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Dennis P. Doordan Twentieth- Century Architecture NAbEO 0585 This book is dedicated to Marcia Rickard sie oo savoury [Pventith century archecre Denn 324108 Ac ay saat Library of Congres Boordan, Denis. “Twonteth century architecture / Dennis Dooeda loging in Publication Data om. Inchide tibliogrphical references und index. ISBN 0-5209-06058 (ll: paper ISBN 013-021278-X (pbk, alk pape architecture, Modn—2othcantury—History. 2. Architectural sign History —20theontry. {Tie ‘NA‘0 188 2003, 72 60921 2001001058, (Copyright © 2002 Colmann & King td Publisd in 2002 by HaeryN, Abrams, lc, New York. All ights rosarved. No pan of th contnt ofthis beck may be veproduced ‘withost the writen permission of te publisher This book was designod and producod by & Caiman King id London ‘wiw.almann-Ringcom ‘Seni managing editor: Richart Mason Designer: Tim Higsns Jacket designer Michael J Walsh Pictur esascher Sue Bosom TNpesoter Marl Doherty Frontispiece: skimore, Owings an Merril (designer Garden Buren, ver Hou, New York, 1951-52. Courtesy ls Shulman, Printed in Hong Kong ony Abas A Nov York Nv. 10011 trowabrinbooks com Contents Preface vill Introduction 1x Confronting Modernity The Modern City = Responses to the Modern Citys ‘The Garden City: Ebenezer Howard & ‘The Clty Beautiful: Daniel Burnham and award Bennett 5 ‘Th Industrial City: Tony Gaeaior 7 ‘The Faturist City: Antonio SantElia 8 Expressionist Schemes 9 The Emergence of the Modern Movement 11 LeCorhasier 12 Maa Housing 1 Europe 15 ‘The United States: Catherine Boucr 18 Pieces of the City 19 Skyscrapers 22 Department Stores 24 ‘Apartment Buildings 27 ‘Women in Architecture 32 Wiel Linn, Jane Drow, and Julia Morgen 32 Cultural institutions. 34 The International Style 35 Ginema Architecture so Rockefeller Center and the General Motors Futurama 41 Chapter 2 The House 45 From the Arts and Crafts Movement to the Prairie Style a6 England The Arts and C “The United States: Greene and Greene 48 ‘Tho Prine Style: Frank Lloyd Wright 50 European Developments 53, CCharlos Ronnie Mackintosh 53, Joset Hovimann and the Werksitten Movenent 54 [National Romanticism 56 Classicism 50 Modernism 63 Le Corbusier 63 Hane Scaaroun, Alvar Aalto 65 ‘American Developments 67 Richard Neutra 67 Frank Lleyd Wright 69 Industralization and the Home 72 Grote Schitte-Lihotaky 73 R Buckminster Fuller 73 The Architecture of Transportation and Industry 77 Railroad Stations 78 New York: Pennsylvania Station, Grand Central Station 79 Holsink’ and Stuttgart Ralzoad Stations 80 Los Angeles: Union Station 82 Urban Mass Transit Systems a3 Paris, enna, and London 8&3 Automobile Service Stations 80 Factory Architecture 83 “The United States: Albert and Jullus Kahn, Rober: Derra a England and Holland: Thomas Wallis’ Fectories, the Van Nelle Tabacco Factory 91 ‘The German Experience 93, Bebrensand AEG. 93 ‘The German Werkbund 94 The Bauhaus 96 Bridges 99 ‘Sen Francisco: Golden Gote Bridge 990 Robert Maillar’s Tavanasa Bridge. 101 VI CONTENTS Architecture and Politics 10: Scandinavia and the Netherlands 103 National Romanticism, Classicism, Modernism: ‘Stockholm, Holsinks, Hilversum 103 ‘The “Architecture of Empire” 107 England: Herbort Baker, ward Lutyens, Aston Webb 108 ‘The 1981 “Exposition Coloniale Internationale” 110 The Soviet Union 111 Viedimir Tatlin and Constructive 112 ASNOVA and OSA. 112 VOPRA and Socialist Roalism 123, Fascist Italy 115 Nationlisi, Modernism, and Classilsm: Marcello Piacentini, Giusoppe Tegal, and "E'42" 115 The Third Reich 116 Albert Speers Werlin Plan 118 ‘The United States 121 Classicism: Lincoln Memorial 122 Period Revivalism: Santa Berbara County Courthouse. 123, Modernism: Nebraska State Capitol. 124 ‘The Tennessee Valley Authority. 125 Modernist Hegemony 1940-1965 ‘The Triumph of Modernism 131 ‘The Industralization of Design 191 New Directions 135 [New York: United Nations Building 135 Hiroshima: Peace Center 137 Jakarta: The Monas 138 ‘Tokyo: National Gymnasium 139 ‘The Decline of Tradition 140 Rebuilding 141 Reconfiguring Capitals 143 Beijing 143 Berlin 145 CChanlgarh, India. 147 Brasilla 140 Siynitsal, Finland 150 Reconceptualizing the City 152 Mogastructures and Megelopolis 152 Housing 155, ‘Sweden: Now Empiricism 155, France: Le Corbusier 157 England:the Smithsons 158 The United States 158 Skyscrapers 160 Strategies of Display 163 ‘The 1951Festival of Britain” 169 Tho 1959"American National Exhibition,” Moscow 164 Trends in Postwar Architecture 167 Domestic Architecture 168 Mies vander Robe 169 Philip johnson. 170 Charles and Ray Barnes 171 Brice Gaff 172 Frank Lloyd Wright 173, ‘Subutbaa Developments 177 CContral and South America: Oscar Niemeyer find Juan O'Gorman 170 Campus Architecture 181 The United States 181 aly 188 Mexico 105 The USSR 186 Museum Architecture 166 New York: Guggenheim Musoum 187 Paris: empidou Center 188 Vorons:Castelvecehia Muscum 190 Religious Architecture 191 Mexico City: Chureh ofthe Miraculous Vingin. 191 England Coventry Cathedral. 191 France: Notre Dame du Haut, Konchamp 198 “The Sige forthe Job” 105 An Era of Pluralism and Tradition 20: Renewing Modernism from Withit Housing 202 Ralph Bskine 202 ‘Aldo van Eyck 208 Silence and Light: Louis Kahn 204 Postmodernism 207 Robert Venturi 207 Charles Moore 208 Ricardo Bofill 210 Michael Graves and the Walt Disney ‘Company 201 Deconstructivism 212 Peter Bieonman 214 Rem Koolhaas. 215, The Return of Classicism 218 Leon Keior 2181 ‘Thomas Gordon Smith 220 Challenge and Adaptation 220 isan Fathy 220 Charles Comea 223, ‘Organic Form and Craft Building 204 “Tho Petlas 224 Peter Zumthor 226 Reconfiguring the City 229 London 230 ‘The Docklands 230 Paris 232 Louvee Pyramid 233 Musée d'Orsay 235, Arab World Institute 235 LaVillette 236 Berlin 239 Infernationale Bauausstellung (IBA) 299 Zaha Hadid 240 "Groen" Design 242 Frankfurt am Main 242 Sealgasie and Ostzeile Townhouses: 242 Barcelona 234 The Historic Port, Montjuic HM, and Nova leasia 244 ‘Traditional Architecture and the Reconstruction fof the European City 230 Leon and Rob Krier 287 Iahn Simpeon: the Paternostnr Square Debate 249 ‘The New Urbanism in the United States 250 Seaside, Florida. 251 Jaime Lerner: Curitiba, Brazil 252 CONTENTS vil ‘The Present as History 255 Building Technologies 255 Coop Himnnelblaw and the Enduring Appeal Df Novelty. 256 DomesticDesign 257 Glenn Museutt 257 taley Tigerman 259 Frank Gehry 260, Scott Johnson 261 Office Buldings 202 Richard Rogers Lloyd's of London, 262 Quinlan Terry Richmond Riverside 264 Ralph Erskine: The Ark 265 Skyscrapers 267 [Norman Foster: Commerzbank 207 Konmeth Yeung: Menara Mesiniaga, 209 Casa Pils Petronas Towers. 270 Kohn, Pederson, Fox: Shanghai World Finance Center 270, ‘Antonio Iaael: Cit Niage Conter 272 Government Buildings 273 Goofy Hawa: Sri ayawerdenopure 273 Kenzo Targe: Tokyo Metropolitan Governrient Hosdquarters 274 Norman Fost: Relchstag. 274 Railroad Stations 277 Nicholas Grimshaw: Channel Tunnel allway Terminal 277 tiago Calatrava: Lyon "TGV Ralway Station 278 ss as Cultural institutions 280 ‘Renzo Piano: Joan-Marie Tlibaou Cultural Center, 'Nowmé, New Caledonia, 280 Frank Gelry: Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, ‘Spain 282 ‘Thomes Besby: Harold Washington Library, Chicage 204 ‘Architec:ure and Memory 285, j Fumihike Maki: Kaze-No-Oka Crematorium 285 Maya Lin Vietnam Vetorans Memo Washington, DC 286 Daniel Liveskind: Jewish Musou, Berlin 287 Timeline 290 Bibliography 296 Credits 200 Index. 200 Preface {maginos whois or her readers may be. Ths book {san introdictry survoy of tweatieth-contury archi tectute for stents engaged inthe study of the subject and its relationship to the soca, cultural, and politica life tf the period. It ithe authors hope that this tox wil provoke stents to pursue the subject further. the book "te the reader on quest to learn more about the subject tnd draws him or her ever deopor into the issues, it will have aecomplished its principal goa. "A second, equally iniportant group of reader wil pick 1p thir book not because thoy aro enrolled ina formal ‘lucaional progeam but because they are motivated by ‘utisity. We spend our livs strrouaded by buildings and formost of us those ofthe twentieth century constitute ‘he lingest potion ofthe architecture encountered on & ally bass. Therefore it is only natural to wonder about ‘Semething es pervasive, important, and engoging as ftchitactre, What accounts for its ivoesity i the ‘twentieth century? What storie, ideals, hopes, and fears ‘wate architects trying to convoy to their pees and to posterity? The author hopes the general reader il find his or her curiosity rewarded and coasequently ax ‘appreciation ofthe world around them enhanced. ‘This book is divided into thee main sections. he Rest, part, "Confronting Modernity.” surveys four discrete Alomains of professional design activity in the porid 1900-1940: urban architecture, domestic architecture, the architecture of industry and transportation, and politcal frehitectre, This period is described as one of intense ‘lebate among architects sdvocating different approaches such as classclsm, modernism, orgenicisn, ni ral bse design, The second pat," Maderist Hegemony, ‘views developments during the period 1940-105. Daring these year, Ue terms ofthe debate concaming tho character of an appropriate architectare were dramatically revised —and narrowed Its tll period masked by lively discussion, but the discoure Is now predicated almost entirely in terms of modernism and modernist ‘conceptions of appropriate models and design strategie. ‘The third par, "An Era of Pluralism,” covers tho years 1465-2000, A now conseiousnoss of environmental issues, new scientific paradigms, an enitlcal theories of Knowledge called into question the certantos of smodesnism. This past reviews the spoctrum of design ‘movements postmodernism, deconstruetivism, now B= belong in the bands of waders and every author vit classicism, "green" architocture, and even a reinvigorated Imodesssts— characteristic ofthe last decade ofthe threteth century, ‘Athough witng i often a solitary occupation, no author of an listrated history book such as his tly ‘works alone wish to thank the following people and {nstitatone for their assistance dusing the long petiod ofthis manuscript. Some ofthe indivi Listed blow provided support ona regular b lppear here because they asked provoca lfred sofa advice at xtieal moments in the process of esearch and writing. To al Toffer my sincoo thanks: Richare Buchanan, Richard Bullene, Norman Crowe, Kal Gotechow, Rober Hohl, Judith Hull, Wendy Kaplan, Pekka Korvenmas, Victor Margolin, Dons McFadden, Sarah Nichols, Janet Patks, Sidaey Robinson, Diane Shaw, “Thosnae Cordon Smith John Stamper, Davis Taragin, Carol Wis, and John Zukowsky | would like slo 0 Thank tie following reviewers: Linda Hart, Department of Historyand Theory, Sothern California Institute of ‘Architecture; Charles 8. Mayor, Department of Art, Indiana State University; Kevin D, Murphy, CUNY Graduato Cnter and Brooklyn College isa Rally, Depaztmont of ‘Atchilecural History, Schoo! of Azchtoctue, Un of Vig University recived invaluable assistance from Jane Devine and the sao tho Architecture Library at tho University of [Notre Dame, Part of the reseurch fr this project was suppored by grant from the Graham Foundation for ‘Advanced Studies fa the Fino Ars. wish to acknowledge ‘the edioral suppat (and almost infinite patience) of my editors Loe Ripley Creenfild and Richard Mason at Calmatn and King, For their work onthe collection and proparetion of visual mtevial fr this book I thank Sue Bolsor at Calmana and King and Thomas Walker atthe University of Notre Dame, For his carefully considered and dy ae desiga [thank Tim Higgins. At various times in my carer I have offered castes on diferent aspect of twentieth-century architecture and design. have befited from the thoughtful questions and sherp fbservations of students ad Ihank tem for their intra inthe subject, Dennis, Doordon January, 2001 Introduction fej ont of us will spond our lives in buildings and environments that ara FA JP csged, that i purposetty cated to suppor and express a vat WL crinaman acvtiee The manor in which twentith-centuy designers, architects, and engineers concoptuaizd,abriated, and evaluated these environ rmonts has oen th subject of wry iense debe, This survey i an aceount of that debate, itis the book's conzal these tha the history of tentith-centuryarchitectare can bat be understood as an ongoing discussion sbout the appropriate architecture for modor mes. As an account ofthat debate, ths survey Is distngulsd frm ter posible discuss Tis importa here oben by exploring te imi Cations of ilfeentconeptions of twentieth cour archtectarel history. ‘ne could construct such a history by focusing on masterpieces of design, and so exablish 2 canon ofslgpfient modern works. Canons identify paradigms of excellence, vldatoarhitetuzl riattions, and define acceptable ctr fox dusignerilciom. Inthe twentieth centry, however, design paradgins proved tobe Shorelod. No sooner as a cmon estalshed than a diffrent vision forthe Bult Snvfronmoat emenge to challenge i Vs second posible spprnch i prodzated on te boi that new materials (in forced concrete or aluminum), tedhnologies the slovtr, frend air ventilation, Computer-aided desiga software), or daminent economic sytem (nptalsm) ft. tte determined the cnfigartion of new buldngs. Histories that privilege sch Canes as exerisng ¢ determining impel on events tend to follow predictable pat fers thy describ an Impersonal heel process that leas to neville oa Cluslons such a8 the (fumph of modera over taditional erchiectre, othe Saberinston ofthe at of architecture tothe commercial concerns of reakestate developmont end the manipulative pogroms of advertising nad politcal props anda, However the volt nature of twenigtveentry architetre, design Grlciom, and hstalal scholarship is ost in hstrieal naraive conceived either te pardigmatic or daterministe terme. At any given moment inthe pest, muliple poate fates existed nothing wes prerdaind. And, asthe reader wal lear, for grat many buldings of the twentieth century lp posible interpréations but ode Pluralism In the last quarter of the twentieth contury feminist critiques of design, scholarly interest in colonial and postcolonial experiences, the rise of structuralist and post: structuralist discourses, and the emergence of environmentally oriented criticism hhave all called into question the valisity of efforts to create canons or provide definitive, causal accounts of comple» phenomena. This survey, therefore, treats architecture a8 a broad field of activity in which different conceptions of the built is X INTRODUCTION environment coexist and their respective merits are continually debated by design- fers, patrons, and the general public. Beyond satisfying immediate needs for shelter land service, every building is an argument, expressed in brick and mortar or steel land glass, concerning how the world might be. This argument is not limited to the particular moment in time in which a building's design is first revealed. Once pro- jected onto the stage of history, the debate continues to evelve as critics, historians, {and subsequent generations discuss different visions of the built environment. In this book, buildings are prasented as examples of arguments to be engaged critically rather than paradigms to be emulated or predetermined results to be accepted, This approach opens up the history of twentieth-contury architecture to a variety of ‘design styles and professional issues ignored or marginalizec in previous treat ‘ments ofthe topic. In place of canonical or deterministic histories, this then isa history conceived in the spirit of pluralism. The pluralistic approach is grounded in a definition offered by the design thearists Victor Margolin and Richard Buchanan: Pluralism i the principled cultivation ofa sustalned conversation among individuals with widely differing perspectives on the natural and the human-made works, Plurel- fam keeps alive tho ongoing search fr truth and understanding by focusing ingulry on fommon problems encoustered in experience —in this caso, the experience of the yhumen-made—rather then on the technical refinement. fine points, and stylish polish of single theory Phuraliem sustains the ecology of culture, maintaining a gene pool fof diverse ideas and methods tat enables us to avoid entrapment in dogma by foreing four atention to features of the world that might otherwise bo igroned by doctrines that er concsived too narrowly —ae it seems all doctrines eventually prove tobe (sargln ad Buchanan, pi Ultimately, a pluralist history stimulates the intellectual engagement of the reader, {drawing bim or her into the debates articulated by the buildings selected for inclu- sion. This type of conversation will nurture an appreciation o” diversity. If it suc- ceeds, history will have served its toe gosl of enriching the present through @ critical reflection ofthe past. AHistory of Questions “The range of responses engendered by modernity was considerzble. Some designers ‘embraced it, Others sought to blunt its effects and recast the modern in mote tradi= tional terms. Modernity presented architects, patrons, and their audiences with questions thet demanded answers. How could now, often oflicting bodies of knowledge be incorporated into design practice? How could tie received wisdom of the past be preserved and incorporsted within new buildings? How could the negative effects of modernization be resisted or ameliorated? Previous accounts of twentieth-century architecture have soarched for answers to these questions, in his seminal study of early modem architecture, Piouvers of the Modern Movement {published originally in 1938 and reissued regularly since then), Nikolaus Pevsner identified Walter Gropius's Model Factory (see fig. 9.21) ‘rvcted at the 1914 *Werkbund Exhibition” in Cologne, Germany, as the critical summation of efforts begun in the mid-ninotoonth century to cevelop an appropri- ate architecture for the twentieth contury. Pevsner was in no doubt as to the epoch- defining significance of Gropius's achievement; The Twentieth Century Xi 1s the creative energy ofthis world in which we Live and work and which we want to master, a world of science and technalog of spood and danger, of hard struggles and no personal security that is glorified in Gropiue's architecture, end as long as this fs the World and these ao its ambitions and problems, tho style of Gropius and the ‘other plonsers willbe valid. (Pevsner, pp. 20-171 However, by anointing the work of Gropius and his colleagues as the ideal, Pevsner limited rather than opened up the story of modern architecture, Measured against the Model Factory, traditional architecture and less abstract forms such as ‘Art Deco design lot their claim to serious historical attention (although not, it now appears, their popular appeal). In contrast, this account Is as much a history of ‘questions as itis of buildings. Critical Sets In order to convey the variety of positions espoused in the design debates of the twantisth contury, this text reviews “critical sets” of buildings to tell its story: a tical set consists of three or more projects Uhat demonstrate a range of rasponses to a common design issue. Chapter 1, for example, begins by examining a range of carly twentieth-century usban design proposals that demonstrate different ways of thinking about the city. Buildings in critical sets are grouped together in each ‘chapter, but the reader is encouraged to construct his or her own sets from different ‘chapters. One could juxtapose museums or libraries discussed in different chapters to review developments over a longer span of time than that allotted to an individ val chapter. ‘This is an unconventional approach and the use of critical sets affocts the nar tive structure. In place of a continuous storyline based on the biography of great designers or the programs and manifostos of significent artistic movements, this survey has an admittedly episodic chanicter. The story shifts continually from one building type, location, or theme to ancther. It provides the reader with a point of departure and a list of issues, questions and examples with which to begin explor- ing the rich and fascinating history of twentieth-century architecture. The Twentieth Century ‘This toxt both stears clear of equating twentieth-contury architecture with the story ‘of any single design orientation and seeks to avoid characterizing the century in simplistic terms. In All That Is Solid Melts Into Air, tho cultural historian Marshall Berman characterized modern life as filled with paradoxical relationships between disparate facets of experience: ‘To be modem isto find ourslves ia an environment that promises us edventure, power, joy growth, transformation of ourselves and the world—and, atthe same ime, that threatens to dastoy everything we Lave, everything wo know, everything we are Modern environments and experiences cut actos all boundaries of googrsphy and cothnicity, of class and nationality, of religion and ideology: in this sense, modernity tan be said to unite all mankind, But itis « paradoxical unity. eualty of disunity it pou usa into a maelstrom of perpetual disintegration and renewal, of struggle and xil_IwTRODUCTION contradiction, of ambiguity sud anguish To be modern isto be pat of & tuniverse in which, as Marx sid, al that is solid melts nt ae Berman's description sets the stage for the treatment of architec ture’ place in twentioth-contury history that informs this book. By its very nature, architecture serves as a manifestation of the factors that shape the modem experience. Architecture bugins as a precess of design that gives form to # wide range of aesthetic and cultural issues, and concludes as a process of construction intimately con: rected with economic and material concerns, The study of architec tural history, therefore, offers a unique opportunity to relationship among the cultural, economic, and political dimensions cof modernity. Thrve different historical situations, like "snapshots" from a twentith-contury album, illustrate the intricate interweaving of technological developments, political ideologies, and cul:ural ‘values that gave the twentieth century its distinctive charactor, ‘The first snapshot is a 1937 travel poster advertising dirigible service between Germany and the United States (fig. 1). 1t de German airship soaring over a skyline dominated by the skyscrepers of a metropolis, Two popular 1980s icons of modernity, the dirigible and the sky- scraper, aro juxtaposed to evoke a very modem experience. No previous generation of travelers had traversed the Atlantic in the manner described in this advertise ange the ‘ment, This is more than an image of speed and travel; it isa pertralt of modernity The experience of modern travel cannot be separated from the means that make it possible, Hoth the drigible and the skyscraper represented sophisticated technolog: {cal achievements in the fields of transportation and construction. Even after noting the references to travel, technology, and architectural typology. the list of themes Is still incomplete, for prominently displayed on the tail fins of tho Gorman airship is the emblem of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich: the swastika. In an era when political ideologies contended for the allegiance of mass audionces, political images insinu- ated themselves into all aspects of modem life. The conflation of technology ‘and political ideology evident here was not confined to the Third Reich. Efforts to festablish connections between diverse aspects of modernity occurred around the ‘lobe as people tried to comprehend, organize, and control what Marshall Berman labeled the “maelstzom” of modemity. ‘The next snapshot is from 1959 and records the so- called “Kitchen Debate” between American Vice-President Richard Nixon and Soviet Promler Nikita Khrushchev (fig, 2. For centuries, the design of capital cities, govern ‘ment buildings, and civic memorials has been charged with political significance, In the modem age of mass politics, hhowover, the ideologiesl implications of design extend ‘beyond those familiar settings and the political stage is no longer confined to the ceremonial halls of state buildings. |As patt of an official visit to the Soviet Union, Nixon toured an American-sponsored exhibition depicting con- temporary life in the United States. A model Kitchen erected as part of the American pavilion provided the 2 Days to Europe, 137. Wilfonian Meum, Richard Nikon and kta Kivuenche, chen reso the american stonal extn Sokol Pre Moscow, 2 Shenahen urban cents, ‘The Twentieth Century Xi setting for a debate between the Soviet end! American leaders concerning the rel tive merits of the communist and capitalist systems. The casting of the moder kitchen as @ political arena for an ideological debate Is not as bizarre as it may at first appear. The mid-twentieth-century kitchen in North America and Western Burope was indeed the most technolageally sophisticated room in most homes, and it bore litle resemblance to its pre-modern counterpart. In a quiet but insistent ‘way designers had transformed the kitchen into a model modern environment and, thereby, into en emblematic exprossion of modarnity itself. For his confrontation with the Soviet leader, Nixon had chosen his ground well. Surrounded by gleaming hew appliances and well-stacked shelves, he needed only to point to the material abundance and technological sophisticalion of the American kitchen for evidence ofthe prosperity enjayed by the average American family. ‘The final snapshot is a contemporary view of the Chinese city of Shenzhen (Ge. 3). In 1979 Shenzhen, located in Guangdong province near Hong Kong, was a fishing village with « population of approximately 30,000 people. As part of the ambitious program of economic development announced in the early 1980s by the Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, Shenzhen was designated one of the country's new “apecial economic zones” and became the focus of major development efforts. Two docades later, Shonzhon's population is nearing 4 million and the city’s skyline is Billed with tho types of new office towers, financial centers, and hotels needed to participate in the global economy of the early twenty-first century. Staggering as the rapidity of Shenzhen’s transformation from fishing village to modern motro- polis may be, it is hardly unique. The twentieth century is a period of ferocious evelopment carried out at a dizzying pace with dramatic long-term social and fonvizonmental impacts with which we are still struggling to come to terms. The ‘architectural typologies, constructional materials, and technological systems char facteristic of Shenzhen belong not to a millennial tradition of Chinese architecture XIV. INTRODUCTION Table 1 Largest Metropolitan Areas by Population 1900 ‘Popuiston 2000 spopision 2015 Population lion milion lions {ondon, gland “alge pan 264 Toyo. Jopen 264 ew York USA 349 Meiko Mesco 181 Mambo Ina 268 Pat France 259° Mumbai Inia 181 tsg05 Maria na Beri Germany 81 Sto Pal, bai 178 Dhaka, Bangladesh aa cncaga USA 169 New York Us 166 Sto Pauo, rat 204 anton china 190 gee Nigeria 134 erat Pinan 192 Toyo. apan 14S Aon Angeles USA 131 Meiea iy. Meso 2 inns Ala 136 Caleta, nda 129 NewYork USA we Philadelphia, USA 129 shangha chine 129 sahara, indonesia m3 ‘Peoria 126 amon ies argentina 126 Cleat Inia 3 tian oe dt tea Pain but to @ modern and international vocabulary of design and construction. Modern environments, a6 Marshall Berman observed, “cut across all boandaries of geogrs phy and ethnicity” (tables 1 and 2). Late Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Influences ‘The twentieth century is only the latest chapter ina story that begins much earlier with the political and industrial revolutions of the late eigheenth contury, the intellectual revolutions of the nineteenth century, and the demographic changes that accompanied them. The Amezican and French Revolutions introduced the cra of mass politics. With their stirring endorsements of the political rights of all people, these revolutions ensured that political affairs could no longer be confined to the activities of the court-centered aristocracies of the old social order. As the ‘nineteenth century unfolded, efforts were made to organize the masses according to class, ethnic, and national identities, bt the necessity to enlist :he support of mass ‘constituencies transcanded the specifics of ideology. Equally significant for the emergence of the modern world was the Industrial Revolution that began in England in the late eighteenth century. This unleashed the productive capacity of human societies by combining the scientific knowledgo, technological know-how, and entreprencurial spieit of enterprising men and women in unprecedented ways. Whereas the American and French Revolutions transformed the political foundations of the modern experience, the Industrial Revolution established its economic and material bases, Finally, there was an intellectual revolution that had far-reaching consequences for subsequent architectural history. It was a revolution that can be summed up by ‘able 2 ‘World Population ‘yg00-2000 rion es 2300 3603038 98056 21 6.080 Late Eighteenth: and Nineteenth-Century Influences XV citing the work of three men: Charles Darwin (1800-1882), Karl Mare (18181089), and Sigiund Freud (1856-1929), Each was responsible fora body of work that fun- ‘damentally altered humankind’s sonse of itself and its place in the world. Darwin's