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Pushover Analysis

Using ETABS and SAP2000

June 18-19, Manila, Philippines


For

Association of Structural Engineers Philippines

By

Naveed Anwar
Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software
Asian Institute of Technology
In Association with

Computers and Structures Inc., Berkeley, California, USA

Pushover Analysis
Using ETABS (and SAP2000)

June 22-23, CEBU, Philippines

By

Naveed Anwar
Asian Center for Engineering Computations and Software
Asian Institute of Technology
In Association with

Computers and Structures Inc., Berkeley, California, USA

Acknowledgements

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Some of the material presented in these


notes is based on following sources:
Class notes by Prof. Worsak Kanok-Nukulchai
Seminar notes from Computers and Structures
Incorporated, USA
Notes from various workshops conducted by
Naveed Anwar
SAP2000 User and Technical Manuals
ETABS User and Technical Manuals
ATC40, Applied Technology Council, USA
FEMA-273, Federal Emergency Management
Agency, USA

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Objectives
Introduce the basic Modeling and Analysis
Concepts
To provide an understanding of Static
Nonlinear Pushover Analysis for Seismic
Performance
To demonstrate the application of Pushover
Analysis for buildings using ETABS and
SAP2000 and to provide a comparison

The Questions

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Why use Pushover Analysis


What is Pushover Analysis
How to carryout Pushover Analysis
What to do before Pushover Analysis
What to do after Pushover Analysis

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Modeling and Analysis

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Summary

The Purpose of Analysis


The Significance of Modeling
Analysis Types
Linearity and Non-Linearity
Static and Dynamic Analysis

Structural System Analysis Model


STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

EXCITATION
Loads
Vibrations
Settlements
Thermal Changes

Displacements
Strains
Stress
Stress Resultants

pv

Structural
Model

Analysis of Structures
xx yy zz

pvx 0
x
y
z
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

pv

Real Structure is governed by


Partial Differential Equations of
various order
Direct solution is only possible for:
Simple geometry
Simple Boundary
Simple Loading.

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The Need for Modeling


A - Real Structure cannot be Analyzed:
It can only be Load Tested to determine
response
B - We can only analyze a Model of the
Structure
C - We therefore need tools to Model the
Structure and to Analyze the Model

Finite Element Method: The Analysis Tool

Finite Element Analysis (FEA)


A discretized solution to a continuum
problem using FEM

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Finite Element Method (FEM)


A numerical procedure for solving
(partial) differential equations
associated with field problems, with
an accuracy acceptable to
engineers

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Continuum to Discrete Model

pv
3D-CONTINUM
MODEL

CONTINUOUS MODEL
OF STRUCTURE

(Governed by partial (Governed by either


differential equations) partial or total differential
equations)

DISCRETE MODEL
OF STRUCTURE

(Governed by algebraic
equations)

From Classical to FEM Solution


Equilibrium

Actual Structure

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

xx yy zz

pvx 0
x y z
Partial
Differential
Equations

FEM

Assumptions

Classical

Structural Model

Kr R

Stress-Strain Law
Compatibility

Algebraic
Equations
_

dV p u dV p u ds
t
v

t
s

(Principle of Virtual Work)

K = Stiffness
r = Response
R = Loads

Simplified Structural System


Deformations (D)

Loads (F)

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Fv

F=KD

The Analysis System


STRUCTURE

RESPONSES

EXCITATION

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

pv

Static
Dynamic

Elastic
Inelastic

Linear
Nonlinear

Eight types of equilibrium equations are possible!

The Equilibrium Equations


1. Linear-Static

Elastic

Ku F

2. Linear-Dynamic

Elastic

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Mu(t ) Cu(t ) Ku(t ) F (t )

3. Nonlinear - Static Elastic OR Inelastic


Ku FNL F

4. Nonlinear-Dynamic
Inelastic

Elastic OR

Mu(t ) Cu(t ) Ku(t ) F (t ) NL F (t )

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Basic Analysis Types


Excitation

Structure

Response

Basic Analysis Type

Static

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Static

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Static Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Linear

Linear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Elastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Linear

Linear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic

Inelastic

Nonlinear

Nonlinear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

Some More Solution Types

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Non-linear Analysis

P-Delta Analysis
Buckling Analysis
Static Pushover Analysis
Fast Non-Linear Analysis (FNA)
Large Displacement Analysis

Dynamic Analysis
Free Vibration and Modal Analysis
Response Spectrum Analysis
Steady State Dynamic Analysis

Analysis Type

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The type of Analysis to be carried out depends


on the Structural System
The Type of Excitation (Loads)
The Type Structure (Material and
Geometry)
The Type Response

Static Vs Dynamic
Static Excitation

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

When the Excitation (Load) does not vary rapidly with


Time
When the Load can be assumed to be applied
Slowly

Dynamic Excitation
When the Excitation varies rapidly with Time
When the Inertial Force becomes significant

Most Real Excitation are Dynamic but are


consideredQuasi Static
Most Dynamic Excitation can be converted to
Equivalent Static Loads

Elastic Vs Inelastic
Elastic Material
Follows the same path during loading and unloading
and returns to initial state of deformation, stress,
strain etc. after removal of load/ excitation

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Inelastic Material
Does not follow the same path during loading and
unloading and may not returns to initial state of
deformation, stress, strain etc. after removal of load/
excitation

Most materials exhibit both, elastic and inelastic


behavior depending upon level of loading.

Linear Vs Nonlinear
Linearity
The response is directly proportional to excitation
(Deflection doubles if load is doubled)

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Non-Linearity
The response is not directly proportional to
excitation
(deflection may become 4 times if load is doubled)

Non-linear response may be produced by:


Geometric Effects (Geometric non-linearity)
Material Effects (Material non-linearity)
Both

Linear-Elastic

Action

Action

Elasticity and Linearity

Deformation

Action

Action

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Deformation

Linear-Inelastic

Nonlinear-Elastic
Deformation

Nonlinear-Inelastic
Deformation

Linear and Nonlinear


Linear, Static and Dynamic

Ku F
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

FNL

(t ) Cu (t ) Ku(t ) F (t )
Mu
Ku = F
Ku - FNL = F

Nonlinear, Static and Dynamic

Ku FNL F
u

Non Linear Equilibrium

Mu(t ) Cu(t ) Ku(t ) F (t ) NL F (t )

Basic Concepts for Analysis

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

DOF (Degree of Freedom)


Stiffness
Static Analysis Process
Dynamic Analysis Procedures

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The Seven Degrees of Freedom


The General Beam
Element may have
7 degrees of
freedom
The seventh
degree is Warping
Warping is out-of
plane distortion of
the beam crosssection

ry
uy
y

u x rx
x
z
uz
rz
wz

Each section on a beam


member can have seven
Degrees Of Freedom
(DOF) with respect to its
local axis.

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

DOF
Picture
uz The
AxialComplete
deformation Axial
strain
Axial stress
ux Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress
uy Shear deformation Shear strain Shear stress
rz Torsion Shear strain Shear stress
r y Curvature Axial strain Axial stress
rx Curvature Axial strain Axial stress
wz Warping Axial strain Axial stress

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

What is Stiffness ?
In structural terms, stiffness
may be defined as
Resistance to Deformation
So for each type of
deformation, there is a
corresponding stiffness
Stiffness can be considered
or evaluated at various levels
Stiffness is also the
constant in the ActionDeformation Relationship

For Linear Response

uF
Ku F
F
K
u

The Structure Stiffness


Material Stiffness

Cross-section Geometry

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Section Stiffness

Member Geometry
Member Stiffness

Structure Geometry
Structure Stiffness

The Matrices in FEM


Global Nodal Deformations
T-Matrix
Global-Local Cords.

Element Nodal Deformations


Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

N-Matrix
Shape Functions

Deformation in Element Space


B-Matrix
Strain-Deforrmation

Strain In Element Space


D-Matrix
Stress-Strain

Stress in Element Space

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Linear-Static Analysis Process

Generate Stiffness Matrix for each Element


Form Global Stiffness Matrix
Form Load Vector
Modify for boundary conditions
Solve for unknown Displacements
Compute element actions/ stresses from end
displacements

Methods of Dynamic Analysis


For Both Linear and Non-Linear Systems

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Step-by-Step Integration
Use of Mode Superposition with Eigen or LoadDependent Ritz Vector for Fast Nonlinear Analysis
(FNA)

For Linear Systems Only


Transformation of frequency domain and FFT
Method
Response Spectrum Method CQC - SRSS

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Step by Step Solution Method


Form Effective Stiffness Matrix
Solve Set of Dynamic Equilibrium Equations
for Displacement at Each Time Step
For Non-Linear Problems Calculate Member
Forces for Each Time Step and Iterate for
Equilibrium Brute Force Method

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Mode Superposition Method


Generate Orthogonal Dependent Vectors and
Frequencies
Form Uncoupled Modal Equations and Solve
Using Exact Method for Each Time Increment
Recover Nodal Displacement as a Function
of Time
Calculate Member Forces as a Function of
Time

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Load Dependent Ritz Vector


Approximately Three Times Faster than the
Calculation of Exact Eigen Vectors
Results in Improved Accuracy using a
Smaller Number of LDR Vector
Computer Storage Requirements are
Reduced
Can be Used for Non-Linear analysis to
Capture Local Static Response

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Fast Non-Linear Analysis


Evaluate LDR Vectors with Non-Linear Elements
Removed and Dummy Elements Added for Stability
Solve All Modal Equations with Non-Linear Forces
on the Right Hand Side
Use Exact Integration within Each Time Step
Force and Energy Equilibrium are Satisfied at Each
Time Step by Iteration
The FNA Method is Designed for Static and Dynamic
Analysis of Non-Linear Structures with a Limited
Number of Pre-Defined Non-Linear Elements

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Pushover Analysis

One Dimensional Static Loads


No Energy Dissipation
Inertia Forces Not Considered
Defined One Failure Mode
Higher Mode Effects Neglected

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The Modal Analysis

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The Modal Analysis


The modal analysis determines the inherent natural
frequencies of vibration
Each natural frequency is related to a time period
and a mode shape
Time Period is the time it takes to complete one
cycle of vibration
The Mode Shape is normalized deformation pattern
The number of Modes is typically equal to the
number of Degrees of Freedom
The Time Period and Mode Shapes are inherent
properties of the structure and do not depend on the
applied loads

Free Vibration Analysis


Definition
Natural vibration of a structure released from initial condition and
subjected to no external load or damping

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Main governing equation -Eigenvalue Problem




M u c u K ut Pt
t
t

Solution gives
Natural Frequencies
Associated mode shapes
An insight into the dynamic behavior and response of the structure

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The Modal Analysis


The Modal Analysis should be run before
applying loads any other analysis to check
the model and to understand the response of
the structure
Modal analysis is precursor to most types of
analysis including Response Spectrum, Time
History, Push-over analysis etc.
Modal analysis is a useful tool even if full
Dynamic Analysis is not performed
Modal analysis easy to run and is a fun to
watch the animations

Application of Modal Analysis

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The Time Period and Mode Shapes, together


with animation immediately exhibit the
strengths and weaknesses of the structure
Modal analysis can be used to check the
accuracy of the structural model
The Time Period should be within reasonable
range, (Ex: 0.1 x number of stories seconds)
The disconnected members are identified
Local modes are identified that may need
suppression

Application of Modal Analysis

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The symmetry of the structure can be


determined
For doubly symmetrical buildings, generally the
first two modes are translational and third mode
is rotational
If first mode is rotational, the structural is unsymmetrical

The resonance with the applied loads or


excitation can be avoided
The natural frequency of the structure should not
be close to excitation frequency

Eccentric and Concentric Response

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Unsymmetrical Mass
and Stiffness

Symmetrical Mass and


Stiffness

Mode-1

Mode-2

Mode-3

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Modes and Pushover


Generally the deformation pattern
corresponding to the First Mode is used as
the basis for analysis
This is acceptable for structures with time
period less than or equal to 1 second
For more flexible structures, higher mode
contribution may become significant

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Special Analysis Problems

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Base Isolation

Isolators

Building Impact

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Building Impact
Analysis

Dampers
Friction device

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Concentrated damper
Nonlinear element

Gaps and Joints


Gap Element

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Bridge Deck
ABUTMENT

Tension only element

Hinges

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

PLASTIC HINGES

2 Rotational DOF

Degrading Stiffness?

Dampers

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Mechanical Damper
F= f(u,v,umax)

F= ku

F= CvN
Mathematical Model

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Linear Viscous Damping


Does not Exist in Normal Structures and
Foundations
5 or 10 Percent modal Damping Values are
Often Used to Justify Energy Dissipation Due
to Non-Linear Effects
If Energy Dissipation Devices are Used Then
1 Percent Modal Damping should be Used for
the Elastic Part of the Structure

Uplift

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

FRAME WITH UPLIFTING ALLOWED

Uplifting
Allowed

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Structural Modeling

Structure Types
Cable Structures
Cable Nets
Cable Stayed

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Bar Structures
2D/3D Trusses
2D/3D Frames, Grids

Surface Structures
Plate, Shell
In-Plane, Plane Stress

Solid Structures

Global Modeling of Structural Geometry

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

(a) Real Structure

(b) Solid Model

(c) 3D Plate-Frame

(d) 3D Fram e

(f) Grid-Plate

(e) 2D Fram e
Fig. 1 Various Ways to Model a Real Struture

Some Sample Finite Elements

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Truss and Beam Elements (1D,2D,3D)

Plane Stress, Plane Strain, Axisymmetric, Plate and Shell Elements (2D,3D)

Brick Elements

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Model Creation Tools

Defining Individual Nodes and Elements


Using Graphical Modeling Tools
Using Numerical Generation
Using Mathematical Generation
Using Copy and Replication
Using Subdivision and Meshing
Using Geometric Extrusions
Using Parametric Structures

Graphic Object Modeling

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Use basic Geometric Entities to create FE


Models
Simple Graphic Objects

Point Object
Line Object
Area Object
Brick Object

Represents Node
Represents 1D Elements
Represents 2D Elements
Represents 3D Elements

Graphic Objects can be used to represent


geometry, boundary and loads
SAP2000, ETABS and SAFE use the concept
of Graphic Objects

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Modeling Objects and Finite Elements


Structural Members are representation of
actual structural components
Finite Elements are discretized
representation of Structural Members
The concept of Graphic Objects can be used
to represent both, the Structural Members as
well as Finite Elements
In ETABS, the Graphic Objects representing
the Structural Members are automatically
divided into Finite Elements for analysis and
then back to structural members for result
interpretation

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Design Methods and Concepts

From Loads to Stresses

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Applied Loads

Building Analysis

Member Actions

Cross-section Actions

Material Stress/Strain

From Strains to Response

The Response and Design


Material Response

Section Response

Member Response

Building Response

Load Capacity

Three Design Approaches


Working Stress Design
Stress is primary concern and objective

Ultimate Strength Design


Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Strain is primary concern

Performance Based Design


Deformation is primary concern

From Serviceability to Performance

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Allowable material, control on


deformation limits for design loads
Material failure criteria, section capacity
for factored loads
Ductility considerations, deformation
capacity, load capacity at large
deformations. Extraordinary load
considerations

Serviceability
Design

Strength Design

Performance
Design

From Serviceability to Performance

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Satisfying one design level does not ensure


that other design levels will be satisfied
Serviceability design only ensures that
deflections and vibrations etc. for service loads
are within limits but says nothing about strength
Strength design ensures that a certain factor of
safety against overload is available within a
member or a cross-section but says nothing
about what happens if load exceeds design level
Performance design ensures that structure as a
whole reaches a specified demand level.
Performance design can include, both service and
strength design levels

From Serviceability to Performance

A Serviceability
B Cracking Limit
C Strength Limit
D Failure Limit

C
B

Load

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The entire response of structure or a


member can be determined, in an
integrated manner from the ActionDeformation Curve

Deformation

Cross-section Reponses
Stresses
Tension
Compression
Shear > Tension-Compression

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Strains
Normal strain
Shear Strain

Deformations

Rotation
Shortening
Shearing
Twisting

Determining Cross-section Response


Material Stress-Strain Curves
Cross-section Dimensions

Performance

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Given P value

Given Moments

Given Axial Load

P-M Curve

M-M Curve

Moment-Curvature Curves

Moment for Given Curvature


Curvature for Given Moment
Yield Moment
Stiffness
Ductility

Moment for Given Load


Load for Given Moment
Capacity Ratio

Mx for Given My
My for Given Mx
Capacity Ratio

Strength

Capacity
Interaction Surface

Given Moment Direction

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Capacity
Interaction Surface
P

My

Mx

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

P-M and M-M Interaction Curves

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The Moment Curvature Curve

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Cross-section Stresses

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Original Cross-sections

Plain concrete shape

Compact Built-up steel


section

Reinforced concrete section

Composite section

Compact Hot-rolled steel shape

Reinforced concrete,
composite section

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Sections After Strengthening

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Strength and Performance


In Strength Design, every member and every
cross-section must satisfy strength equation
Even if all members and sections are
designed for strength, the structure may not
perform well in case of overload
In Performance Based Design, only a few
members on the critical load path need to
perform well for the structure to perform well
Therefore for strengthening of structures, we
may only need to strengthen members or
section in the critical load path

Members on Critical Load Path

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

In Performance Based Design, only a few


members on the critical load path need to
perform well for the structure to perform well

Therefore for strengthening of structures, we


may only need to strengthen members or
section in the critical load path

What Effects Serviceability?


Anything that reduces cracking
The presence of appropriate amount of
reinforcement at appropriate locations

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Anything that increases stiffness


Reasonable sizes and proportions of member
cross-sections

Anything that reduces Creep/ Shrinkage


Presence of compressive reinforcement

Anything that improves Durability


High strength concrete
Proper cver and protection of rebars

What Effects Strength?


The basic Material Strength

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Concrete crushing strength


Reinforcement yield strength

The Cross-section Dimensions


The amount of Rebars
The framing conditions

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

What Effects Performance?


Performance is generally of concern for
lateral loads such as earthquake and wind
The main factor that effects performance is
the Ductility of the members on the critical
load path
In frame structures, the design of the joints
between columns and beams is critical
The performance of shear walls if great
importance for lateral load demands

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Ductility can be
defined as the ratio
of deformation and a
given stage to the
maximum
deformation
capacity
Normally ductility is
measured from the
deformation at design
strength to the
maximum
deformation at failure

Load

Ductility Definition and Usage

Yield/ Design
Strength

Dy

Du

Deformation
Ductility = Dy / Du

What Effects Ductility!


The most important factor effecting ductility
of reinforced concrete cross-section is the
confinement of concrete

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Amount of confinement steel


Shape of confinement steel

Other factors include:

Presence of Axial Load


Stress-strain curve of rebars
Amount of rebars in tension
Amount of rebars in compression
The shape of cross-section

Action Deformation Curves

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Relationship between action and


corresponding deformation
These relationships can be obtained at
several levels

The Structural Level:


Load - Deflection
The Member Level:
Moment - Rotation
The Cross-section Level: Moment - Curvature
The Material Level :
Stress-Strain

The Action-Deformation curves show the


entire response of the structure, member,
cross-section or material

How to Get Action-Deformation Curves


By actual measurements
Apply load, measure deflection
Apply load, measure stress and strain

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

By computations
Use material models, cross-section dimensions to
get Moment-Curvature Curves

By combination of measurement and


computations
Calibrate computation models with actual
measurements
Some parameters obtained by measurement and
some by computations

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The Moment Curvature Curve

The Moment-Curvature Curve

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Probably the most important action-deformation


curve for beams, columns, shear walls and
consequently for building structures
Significant information can be obtained from
Moment Curvature Curve to compute:

Yield Point
Failure Point
Ductility
Stiffness
Crack Width
Rotation
Deflection
Strain

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

What is Curvature
In geometry, it is rate
of change of rotation
In structural behavior,
Curvature is related to
Moment
For a cross-section
undergoing flexural
deformation, it can
computed as the ratio
of the strain to the
depth of neutral axis

e
C

Curvature = e / C (radian / unit length)

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

How to Read M-Phi Curve

Outputs from M-Phi Curve

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

2 -Failure Point

1 -Yield Point

y
3 - Ductility
u

Outputs from M-Phi Curve

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

4 - Stiffness of the Section at given M and Phi

EI
M
EI

5 - Slope of the section at given Moment


b

M
dx
EI
a

Outputs from M-Phi Curve


6 - Deflection of the section at given Moment

M
D x dx
EI
a
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

7 - Strain at given Moment

c = distance from the NA to


the point where strain is
required

Outputs from M-Phi Curve


8 - Crack Width at given crack spacing

Specified Crack Spacing = X

W s X
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

W yX

NA

Rebar Centroid

9 - Crack Spacing at given crack width


W
X

W
X
y

Outputs from M-Phi Curve - Summary


Plot M-Phi Curve

EI

Determine curvature
at known moment

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Determine Flexural
Stiffness (EI)
b

M
D
EI
a
b

x dx

Determine Deflection

M
dx
EI
Determine Slope

Determine Strain

W s X

s
Determine Crack
Spacing/Width

Outputs from M-Phi Curve - Example


For M=600 Phi = 0.00006
From M-Phi Diagram

P=160 K

L/2
24 in

EI

36 in
15 ft

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

EI=600x12/0.00006
EI=1.2E8 k-in^2

Slope at Mid Span


M=600 k-ft
b

M
dx
EI

a
=600x7.5x144/1.2E8
=0.0054 rad

Outputs from M-Phi Curve - Example


Deflection at Mid Span

M
D x dx
EI
a
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

=600x7.5x144x15x12/(6x1.2E8)
=0.162 in

Specified Crack Spacing = X

Strain in Steel

c
M = 600 k-ft, y=16

=0.00006x16
=0.00096

NA

Rebar Centroid

Outputs from M-Phi Curve - Example


Crack Width
Assuming crack spacing of 18 in

Specified Crack Spacing = X

W s X

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

NA

=0.00096 x 18
=0.01728 in

Crack Spacing
Assuming crack width of 0.02 in

W
s

=0.02/0.00096
=20.8 in

Rebar Centroid

M-Phi Curve and Ductility

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Effect of Axial Load


Effect of Compression Steel
Effect of Confinement Model
Effect of Confinement Shape

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Axial Load and Ductility

12#8 bars

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Compression Steel and Ductility

a)

b)

8#8
8#8bars
bars

2#8 bars

8#8 bars

c)

4#8 bars

8#8 bars

d)

8#8 bars

8#8 bars

Confinement Model and Ductility


Effect of Concrete Confinement Model on Ductility of Cross-Section
350

300

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Moment (kip-ft)

250

200

Whitney Rectangle
Mander Circular Confined

150

Mander Pipe Filled


100

50

0
0

0.001

0.002

0.003

0.004

0.005

0.006

Curvature (rad/in)

a)

8#8 bars
Whitney Rectangle
(both)

b)

c)

8#8 bars
8#8 bars
Whitney Rectangle (outside)
Whitney Rectangle (outside)
Mander Circular Confined (inside) Mander Pipe Filled (inside)

Confinement Steel and Ductility


Effect of Confinement Steel Spacing on Ductility
160

140

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Moment (kip-ft)

120

100

Spacing = 3in
80

Spacing = 6 in
60

Spacing = 12 in

40

20
0
-0.0005

0.0000

0.0005

0.0010

0.0015

0.0020

0.0025

-20

Curvature (in/rad)
a)

8#6 bars
Manders Rectangular
Confined

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Confinement Shape and Ductility

a)

8#6 bars
Manders Rectangular
Confined

b)

a)

8#6 bars
Manders Circular
Confined

8#6 bars
Whitney Rectangle

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Introducing

Pushover Analysis

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The Pushover Analysis


An alternate method of analysis for carrying
out the Performance Based Design
Pushover analysis is carried out after the
Linear Analysis has been done and
Serviceability and Strength design has been
completed
Pushover analysis is most suitable for
determining the performance, specially for
lateral loads such as Earthquake or even
wind

Why Pushover Analysis

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Buildings do not respond as linearly elastic


systems during strong ground shaking
Improve Understanding of Building Behavior
More accurate prediction of global displacement
More realistic prediction of earthquake demand
on individual components and elements
More reliable identification of bad actors

Reduce Impact and Cost of Seismic Retrofit


Less conservative acceptance criteria
Less extensive construction

Advance the State of the Practice

Performance Based Design - Basics


Design is based not on Ultimate Strength but
rather on Expected Performance

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Basic Ultimate Strength does not tell us what will


be performance of the structure at Ultimate
Capacity

Performance Based Design Levels

Fully Operational
Operational
Life Safe
Near Collapse
Collapse

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Pushover Spectrum

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Pushover Demand Curves

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Earthquake Push on Building

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

The Pushover Curve

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Pushover Capacity Curves

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Demand Vs Capacity

Non-linearity in Pushover
Material nonlinearity at discrete, user-defined hinges
in frame/line elements.
1. Material nonlinearity in the link elements.

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Gap (compression only), hook (tension only), uniaxial


plasticity base isolators (biaxial plasticity and biaxial
friction/pendulum)..

2. Geometric nonlinearity in all elements.


Only P-delta effects
P-delta effects plus large displacements

3. Staged (sequential) construction.


Members can be added or removed in a sequence of stages
during each analysis case.

Important Considerations

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Nonlinear analysis takes time and patience


Each nonlinear problem is different
Start simple and build up gradually.
Run linear static loads and modal analysis
first
Add hinges gradually beginning with the
areas where you expect the most nonlinearity.
Perform initial analyses without geometric
non-linearity. Add P-delta effects, and large
deformations, much later.

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Important Considerations
Mathematically, static nonlinear analysis
does not always guarantee a unique solution.
Small changes in properties or loading can
cause large changes in nonlinear response.
It is Important to consider many different
loading cases, and sensitivity studies on the
effect of varying the properties of the
structure
Nonlinear analysis takes time and patience.
Dont Rush it or Push to Hard

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Procedure for Pushover Analysis


Create a model just like for any other
analysis.
Define the static load cases, if any, needed
for use in the static nonlinear analysis
(Define > Static Load Cases).
Define any other static and dynamic analysis
cases that may be needed for steel or
concrete design of frame elements.

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Procedure for Pushover Analysis


Define hinge properties, if any (Define >
Frame Nonlinear Hinge Properties).
Assign hinge properties, if any, to frame/line
elements (Assign > Frame/Line > Frame
Nonlinear Hinges).
Define nonlinear link properties, if any
(Define > Link Properties).

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Procedure for Pushover Analysis


Assign link properties, if any, to frame/line
elements (Assign > Frame/Line > Link
Properties).
Run the basic linear and dynamic analyses
(Analyze > Run).
Perform concrete design/steel design so that
reinforcing steel/ section is determined for
concrete/steel hinge if properties are based
on default values to be computed by the
program.

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Procedure for Pushover Analysis


For staged construction, define groups that
represent the various completed stages of
construction.
Define the static nonlinear load cases (Define
> Static Nonlinear/Pushover Cases).
Run the static nonlinear analysis (Analyze >
Run Static Nonlinear Analysis).

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Procedure for Pushover Analysis


Review the static nonlinear results (Display >
Show Static Pushover Curve), (Display >
Show Deformed Shape), (Display > Show
Member Forces/Stress Diagram), and (File >
Print Tables > Analysis Output).
Perform any design checks that utilize static
nonlinear cases.
Revise the model as necessary and repeat.

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Summary
We have to think in terms of
Displacements and not in terms of loads,
stresses or strains
The main idea is to compare expected
displacements or required displacements
with the ability of the structure to reach
those displacements without failing
OR
indicating that it will not reach those
displacements

Performance Based Design


and

Pushover Analysis
Technical Background
By:

Iqbal Suharwardy, PhD, S.E


Director Development
Computers and Structures Inc., Berkeley, USA

Performance Check for Structures


Purpose

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

How will a structure perform when subjected to a


given level of earthquake?
Definition of Structural Performance
Definition of Earthquake Level
Determination of performance level

Performance Check for Structures


Process
Guidelines for Seismic Rehabilitation of
Buildings:

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

ATC-40
ATC-33 (FEMA 273 and 274)

SEAOC Vision 2000 Framework

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Types of Performance Checks


Linear Static Analysis
Linear Dynamic Analysis
Non Linear Static Analysis
(Pushover Analysis)
Non Linear Dynamic Analysis

Performance Check Using Pushover

Force Measure

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Expected Performance Point for


given Earthquake

Performance Limits
(IO, LS, CP)

Deformation Measure

Steps in Performance Check

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Construct Pushover Curve


Select Earthquake Level to check
Select Performance Level to check
Select acceptance criteria for each
Performance Level
Verify Acceptance
ATC-40 Method
ATC-33 Method

Constructing Pushover Curve


Define Structural Model
Elements
Strength-Deformation properties

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Define Loads
Gravity
Lateral Load Patterns

Select Control Displacements or Drifts


Perform Pushover Analysis

Pushover Modeling (Elements)

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Types
Truss Yielding and Buckling
3D Beam Major direction Flexural and Shear
Hinging
3D Column P-M-M Interaction and shear Hinging
Panel Zone Shear Yielding
In-Fill Panel Shear Failure
Shear Wall P-M-Shear Interaction!
Spring for foundation modeling

Pushover Modeling (Properties)


Force - Deformation Relationship

Force

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

B
D
A

Deformation

Pushover Modeling (Beam Element)

Three Dimensional Beam Element


Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Span Loads

Shear Hinge

Flexible connection

Plastic Hinge

Rigid Zone

Pushover Modeling (Column Element)

Three Dimensional Column Element


Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Shear Hinge

Plastic Hinge

Rigid Zone

Pushover Modeling

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Types of Deformation Properties

Axial
Moment only
P-M : Uniaxial P-M Interaction
P-M-M : Biaxial P-M Interaction
Shear

Pushover Modeling (Loads)


Start with Gravity Loads
Dead Load
Some Portion of Live Load

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Select Lateral Load Patterns

Uniform
Code Static Lateral Load Distribution
First Mode
Combination of Modes

Pushover Analysis (Control)


Force Controlled Analysis
Deformation Controlled Analysis
Roof Displacement
Generalized Displacement Definitions
Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Story Drift

Limit of Analysis
Instability Loss of Gravity Load Carry Capacity
Excessive Distortions

Pushover Analysis (Solution Schemes)


Event by Event Strategies
Manual

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Newton-Raphson Type Strategies


Constant Stiffness iteration
Tangent Stiffness iteration

Problem of Degradation of Strength


Ritz Method (Reduced Space) Strategies

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Construct Capacity Spectrum


Estimation of Equivalent Damping
Determine Demand Spectrum
Determine Performance Point
Verify Acceptance

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Spectral
Acceleration

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Capacity Spectrum

Spectral Displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)


Response Spectrum (5% Damping)

Spectral
Acceleration

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

2.5CA
Cv/T

Time Period

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)


Reduced Spectrum (Equivalent Damping)

Spectral
Acceleration

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

2.5CA/Bs

Cv /(T BL)

Time Period

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Spectral
Acceleration

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Performance Point

Spectral Displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (ATC-40)

Force Measure

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Expected Performance Point for


given Earthquake

Performance Limits
(IO, LS, CP)

Deformation Measure

Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Displacement Coefficient Method


Estimate Target Displacement
Verify Acceptance
Estimation of Target Displacement

Estimate effective elastic stiffness , Ke


Estimate post yield stiffness, Ks
Estimate effective fundamental period, Te
Calculate target roof displacement

Use of Pushover Curve (FEMA-273)


Estimation of Target Displacement

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Co, Relates spectral to roof displacement


C1, Modifier for inelastic displacement
C2, Modifier for hysteresis loop shape
C3, Modifier for second order effects

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Full 3D implementation
Single Model for

Linear Static Analysis


Linear Response Spectrum Analysis
Linear Time History Analysis
Non Linear Time History Analysis
Non Linear Static Pushover Analysis
Steel and Concrete Design

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Generally Follows ATC-40 and FEMA-273


Available Pushover Element Types

Truss Yielding and Buckling


3D Beam Major direction Flexural and Shear Hinging
3D Column P-M-M Interaction and shear Hinging
Shell, Solids, etc (Considered Linear)
Panel Zone (later)
Shear Wall (Later)
Non-Linear Spring (Later)

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options


Force - Deformation Relationship

Force

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

B
D
A

Deformation

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Three Dimensional Beam Element


Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Span Loads

Shear Hinge

Flexible connection

Plastic Hinge

Rigid Zone

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options


Strength Deformation and P-M-M curves
can be calculated by program for:

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Steel beams (FEMA-273)


Steel columns (FEMA-273)
Shear Hinges in EBF Links (FEMA-273)
Concrete Beams (ATC-40)
Concrete Columns (ATC-40)
Shear hinge in Coupling Beams (ATC-40)

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options


Gravity Load Analysis

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Nodal Loads
Element Loads
Load Controlled Analysis

Pushover Analysis
Starts from Gravity loads
Nodal Load Patterns (User, Modal, Mass)
Multi-Step Displacement or Drift Controlled

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Available Results for each step of Loading

Base Shear
Element Forces
Section Forces
Joint Displacement
Drifts
Element hinge Deformations
Limit Points reached

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Pushover Curve Post-Processing (ACT-40)

Conversion to Capacity Spectrum


Calculation of Effective Period (per step)
Calculation of Effective Damping (per step)
Calculation of Demand Spectrum (per step)
Location of Performance Point
Limit Points (acceptable criteria) reached

SAP2000/ETABS Pushover Options


Visual Display for Each Step
Deformed Shape
Member Force Diagrams
Hinge Locations and Stages

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Graphs

Base Shear VS Roof Displacement


Capacity Curves
Demand Curves
Demand Spectra at different Damping
Effective Period Lines

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Examples

Example 1
P=100 Kip
Gravity Load
m=3.6

W36x120

10 ft

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Lateral Push to
0.5ft Disp

Default M3
Pushover Hinge

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Base Shear Vs Displacement

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Capacity Spectrum

Example 2
P=Unit Load

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

24"x24" Conc Col

12 ft

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Desired Behavior

User P Hinge

2100
1700
1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

Measured Axial Displacement at Joint 2


(in)

Find Column E
Determine Column E to
give Appropriate Initial
Stiffness:

PL
E
AD

= (1700 *12*12)/(24*24*0.1)
= 4250 Ksi

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Column

Desired Behavior

2100
1700
1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

Measured Axial Displacement at Joint 2


(in)

Find Column Deflection

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Column

PL
D
AE

= [(2100-1700) *12*12)]/(24*24*4250)
= 0.0235 in

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

Determine Elastic Column


Lengthening when loading
from 1700 to 2100 K:

Desired Behavior

2100
1700
1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

Measured Axial Displacement at Joint 2


(in)

Find Column Deflection

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Column D

PL
AE

= [(2100-1000) *12*12)]/(24*24*4250)
= 0.0647 in

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

Determine Elastic Column


Lengthening when loading
from 2100 to 1000 K:

Desired Behavior

2100
1700
1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

Measured Axial Displacement at Joint 2


(in)

Find Column Deflection

Column

PL
D
AE

= 1000 *12*12)/(24*24*4250)
= 0.0588 in

Desired Behavior

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Determine Elastic
Column Lengthening
when loading from 1000
to 0 K:
2100
1700
1000

0.1

0.6

0.8

Measured Axial Displacement at Joint 2


(in)

Find Hinge Properties


Hinge Properties

2100
1700
1000

0.8

0.7412

0.4765
0.5412

A
0.0

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

1000

Axial Force, P
(Kips)

2100
1700

Desired Behavior

B = 0.1 - 0.1 = 0
C = 0.6 - 0.1 - 0.0235 = 0.4765
D = 0.6 - 0.1 - 0.0235 + 0.0647 = 0.5412
E = 0.8 - 0.1 - 0.0235 + 0.0647 = 0.7412

0.1

0.6

0.8

Measured Axial Displacement at Joint 2


(in)

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Hinge Properties

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Pushover Curve

0.8 kip/ft

W14x90

Push
0
19
2x
0
W1
x1
W8

W1
2x
19
0
W8
x1
0

W14x90

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Example 3
1.2 kip/ft
0.8 kip/ft

W24x55

Example 3
M3

M3

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

PMM

M3 V M3 M3
MR

MR

PMM

MR

PMM

M3

P
Legend
P = Axial Hinge
MR = Moment Release
M3 = Moment Hinge
V2 = Shear Hinge
PMM = PMM Hinge

PMM
MR

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

With W12x190 Brace

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

With W8x10 Brace

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Conversion to
ADRS Spectra ATC-40

Response Spectrum Conversion

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Acceleration-Displacement Response
Spectra (ADRS)
Every Point on a Response Spectrum curve
has a unique

Spectral Acceleration, Sa
Spectral Velocity, Sv
Spectral Displacement, Sd
Time, T

Response Spectrum Conversion


For Each value or Sai and Ti determine the
value of Sdi using the equation
2

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Ti
S di
S ai g
2
4

Spectral Acceleration and Displacement at


period Ti are given by

2
S ai g
Sv
Ti

Ti
S di
Sv
2

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Capacity Spectrum Conversion


Capacity Spectrum from Capacity or
Pushover Curve
Point by Point conversion to first mode
spectral coordinates
Vi and D roof on capacity curves are converted
to corresponding Sai and Sdi on capacity
spectrum using:
Vi
S ai
W

S di

D roof

PF
1

1, roof

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Moment Hinge Properties


Using M-Fi Curve

Procedure

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Plot M-Fi curve for cross-section


Estimate EI value from M-Fi Curve using the
following equation
M

EI
M
EI

Calculate Rotations from Curvature using:


b

M
dx
EI
a

Reinforced Concrete
Beam-Column CrossSection
24x24
Reinforced with 12 #9
bars
Length is 12 ft

24"

24"

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Example

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Example

370

0.00028

Example

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

M
EI

So EI = 370/0.00028 = 1321428.6
b
M
M
Ip
dx
EI
EI
a
So = 0.00336 rad
Find for other Moment Values and input in
Hinge Property

Considerations

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Keep moment Constant over hinge length


when integrating or integrate over the whole
member length with actual moment diagram

Only one value of EI at Yield is sufficient


Ip = h/2

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Comparisons of
SAP2000 and ETABS

SAP2000 vs ETABS

SAP2000
General Purpose FEA
Software

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Classic Finite Element


Software
Steel, and Concrete Frame
Element Design
Shear Wall Design Not
Supported
Fewer Automated Meshing
Options
Does not Support
Composite Design

ETABS
Specialized FEA Software
for Building analysis and
design
Fully Object based Modeling
and Design
Steel, concrete, composite
Frame Element design
Supports Shear wall design

Full and practical auto


meshing options
Supports Composite Design

SAP2000 vs ETABS

SAP2000
General output related to
nodes and elements is
reported

ETABS
Floor wise representation of
results such as story drift,
floor mass participation,
story shear, etc.

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

General Report (text files)

Professional Report
Powerful load cases,
combinations, envelopes,
multiple case, etc.
Cables, Dampers, and NL
Links and Hinges

Relatively less ability to


handle load combinations
Only Nonlinear links and
Hinges

SAP2000 vs ETABS
SAP2000
Supports Solid Elements

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

Relatively low versatility


for defining and editing
grid systems

ETABS
Does not support solid
elements
Powerful grid system
definition and editing

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

ETABS Pushover

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

ETABS Pushover

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

ETABS Pushover

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

SAP2000 Pushover

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

SAP2000 Pushover

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

SAP2000 Pushover

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

SAP2000 Pushover

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

SAP2000 Pushover

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

1
Use Load Patterns
Steps to compute the
Displacement
(Displacement not
Monitored)
Divide the Specified
Displacement into
Steps and apply loads
to attain that
displacement
Monitor which DOF at
what level/story
Save Positive Results
only
2
After a member fails
redistribute loads
locally around failed
members or reanalyze
structure using a new
stiffness matrix
3
Which Pattern Loads
to apply and what is
the scaling factor for
each loading case
included in the load
factor

ETABS Pushover
4
Consider P-Delta
effects and Large
Displacements due to
gravity loads caused
by each step of lateral
loading

5
For Construction
Sequence analysis.
Specify which
Pushover case to be
applied to which stage
of construction or
strengthening.

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

SAP Pushover

1
Weather to start from
unstressed condition
or if more than one
Pushover cases are
defined then may be
start the later pushover
case from the final
state of the pervious
case

2
When the load type in
3 is set to Loads this
becomes irrelevant
and if the Load Type in
3 is set to Acceleration
then to find modal
masses, select the
analysis case from
which the modal
masses may be

3
Specify if Loads or
Accelerations needs to
be applied and what is
the scale factor for
each load case

4
Load Application
Use full load
application without
monitoring the
displacement or use
the displacement
control. Also specify
the DOF to be
Monitored and the
Joint at which the DOF
is to be monitored
Results Saved
Save Results at only
final stage of Loading
or after each step.
Specify Max and Min
number of steps
Staged Construction
For Construction
Sequence analysis.
Specify which
Pushover case to be
applied to which stage
of construction or
strengthening
Nonlinear Parameters
Those explained in 2
and 4 on previous slide

SAP/ETABS Pushover Output

2
3
4

Pushover Analysis, ACECOMS, AIT

1
V=Base Shear
D=Displacement
Sa=Spectral
Acceleration
Sd=Spectral Disp
Teff=Effective
Fundamental Period
Beff=Effective Viscous
Damping

3
Demand Curves
plotted for these
Damping Ratios
4
Grey Lines are the
Constant Period Lines
drawing for period
specified here

5
If there is additional viscous
damping provided in the
structure, perhaps by viscous
dampers that are not
specifically included in the
model
The Structural Behavior Types
A, B and C default to the
values defined for those
structural behavior types in
Section 8.2.2.1.1 of ATC-40 .
The User Defined Kappa