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This document is for pushover analysis using ETABS and SAP2000.

- EVALUATION OF PUSHOVER ANALYSIS PROCEDURES
- Performing Pushover Analysis in Etabs
- Performance Based Seismic Design
- 2013 Pushover Analysis Guide Final RC Building With Masonry Infill Walls EditedDraft January 2013
- PUSHOVER Report Chopra[1]
- Pushover Ppt
- Pushover Example Large
- Performance Based Seismic Design
- Nonlinear Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures
- Pushover Analysis Procedure_part2
- Pushover Analysis Using Etabs
- Pushover Analysis Final
- ETABS Pushover Analysis
- SAP-Etabs-Course-360
- Non Linear Analysis Pushover
- Etabs Guide
- S11OS_SAP2000 v 15 Hands-On Training
- Etabs-step by Step
- SAP2000 Academic Training
- Pushover Analysis Guide Final

You are on page 1of 194

For

By

Naveed Anwar

Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software

Asian Institute of Technology

In Association with

Pushover Analysis

Using ETABS (and SAP2000)

By

Naveed Anwar

Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software

Asian Institute of Technology

In Association with

Acknowledgements

notes is based on following sources:

Class notes by Prof. Worsak Kanok-Nukulchai

Seminar notes from Computers and Structures

Incorporated, USA

Notes from various workshops conducted by

Naveed Anwar

SAP2000 User and Technical Manuals

ETABS User and Technical Manuals

ATC40, Applied Technology Council, USA

FEMA-273, Federal Emergency Management

Agency, USA

Objectives

Introduce the basic Modeling and Analysis

Concepts

To provide an understanding of Static

Nonlinear Pushover Analysis for Seismic

Performance

To demonstrate the application of Pushover

Analysis for buildings using ETABS and

SAP2000 and to provide a comparison

The Questions

What is Pushover Analysis

How to carryout Pushover Analysis

What to do before Pushover Analysis

What to do after Pushover Analysis

Summary

The Significance of Modeling

Analysis Types

Linearity and Non-Linearity

Static and Dynamic Analysis

STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

EXCITATION

Loads

Vibrations

Settlements

Thermal Changes

Displacements

Strains

Stress

Stress Resultants

pv

Structural

Model

Analysis of Structures

xx yy zz

pvx 0

x

y

z

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

pv

Partial Differential Equations of

various order

Direct solution is only possible for:

Simple geometry

Simple Boundary

Simple Loading.

A - Real Structure cannot be Analyzed:

It can only be Load Tested to determine

response

B - We can only analyze a Model of the

Structure

C - We therefore need tools to Model the

Structure and to Analyze the Model

A discretized solution to a continuum

problem using FEM

A numerical procedure for solving

(partial) differential equations

associated with field problems, with

an accuracy acceptable to

engineers

pv

3D-CONTINUM

MODEL

CONTINUOUS MODEL

OF STRUCTURE

differential equations) partial or total differential

equations)

DISCRETE MODEL

OF STRUCTURE

(Governed by algebraic

equations)

Equilibrium

Actual Structure

xx yy zz

pvx 0

x y z

Partial

Differential

Equations

FEM

Assumptions

Classical

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law

Compatibility

Algebraic

Equations

_

dV p u dV p u ds

t

v

t

s

K = Stiffness

r = Response

R = Loads

Deformations (D)

Loads (F)

Fv

F=KD

STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

EXCITATION

pv

Static

Dynamic

Elastic

Inelastic

Linear

Nonlinear

1. Linear-Static

Elastic

Ku F

2. Linear-Dynamic

Elastic

Ku FNL F

4. Nonlinear-Dynamic

Inelastic

Elastic OR

Excitation

Structure

Response

Static

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Non-linear Analysis

P-Delta Analysis

Buckling Analysis

Static Pushover Analysis

Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)

Large Displacement Analysis

Dynamic Analysis

Free Vibration and Modal Analysis

Response Spectrum Analysis

Steady State Dynamic Analysis

Analysis Type

on the Structural System

The Type of Excitation (Loads)

The Type Structure (Material and

Geometry)

The Type Response

Static Vs Dynamic

Static Excitation

Time

When the Load can be assumed to be applied

Slowly

Dynamic Excitation

When the Excitation varies rapidly with Time

When the Inertial Force becomes significant

consideredQuasi Static

Most Dynamic Excitation can be converted to

Equivalent Static Loads

Elastic Vs Inelastic

Elastic Material

Follows the same path during loading and unloading

and returns to initial state of deformation, stress,

strain etc. after removal of load/ excitation

Inelastic Material

Does not follow the same path during loading and

unloading and may not returns to initial state of

deformation, stress, strain etc. after removal of load/

excitation

behavior depending upon level of loading.

Linear Vs Nonlinear

Linearity

The response is directly proportional to excitation

(Deflection doubles if load is doubled)

Non-Linearity

The response is not directly proportional to

excitation

(deflection may become 4 times if load is doubled)

Geometric Effects (Geometric non-linearity)

Material Effects (Material non-linearity)

Both

Linear-Elastic

Action

Action

Deformation

Action

Action

Deformation

Linear-Inelastic

Nonlinear-Elastic

Deformation

Nonlinear-Inelastic

Deformation

Linear, Static and Dynamic

Ku F

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

FNL

(t ) Cu (t ) Ku(t ) F (t )

Mu

Ku = F

Ku - FNL = F

Ku FNL F

u

Stiffness

Static Analysis Process

Dynamic Analysis Procedures

The General Beam

Element may have

7 degrees of

freedom

The seventh

degree is Warping

Warping is out-of

plane distortion of

the beam crosssection

ry

uy

y

u x rx

x

z

uz

rz

wz

member can have seven

Degrees Of Freedom

(DOF) with respect to its

local axis.

DOF

Picture

uz The

AxialComplete

deformation Axial

strain

Axial stress

ux Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress

uy Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress

rz Torsion Shear strain Shear stress

r y Curvature Axial strain Axial stress

rx Curvature Axial strain Axial stress

wz Warping Axial strain Axial stress

What is Stiffness ?

In structural terms, stiffness

may be defined as

Resistance to Deformation

So for each type of

deformation, there is a

corresponding stiffness

Stiffness can be considered

or evaluated at various levels

Stiffness is also the

constant in the ActionDeformation Relationship

uF

Ku F

F

K

u

Material Stiffness

Cross-section Geometry

Section Stiffness

Member Geometry

Member Stiffness

Structure Geometry

Structure Stiffness

Global Nodal Deformations

T-Matrix

Global-Local Cords.

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

N-Matrix

Shape Functions

B-Matrix

Strain-Deforrmation

D-Matrix

Stress-Strain

Form Global Stiffness Matrix

Form Load Vector

Modify for boundary conditions

Solve for unknown Displacements

Compute element actions/ stresses from end

displacements

For Both Linear and Non-Linear Systems

Step-by-Step Integration

Use of Mode Superposition with Eigen or LoadDependent Ritz Vector for Fast Nonlinear Analysis

(FNA)

Transformation of frequency domain and FFT

Method

Response Spectrum Method CQC - SRSS

Form Effective Stiffness Matrix

Solve Set of Dynamic Equilibrium Equations

for Displacement at Each Time Step

For Non-Linear Problems Calculate Member

Forces for Each Time Step and Iterate for

Equilibrium Brute Force Method

Generate Orthogonal Dependent Vectors and

Frequencies

Form Uncoupled Modal Equations and Solve

Using Exact Method for Each Time Increment

Recover Nodal Displacement as a Function

of Time

Calculate Member Forces as a Function of

Time

Approximately Three Times Faster than the

Calculation of Exact Eigen Vectors

Results in Improved Accuracy using a

Smaller Number of LDR Vector

Computer Storage Requirements are

Reduced

Can be Used for Non-Linear analysis to

Capture Local Static Response

Evaluate LDR Vectors with Non-Linear Elements

Removed and Dummy Elements Added for Stability

Solve All Modal Equations with Non-Linear Forces

on the Right Hand Side

Use Exact Integration within Each Time Step

Force and Energy Equilibrium are Satisfied at Each

Time Step by Iteration

The FNA Method is Designed for Static and Dynamic

Analysis of Non-Linear Structures with a Limited

Number of Pre-Defined Non-Linear Elements

Pushover Analysis

No Energy Dissipation

Inertia Forces Not Considered

Defined One Failure Mode

Higher Mode Effects Neglected

The modal analysis determines the inherent natural

frequencies of vibration

Each natural frequency is related to a time period

and a mode shape

Time Period is the time it takes to complete one

cycle of vibration

The Mode Shape is normalized deformation pattern

The number of Modes is typically equal to the

number of Degrees of Freedom

The Time Period and Mode Shapes are inherent

properties of the structure and do not depend on the

applied loads

Definition

Natural vibration of a structure released from initial condition and

subjected to no external load or damping

M u c u K ut Pt

t

t

Solution gives

Natural Frequencies

Associated mode shapes

An insight into the dynamic behavior and response of the structure

The Modal Analysis should be run before

applying loads any other analysis to check

the model and to understand the response of

the structure

Modal analysis is precursor to most types of

analysis including Response Spectrum, Time

History, Push-over analysis etc.

Modal analysis is a useful tool even if full

Dynamic Analysis is not performed

Modal analysis easy to run and is a fun to

watch the animations

with animation immediately exhibit the

strengths and weaknesses of the structure

Modal analysis can be used to check the

accuracy of the structural model

The Time Period should be within reasonable

range, (Ex: 0.1 x number of stories seconds)

The disconnected members are identified

Local modes are identified that may need

suppression

determined

For doubly symmetrical buildings, generally the

first two modes are translational and third mode

is rotational

If first mode is rotational, the structural is unsymmetrical

excitation can be avoided

The natural frequency of the structure should not

be close to excitation frequency

Unsymmetrical Mass

and Stiffness

Stiffness

Mode-1

Mode-2

Mode-3

Generally the deformation pattern

corresponding to the First Mode is used as

the basis for analysis

This is acceptable for structures with time

period less than or equal to 1 second

For more flexible structures, higher mode

contribution may become significant

Base Isolation

Isolators

Building Impact

Building Impact

Analysis

Dampers

Friction device

Concentrated damper

Nonlinear element

Gap Element

Bridge Deck

ABUTMENT

Hinges

PLASTIC HINGES

2 Rotational DOF

Degrading Stiffness?

Dampers

Mechanical Damper

F= f(u,v,umax)

F= ku

F= CvN

Mathematical Model

Does not Exist in Normal Structures and

Foundations

5 or 10 Percent modal Damping Values are

Often Used to Justify Energy Dissipation Due

to Non-Linear Effects

If Energy Dissipation Devices are Used Then

1 Percent Modal Damping should be Used for

the Elastic Part of the Structure

Uplift

Uplifting

Allowed

Structural Modeling

Structure Types

Cable Structures

Cable Nets

Cable Stayed

Bar Structures

2D/3D Trusses

2D/3D Frames, Grids

Surface Structures

Plate, Shell

In-Plane, Plane Stress

Solid Structures

(c) 3D Plate-Frame

(d) 3D Fram e

(f) Grid-Plate

(e) 2D Fram e

Fig. 1 Various Ways to Model a Real Struture

Plane Stress, Plane Strain, Axisymmetric, Plate and Shell Elements (2D,3D)

Brick Elements

Using Graphical Modeling Tools

Using Numerical Generation

Using Mathematical Generation

Using Copy and Replication

Using Subdivision and Meshing

Using Geometric Extrusions

Using Parametric Structures

Models

Simple Graphic Objects

Point Object

Line Object

Area Object

Brick Object

Represents Node

Represents 1D Elements

Represents 2D Elements

Represents 3D Elements

geometry, boundary and loads

SAP2000, ETABS and SAFE use the concept

of Graphic Objects

Structural Members are representation of

actual structural components

Finite Elements are discretized

representation of Structural Members

The concept of Graphic Objects can be used

to represent both, the Structural Members as

well as Finite Elements

In ETABS, the Graphic Objects representing

the Structural Members are automatically

divided into Finite Elements for analysis and

then back to structural members for result

interpretation

Applied Loads

Building Analysis

Member Actions

Cross-section Actions

Material Stress/Strain

Material Response

Section Response

Member Response

Building Response

Load Capacity

Working Stress Design

Stress is primary concern and objective

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Deformation is primary concern

deformation limits for design loads

Material failure criteria, section capacity

for factored loads

Ductility considerations, deformation

capacity, load capacity at large

deformations. Extraordinary load

considerations

Serviceability

Design

Strength Design

Performance

Design

that other design levels will be satisfied

Serviceability design only ensures that

deflections and vibrations etc. for service loads

are within limits but says nothing about strength

Strength design ensures that a certain factor of

safety against overload is available within a

member or a cross-section but says nothing

about what happens if load exceeds design level

Performance design ensures that structure as a

whole reaches a specified demand level.

Performance design can include, both service and

strength design levels

A Serviceability

B Cracking Limit

C Strength Limit

D Failure Limit

C

B

Load

member can be determined, in an

integrated manner from the ActionDeformation Curve

Deformation

Cross-section Reponses

Stresses

Tension

Compression

Shear > Tension-Compression

Strains

Normal strain

Shear Strain

Deformations

Rotation

Shortening

Shearing

Twisting

Material Stress-Strain Curves

Cross-section Dimensions

Performance

Given P value

Given Moments

P-M Curve

M-M Curve

Moment-Curvature Curves

Curvature for Given Moment

Yield Moment

Stiffness

Ductility

Load for Given Moment

Capacity Ratio

Mx for Given My

My for Given Mx

Capacity Ratio

Strength

Capacity

Interaction Surface

Capacity

Interaction Surface

P

My

Mx

Cross-section Stresses

Original Cross-sections

section

Composite section

Reinforced concrete,

composite section

In Strength Design, every member and every

cross-section must satisfy strength equation

Even if all members and sections are

designed for strength, the structure may not

perform well in case of overload

In Performance Based Design, only a few

members on the critical load path need to

perform well for the structure to perform well

Therefore for strengthening of structures, we

may only need to strengthen members or

section in the critical load path

members on the critical load path need to

perform well for the structure to perform well

may only need to strengthen members or

section in the critical load path

Anything that reduces cracking

The presence of appropriate amount of

reinforcement at appropriate locations

Reasonable sizes and proportions of member

cross-sections

Presence of compressive reinforcement

High strength concrete

Proper cver and protection of rebars

The basic Material Strength

Reinforcement yield strength

The amount of Rebars

The framing conditions

Performance is generally of concern for

lateral loads such as earthquake and wind

The main factor that effects performance is

the Ductility of the members on the critical

load path

In frame structures, the design of the joints

between columns and beams is critical

The performance of shear walls if great

importance for lateral load demands

Ductility can be

defined as the ratio

of deformation and a

given stage to the

maximum

deformation

capacity

Normally ductility is

measured from the

deformation at design

strength to the

maximum

deformation at failure

Load

Yield/ Design

Strength

Dy

Du

Deformation

Ductility = Dy / Du

The most important factor effecting ductility

of reinforced concrete cross-section is the

confinement of concrete

Shape of confinement steel

Stress-strain curve of rebars

Amount of rebars in tension

Amount of rebars in compression

The shape of cross-section

corresponding deformation

These relationships can be obtained at

several levels

Load - Deflection

The Member Level:

Moment - Rotation

The Cross-section Level: Moment - Curvature

The Material Level :

Stress-Strain

entire response of the structure, member,

cross-section or material

By actual measurements

Apply load, measure deflection

Apply load, measure stress and strain

By computations

Use material models, cross-section dimensions to

get Moment-Curvature Curves

computations

Calibrate computation models with actual

measurements

Some parameters obtained by measurement and

some by computations

curve for beams, columns, shear walls and

consequently for building structures

Significant information can be obtained from

Moment Curvature Curve to compute:

Yield Point

Failure Point

Ductility

Stiffness

Crack Width

Rotation

Deflection

Strain

What is Curvature

In geometry, it is rate

of change of rotation

In structural behavior,

Curvature is related to

Moment

For a cross-section

undergoing flexural

deformation, it can

computed as the ratio

of the strain to the

depth of neutral axis

e

C

2 -Failure Point

1 -Yield Point

y

3 - Ductility

u

EI

M

EI

b

M

dx

EI

a

6 - Deflection of the section at given Moment

M

D x dx

EI

a

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

the point where strain is

required

8 - Crack Width at given crack spacing

W s X

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

W yX

NA

Rebar Centroid

W

X

W

X

y

Plot M-Phi Curve

EI

Determine curvature

at known moment

Determine Flexural

Stiffness (EI)

b

M

D

EI

a

b

x dx

Determine Deflection

M

dx

EI

Determine Slope

Determine Strain

W s X

s

Determine Crack

Spacing/Width

For M=600 Phi = 0.00006

From M-Phi Diagram

P=160 K

L/2

24 in

EI

36 in

15 ft

EI=600x12/0.00006

EI=1.2E8 k-in^2

M=600 k-ft

b

M

dx

EI

a

=600x7.5x144/1.2E8

=0.0054 rad

Deflection at Mid Span

M

D x dx

EI

a

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

=600x7.5x144x15x12/(6x1.2E8)

=0.162 in

Strain in Steel

c

M = 600 k-ft, y=16

=0.00006x16

=0.00096

NA

Rebar Centroid

Crack Width

Assuming crack spacing of 18 in

W s X

NA

=0.00096 x 18

=0.01728 in

Crack Spacing

Assuming crack width of 0.02 in

W

s

=0.02/0.00096

=20.8 in

Rebar Centroid

Effect of Compression Steel

Effect of Confinement Model

Effect of Confinement Shape

12#8 bars

a)

b)

8#8

8#8bars

bars

2#8 bars

8#8 bars

c)

4#8 bars

8#8 bars

d)

8#8 bars

8#8 bars

Effect of Concrete Confinement Model on Ductility of Cross-Section

350

300

Moment (kip-ft)

250

200

Whitney Rectangle

Mander Circular Confined

150

100

50

0

0

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

0.005

0.006

Curvature (rad/in)

a)

8#8 bars

Whitney Rectangle

(both)

b)

c)

8#8 bars

8#8 bars

Whitney Rectangle (outside)

Whitney Rectangle (outside)

Mander Circular Confined (inside) Mander Pipe Filled (inside)

Effect of Confinement Steel Spacing on Ductility

160

140

Moment (kip-ft)

120

100

Spacing = 3in

80

Spacing = 6 in

60

Spacing = 12 in

40

20

0

-0.0005

0.0000

0.0005

0.0010

0.0015

0.0020

0.0025

-20

Curvature (in/rad)

a)

8#6 bars

Manders Rectangular

Confined

a)

8#6 bars

Manders Rectangular

Confined

b)

a)

8#6 bars

Manders Circular

Confined

8#6 bars

Whitney Rectangle

Introducing

Pushover Analysis

An alternate method of analysis for carrying

out the Performance Based Design

Pushover analysis is carried out after the

Linear Analysis has been done and

Serviceability and Strength design has been

completed

Pushover analysis is most suitable for

determining the performance, specially for

lateral loads such as Earthquake or even

wind

systems during strong ground shaking

Improve Understanding of Building Behavior

More accurate prediction of global displacement

More realistic prediction of earthquake demand

on individual components and elements

More reliable identification of bad actors

Less conservative acceptance criteria

Less extensive construction

Design is based not on Ultimate Strength but

rather on Expected Performance

be performance of the structure at Ultimate

Capacity

Fully Operational

Operational

Life Safe

Near Collapse

Collapse

Pushover Spectrum

Demand Vs Capacity

Non-linearity in Pushover

Material nonlinearity at discrete, user-defined hinges

in frame/line elements.

1. Material nonlinearity in the link elements.

plasticity base isolators (biaxial plasticity and biaxial

friction/pendulum)..

Only P-delta effects

P-delta effects plus large displacements

Members can be added or removed in a sequence of stages

during each analysis case.

Important Considerations

Each nonlinear problem is different

Start simple and build up gradually.

Run linear static loads and modal analysis

first

Add hinges gradually beginning with the

areas where you expect the most nonlinearity.

Perform initial analyses without geometric

non-linearity. Add P-delta effects, and large

deformations, much later.

Important Considerations

Mathematically, static nonlinear analysis

does not always guarantee a unique solution.

Small changes in properties or loading can

cause large changes in nonlinear response.

It is Important to consider many different

loading cases, and sensitivity studies on the

effect of varying the properties of the

structure

Nonlinear analysis takes time and patience.

Dont Rush it or Push to Hard

Create a model just like for any other

analysis.

Define the static load cases, if any, needed

for use in the static nonlinear analysis

(Define > Static Load Cases).

Define any other static and dynamic analysis

cases that may be needed for steel or

concrete design of frame elements.

Define hinge properties, if any (Define >

Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties).

Assign hinge properties, if any, to frame/line

elements (Assign > Frame/Line > Frame

Nonlinear Hinges).

Define nonlinear link properties, if any

(Define > Link Properties).

Assign link properties, if any, to frame/line

elements (Assign > Frame/Line > Link

Properties).

Run the basic linear and dynamic analyses

(Analyze > Run).

Perform concrete design/steel design so that

reinforcing steel/ section is determined for

concrete/steel hinge if properties are based

on default values to be computed by the

program.

For staged construction, define groups that

represent the various completed stages of

construction.

Define the static nonlinear load cases (Define

> Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases).

Run the static nonlinear analysis (Analyze >

Run Static Nonlinear Analysis).

Review the static nonlinear results (Display >

Show Static Pushover Curve), (Display >

Show Deformed Shape), (Display > Show

Member Forces/Stress Diagram), and (File >

Print Tables > Analysis Output).

Perform any design checks that utilize static

nonlinear cases.

Revise the model as necessary and repeat.

Summary

We have to think in terms of

Displacements and not in terms of loads,

stresses or strains

The main idea is to compare expected

displacements or required displacements

with the ability of the structure to reach

those displacements without failing

OR

indicating that it will not reach those

displacements

and

Pushover Analysis

Technical Background

By:

Director Development

Computers and Structures Inc., Berkeley, USA

Purpose

given level of earthquake?

Definition of Structural Performance

Definition of Earthquake Level

Determination of performance level

Process

Guidelines for Seismic Rehabilitation of

Buildings:

ATC-40

ATC-33 (FEMA 273 and 274)

Linear Static Analysis

Linear Dynamic Analysis

Non Linear Static Analysis

(Pushover Analysis)

Non Linear Dynamic Analysis

Force Measure

given Earthquake

Performance Limits

(IO, LS, CP)

Deformation Measure

Select Earthquake Level to check

Select Performance Level to check

Select acceptance criteria for each

Performance Level

Verify Acceptance

ATC-40 Method

ATC-33 Method

Define Structural Model

Elements

Strength-Deformation properties

Define Loads

Gravity

Lateral Load Patterns

Perform Pushover Analysis

Types

Truss Yielding and Buckling

3D Beam Major direction Flexural and Shear

Hinging

3D Column P-M-M Interaction and shear Hinging

Panel Zone Shear Yielding

In-Fill Panel Shear Failure

Shear Wall P-M-Shear Interaction!

Spring for foundation modeling

Force - Deformation Relationship

Force

B

D

A

Deformation

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Span Loads

Shear Hinge

Flexible connection

Plastic Hinge

Rigid Zone

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Shear Hinge

Plastic Hinge

Rigid Zone

Pushover Modeling

Axial

Moment only

P-M : Uniaxial P-M Interaction

P-M-M : Biaxial P-M Interaction

Shear

Start with Gravity Loads

Dead Load

Some Portion of Live Load

Uniform

Code Static Lateral Load Distribution

First Mode

Combination of Modes

Force Controlled Analysis

Deformation Controlled Analysis

Roof Displacement

Generalized Displacement Definitions

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Story Drift

Limit of Analysis

Instability Loss of Gravity Load Carry Capacity

Excessive Distortions

Event by Event Strategies

Manual

Constant Stiffness iteration

Tangent Stiffness iteration

Ritz Method (Reduced Space) Strategies

Estimation of Equivalent Damping

Determine Demand Spectrum

Determine Performance Point

Verify Acceptance

Spectral

Acceleration

Capacity Spectrum

Spectral Displacement

Response Spectrum (5% Damping)

Spectral

Acceleration

2.5CA

Cv/T

Time Period

Reduced Spectrum (Equivalent Damping)

Spectral

Acceleration

2.5CA/Bs

Cv /(T BL)

Time Period

Spectral

Acceleration

Performance Point

Spectral Displacement

Force Measure

given Earthquake

Performance Limits

(IO, LS, CP)

Deformation Measure

Estimate Target Displacement

Verify Acceptance

Estimation of Target Displacement

Estimate post yield stiffness, Ks

Estimate effective fundamental period, Te

Calculate target roof displacement

Estimation of Target Displacement

C1, Modifier for inelastic displacement

C2, Modifier for hysteresis loop shape

C3, Modifier for second order effects

Full 3D implementation

Single Model for

Linear Response Spectrum Analysis

Linear Time History Analysis

Non Linear Time History Analysis

Non Linear Static Pushover Analysis

Steel and Concrete Design

Available Pushover Element Types

3D Beam Major direction Flexural and Shear Hinging

3D Column P-M-M Interaction and shear Hinging

Shell, Solids, etc (Considered Linear)

Panel Zone (later)

Shear Wall (Later)

Non-Linear Spring (Later)

Force - Deformation Relationship

Force

B

D

A

Deformation

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Span Loads

Shear Hinge

Flexible connection

Plastic Hinge

Rigid Zone

Strength Deformation and P-M-M curves

can be calculated by program for:

Steel columns (FEMA-273)

Shear Hinges in EBF Links (FEMA-273)

Concrete Beams (ATC-40)

Concrete Columns (ATC-40)

Shear hinge in Coupling Beams (ATC-40)

Gravity Load Analysis

Nodal Loads

Element Loads

Load Controlled Analysis

Pushover Analysis

Starts from Gravity loads

Nodal Load Patterns (User, Modal, Mass)

Multi-Step Displacement or Drift Controlled

Base Shear

Element Forces

Section Forces

Joint Displacement

Drifts

Element hinge Deformations

Limit Points reached

Calculation of Effective Period (per step)

Calculation of Effective Damping (per step)

Calculation of Demand Spectrum (per step)

Location of Performance Point

Limit Points (acceptable criteria) reached

Visual Display for Each Step

Deformed Shape

Member Force Diagrams

Hinge Locations and Stages

Graphs

Capacity Curves

Demand Curves

Demand Spectra at different Damping

Effective Period Lines

Examples

Example 1

P=100 Kip

Gravity Load

m=3.6

W36x120

10 ft

Lateral Push to

0.5ft Disp

Default M3

Pushover Hinge

Capacity Spectrum

Example 2

P=Unit Load

Axial Force, P

(Kips)

12 ft

Desired Behavior

User P Hinge

2100

1700

1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

(in)

Find Column E

Determine Column E to

give Appropriate Initial

Stiffness:

PL

E

AD

= (1700 *12*12)/(24*24*0.1)

= 4250 Ksi

Axial Force, P

(Kips)

Column

Desired Behavior

2100

1700

1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

(in)

Column

PL

D

AE

= [(2100-1700) *12*12)]/(24*24*4250)

= 0.0235 in

Axial Force, P

(Kips)

Lengthening when loading

from 1700 to 2100 K:

Desired Behavior

2100

1700

1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

(in)

Column D

PL

AE

= [(2100-1000) *12*12)]/(24*24*4250)

= 0.0647 in

Axial Force, P

(Kips)

Lengthening when loading

from 2100 to 1000 K:

Desired Behavior

2100

1700

1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

(in)

Column

PL

D

AE

= 1000 *12*12)/(24*24*4250)

= 0.0588 in

Desired Behavior

Axial Force, P

(Kips)

Determine Elastic

Column Lengthening

when loading from 1000

to 0 K:

2100

1700

1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

(in)

Hinge Properties

2100

1700

1000

0.8

0.7412

0.4765

0.5412

A

0.0

1000

Axial Force, P

(Kips)

2100

1700

Desired Behavior

B = 0.1 - 0.1 = 0

C = 0.6 - 0.1 - 0.0235 = 0.4765

D = 0.6 - 0.1 - 0.0235 + 0.0647 = 0.5412

E = 0.8 - 0.1 - 0.0235 + 0.0647 = 0.7412

0.1

0.6

0.8

(in)

Hinge Properties

Pushover Curve

0.8 kip/ft

W14x90

Push

0

19

2x

0

W1

x1

W8

W1

2x

19

0

W8

x1

0

W14x90

Example 3

1.2 kip/ft

0.8 kip/ft

W24x55

Example 3

M3

M3

PMM

M3 V M3 M3

MR

MR

PMM

MR

PMM

M3

P

Legend

P = Axial Hinge

MR = Moment Release

M3 = Moment Hinge

V2 = Shear Hinge

PMM = PMM Hinge

PMM

MR

Conversion to

ADRS Spectra ATC-40

Acceleration-Displacement Response

Spectra (ADRS)

Every Point on a Response Spectrum curve

has a unique

Spectral Acceleration, Sa

Spectral Velocity, Sv

Spectral Displacement, Sd

Time, T

For Each value or Sai and Ti determine the

value of Sdi using the equation

2

Ti

S di

S ai g

2

4

period Ti are given by

2

S ai g

Sv

Ti

Ti

S di

Sv

2

Capacity Spectrum from Capacity or

Pushover Curve

Point by Point conversion to first mode

spectral coordinates

Vi and D roof on capacity curves are converted

to corresponding Sai and Sdi on capacity

spectrum using:

Vi

S ai

W

S di

D roof

PF

1

1, roof

Using M-Fi Curve

Procedure

Estimate EI value from M-Fi Curve using the

following equation

M

EI

M

EI

b

M

dx

EI

a

Reinforced Concrete

Beam-Column CrossSection

24x24

Reinforced with 12 #9

bars

Length is 12 ft

24"

24"

Example

Example

370

0.00028

Example

M

EI

So EI = 370/0.00028 = 1321428.6

b

M

M

Ip

dx

EI

EI

a

So = 0.00336 rad

Find for other Moment Values and input in

Hinge Property

Considerations

when integrating or integrate over the whole

member length with actual moment diagram

Ip = h/2

Comparisons of

SAP2000 and ETABS

SAP2000 vs ETABS

SAP2000

General Purpose FEA

Software

Software

Steel, and Concrete Frame

Element Design

Shear Wall Design Not

Supported

Fewer Automated Meshing

Options

Does not Support

Composite Design

ETABS

Specialized FEA Software

for Building analysis and

design

Fully Object based Modeling

and Design

Steel, concrete, composite

Frame Element design

Supports Shear wall design

meshing options

Supports Composite Design

SAP2000 vs ETABS

SAP2000

General output related to

nodes and elements is

reported

ETABS

Floor wise representation of

results such as story drift,

floor mass participation,

story shear, etc.

Professional Report

Powerful load cases,

combinations, envelopes,

multiple case, etc.

Cables, Dampers, and NL

Links and Hinges

handle load combinations

Only Nonlinear links and

Hinges

SAP2000 vs ETABS

SAP2000

Supports Solid Elements

for defining and editing

grid systems

ETABS

Does not support solid

elements

Powerful grid system

definition and editing

ETABS Pushover

ETABS Pushover

ETABS Pushover

SAP2000 Pushover

SAP2000 Pushover

SAP2000 Pushover

SAP2000 Pushover

SAP2000 Pushover

1

Use Load Patterns

Steps to compute the

Displacement

(Displacement not

Monitored)

Divide the Specified

Displacement into

Steps and apply loads

to attain that

displacement

Monitor which DOF at

what level/story

Save Positive Results

only

2

After a member fails

redistribute loads

locally around failed

members or reanalyze

structure using a new

stiffness matrix

3

Which Pattern Loads

to apply and what is

the scaling factor for

each loading case

included in the load

factor

ETABS Pushover

4

Consider P-Delta

effects and Large

Displacements due to

gravity loads caused

by each step of lateral

loading

5

For Construction

Sequence analysis.

Specify which

Pushover case to be

applied to which stage

of construction or

strengthening.

SAP Pushover

1

Weather to start from

unstressed condition

or if more than one

Pushover cases are

defined then may be

start the later pushover

case from the final

state of the pervious

case

2

When the load type in

3 is set to Loads this

becomes irrelevant

and if the Load Type in

3 is set to Acceleration

then to find modal

masses, select the

analysis case from

which the modal

masses may be

3

Specify if Loads or

Accelerations needs to

be applied and what is

the scale factor for

each load case

4

Load Application

Use full load

application without

monitoring the

displacement or use

the displacement

control. Also specify

the DOF to be

Monitored and the

Joint at which the DOF

is to be monitored

Results Saved

Save Results at only

final stage of Loading

or after each step.

Specify Max and Min

number of steps

Staged Construction

For Construction

Sequence analysis.

Specify which

Pushover case to be

applied to which stage

of construction or

strengthening

Nonlinear Parameters

Those explained in 2

and 4 on previous slide

2

3

4

1

V=Base Shear

D=Displacement

Sa=Spectral

Acceleration

Sd=Spectral Disp

Teff=Effective

Fundamental Period

Beff=Effective Viscous

Damping

3

Demand Curves

plotted for these

Damping Ratios

4

Grey Lines are the

Constant Period Lines

drawing for period

specified here

5

If there is additional viscous

damping provided in the

structure, perhaps by viscous

dampers that are not

specifically included in the

model

The Structural Behavior Types

A, B and C default to the

values defined for those

structural behavior types in

Section 8.2.2.1.1 of ATC-40 .

The User Defined Kappa

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