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Charlene Weiner

Psychology
Mister Lafevre
Annotated Bibliography

Secondary Sources:

"Anorexia Nervosa." Mayo Clinic. December 30, 2014. Accessed December 16, 2015.
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/anorexia/basics/definition/con-20033002.

This website will be valuable in the research of this project because it gives the primary definition of Anorexia as
well as what it mentally does to the person who has this disorder. Mayo Clinic also gives examples of how people
go about trying to lose weight and what actually defines each of the eating disorders I will be speaking about in
my website: Anorexia and Bulimia. To conclude, Mayo Clinic also expresses and stresses that Anorexia isnt all
about the food , but that it is an unhealthy way to try to cope with emotional problems. This website gives us:
symptoms, causes, risk factors, complications, tests and diagnosis, treatment and drugs, lifestyle and home
remedies, alternative medicines, and preventions in regarding to these diseases.

"Anorexia Nervosa." WebMD. Accessed December 16, 2015. http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/eatingdisorders/anorexia-nervosa/mental-health-anorexia-nervosa.

WebMD offers still more information on my topic of Anorexia. It starts with the definition of Anorexia and
expands upon it by giving an overview of what takes place with this disease saying that as malnutrition sets in, the

brain and metabolism change which limits the appetite, how your body uses food, and your ability to think clearly
and make good decisions. Also stated on this website are the causes, the symptoms, what increases the risks,
when to call the doctor, exams and tests, a treatment overview, home treatment, medication, and places where
people can go to get help.

"Athletes and Eating Disorders." National Eating Disorders Association. Accessed December 16, 2015.
https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/athletes-and-eating-disorders.

Above all, the reason why I chose this website to be relevant in my research for my project is because of the fact
that this website supplies me with "Stories of Hope" in the recovery process. This is very important because
although people might see that their is no recovery from this disease, it is all possible and people have done it in
the past and been successful. I also appreciated how this site expanded upon the idea that Anorexia affects
everyone, not just Caucasian females, and how Anorexia is on the rise in men as well. It states that among the
slimmest 25% of 6th and 7th grade girls, Hispanics and Asians reported significantly more body dissatisfaction
than white females. Lastly, in a survey of 6,504 adolescents, Asian, Black, Hispanic and Caucasian youth all
reported attempting to lose weight at similar rates, while among of Native American adolescents, 48.1% were
attempting weight loss.

Cherney, Kristeen. "10 Facts About Bulimia." Healthline. May 27, 2014. Accessed December 16,
2015. http://www.healthline.com/health/bulimia-facts.
This website gives 10 facts about Bulimia and states that Bulimia is an eating disorder based on a loss
of control over eating habits and a longing to stay thin. They also state that many people misunderstand
the condition and know of it as simply throwing up after eating. But there is much more to know about

bulimia than just this one thing. Also it needs to be known that Bulimia is a mental disorder, not a
choice. Also, bulimia can be genetic and can be found that15% of bulimia cases are men. Bulimia also
is harder to diagnose because they have normal wait ranges which can be missed by doctors and there
are many health problems and side effects for later on down the road.

"Eating Disorder Facts & Myths." The Center for Eating Disorders. Accessed December 16, 2015.
http://eatingdisorder.org/eating-disorder-information/facts-myths/.

Eatingdisorders.org offers up many facts towards the common misconceptions that people have towards
eating disorders. This site compares the common belief with the reality. One such fact is that eating
disorders are increasingly becoming passed on through genetics. One point is made very clear on this
site: you cannot define someones health by how much they weigh and you cannot determine whether
they have an eating disorder just by looking at them.

"Eating Disorders Statistics." Accessed December 16, 2015. http://www.anad.org/get-information/about- eatingdisorders/eating-disorders-statistics/.

ANAD, the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders, offers information about both
Anorexia and Bulimia of their site. This website is valuable because there is bulleted statistics that are useful
towards gender, race, social perception, mortality rates, and risks for athletes. Also, another point that is favorable
about this website is that the Symptoms of Anorexia are explained as well as 10 warning signs that someone has
developed this disease. This is useful because we who do not have Anorexia, sometimes have a hard time

grasping what exactly these people affected actually go through and detecting those who do have it to try to find
them help.

"Eating Disorder Statistics & Research." Eating Disorder Hope. Accessed December 17, 2015.
http://www.eatingdisorderhope.com/information/statistics-studies#Bulimia-NervosaStatistics.
This website is useful because it states many bulleted factoids on both Anorexia and Bulimia. Both
sides include info on prevalence(It is estimated that 1.0% to 4.2% of women have suffered from
anorexia in their lifetime.) , mortality rates (Anorexia has the highest fatality rate of any mental illness
and it is estimated that 4% of anorexic individuals die from complications of the disease), and access to
treatment(Only one third of individuals struggling with anorexia nervosa in the United States obtain
treatment). Also given is the comparison of women's stats versus male stats as well as the prevalence of
eating disorders among athletes. To conclude, dieting statistics are also given (for example, that 91% of
women recently surveyed on a college campus had attempted to control their weight through dieting,
22% dieted often or always.)

"Myths about Eating Disorders." National Eating Disorder Collaboration. Accessed December16,
2015. http://www.nedc.com.au/myths.
In this article we find out that eating disorders are serious and potentially life threatening mental
illnesses and are not a diet gone too far. A person with an eating disorder experiences severe problems
with their behavior, eating, exercising, and self harm because of distortions in their thoughts and
emotions. Eating disorders aren't the typical mental illnesses as they not only involve considerable
psychological impairment and distress, but they are also associated with many serious medical

complications. The mortality rate for people with eating disorders is the highest of all psychiatric
illnesses, and over 12 times higher than that for people without eating disorders. This website also
compares many truths and myths about eating disorders and clears up what is the actual truth

Penn, Nathaniel. "20% Percent of Anorexics Are Men." GQ. September 13, 2012. Accessed December 17,
2015. http://www.gq.com/story/male-anorexia-gq-september-2012.
This is a very useful article about a very underrated topic: eating disorders in men. GQ offers many statistics to
the reader as well as a story of a man who died from this illness. It also states the fact that Anorexia has the
highest mortality rate of any mental illness. This website also tells the story of a man names Steven and his fight
with Anorexia, which goes through a weight timeline of his highest to lowest weight and back up again as he was
going through his struggle to conquer his illness. Also the story behind what was going through his head at the
time this started, during, and ending is given. This article also states that Anorexia is diagnosed on the basis of
three criteria: self-induced starvation, a fear of becoming overweight, and the lowering of sex-hormone
production. The website continues on with three more stories of men by the names of Blake, Will, and John who
went through common situations.
Seide, Marc. "Dismantling the Common Myths of Eating Disorders." National Association of
Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders. 2015. Accessed December 16, 2015.
http://www.anad.org/dismantling-the-common-myths-of-eating-disorders/.

This website created by ANAD compared the truths and myths about eating disorders and what is
actually correct. Eating disorders affect people of both genders, in all age groups and of every racial
and cultural background. An estimated 10 million American men have an eating disorder at some time

in their lives. Weight loss from an eating disorder may bring positive attention at first, but that typically
changes to negative attention as it progresses. Eating disorders are not solely about weight. They are
about how body weight and image affect a persons self-worth. They are about distorted body images
and obsessive thoughts about how to become thinner or avoid weight gain. People of normal weight
with eating disorders may actually suffer more, because they dont receive recognition of their illness
from others.

Smith, Melinda, and Jeanne Segal. "Anorexia Nervosa." Helpguide.org. August 1, 2015. Accessed
December 16, 2015. http://www.helpguide.org/articles/eating-disorders/anorexia-nervosa.htm
This website goes into detail about the two different types of Anorexia: purging (which is bulimia) and restrictive.
It also gives you self-diagnostic questions to check if you are Anorexic or Bulimic yourself. Also, which I thought
was interesting, was how they offered a Healthy Dieting versus eating disorder chart to show the differences.
Also, food behavior signs and symptoms, appearance and body image signs and symptoms, Purging signs and
symptoms, Psychological causes and risk factors, Family and social pressures, Biological causes of anorexia,
effects, steps to recovery, what to do if a loved one might have an eating disorder, etc.

Thompson, Colleen. "Eating Disorders in Athletes." Mirror Mirror Eating Disorders. 1997. Accessed
December 16, 2015. http://www.mirror-mirror.org/athlete.htm.
Mirror Mirror Eating Disorders Associations supplies my project with a long list of signs and symptoms as well
as Physical/Medical Complications. Also stated is the fact that an estimated 10 to 20% of people will eventually
die from complications related to anorexia, making Anorexia have the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric

illness. It also makes the point clear that People with anorexia often do not believe they are ill because their body
and brain are sending conflicting signals, and much of this additional confusion is due to being undernourished.

Tracey, Natasha. "Bulimia Facts and Bulimia Statistics." HealthyPlace. January 14, 2014.
Accessed December 16, 2015. http://www.healthyplace.com/eating-disorders/bulimianervosa/bulimia-facts-and-bulimia-statistics
This page furthermore offers more information about Bulimia and how it is statistically more common
than anorexia nervosa, but anorexia can lead to bulimia and in rare cases how bulimia can lead to
anorexia. Also it tells us who can become Bulimic, what happens during Bulimia, and more facts and
statistics about the disease and how it affects our nation.

Quinn, Elizabeth. "Eating Disorders in Athletes." AboutHealth. June 9, 2014. Accessed

December 16, 2015.

http://sportsmedicine.about.com/cs/eatingdisorders1/a/aa110600a.htm

Being that this website is all about Sports Medicine, there is some interesting information about how athletes,
being very competitive in going to great lengths to advance in their sports. Also, combined with the expectations
of teammates and coaches as well as spectators, this makes them at a higher risk of developing an eating disorder
than the average person. The real threat to an athlete with an eating disorder is the extreme stress placed upon the
body. The very practice of self starvation, purging or obsessive exercise has a detrimental effect on athletic
performance.

BOOKS:
Costin, Carolyn. The Eating Disorders Sourcebook: A Comprehensive Guide to the Causes, Treatments, and
Prevention of Eating Disorders. Three ed. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Google Play. McGraw Hill Professional, 8 Jan.
2007. Web. 2 Jan. 2016.

<https://play.google.com/store/books/details?

id=ljHOJzTcJTEC&source=productsearch&utm_source=HA
_Desktop_US&utm_medium=SEM&utm_campaign=PLA&pcampaignid=MKTAD0930BO1&gl=US&gc
lid=CPCuo87YkcoCFQV4NwodcCQPfg&gclsrc=ds>.
This novel gives advice for overcoming an eating disorder Anorexia. These disorders can be devastating, but they
are in no way unbeatable. Therapist Carolyn Costin, herself recovered from anorexia, brings three decades of
experience and the newest research in the field together, providing me with the latest treatments. Whether you are
living with an eating disorder or you are a loved one or professional helping someone who is, The Eating Disorder
Sourcebook will help you: Recognize and identify eating disorders and discover and work with the underlying
causes of an eating disorder

Samuelson, Doreen A. Feeding the Starving Mind: A Personalized, Comprehensive Approach to Overcoming
Anorexia and Other Starvation Eating Disorders. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Google Play. New Harbinger
Publications, 1 Feb. 2009. Web. 2 Jan. 2016. <https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=3_JsOwg1wkC&source=productsearch&utm_source=HA_Desktop_US&utm_medium=SEM&utm_campaig
n=PLA&pcampaignid=MKTAD0930BO1&gl=US&gclid=CMDaz9LakcoCFQHd6Qodh7UDmQ&gclsrc
=ds>.
Starvation eating disorders such as anorexia not only affect your body, but also take a toll on your
mind. Your low self-worth can leave you mentally exhausted. And no matter how thin you become, it's

impossible to be happy when you are controlled by these thoughts. The author is Doreen A. Samelson,
Ed.D., MSCP, who is a medical psychologist specializing in weight loss surgery and the treatment of
eating disorders. She is committed to helping people with weight or food-related problems experience
improved their health. She regularly lectures on weight and food-related topics.

Seigel, Michele, Judith Brisman, and Margot Weinshel. "Surviving an Eating Disorder." Google Play.
Harper Collins, 6 Oct. 2009. Web. 2 Jan. 2016.
<https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=vS59D4lDOAQC&source=productsearch&utm
_source=HA_Desktop_US&utm_medium=SEM&utm_campaign=PLA&pcampaignid=MKTA
D0930BO1&gl=US&gclid=CMG5pa7ekcoCFQHd6Qodh7UDmQ&gclsrc=ds>.
Surviving an Eating Disorder has become a classic and it was one of the first books to offer support and
answers for family, friends, and all others who are suffering with eating disorders. This book provides
the latest information on how parents, spouses, friends, and professionals determine the right course of
action in their individual situations.
Michele Siegel, Ph.D., initiated the idea for this book and was co-founder with Judith Brisman of the
Eating Disorder Resource Center.Judith Brisman, Ph.D. is the director of the Eating Disorder Resource
Center. Margot Weinshel, M.S.W., is on the faculty of the Ackerman Institute for the Family, and is a
clinical instructor in the Department of Psychiatry of NYU Medical School.

Smith, Chelsea, and Beverly Runyon. Diary of an Eating Disorder. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Google Play. Taylor
Trade Publishing, 1 Apr. 1998. Web. 02 Jan. 2016.
<https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=wW_lzpAc8IC&source=productsearch&utm_source=HA_Desktop_US&utm_medium=SEM&utm_cam
paign=PLA
&pcampaignid=MKTAD0930BO1&gl=US&gclid=CPm1pordkcoCFYZXNwod4UEtQ&gclsrc=ds>.
In Diary of an Eating Disorder, Chelsea Smith comes forward with a day-to-day account of her life
with an eating disorder. This book provides insights into the mind of a person affected with anorexia
and bulimia.

Pictures:
"Am I Thin Enough?" n.d.
http://s619.photobucket.com/user/hoplesstrainwreck/media/027560b8.jpg.html
This is a picture of hands in shackles with a sign that says "am I thin enough." These shackles represent
the binding pain that Anorexic/Bulimic people feel whenever they think about their body or see
themselves in the mirror. All they can see is how heavy they are when in reality they are sickeningly
thin and malnourished.

"Anorexia Happens In Men Too." n.d.


http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_10yYjoTIYE0/SdqxhMitcjI/AAAAAAAACqg/ui6spUANRk4/s400/anorexia++Bryan+Bixler+%234.jpg
This picture is a jaw dropping picture of the midsection of a man who is affected with an eating disorder. He is
putting his arms around himself as if being ashamed with his body, although being very frail. In this picture we
can see the man's ribs and chest bones. He almost looks like a human skeleton

"Bulimia." n.d. http://healthxtourism.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/bulimia_1.jpg


This picture is a wheel with a cycle of the feelings that people go through when they have this illness. It
is basically a huge cycle of self hate and feeling of failure. This is important because this displays a
common cycle of thoughts that people go through. People often go from Purging to feelings of failure
to binging again.
"Bulimia: The Devil Inside." n.d.

https://sp.yimg.com/xj/th?

id=OIP.Mec554c6f17047afc52259f4b97265327H0&pid=15.1

&P=0&w=300&h=300.

This is a picture of a women with her head on her knees as she sits on the floor in front of her fridge.
Shown in this picture is a variety of foods half finished and strewn across the floor. Being that when
you have bulimia it is a constant cycle of purging, failing, and then binging this shows that the woman
in this picture feels as if she has been taken over by "the devil inside" which she describes as the
definition of Bulimia.
"Gross, Greed, Fail." n.d. http://1.bp.blogspot.com/tQBLZ7KgXs8/UKwEgqy6r7I/AAAAAAAAASU/jhBgduqDvds/s1600/Anorexia.jpg.

This picture is a picture of a young (probably teenage) girl who has the words gross, worthless, failure, and greed
etched into her skin in dark ink. Also, we can see that she has a measuring tape in between her lips. This
can be taken in symbolic terms saying how she eats so little and therefore her body is almost nonexistant,
only skin and bones. We can also see the dark circles under her eyes showing how malnourished and tired
she is because of this disease.
"Its Just As Hard To Be Ken." n.d.
https://bloglostandfound.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/tumblr_mbkqhutvjm1qdpigco1_500.jpg

I think this picture is an important addition to my project because it also shows the male struggle with a disease
that is believed to be dominantly a women's. In this picture there is a man holding a sign that says "its just as hard
to be ken as it is to be Barbie." This shows the internal conflict going on inside of the boys head as he tries to fit
an ideal image. His ideal image would be formed as to societies impression of "perfection."
"I Won't Eat." n.d. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_zcD-z4oGARg/TNsxX5Wb8dI/AAAAAAAAAxA/weWEEOSCoQ/s1600/Anorexia_Nervosa_2_by_avitalik.jpg.

This picture is being added to my project because of its meaning. This is a picture of a teenage girl with
a piece of paper over her mouth saying "I won't eat." You can see the pain in her eyes as if she is calling
out for help but doesn't know how. This represents the aloneness and pain that people with Anorexia
have to deal with.

"Must Look Like This." n.d. http://cuidadoinfantil.net/wp-content/uploads/anorexia-y-bulimia.jpg

In this picture we can see a young lady with downcast eyes with pictures of very thin women who
would be considered to be the societies norm of beautiful women. The girl is on her knees in front of
the toilet and on the toilet there is a jar of diet pills. Also, above the pictures is a sign that says "must
look like this," showing that she would do anything in order to look just like her idols that she has taped
to her wall.

N.d. TIME. Web. 2 Jan. 2016. <http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1904999,00.html>.


This is a picture that looks almost like a water color painting of a very thin woman looking into a
mirror. The woman staring back at her isn't what is actually there. Instead, in the mirror, she sees a
heavy woman and you can see the discontent on her face as she is filled with self hate

"Shackles of Measuring Tape." n.d. http://farm5.staticflickr.com/4143/4782074239_e7f968f5d2_z.jpg


This is a very disturbing image of a girl with a measuring tape around her neck. This image is supposed to display
that the desire to drop weight is slowly suffocating and killing her. She is gasping for air as she tries to escape the
confines of her disease

"Then and Now." n.d. http://www.mainpump.ru/image/2012/12/24/5098-66.jpg.

This is a picture of a young man, most likely in his teens or twenties who was ravaged by an eating disorder. In
the second picture he appears happy and healthy, which a normal body weight. Although, in the first picture we
can see that he is very unhappy with his body image. He has a very gaunt face and his ribs, cheek bones, and
other bones are all prevalent

"What Is Unseen." n.d. http://drugline.org/medic/term/bulimia-nervosa/.


In this picture we see a young woman who is very slim looking into the mirror at something that is
simply not there. In her eyes she is much larger then she really is because that is all she sees
herself to be. Women and men with this disorders minds make them see themselves to the contrary
of what they truly are.

Who Are the Men and Boys Suffering From Anorexia? N.d. Highland Hospital. Web. 04 Jan. 2016.
<http://www.highlandhosp.com/2014/12/who-are-the-men-and-boys-uffering-from-anorexia/>.
In this picture we see a young man who is very muscular and slim looking into the mirror at
something that is not there. In his eyes he is much flabbier then he really is because he is pushing
himself to be a certain image that he sets for himself.

50 Percent of Teenage Girls Think They Are Fat. N.d. Diets USA. Web. 4 Jan. 2016.
<http://www.diets-usa.com/anorexia-nervosa-know-facts/>.

This is a picture of a slim teenage girls stomach with print written across it saying that 50 percent of
teenage girls think that they are fat. As we can see in the picture of the girl, this is obviously not the
case, but it is the image in their mind that they must be a certain image.

Databases:
Anorexia. 1974. Anorexia. The British Medical Journal 3 (5932). BMJ: 63940.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/20470398.

I am going to be using quotes from this article to describe the affect that Anorexia has on the body and
mind. This article is very useful because of the very flowery words used in the description of this
horrible disease

Stryer, Stacy Beller. Anorexia. N.p.: n.p., n.d. National Library of Science. Web. 4 Jan. 2016.
<http://locatorplus.gov/cgi-

bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?

DB=local&v1=1&ti=1,1&Search_Arg=101514307&Search_Code=0359&CNT=1&SID=1>.
This is a novel about the biological and anatomic affects of anorexia on the body and mind.