Sandstone Sandstone Limestone Limestone


Back weathering - loss of scales (sW) Back weathering - loss of indefinable pieces (zW)

Limestone Tuff Sandstone Greywacke


Back weathering - loss of stone layers dependent on
Back weathering - loss of crumbs / splinters (uW)
stone structure (xW)

Sandstone Sandstone Limestone Sandstone


Back weathering - loss of crusts (cW) Rounding / notching (Ro)

Limestone Sandstone Sandstone Marble


Alveolar weathering (Ra) Roughening (Rr)

1
FITZNER, B.& HEINRICHS, K. ”Photo atlas of weathering forms on stone monuments”, Working group
”Natural stones and weathering”, Geological Institute, RWTH Aachen University, 2004.
http://www.stone.rwth-aachen.de

88
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings)
___________________________________________________________________________

Limestone Limestone Sandstone Limestone


Microkarst (Rm) Weathering out of stone components (Rk)

Limestone Conglomerate Limestone Sandstone


Clearing out of stone components (Rh) Weathering out dependent on stone structure (tR)

Marble Sandstone Sandstone Limestone


Break out-anthropogenic
Pitting (Rt) Relief - anthropogenic impact (aR)
impact (aO)

Sandstone Sandstone Marble Sandstone


Break out - Break out - natural
Break out – non recognizable cause (oO)
constructional cause(bO) cause(nO)

89
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings)
___________________________________________________________________________

Group 2 – Discoloration / Deposits

Marble Soapstone Limestone Limestone


Coloration (Dc) Bleaching (Db) Soiling by droppings (gI)

Limestone Sandstone Basaltic lava, tuff Limestone


Dark-colored crust Light-colored crust Soiling by particles from Soiling due to
change the surface(diC) tracing the surface (hkC) water (wI) anthropogenic impact(aI)

Limestone Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone


Efflorescences (Ee) Subflorescences (Ef)

Limestone Tuff Limestone Sandstone


Dark-colored crust tracing the surface (dkC) Soiling by particles from the atmosphere (pI)

Limestone Sandstone Marble Quartzite

90
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings)
___________________________________________________________________________

Light-colored crust changing the surface (hiC) Colored crust tracing the surface (fkC)

Sandstone Limestone Sandstone Tuff


Colored crust changing the surface (fiC) Microbiological colonization (Bi)

Travertine Sandstone Limestone Sandstone


Coloration to dark colored crust tracing the surface
Colonization by higher plants (Bh)
(Dc-dkC)

Limestone Limestone Sandstone Sandstone


Efflorescences to light-
Soiling by particles from the atmosphere to Colonization by higher
colored crust tracing the
darkcolored crust tracing the surface (pI-dkC) plants (Bh)
surface (Ee-hkC)

Tuff Sandstone Quartzite Sandstone/ Limestone


Efflorescences to light-colored crust tracing the Microbiological colonization to dark-colored crust
surface (Ee-hkC) tracing the surface (Bi-dkc)

91
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings)
___________________________________________________________________________

Group 3 – Detachment

Limestone Sandstone Quartzite Granite


Granular disintegration Granular disintegration
Granular disintegration into sand (Gs)
into powder (Gp) into grus (Gg)

Limestone Limestone Sandstone Limestone


Crumbling (Pu) Splintering (Pn)

Quartzite Sandstone Limestone Limestone


splintering (Pu-Pn) Single flakes (eF) Multiple flakes (mF) Splitting up (Xv)

Sandstone Sandstone Marble Sandstone


Single scale (eS) Scale - tooling of the stone surface (qS)

Sandstone Mudstone Sandstone Sandstone

92
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings)
___________________________________________________________________________

Multiple scales (mS) Exfoliation (Xl)

Sandstone Sandstone Sandstone Limestone


Granular disintegration Detachment of a dark-colored crust changing the
Splitting up (Xv)
in sand to flakes(Gs-eF) surface (diK)

Limestone Limestone Sandstone Limestone


Detachment of a light- Detachment of a dark- Granular disintegration Detachment of a light
colored crust changing colored crust tracing the into sand to single colored crust changing
the surface (hiK) surface (dkK) flakes(Gs-eF) the stone surface (hiK)

Quartz porphyry Granite Limestone Sandstone


Granular disintegration into grus to single Single flakes to Single flakes to single
flakes(Gg-eF) crumbling (eF-Pu) scale (eF-eS)

Limestone Limestone Sandstone Limestone


Crumbling to single scale (Pu-eS) Multiple flakes to multiple scales (mF-mS)

93
The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)
Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings)
___________________________________________________________________________

Group 4 – Fissures / deformation

Sandstone Marble Sandstone Marble


Fissures independent of Fissures independent of Fissures dependent on Deformation,
stone structure (vL) stone structure (vL) stone structure(tL) convex(lV)

Marble
Deformation,
concave(rV)

94
preface.

1- Historical study.

1-1- History of Alexandria.

1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment:

2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.

2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies.

2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building.

3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.

Conclusion

References

Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

C.V.
The researcher Curriculum Vitae
Personal information:
Name: Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil
date of birth: October 14, 1978 . Elgharbia , Egypt.
Nationality: Egyptian.
Martial Status Married (1 son- two years old)
E-Mail: Arch_m_khalil@yahoo.com
M_khalil2002@hotmail.com
Phone +20-012-2390650 (mobile).
Numbers: +20-050-2230094 (home).
Work Address: Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of
Engineering, Mansoura University, 60 Al-Gomhoreya
St., Mansoura City Dakahleia, Egypt, 35516.
Home Address: 68-Elandalus street, University Neighborhood, El-Mansoura, Egypt.
Education
Period: From (10-11-2008) to (10-7-2009). Certificate No.(1)
Institution: Enna Kore University
Place: Enna, Sicily , Italy.
Achieved Master of Architecture Restoration (study in English)(60credit hours).
qualification: The Italian residential buildings in Egypt (the conservation and maintenance).
Degree: Not finished yet.
Period: From (15-8-2001) to (23-1-2007) Certificate No.(2)
Institution: Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura
University
Place: El-Mansoura city, Egypt.
Achieved Master degree in architecture engineering.
qualification: The Approaches of cultural building (analytical study of design principles).
Period: From (15-9-1995) to (1-6-2000). Certificate No.(3)
Institution: Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura
University.
Place: El-Mansoura city, Egypt.
Achieved Bachelor's degree in architecture engineering.
qualification:
Degree: General grade very good (78.2) Ranked Second- Graduation project grade
Excellent.

95
Work Experience
Period: since 2-2007 till now Certificate No.(4)
Type of employment Assistant lecturer
Department Architecture Department, faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University,
Egypt
Qualification and Teaching (urban design and landscape), (architecture design) and (working
duties drawing) to architecture student at the architecture department.
Period: from 12-2001 to 2-2007 Certificate No.(4)
Type of employment demonstrator
Department Architecture Department, faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University,
Egypt
Qualification and Teaching (architecture design) and (working drawing) to architecture student
duties at the architecture department.
Period: From 1-2006 to 11-2008
Type of employment Teacher and trainer of computer graphics and CAD programs
Department Designing with Computer center at Architecture Department, faculty of
Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt
Qualification and User and teacher for computer architecture presentation using:
duties • AutoCAD 2D & 3D (Ver. 2009) professional (user& teacher).
• Adobe Photoshop (CS3) professional (user& teacher).
• Maxon CINEMA 4D (R. 9) (Rendering software) professional (user).
Period:
Type of employment Presentation and graphics designer (Working by E-mail).
Department EL-HUMEDY architecture office, Saudi Arabia.
Qualification and Professional architecture (Modelling &Rendering) with computer (10 years
duties experience).
Period: From 7-2000 to 6-2005
Type of employment Architect and graphics designer.
Department SABEEL architecture office at El Mansoura city, Egypt.
Qualification and Design and draw some public and resident building at Egypt.
duties presentation using computer.

Linguistic Competencies
Arabic : native language.
English
Ability of reading Excellent.
Ability of writing Excellent.
Ability of oral expression Excellent.
Italian
Ability of reading elementary
Ability of writing elementary
Ability of oral expression elementary
Linguistic Certificates
language English Certificate No.(5)
type (IELTS Exam) overall score 6.0 at (7-12-2007) first trial.
(6.5 Reading- 6.0 Speaking- 5.5 Listening- and 5.5 Writing).

language Italian Certificate No.(6)


type Level (A1) Common European framework – score (19/20) at (25-2-2009)
(17/20 Reading- 18/20 Speaking- 20/20 Listening- and 18/20 Writing).

96
LIBERA UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DELLA SICILIA CENTRALE KORE ENNA

thesis in

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt


(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)

By
Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil

Supervisors
Prof. Teotista Panzeca
Prof. Manuela Garofalo
Prof. Daniela Villari

Thesis submitted to University Kore of Enna to obtain


Second level master degree in architecture restoration
A.A. 2008-2009