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Name_______________________________

Date _____________________
Biology Midterm

Unit 1 Cell Biology


1. Cells that do not have histone proteins associated with their DNA
a. Can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic
b. Are prokaryotic
c. Are eukaryotic
2. Cells that contain streaming cytoplasm are
a. Prokaryotic
b. Eukaryotic
c. Can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic
3. .Which cell type contains membrane bound organelles?
a. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic
b. Prokaryotic
c. Eukaryotic
4. Animals, plants, fungi, and protists have cells that are
a.
b.
c.
d.

Exclusively eukaryotic
Neither prokaryotic or eukaryotic
Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic
Exclusively prokaryotic

5. Cells that have DNA as their genetic material include


a. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic
b. Only eukaryotic
c. Only prokaryotic
6. Bacteria have cells that are
a.
b.
c.
d.

Exclusively eukaryotic
Neither prokaryotic or eukaryotic
Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic
Exclusively prokaryotic

7. Viruses differ from cells in which of the following ways?


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Viruses are larger than a cell


Cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA, but viruses do not carry their own genetic information.
Viruses do not have membrane coverings
Cells grow and require energy, but viruses do not
Viruses cannot reproduce themselves but cells can

8. The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is the:


a. Storage of water
b. Processing of large molecules such as proteins and lipids

c. Synthesis of DNA
d. Generation of cellular energy in the form of ATP

9. This cell pictured above has characteristics of


a. Animal cells
b. Plant cells
c. Bacterial cells
10. Cells that contain a nucleus are
a.
b.
c.
d.

Neither prokaryotic or eukaryotic


Eukaryotic
Can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic
Prokaryotic

11. Though some DNA is found in the mitochondria,


most genetic information of the cell is stored
in the structure labled:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

A
B
C
D
E
F

12. The antibiotic tetracycline interferes with the function of


bacterial ribosomes because they are different from the
ribosomes in human cells, taking tetracycline only stops
a.
b.
c.
d.

The storage of water in bacterial cells


The processing and transport of lipids in the bacterial cell
The formation of the bacterial cell wall
The production of bacterial protein

13. Generation of energy through cellular respiration takes place


in the structure labeled
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

A
B
C
D
E
F

14. The process by which cells expel, or secrete, large molecules


is known as
a.
b.
c.
d.

Endocytosis
Pinocytosis
Exocitosis
Phagocytosis

15. Which answer correctly describes the lipid bi-layer?


a.
b.
c.
d.

Lipids are hydrophobic; phosphates are hydrophilic


Lipids are hydrophilic; phosphates are hydrophilic
Lipids are hydrophobic; phosphates are hydrophobic
Lipids are hydrophilic; phosphates are hydrophobic

16. When salt is poured on a slug it dies because


a.
b.
c.
d.

Salt moves into the slug, poisoning it


Water moves out of the slug, causing dehydration
Salt moves out of the slug, depriving it of essential minerals
Water moves into the slug, causing it to swell

17. In passive diffusion, substances ALWAYS move


a.
b.
c.
d.

From an area with fewer of the molecules to an area with more molecules
From an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration to an area of higher concentration
From an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
From an area with more of the molecules to an area with less of the molecules

18. The organic molecules that carry the genetic code of a cell belong to which class of molecules
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Steroids
Lipids
Starches
Proteins
Nucleic acids

19. Which of the following would provide the greatest amount of energy when burned by cells
a.
b.
c.
d.

One gram of starch


One gram of protein
One gram of sugar
One gram of fat

20. The bonds between atoms in organic molecules such as sugars, fats, and proteins are
a.
b.
c.
d.

Ionic bonds
Covalent bonds
Nuclear bonds
Metallic bonds

21. Proteins are made up of long chains of which of these building blocks
a.
b.
c.
d.

Sugars
Nucleic acids
Amino acids
Fatty acids

22. The building blocks of a triglyceride molecule are


a.
b.
c.
d.

Fatty acids and glycerol


Glycogen and fatty acids
Nucleic acids and amino acids
Amino acids and glycerol

23. Which of the following is not normally a function of proteins in healthy cells
a. Long-term energy storage
b. A component of cell membranes
c. Functioning as enzymes
24. When sugars polymerize in long chains, they may form any of the following except:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Starch
Cellulose
Glycogen
Proteins

25. Examples of nucleic acids include


a.
b.
c.
d.

Sugars and starches


DNA and RNA
Fats and proteins
Amino acids and fatty acids

26. Which of the following is an example of an organic chemical compound?


a.
b.
c.
d.

Sodium cholide, NaCl


Glucose, C6H12O6
Sulfur trioxide, SO3
Carbon dioxide, CO2

27. When electrons are shared between atoms of nonmetals, a(an) ___________ is formed
a.
b.
c.
d.

Metallic
Ionic
Covalent
Nuclear

28. When a bond results from the transfer of electrons between atoms, its a(n) ___________ bond that has formed

a.
b.
c.
d.

Ionic
Metallic
Nuclear
Covalent

29. Assuming you can digest all of them , which of the following carbohydrates has the greatest energy value per gram?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Glycogen
Cellulose
Sugar
None of these

Unit 2 Cell Energy


30. Enzymes speed up a reaction by
a.
b.
c.
d.

Lowering activation energy


Increasing temperature
Creating more reactants
Increasing activation energy

31. In a reaction between the sugar maltose, and the enzyme maltase, which catalyzes the decomposition of maltose
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Maltose is the substrate


Maltase is the substrate
Maltase is the product
Water is the substrate
Maltose is the product

32. The part of the enzyme where the substrate binds is known as the
a.
b.
c.
d.

Catalyst
Active site
Inhibitor
Activation

33. Cells must produce many different enzymes because


a.
b.
c.
d.

Enzymes are quickly used up


Most cellular reactions require a specific , unique enzyme
They have to have some way to use up the protein that they consume
Enzymes are not very effective at speeding up reactions

34. Enzyme names always end with the suffix


a.
b.
c.
d.

ase
ose
ene
ite

35. Without the presence of enzymes, the reactions necessary to sustain life would require _ in order to occur
a.
b.
c.
d.

Much larger cells


More organelles
Larger proteins
Higher temperature

36. When a piece of liver is dropped into hydrogen peroxide, the peroxide (H 2H2) decomposes water H20 and oxygen O2.
This rapid change in reaction rate suggests
a.
b.
c.
d.

That liver contains lots of germs


The liver contains an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide
That liver is a substrate for hydrogen peroxide
That hydrogen peroxide is a powerful enzyme

37. The light reactions of photosynthesis take place in the


a.
b.
c.
d.

Stroma
Thylakoids
Mitochondria
Nucleus

38. The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis take place in the


a.
b.
c.
d.

Stroma
Thylakoids
Mitochondria
Nucleus

39. Photosynthesis takes place in which organelle?


a.
b.
c.
d.

The nucleus
The mitochondrian
The endoplasmic reticulum
The chloroplast

40. Carbon dioxide is required for which of the following processes in photosynthesis
a.
b.
c.
d.

The calvin cycle


The splitting of water
The production of ATP
The absorption of water

41. Which of the following equations correctly sums up the overall process of photosynthesis

42. What two energy carrying molecules are produced by the light reactions of photosynthesis?
a.
b.
c.
d.

NADP and ADP


NADP and NADPH
NADPH and ATP
ADP and ATP

43. The splitting of water molecules in essential for the photosynthetic production of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Carbon dioxide
Sunlight
ATP and NADPH
Chlorophyll

44. Aerobic respiration does not take place without oxygen available, because oxygen
a.
b.
c.
d.

Is essential for the formation of carbon dioxide


Is the terminal electron acceptor in respiration
Is present in alcohol and lactic acid
Is necessary for glycolysis

45. As an athletes muscles are forced to work in the absence of enough oxygen, the muscle cells begin to produce
a.
b.
c.
d.

Ever larger amounts of ATP


Carbon dioxide
Lactic acid
Ethyl alcohol

46. The organelle in which the Krebs cycle takes place is


labeled as
___________
47. The process of glycolosis
a. Requires oxygen
b. Takes place in the inner membrane of the
mitochondria
c. Breaks glucose into pyruvate
d. Produces two molecules of ATP
e. Takes place in the cytoplasm
f. Only takes place in yeast and bacteria
48. A maximum of 38 molecules of ATP are produced from each glucose molecule as a result of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Aerobic respiration
Lactic acid fermentation
Alcohol fermentation
Glycolysis

49. A plant is provided adequate carbon dioxide and water, but no light. In this plant
a.
b.
c.
d.

Photosynthesis will not occur


Photosynthesis will occur more slowly in the light
ATP and NAPH will be stored until sunlight becomes available
The light independent reactions will continue to produce glucose

50. Plants contain mitochondria in addition to chloroplasts. The is necessary because


a.
b.
c.
d.

Plants must make use of respiration when light is not available


The ATP needed for photosynthesis is produced in the mitochondria
The mitochondria produce proteins essential to photosynthesis
The mitochondria are how carbon dioxide enters the plant cell

51. Oxygen acts as the terminal electron acceptor by combining with the electrons and __________ to form
____________
a.
b.
c.
d.

H+ ions// water
Carbon// carbon dioxide
ADP//ATP
Glucose// pyruvate

52. Which of these represents the net equation for complete aerobic respiration?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Glucose carbon dioxide +ATP


Glucose + Oxygen carbon dioxide +water +ATP
Glucose pyruvate + lactic acid+alcohol+ATP
Pyruvate + oxygen carbon dioxide + oxygen + ATP

Unit 3 Mitosis and Meiosis

53. Nucleus 1 shows a diploid nucleus of a cartoon smurf. Which nucleus comes from an abnormal cell?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Nucleus 3
Nucleus 2
Nucleus 4
None of them

54. What stage of mitosis is depicted by the image above?

a.
b.
c.
d.

Telophase
Prophase
Metaphase
Cytokinesis

55. If this karyotype were for human sperm cell, it should


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Have only a Y chromosome


Have fewer autosomes
Have more autosomes
Have either an X or a Y chromosome
Have only an X chromosome

56. The diploid number of chromosomes in mammals is always


a.
b.
c.
d.

46
An odd number
An even number
Two

57. Chromosomes shown here that are NOT sex chromosomes are known
collectively as
a.
b.
c.
d.

X chomrosomes
Karyotypes
Y chromosomes
Autosomes

58. Crossing over between maternal and paternal chromosomes takes


place during?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Meiosis I
Fertilization
Mitosis
Meiosis II

59. Interphase is broken up into phases known as


a.
b.
c.
d.

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase


S, mitosis, and cytokinesis
G0, G1, and G2
G1, S, and G2

60. What stage of mitosis is depicted here?


a.
b.
c.
d.

Cytokinesis
Metaphase
Telophase
Anaphase

61. The process of meiosis


a.
b.
c.
d.

Begins with diploid cells and ends with haploid cells


Begins with diploid cells and ends with diploid cells
Begins with haploid cells and ends with haploid cells
Begins with haploid cells and ends with diploid cells

62. Diploid cells that result from the fertilization of an egg cell by a sperm cell are called
a.
b.
c.
d.

Polar bodies
Gametes
Zygotes
Blastocysts

63. This human karyotype shows the sex of the individual is


a. Male
b. Female
64. A human cell ordinarily will have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a
total of 46 chromosomes. At the end of a cell cycle, including mitosis,
the new cells will have
a. 92 chromosomes, as a result of doubling during the S phase of
the cell cycle
b. 23 pairs of chromosomes
c. Only the 23 paternal chromosomes
d. Only the 23 maternal chromosomes
65. The correct order for the stages of mitosis is
a.
b.
c.
d.

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase


Telophase, anaphase, metaphase, prophase
Metaphase, anaphase, prophase, telophase
Metaphase, prophase, anaphase, telophase

66. In stage G1, the cell


a.
b.
c.
d.

Doubles the cell contents, excluding chromosomes


Reduces the number of chromosomes from the diploid number to the haploid number
Copies the chromosomes
Creates two identical nuclei

67. Meiosis II takes place between fields:


a.
b.
c.
d.

C and D
A and B
B and C
A and C

68. A diploid cell in a buffalo has 60 chromosomes. A


egg cell in a buffalo can be expected to have
a.
b.
c.
d.

30 chromosomes
15 chromosomes
60 chromosomes
120 chromosomes

69. Haploid reproductive cells are collectively referred to as


a.
b.
c.
d.

Gametes
Blastocysts
Zygotes
Polar bodies

sperm or

Crossing over between maternal and paternal chromosomes takes place during?
e.
f.
g.
h.

Meiosis I
Fertilization
Mitosis
Meiosis II

69. Interphase is broken up into phases known as


e.
f.
g.
h.

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase


S, mitosis, and cytokinesis
G0, G1, and G2
G1, S, and G2

70. What stage of mitosis is depicted in the image


a.
b.
c.
d.

Anaphase
Telophase
Metaphase
Prophase

71. What stage of mitosis is depicted in the image


a.
b.
c.
d.

Anaphase
Metaphase
Cytokinesis
Telophase

72. Cells that will no longer undergo division enter a phase known as
a.
b.
c.
d.

Apoptosis
Mitosis
G0
Interphase

73. The karyotype to the right is from a human cell. Its source is
a.
b.
c.
d.

An egg cell
A fertilized gamete
A normal somatic cell
A sperm cell

74. . After a bacterial cell has undergone binary fission, how many chromosome copies will each daughter cell contain?

a.
b.
c.
d.

Two (one maternal and one paternal)


46
One pair
One

75. This karyotype is also considered


a.
b.
c.
d.

Diploid
Haploid
Somatic
Polyploidy

Constructed Response
1. An animal cell with a diploid chromosome number of 4 is about to begin mitosis.
Using your knowledge of cell biology and mitosis:
Draw diagrams showing each of the distinct stages of mitosis in order and label which stage each diagram
represents
For each stage list two characteristic events that occur during that stage of mitosis
2.

Mr. and Mrs. Smith recently had a baby. The nurses at the hospital were not careful and mixed up the name tags
of 3 babies (A, B, and C), one of which belongs to the Smiths. Baby A has type O blood and freckles. Baby B has
type A blood, and no freckles. Baby C has type B blood, and freckles. Use this and the following information to
determine which baby belongs to the Smiths. Be sure to justify your answer with both an explanation and by
drawing the Punnett squares for each trait.

A. Freckles (F) are dominant over no freckles (f). Mr. Smith is homozygous dominant for freckles, while
Mrs. Smith has no freckles.
B. Type A and B blood are codominant to type O blood. Mr. Smith is heterozygous type A blood, while
Mrs. Smith has type AB blood.

3. Compare photosynthesis and respiration with regard to each of the following:


source of energy
materials used by each process
location of each process in the cell
when each process occurs in plants and animals