Sie sind auf Seite 1von 49
2 So ee 74:9 ME THN YMOSTHPI=H THE TPANEZAS NEIPAIOZ Pee ttle sTONOE ATIOz KAI KPANIOY TONOE. H MaAaotivn, yeoorpamnynch mpooBoxia yia AvaroAn Kai Aton, ivan Tleploxt Tov amoppayei avayreca otov adorpouopd Aadw-eB va Kar on avayxn» nayKOORIOY KoIvOvEKOMONIKGY ovotnparey yia éAeyxO Gta xpucopopa xoWégpiara tov rerpeAaion. One¢ of nOnKés tov overNBATWY, o Bpnoxevuxés Mapapodes wove, GANA Kat 61 Retaoxnpanopoi tovg éxouy om Tepioxn avth nemnBei To Kpatog tov IopanA, n ovtémnta row mepuxAeiel eBpaixd Bvo¢ GAAG Kat evoxEs ing Abong yia to Ohoxastena, eivan Eva yeyovog yia mn Méon Avato\i Zxov avtinoba, mv i6ia ovtémta emzntoov xat 01 TlaAaotivion, Adég rotopiKég me Meploxhg, Hoo TIoAea xpovIa tPA yra rarpida, Evag Addg-8opa tg woxportohemncng Yewowparnyikng, Opinpog petd thy Atta LoV vaixes ka nrd eykoroAciowv To ona Tous orn Fid90, ApaBov otov «IToAeyo twv 6 npepiv», og npachaivouy at évorAo aw opyovacny «Xoyxsva> AAG Kar axooI0g «orpaLKdINg» Ta xa lpyRodv tov Anpio ou 1948 TOAG_IKOV oUAWEPOVTAY omHag aUtG Ta exippdzouv ejipnbes, BasiAcig Kat Meoavatonind: Neansonge ayer ny aeaywacn artootpogh: «T 8a Abooupe wpa; To 10 na KOO! 1d ftta Mecavatodixo;». wa nayKooy seus chad EAAHNIZTIKOI- ETAYPO@OPIEE {jg OONMANIKH PAMAIKOI XPONO! Z SE ETHN MAAAISTINH: KATOXH ‘Ané tous H gpayxox Terpaxooia rokeyaioug kuptapyia: yoona uo otoug Zeheuxibes ‘opapiKés } oBwpavixy at tous Paaioug } ovarerg uptapxia “ttn tng apaoaos exdoong 1 owe anos sompytormer npn NALCECKOREUME FTEROT OALOVMOME —NKOMATBOVAEAHE CANTEAHE NHENAE NOE KEATAE KOE EVeTATION ANNE EAR ATTENKE TANNETONOMIOY “Eoowmsg-emption NOT SPAWUNAEKE —-MQPVOEAPTAPTHE ALORS SMPSON oen rnc: ORO MAN ROYOHE AIAN MTANTAOY poner Memos onerere cor ret ae [BARIAT KAPAATHE- ANOETONO AMMANTHE Menton esto sera See] ONUELOOEIG «AV finopovnow ec€eva, lepouoafny...» Bay emAaBopai oov IepoveaAsipt emnodein n BeEia pow KoAAnein n yAdcoa ww Adpoyyi pow ed pn 00v pvA0BO..» AciBi6 0 Hpopntava, (Wang. 136, 5-6) scsted» top xainote xapaxinpistiKod 1a uw A. Eyponn (TTouvia, AiBocavia, Epon. Poota) xpiob wv yeppavopuvuv EBpaiwt Askenazim—mav n Goa 611 0 Kae evceiig EBpaiog nov néBaive, ériaipve to Bpono, aww ano tm yn, via env TepovoaAAp, yia env ‘pokvno8ntn siopa twv riponItopu (ov: ev Erets Jisroel, im Xopa tov lopana. Eva é8410 nop inpovoe pe evhalBeaa emi axiwveg n eBpalish Siaeri9pd mg Eoparmng ntav v' axgiver {ov 10ix0 tov GTO How avuiKpize Ww AvaKONA ‘xupig 10 LeAIKo extixpioua, avoBavHUT0. « Movoy ‘av, epeig ot EBpaios, yupiooupe Kar nat oun TepovoaAny», éAeye nplv ant efrwra xpéva 0 Bapovog Rothschild, «ev 8a xpexazevat ma va impotne avi 0 6B1po, yin va pag Bepizer ‘qiovid m peyaAn VipoHrh xan tn GoBpopA HOD eixe Boer to yevos Hao» T a. yepiopata twv Kaxpav okopmOgY tnv B ‘ob:4 pizopevn ot Aaixh napéioan toe ei®vAAaxh arpoagapa 100 «sted (rs 000 zuvtavt anenKévice n téxVn tov (Chagal xax peteyepe ain oxnwi wo woes «Pro\womng omn oteym)- Oo01 eixav aropeiver ‘on ta togprxt noypop, xaBnKay peod ot, ‘vaziouxh SaiAania Kat 10 OdoKeAbEARA. To TAnpopA too xpovoo éxave dpwog oaypauxouna KaL UNV EMGWPOPA Ka LEKVAN tov lopahA otnv Iepn Tan, mv lepovoa\np, nov 0 Puuiaiog avtoxpaiop¢ Titoe exe oorebjoe1 10 70 p.X., exBIwKoVtag tors EBpaiovs oe yun Seveepn BaBuavia eEopia, ora. ‘éooepa onpria tng Pc. [Me inv i6pvan tov xpatovg tov veow Toph. (2948) xan, peté vov «lfaheyo wy EE npepav» {oo 1967, m Baan venavéxaon ing avatadunig Tepocoa ny xan tava ing os npatcboveng to KpaUROD aeXO9 HoDHORAKOS, foe n ltopia va mips, emméAaoe, tv exfienon tne ‘Ma «sotopikh Buxaiwon>, noo napéneve ‘nak6co Wha HeNEEAA G90 Ke KatapKAp Aen oan: pe tn enextaon tw opi’ me sipotebocangy evaraaraBnka Bena ano ro véo lopan eto naeoomnKo coy poenpa tng evox lepovoadin (he eva oxy ‘nhnBop aio 260.000 Taaattivioug, GANG xa pinto 4.500 Appevioos) 300.000 «exo» BBpaio, oe npotpxovtav ano mm Avan ahha at ene Avaroknx Bopomn Yo ovona tng eotopne Brecon Deemer ota na akin Biaioe enone, now iyo fréxe ta ano tn avornpanich Yevortevie: ot ynvevi TeAastive, via napaieype, canayopeictan va xtizet enagdvopa» omit, evi 0 EBpatog «éronog» ano wo Munpoox hae anaouBaver movoronapaxn oxovonKh evioxvon Yaa mn ave YepeM KatorKiag ao 10 patos ‘Ta yeyowbua mg roéxovoag emmkeporta orm Mean Avaio\n, 01 nage aieioiag te xeatameopévay wan obnenewwW (HO ExOOV Sagtiotet«xponoxparia» and rove arate) ANN Ka m HaAINKn (ob wor Hogan even fexeiva nov xpatoov tov iotopIKG eye hoopEvO «10 Baoanonr 6iAnA, av n Toropia ivan fexeivn nos kaBayazet tn Bia nov aoKei 1 fovoia, Mnopei, or tak awevon,m Toropia va anoceXice eva nokanxd emt KaxaBetoviag tv aopia wv unpoord 6x0 6iAnppa ass, Ba BavEIte eo wLopnKdg ew anogevon io Zav Koxio, 0 aoi0g expage craw Observer, ote 228.1957: «Ti eivay, ev tees, m Iotopta;foropia civan aAndiva yeyovora, nov vivouren oxo og wear e801 ar wear nov yivovran exo 1ého¢ Tetopiay Oaibwv Madiyxooting A ookdyov Hnapaxua Tiepioxh ata Bopewavarakixa mig Anyéntov ant 1m Awpiba ung Pizag ug tov AiBavo, n onpepivh Ka opxaia TlaAaotivn -npIv tov epxouo ww EBpaioy— ovopazocay «DiAiotia». Zepgove Re tav emxparovea exboxn, n AeEN TlaAmiotivn npoépxctar an uw apxaia eBpaiken alleheot, row onpaiver «xiopa DiMotaiav>. Bonyawa pe aAAn exBoxi, n Tlakaiotivn oxetizetat ye to po®ikb Nowa TlaAaiwuivio, vio tov Tlogerbuva xox natepa {ov noLapOv AMaKLOvG. ‘Ynapxovv ki GAAeg exBoxég: 01 TaAmorivio: va eivar Ooivixes n onus xanayoys, 01 @xroraior navies, oo emapEpovtAL Gla aiyeATAKA apxteia, arOLEADY EvaV aNd org «Aaodg ing G4Ancong». FxceBaday cunv Aiyunto ep! (0 1190 n.X., aypor Aenatnoav tiptra M. Aaia, Kénpo km Bopia. Tekixt: anoOAOnxav ano tov Payor ‘oinv mapaxcia ne6iA6a ing HaAmotivns, ote kar eyKataotaBnxay pom. Zunv neproxh avch oiknoay aevee ndAUG (Taza, AoxaAuv, Azwt0s, Pad ka AKKOAV) xan averrefav évev moAmoyo 16provtag m ~ULoTaKN oUvOLOGNENbIa (TlevtaTTOAIG), ywwotn w¢ OrAiorate. Zepgava He apNAIOAOY ING exphUALA, XoNGHONOWEOAY Eva xapakmnprownx6 ei80¢ Kepayukh HOD AVAKE Ge HeNVUIKO CeO tov 1300 a2. 1X. 01 dx\rocaios, pera my iBposn tay HAAEGV tong, GUYKPODOVEAL He LOLs TopanAites, ‘nov Gpxioay On va Karagrévouv wg vopabe¢ allo mv apxaia KoHiBa cove, mv Keo Meoonotaia, TeAskit ntwwvim ano tov Inood tov Nawn Kai tov AaBi6, nov etovopacay my Tlaaorivn o¢ «Baath tov Tosa». ‘To 722 1X. n piAlotolkh Tevianodsg -1aBox wat 01 Topandivec nov tnv eixav vpieborl- yiverar onoteAng wav Aoepiwv. Extote @1Atotaio1 xax Lovbaiot tévouy ‘obovlor. To 587 11.X. KUpIELOvTaL alo to BaoiAxt mg BaBeAwwac NaBovxobovooop B (605.582 n.X.). ‘Meta mv xataxinan ung BaSeddvas an6 tvs Hepoes (539 1.X.) n Tadmotivn anovéAcoe Yxnpa tov KpaTOKE TwY AxAMNENIBAW, HO 10 392 1X. evowpaNdBnKE GEM ‘avcoxparopia tov M. AheEGvOpov [Tcodepaion (and vo 301 #.X.), ZeAevxiBes (aD to 200 1X.) ‘To 63 1X, n Tladawtivn yirewn pouaixd mporextoparo. To 995 j.X. evoojtandénKe ovo Buzavuo. To 610 4X. alaxthOnke am tove ApaBec. Axohov8auw on atarpompopor (1096-99 J.X.)... 01 MapeRovkor, 0: OBapavoi ToopKot, téhog ot AyyAOL K1 evo 01 anéyover wav apxciov drAuotaiov 01 onpepwoi TlaAaiotivior, oougeve je ‘nv emKpatovod exboxi- pevouy om TlaAaotivn, o1 npdnv Kataxtntes tov Iopanaites (npwv ano wv acoupiaxh xaraxtnon tov 722 1X.) biaorrelpovtar a6 ra papaixt xp6via o’ Ado tov HgHO. (01 nptor abyxpover EBpaiot éronsos enaveykmaota@nxay ounv Takaiotivn woRss 10 1880 Kax ano 10 1933 dpxioav va oYppeoY Ado Kai NepIOGOTEpor, eEaias tov vyaziopo’. To 1985 vmipxav 355.000 EBpaior o' éva ovvOAIKO TANBLONO 1.300.000 auexBovww TlaAaouview. Zug 29 Noculipiow 1947 viokeunOnxke ano mn Tevkh BoveAcvon too OHE t0 oxébro tng Brxotonong tag TlaAotives of &to xpam: éva naNaioNVIGKD Kat Eva eBpaiKD. “TeAnka 16ptOnxe Povaxd to KpAIOg tov TopanA (14 Matov 1948) KaBlig 10 na\aisuviaxé ayavizetar oxAnpé Yaa tnv iBpvan Lov. ‘Nixog Bapbidyimaong Ca pee etd Pred Oo ctnns HetO Oye Dn Ree ein Marit cette ron ogee ener eee ec erectus Dee ROE en cen erties ean s oars Sora eo emia ats mene tenner? eee Ce mrs Pe en een att ee ea See eC Sore oe re ceo aa Cn ee Cea eo vce ace emt tary Coote ore ancy Pornenean eC omenvonetcanrtt tt Sree meen Beret Se ce oe ont act ay Pon enna teeta ay ro Leena Seen et ene eon yt ee eeeeae racecar Cee eee en ane on ae ne ao Cee oman cone et Peo ONnS TT meen era ta ee ken ee ent eas. OR ra ete eae et ea eon ennce ce een DM LUNN U DD ST eC uRt emer taeren treme atch ert ene NCR os Rae nar etn merce Reece cae a eae POC nun) ee raat at Cera mae ian mee nm eae Te ROR et iis Per er Gerard Cty re eng ets ee nas Se ae CRE en ence ne ncaa? Cae ont MT CUD aero Senta rece ee Recor aes Renter tecture ne cacy ra ance ue es ae formas w ag crater Crane Ser Conte on Pe Ce nse tee Seem teeta etna ana pene ee Re nae Per aes oe es oR Co omnes ag nett eens Breanna sie enacts Cree nae em metre cot (Keparan, Mushabian). H Aeyouevn Navotgia Pen Oe etn arena ts Seater mont tts Pee etn tee ean et cet Pros ceamat tt Ree ceramics emote ar Rc coma eee ea ee ocean Peete ann On rane nies Printer neste eredatr tart Reet trea Prone t tri mt anata comniant kh 1006 ekippaon Ge BeoeIconKIGHOLS OMG np Coan Peete So) Ce ro as Su Cd coy Pog Sea) xupH6 Netiv Ces rns Porto TIPOISTOPIA Xopaypévo xa ‘yuohionévo Branko niaiag 11.000 cra ond ‘Neti Hagdud be mopécraon miBa¥is- orayod. Erm con, epeina ‘wv mpaTev oxupupéve oninwv névIpuV ‘0 Tel Megiddo Hatula Aiyo €&o ané inv lepovoaAnp, n Wadi Hammeh 27 xovta oun apxaia TéAAa Bittha ovov lopdivn xa 8¢8ma n lepixd. TaaoBotavints & peuvec Seixvooy on eival n otevA aor Aapiba me TlaAaotivng ka top Levant o xijpo¢ tov ooiov bompxay ce aypia popph ta 18a aed EnjaMepraKA xan Oot, ow Lg endpeveg x1Arctieg Ba GHOLEAE ‘ooo tn Buon ine npc yeupyikiic KaAAépyeta, 0 apiBps twv onsionav cmny Tadauotivn oun SiapKeia tow 2.000 xpovav tg eMmopevng veodibr ‘xii¢ nepi6000, n onoia elvan yvooth and ug 660 waoeig inc, inv HoOKepaUnKA veadiBuch A Kar B, ‘vgaveras onpavuxt vnodnAavoviac Kar pia vuororxn onpavnxn mndeomiakh aiénon, Zn- HavUKA Aon me MpOINE MepIObo0 KaKéxeI n Netiv Hagdud xova amv Tepixi, ontop rlahato- Botavixés épeuver emBeBaxdvouv tnv npn KA. Atepyeia dypiav Enampiaxev omc ro KpwBAp. O1 6101 avo1 MANBvopoi m¢ Tladmctivne MepY ‘orataxct co 10 7500 1.X. xn pera o€ wie gdon v- pinomcag, ye mv MARpN eEMpEpOON KAI KAA- iepyeia tay BnpnipiaKs Kan octIplo, ANAA Ken nv epgavion Gnuavuxay aAAayuV Gtnv apxite KIOVIKN KaI thY LExVOROYla. Tapa. pwtocppavi zaviai ta Baoixa xapaxmnpiouKa tig AeyouEVG ‘veoli@ung eriavdotaans, He Tig ovaraatIKe¢ «va: xaiatdge1g Hoo avi Ba GnpAveL Yia tH 20h toY Etnv Noaflaictivn kataypaperai isws to nlo GnyavtiKé Biya tng avapwnétntac ta tefleutaia 10.000 xpovia: n apxh tng yewpyiag poiotopiKav KonwnI6V: povIA xwpI4, apxh mg ‘youpyiag, abvBetes Ropes KOIWuNIKHE opyavr ong, 16eohoyuxés GrayoporioMeeig Kar BiapdpApO- on «eBvouKuv» xapaxtnpiouKGV. Me 10 E0¢ tng repidGov yépo ovo 6000 MX. Kan yia Aiyes exao vyiabeg xpovia n niepioxh tg TlaAmorivng xan tot Levant yevixérepa xaver to Bevapop6 wv Tipon- YouRevwW xIAIEUGY, Re ONPGbA Kpione Va EGA: vizovear otovs ueprodetepovs oxxiopots unc He: prox, xopic o1 amties va eivai axon yvoates, H. ‘emmopevn nepioboc, nov eivar ywwoth us Keath ‘veohi@iin efartigg ing epgavions tng KepapnKne Texvaoyiag, xapaxtnpizewan and orxionods otto 1 Munhata nov eGaxoNov8oiv va avinxovv oe a: AEG YewpyoxtnvorpOWIKES KOWOLNKES, 01 onOIeS he Baon 1a xGiaitepa xapaxtnpicuKe tous xan tn Yeuypagih Karevowh revs omy TeAmetivn opi: Zowv GvyKeKpIévOUG TIOAILOPAKOLE KOKAOYG (Yarmukian, Lodian). Ta apxaio\oynsa eopha ta pos yia evianxonoinon ing yeupyisig na. paywyng xupig va enapxovy eviciEac Yaa onpe: ‘VUKes KOTWUUIKES avaKMHALaEAK, 16 ta péoa 6piag mg Sng x1ALetiag 1X, o- nove Kat apxizer n Aeyopewn xaAKe\sBien nepiobiog, n enxéva otny niepioxih eng Tla AAaiotivne adAdzer apOnv pe ‘abgnon tww o1KieHaY ~HE tno YwwGLO tov Teleilat Ghassul-, mv engavian apxny aw Be- nov (Ompooratepa, veKpondderc, epapxia), aANA oping VéoW LeXVahoYIKGY KaaKLAGOWN (eEIb eupévor texvites, UetaAAoupyia) Kar vewv Bao Kav mpolbviwy oniog n ehid. Aovdedetar Ya Tp ‘mn yopa 10 eAepavt6dovto, o xaAKOG Kar o pL, ev6 1 napovcia opyavupévuy vexpondleuy pe vnnciaxéc KataoKevec, GAME KaL 1epOV KUpIAKUV COvAMTAEYpAWWY Now AEMoupYOLY wg AatpeLLAKA xe vipa -amtug 10 En Gedi ous dxBec tng Nexptic 04 Aooag- anioxtveag BeojtiKo XapaAKLApA, Ba ob \yhori ong mipateg Komavunes avioomtes, H Bove. HIKA abt tay XAAKOMANKOY KoIWIGW tng Tl. Aauotivng Bev 8a KpaLhoer Nevo ard xiAIa xpovia, EXD 10 $500 1.X., on1bte wax KaraypayetaL apxaH ‘ooyixa n MARpne mapaxnh rove, we tHg ates va. ‘anobiGovtai ce omkovORIKO’E aN MOAIKOYE 2o- yous f axdyin xar tov napepBauxd pddo tng Ar ‘yop Mov and ta xpovie avid apxizer va Kaver qodnth inv apovsia tng ous e€eAigers ung M. ‘Avacal\ing. Me tiv apxat mag Sng xiAuetiag 1X. ap: ‘xizetn papa miepiobo ing entoxig tov xMAKOD ToD {a giapxéoes péxpr to 1200 1.X. H Tadaiotivn 8a epage! otabiaxt otn waon tng aowxoroinons je ny enpavien tv MpAIUV OxYpORE VW AUXAY évipov oe éoexc dtuagn Tel Megiddo aa Bopexa xan Tep1xo ounv KoiAdta tov Topbavn. Ta xpovia nov axohovBabv Sev eiva xwpig MOAMOIKES Cve- xatandfrac Yi tovg mepinow 150,000 xaroiKorG Ing, Trakaiowvng, dawg Beixvovv 10 apxanodoyixa ev- fphyara, we mepiéBove eyKatGAIyne WoW NoEOY ya cwvobevovta ano yaoeic onxiotnKns éxpnEns, Oda avid eixav ooBapéc emmudoerg om o1KoVo- Inia, env KoIOVIKONOAKA opytwWGN Kar KUpIIOG tov¢ Beopods tay BexABov nkiapa ing NepIOxhe. Mia ano uc mo evbragépovees xowes BramowwoeIs, av apxaIOAEyav Yia INV KOIOVIKH KaL HOAMKN opyivwon toy KowuviaW ung Hepioxig ung Taare uivng ta xpovia aeia elvan n UnapEN WAC evto: omaxng Yeaypapneng Katavonig SiapopenKay MAnBooHAKGY opABuN, 0: onbies, opyavWREvES Le Baan yedee Kai oIKoyevetes, KavoRY alone un rgpovoia wove.’ Agize1 eb Kavelg va Kaver iO1ak repo Aéyo Via tov akinoy tor Kaavnaw A Bor vik xm 10 KoopOrTOAINxo XA; to onoio anob H emypoo rou Ekron (Tog, wag .X), nov ‘eter oF eFayeveig (apign vey opebaw), aNAA Ka evSayevelg aicieg (evtauxonoinon yeopyaKig na: ‘payoyhs, aeEnon MAnOvopo%). H onuavuxocepn mBovodoyeita dn ‘ono Kataxtnon va xpovia avxa eivea n enpavion Ep TO ovéparD ‘mg oding YoarTMe HopphE eveC aTADD gown SINOTaKOY Kot a\gafintov, napaAAnAa pe ta Geiypara tng Baothewv. ‘expreoerbovs ypawpng Tov BpeOnxav ora eyaAa o1- eee xowyuxa nevipa mg nepixic. Pro exo tng 1. H6@NO TOU Beoloynci¢ GoYKpONENG WN KONWVIGY tng ta xpov1a quid n apxaiooyia wove EnHEGes oxéyerS o2ei va Siatumtoge, coGuVA HE Ns oMiec (at veto va cuapsea pn eBiopamn ovveNEIa am ta Ve OdétKa xpovia, et HOPIA dua pA wAG Be H onpavaKetepn kataKtnan tng enoxfic tou xaflkow iva! n eu@avion tng npwtng ypantic Hop@ig evo anflou pwvnuiKoU afpaBntou ononoimévng Aaipevtaehg -Bpnoxsvrg- &e ¢ {@paong yma to avo, tn yovméa Kat ove po Yovovs, nov LabiaKt anoxia capeis nOkmKES \ xpnneig nu Beixvocv ca opyaveneva RarpevtKa fooptaeynenaji¢00 oo nasa tov Meziddo ao Bopeo Topann ‘To fev eng dotepne enexic row nahoo om nabecetar arto neyaecevaouanboes Kan OUYEPON- ‘erg nod anoBibovia je aon te apse fica xa nc yates rnyég oth Bian anope xovvon too Aaoo ww Ik ano tH AYA eat tig mapenBacerg ww apa tn Ing Aswadteiag fine TaNaiotvn. Ao nha KaBapeemernpooys ish anon of apxmolioyinés avacvBoexe Yaa env fox woovtar avenicoa ova Beopevtn atone {ur opi nyo -n NOAA NAIR TO Oo fv ce moe ern evan avenge Ke 1G HA- padin\ec npocnaBeies va evouparaBos 0” ates vOponmtognnig, eBvoypaynKic kay KoWwuviKts > ‘orn epaéra (B05, avdvag 0X) pe ‘mapécraon ayeAdbo, Env Kopugf, ‘xeher6s on6 16 ‘ovaoxages om {on Ohato tt ong, ‘oxBeg rag Mung Tigepiabag nnpooeyyioers nov Ba obny:Acoww oe ook ANpOUE: ‘va povréha Yio thy eppnveia tov nokmno|KGW aA Aaya otne neproxn, Me ta xpovia tng entoxig tov arbipov tov axo: AovBodY peta 10 1200 1X. n-apxaiodoyixh enxva, ng Meploxng MepuutAexetar onpavuKa. B10 upo- ‘axnvi0 ig rotopiag tng nepioxng me TlaAmotivng a1 ing Avatolng eppavizoviai Aaol kai yeyouota Hob HEXpI Giiuepa anaoxodoby 100s epevvmteg yi nv alnBogaveid tovs, Fparteg HAnpowopiec and ‘aryortuaxés xm axxobixés nmyes de vvvaGHO pe eBpaixig BiBAineg evbeifrag ken apxeuO\oyTKa €v- payata repypdayouy ya env avaroduxh Mecoyei0 va aviyHaUx0 oxnvIKD. O1 «Ado: tng BA AACE», ewes opaeg antoixuy now expraoay atnv Tiesto: xii ai10 Enpa kar 84AaGoa, Kivouv Bina cnoBnth Erg apxé tn npatng xiMetiag n.X. anoBi6ovrai o1 apepifleyopever, evbeiEeic yia pia Mpddin ovtotnta tou KpatouG tou lopani 10 "mv TIgpovsia 109s Ka ovopaA ~One M1AICLaoL ‘apxizovy va ovvbcovtal pe nohb peya.ka onaotiKa xévipa Kal HOAIIGPIKONE BOAAKOLE Gte NopAAIA ‘mig Meooyeton, and in Xaiga ora opera pexpr tn Awpiba tng Tazag ora voua. Ht apxmosoyix & peova He nv GpIEN Ww AiAIGLAiON KaraypépEL @AAayés ony ouovotia ing Hadaictivne, He tn ‘ovommpania apa expetéAdevan ing ayedabac, To Yoopavvind Kan mW KAAALépYEIA mE aUINEADD, AAA ian véeg noATOBomnKEE emAoyEC Onog Bel XVOL of EVGAEC avaoKayes —oLNg OEE Ashkelon, Ashdod xa1 Ekron, 1 emBpaaeig tov axyaaKo’-oKnvaiKoo KOgHOD elvan aio8nté¢ GInv orKovOa Kal tny apxntextovih, pe nopGAAnAn uv MOAI alyeHUAK! napovcia, Qotd00, ro weyaAirepo epevvnunx0 evo ‘gepov napovndze1 n avazhmon tov pMNAViC,AY exeivwv ue ug oniec aiT6 tn Hepiobo aveh (1006 EXPL Toc andveG) KAMOIes MANBvOHIAKES OpABES ‘ng nepioxhe apxizouy va attoKTodV «eBvorKay apaKmpiotixd, Too éxOvV nepaoer Gti rotopia ie ta ovyora wav Apnuwntiv, MoaBnav, Ebon av. HL GbyKpIon (uv UAIKGY KaLAADIMION LoD N- Amiowoo tov tehovs eng 2ng KL ww apxU tng Ing sahtetiag Geixver xéinota ororxeia ouvexeiac, AANA HOA meptocotepa yia env cupiEn véow MANBvOUGN. iva xpakmpionx6 on cmv enioxh aveh artoBi- Sovia o1 evbeigerc, cou anpIAEyEueVeS, ia ya rupowin ovtornta tov xpatovs 190 Topas n pot Azvon Tov offoiow, ous KaL ta xOpCUKLNpIOWKA LHC ‘kata pohéc KorwuvuEe too opYEROONE KAI N MPA lin efAifn tov o€ WovapxiKo cvompA, eival aVu- xejuew peyttAng ovzimons, Ta tehevtaia xpovia. © ovaxetiopog tng apxaindoyrKng ywaong tng Me- proton pe BIBAIKég avaopée Ong n Tladand Ata Dinkn (Tor aubvag MX.) exer uMOXAphEe, xopig Ka veig va anioppimtes to yeyovde ou oF mnyes aviés, Lhnopei va uttoxpomovv wor antGnxo KarIOIUW 1000 pIKGY YEYOVOTON, GANA LaUTOXPOVE Kal Va EXIPpA- OWN LG IPORALGAMPENG LY EUYYAQEAY tors, Ke 1a og nov elvan eEauperixa GeoKoAo va texpn- pioBei, Avid nov Stayaivera apxmodoyixa ta xpovia quid evan n tavtexpovn evvomapEn eyKc: TaoIMBEVWY YeupyIKOY TANBLOROY GF orAOPOLS ‘otnv nebiva voua TlaAgotivn kat pevaxavox evn vopdday KuMoIpoPUY cro Bopp, HOD AHO UG ap- 3é¢ tng Ing xiMuetiag ILX. Betxvouy onpabia o1xo: YOPIKOD KaL TONIKOG GUYKevTPONIEROD., H b1cbr xooi avth Oo ofinyiioe: otatiaxa Gtnv eyyavion ‘010 Xipo avio jas eIpdc BoorAeioW KAY «eBvoU: av» evounuay He ta Bika LoLG HOINOUKA xape- KmpIoUKa Kar owopata, étTU¢ IopanAites, Boivi keg, Neo-Di\toraior, Auovites Kat MoaBites. ‘Avaoxagés ovo Ashdod. ‘imo, gormxaxé yuvonceia ke—péhia-Tav Bou (ndve) Ko! Bou 1X. aKbvey (KT) 1. HMladativn anode gah Yeuvpapikod xapoo, noc eivax ywootes He to Lecaint a © ooloe nepsSausave, OE 138 THaharonviaxun’efapor, ta xpain tne Bop, ‘Baw, to Topas wad tne Hopbaiag (ka ta” Nepe tou Dia). Ta axpiba yrorpognea opie tng Tehaiotvne nepadauBévoor tw nepwx Bead xan evaraknEd too rotons Tops, wen fan xphun 1 dpow Makaionivn opxniahovina eEigouv ova Agnaiohoyia Holy Land). B SiBtioypania now xxptepxowy ot e Bacixd tov BaA8ovivo A 1104 1 craxpogope Kvpievoww mv Axpa. ‘onpavaxe Ampavi ora Bopenoévant, tng HaAavotivng 4113 © Bahbouivos vimésar omv ‘Tifsepraba a6 tovg Todpxove 1182-1187 Emipopiéc tov Zahavuiv oe nepioxés ‘mig TaAarotivng 8a oRox Anpw®oov ne tv KaWGAMYn ta Tepooahinoy 0 lovSag MaxroBofog npooedxera ya ‘ous vexpavs, Eyo Tou Peter Paul Rubens (Movoeio Kaka Texwiv, Navr) 1194-1192 (01 exavpopopar tng T* Zravpowpopiag xataAanBavooy inv Axpa, aN. anorvyxcvouv ora Tepoadhya 1229 0 dpeabepixog B’ omy Tepovoaiy. 1244 01 Toopxo1 Kupievouv env IepovoaAnn 1517 H Tla\mouivn nepiepxetar c10ug ‘Todpxove 100 Bedip A’ 1799 (© Nanodév ave ‘orn Axpa 1931-1840 H TlaAaiotivn und env xeprapxia cng Aayémoo tov Moxduet AAL 1917 Ein 6idpxeia tov A’ Taykooniov TlaAzyov n TaAaiouivn nepy oun xupiagxia tov AVVO, ot onion TRpooavarokizovta omy i9pvan -xpatoog tu EBpaiwy (Araxnpoén ‘Mnahgovp) 1920-1930 ‘MeyéiAng toons erre1o66ia avaneoa ‘oe BBpaiovc xan ApaBes ing Tladaiouivne 1948 H Tevoxtovia ww EBpaiwy om ‘tidpxeia tov B Llayxoopiov Tlodépoe ‘oBnyel cmv anopaon tov OHE va 1BpvBet to xpos tov TopanA 1964 Tepcera n Opytvoon yia tm Ane\ev8¢pwan tng Tladauetivng (PLO), civ onoia cwvevavovtar Siaipopes apaBonaAmouviaKes ‘opyavooeis. Kupiapxti n AA @araxx ai n guowoyvapia tov Pioep Apageit 1974 # OATI avayvupizetat and 10 oovoio wv apabixw xpativ 1982 H eiootis tov ropanAiwod orparoe roy AiBavo emeper Arya om ‘Sevan mg OAT 1993, Toppavia avéyicoa oto Topamax ny OATT nupaxapei avtovopia om Avpia tng Pazag xox m9 Avot (Oxn. Ta 1opanAwa oiparedpara anogipoviai and tg neproxés og ermieta 17 Cn Cores) Pr eet Porc ST HetLLO DEN nen eC er ern a aT} oe Crone en Loon nnn cc nec poe errcren ny an See ace cee anon Pe meat Cn a Cee ee nee TRC Reet se bre ee rte nec ats Poa ee ee cents Cr Oera nat oe ean Seem racers teat Cee sea na Sue ee anes feet Reta hana a cas OMe nn ecrnnsy CR nn cen na Co aera ne Ce ee Tee! Sees eee Prec tg SMa es oe nan ns Pewee ya eo Raa ace mus OUTS Penne aan eaten aad Pe a ee eno enn) RD ee RN ce mec ae oat ant rant NAT Ta LUO Fee oe en On eT eos ore ances Pome ee MnO tee a Reet sct MOE enma ice See ern ck aad Seer tog eh ne: Caen eae Onan Nene ae non ae eiaetere erage rn cares reno ee a eT Peet erie ete tet tcront Co oe eee en TT ee ee Sn ec Noreen gare ey ears ee eee eects Cae em ct Ream eames ed Peer Rina von eene crag ee ee ed Pea eeearte ha tecnica eee emt Sees eee eee tet eee etre tt ates ee ee eee eee eae cman oe ee a iC Senet ects Peete eet ar Same tent ee esc iy Penne eae a ec errkeerereate mem nny pete ere erat eats Se er eas per erencnereynttn kicetcts 9 Ca Se aT Peer ee reat) you oo ct) H. APABOISAAMIKH [IEPIOAOE op Kar Imoovs eni mdhou vou 0€ apoB svieroupa, Em yéon: 01 epooBvfavtivo! moheyo! evioyvoav tv ‘apap nopovoia ‘my Tohawrie, O curoxparopas Hpaheiog Kd ‘ous Nepors, Avdyhugn ‘mopooraon, ‘and opyups unpraxs di0xo (dqrponodrn Mouccio, Neo Yopxn) ‘viaxiv nOAcuN, exxpiouavizovien, Oivovy Popa. ‘ove auroxpatopes Kal XpioLiavoLc emaKoHoLS. AY Enpente va xapaxtnpiotei eBvoavOpunosoyiia n autora tg Meproxne, PovIpOTepON KarOIKOI mg Tla}aictivng 8a avaywapizovtay 01 apaBixng xa- taywyiig WAnBecpot inc 0 padoc wv apaBikv yoRav inc Tadaiotivng ivan iaitepa aie®ni6g kata env botepn puRaAKA ai thy npexoBezavuvn nepiobo. KuxarpiaKa ov €- n0po1 Kai yuaxee 1 emiBpopeig ApaBes emxer ow inv opywwon tng efovoiag toog cite ota pd: ‘un tov HoALitepoD Kpatov¢ tov NaBBataliy ing Trewpag eite pe wo Kpatog ing TlaAuopas. H onou: ‘Squouta opos tov apatxov apayovLa tng nepIo: “xn, ov 8a vonpontonioe: tay eveiAnwph 100s ya keplapsrké rxendpata omy Hadnativn, 8a ava Ge1xBei xata mw nepioto tv nepooBuzavtuNaW To- Aewwv. 01 ApaBiec avi inv riepiobo eivar o1 6tp. axot wv Buzavavav x1 gpovpoi tov povoU 6p6- Hoo nov évave tn AqpooKs Gta Bopera pe tay Al- ‘yourto Kai ra epmoprké Atptivia tng Epvépac 64: Aaoous. Aviog Mav évag cnovbaiog Kat oMKOvOLN Xa: OAD aNOBOUUKDS pOADG, HOD edxt eMOnpLONOIN: Bei ue ownKes petaED wv BoorAewv ing Kav- ‘oravuwotria\ng at av woMdpxav. H avaykn to8 Bezavtiov yia 1m ovppaxia acth pawnxe oxav yia va m a1yoxpeyes aniovene Grow Teccavibn ApaBa Ofto! GéAincay thv Naiaictivn éxi yia tov nflouto tn¢, afi yia tn Gon tne, nou éfleyxe To Bpopo petaku Aryuntou Kai Aciag 20 ge ‘Apéda tov KAnpo: ‘vouIK6 LAD ov natpaxios H mo xpicpn nepiobo¢ yia uw t0- . ie xn ing TlaAaiotivne naw 0 Gog xan oF pores Bexae: en tieg 00 Tov aiGva. Avtot 01 aX ‘vec nov onyiabevovrar an tovg rohepous TuY mo 6XopGV BovaPEAV Lov LIE YOGTOD KO- ‘onov npoxiAeoay iar to Bavato Ww 16LOpHKGN aD: roxpatopiav ung Mong AvatoAne. Meta in vixn too HpéxAe1ov to 629, n eipnvn mov np8e oinv Tladaiottvn janopotee va npoopéper otove KATO: xovg mg povo Bpnoxevuxa navnyopia Kar Alva nHtwxé Bequata. BEaAAoo auth n expivn tay Bpa: xoBia, Viet eppaviomke veo exBpo¢ HOV Lov a- nmote\otoav 01 npdnv aypmodepiates tov HipaK er (00, 01 apaBikég gets ine Zvpiag, tn Hadmotivns xxa1 ing Tetpaiag Apafiiag, nov BvoapesthOnxav 6: av to BaoiAiko tayeio ériawe va tove Xpnpatobo: Xi, Kar mépa at” aviavs or ApaBeg mg KUpIOG Apasia. ‘Tavtoxpora lem AnEn 100 mepaoBuzavavod oXpoo Kai inv oxkovoUNKA eEAoBEVNON me Bo- zavuvig Avcoxpatoping, éyive a1o8meh Kal pia GNAn eBvixi ovtounta Gtnv nepwxh, Bypaviotn: e pe ueyaateepn tox’ anno uc GieoNAaLEVEC Xp ‘onavixes apabixeg (pukéc n opoonovbia Tov eh ‘mg Bopeing A paBiag, mov eixe opyewo8et and évav oMAKOBpnoKeUAKG NyémN, GyvWGIO Gg tOue GU 4 SSS se, nepio- xn Bo: pevotepa and m Mia Spinm (apys- tepa Mediva), tov MoayeB, av: Ov Mop apyotepa 8a avaywapizav Gav 10¥ te: Aeviaio mpogntn wv @cod ot moti tng Bevtepng peyaAstepng povodciouig Aonoxeiag tov KoouOL, svar éva peyao eponpa yin to rows haw 0 1eAnK6¢ OLOx0G tO HOAMKOBHOKELILKOD IVE ToD Eixe opyaNGEE 0 Muxped ‘omy ApaBia. Ac popospe axopn va e -xupnooMHE pe BeBarotnta av 0 16106 Ml ‘reve neproaétepo Gin BpnoxeutnKh Kat Gxt OU MINKA to aTGCOAA, AV mposuaBAoccue va "npoctiopioovpe, ali Uc KIVA TOV, OID LAV OF ‘oroxor rov moluuxov kat Bpnokeunxod nyem Meo: ‘aneB, Ba KaraAngoue Tog 0 1610¢ avujetamze ‘oovexig éva ONMAD pewMO: ano in wa peEprA & pene va avasewomtice tnv iieon ani toog motors, ‘onebots tov, Yin rove onoiows nrav Evac BpnoKeD- luKdg nyétnc, Ka aN inv AN Love ovRHAXOLS, Kal tous exBpouC tov yin tovs onoious Mav axoun vag (iAddofn¢ puapxog. O Bpnoxevtrxo¢ nyEING nov eypaviatnke Gin Mékka yiv6tay éo kan 10 HOMOKOG 600 avupEKOrZe tny HOAIKH pay: tunbinta, EE@AA00 Kal © xpavos eugavioNs tov ‘Maaye®, cow kau wg Opnoxeenxod nye, to 610, ivan noma gopnopévos yia mv cypétepn me O Paspaiog pioxh, ayoo avairime ne mv enoxh (ov Hpaxer- —uroxpdropas 00 Kat Tong teAEDIaiOLE HIEpGOBLeavtIvDEE oNs- — OiAIIMOG Hots, tov Eavaxuipicay tove ApaBes oe gAoBuza- 0 ApaBig ‘vuwoig wal giAortepoes, Tevine, mav¥9s, oF oT10o- ‘bales xpovohoyies Ing Zang tov Modyed etvat pa oeIpd auMtaceay pe aoBapa Oie8vh yeyovsra. (© Moped yevvinxe to 570 xar néBave to 632. © ivato¢ tov Mooie® mipoxtaNeoe unv xataggevon ingapaBuchc nauk xa1 Bpnoxeemens coMA- xiag hoo eixe Snovpyioes, Aven n yphyoon Oi Aven toy HoATUKoBpnaKevaKO’ KpGrODG eval pK Evteifn nag n efovaia wv Poveoc\pawuv Ka N Oxig 1006 JIeIaED wv ApaBuv opersouay novo COfRW nipodamxéita 100 rpowntn tov¢ Ka av Bev Bptoxoviay ovaynxot Gxaboxor ax veor ovoxor oo ‘eipwons, nov Ba xpexazovtay va tovs e€onpe- ieet pa veo oonexta, n Karaotacn Guy ApaBia ‘a snavepxovay atnw nad Kattan Ing pv a 1nd tov Moxiqic® enoxhg. Ta xadiiKovta tng evoun- lag Kat Wav OtExWY HEPLEVAY va eperpeBOLY aL ‘va upoobiopictowv and rove BiaBoxoug NaAKpes Avawép8nke Kat mo nv Gt © Mudue® sat 0 HpiKAnog anoreAoéy éva 6i6uR0 mpoowmKoU- wiv tov Tov axova, Mov n iGtopia toes ouvbEeL NE nie oeIpa oymuaceor. Bowman 61 o Meded ‘apsize1 to 8pnOKCUUKO POVOBEIOLIKO too KHPLY A, Hoy €xe1 avutepanss OpnoKevuxés Beoets, 10610, H aflayn eEougiag nou opictikonoince To Apnokeutiké Kal edvortoyiKe tonio tng nepioxne nponide and tou ApaBec H APABOISAAMIKH [TEPIOAOS ‘To xfpuyyo rou Maoye8 xara row epaav ouvénea emmy avdppnan ‘ou Hpdxkziou ‘ro Butovmvs Spévo uw i61a xpovid tov ato Opévo ing Kuvotavuvod- nods avefiaives 0 HpaxAnoc, Zoumuson devtpn eivar nov 6 MaGie® nponayavbizer ctous onadoes ob ng 0 Ge6¢ viooxé=nKE th vik TOG Pout (Pomoig), Kar avis yiverar mv mepi000 Ho” o Hpaxhoog gaiverar va saver tov nodepo. Dera ‘on n excrpareia tov Mudyed evaivna omy repoo: ‘@1Xn apabikn yon wv Aaxpibov Kar eniong 66: won ou. Moduied ohoxAnpaves thy opoonov- {ia tov to 629 pazi pe 10 tEADG tov MepooBezavt- ‘vob mioXtpoe kan tn Vikn tov Hpar:de. Eivar ja vepé 6u n Suzavuvi onootipign An agonoincn, ‘a0 tov Modied, wv nepiordoewv Kata tn Sxip- ela tov THOM }wv tov Hpaxdeiov kAnpobomoay ‘om nepiaxh evav xawovpyio 10xup6 NapAyONTa, Tov apaBoiaAapnxé. H npoin mpaypauxi obyxpocen tw Apabuv Re 1ovg Buzavuvoos yiveta peta 10 Bavaro tov Moaye® ye uw apadixh embponn on Paza. Hay 0 nputog ndkepos nov o1 Bozavuvor avune- Tomoav tovg ApaBes Kan vIEnOMKAV. H pov ‘ng Pazag Bev popece va avtuotaBei oro oxpato top éoterAe yia tn Aapopaywyia mg nepioxtig 0 ApiTOd Mnaxp, 0 bidox0¢ tov Modte8. O1 Apa eg 1ovopikoi Beauv auth tav exowpateia va env é Xe1 1poETOIAGE2 0 iB10¢ © Mwgne®, now enei6h me- Dave Sev pAaBe va inv HHpcypatonionee. The xivnoe to 634 0 O15oxd¢ tov xaAigng Kar inv Ovo- azowy exotpatefa ine aviiyKng Yiaui eixe OOM ‘va eforkovonnoer nopovg yia un emBiven ww Apaay, nov vneipepay jeta to téAog tov repoo- Buzavuvod noXspoo kar inv anAEIA Tov COB00N ‘ano tm Breavava emxophynon Kar ano ta. oa. ipa tov KapaBavioy oto Bpopo Yepévn-MexKa: ‘Mebiva-Paza i Aapaoxo, now eixav apaisoet. Av- ‘ui n exotpateia, nov paAAoy 1etuse tove otoxovg ng afioroxaviag mn Bvoapéeoxe1a ww apabrxwv H npsotn npaypauikh ouyKpouon tev ApdBav pe toug BuCavtivoug yivetal otn Fafa peta to Gévato tou Meaped geo eng Tadaiotivng, éBerge oxovs Apabes 1ixe 1 ynpma Avarakixh Pouaixi AvtoKpatopia Bev ‘tay @AGBnIn, n LoLdAxiGt0W Bev Mav roxvpA exe ‘nov o MANDvopOs Hav Kata MAcioyNa apaBINoG, xxar Ovoapeompevor. H xauiAnyn Kat n Aapepe- yuri ing Pizag fav n npotn Bor evos HONE nob tov Ba KateAnye oto Tedog me saAtGxpovNg eAAnvopopaixig xvprapxiag on Zepia, inv Ta: Aaotivn xai tny Aiyonto, Enterta ant aouny env &- oponh n Bezavivn Kupiapxia om TiaAmotivn ‘qugroBmeican and rove ApaBes. ‘Mepiko) 1otopixoi extioov Ou oNbKANpH n e- pioxn ing Tadauotivns, exto¢ wv Lepooadony, & xe1 xaraAng8et and rove ApaBes thw enoxn tov Auto’ Mnaxp. O6v600 yia va ioxopictel xaveig O- Weixe tov éAeyxo tng nepioxig énpente va eAzyx, ote, 1 Léoorpa aOWKA KEVIpA tng xOpaG: tn Tazo, ta Bootpa, inv Karodpera xa ta lepoodAnpa, ‘Tipayyau env enoxh tov Aunod Mnaxp, n Taza o ‘ug cibape eixe cuvOnxohoyhoe peta nV ExarpA tela ing avayxng H diexbixnon w¥ Bootpov nav OAJov evGogpaBuch on68eon, ayoo n non tay neitionpn ébpa tne apaBixne guAiig wav Paooav Sav. To Bopeionadmouviek® Akiva tng Kaisa petag Ba yivoray yia peya.ko xpovixo 6xdompa on: helo Bg pelagD ApaBow Ka Bezavuwow Ka \gooré énpente va kataAng8obv Kat 1a Tepoodo- a Bin ooveiOnon wy exxpiouaviopevwy Aawv mg MEpIOXAG, GO UHV EX! THY apxMOLOVIKOV eT ruxi6v mc Ayiag Ehevng, ta Tepoodxpa efxay cav- taotei pe tny Tladauotivn Kas toog Aytovg ‘Tonov. TlapAAAnAa ot EBpaior, nap’ do nov eixav anno ‘aigveg peiver ehaxiowor oxnv MIepIoxh, eEaKoLoL- Aoicav va Aeupoiv mv HOAN GupBodo. Ta Iepo- ‘ohn eixav ertiong inv arexia va BewpnBoov xat ‘ano to loAap repég torI0¢. Apa ya va ioxvpiatel xaveig on éxe1 inv ¢Zooata oun TraAaiotivn énpe- ne va katéxea ta Tepoobhopa. ‘Ph 6oEa va pate Ka- axintic Gta Tepoodivna Bev tnv amteKtnoe 0 Aunot Mraxp, aAA& tnv xépbice 0 xaAiyng (Ondp, ota enterta ano IPA NOALOPKia o Baxpod- viog TepoooAtpav unéypaye, to 637, mn oww8nKn Kéra opioreps: 9 hgdBoong nc nang omy apauxi eEpvoia. ——_apxarahoyat Gr povooclyxvo1 Apabec arBaomnxa tn oox@n- Spaorapiémra xen napaBoong xa Bev Aenamody ta Tepoodkcja HG Ayla EdEng ‘obte Copa 1ovg Katoixoug woes, FeBaotnKay ¢= AUMTE Thy Tiong ta XpiouaviKd Vnpeia Kal yia Uc GuKeg TOUS eee pe Apraxeunig avaynes éxnoav Kawoipyia, Ono TOS Ayious 1x 10 wénevoe ob seAign Onto, om Beon tov nar THOUS, NOHO eo;pauévor and wv Tito eBpaixot vaod tou Fo: EM HOPEN MS Aout. Avyouoras. ith, oBabox05 roatepo eeBacnds conv caw wok TOY Mae tixe nig pizeg 10 ovoes avaBa\ionoes , nop endege 0 Moane® yaa ve onpatoto- PABA MC ‘uot tn Opnoxeia tow bibage. Ta Iepo: oddone caver axopin Kan ofpepa n Bette: pn pevd tn Méxka 1eph non tw povcoukpavey kai mv nipdin enoxi too Modye® fav n nOXn "npg tnv onoja énperte va awpeyoviaa oF moto: xa {a nv mipooevxn tous. H Mexka, og oneio npo- oavaro\iopod xaKG LHW mpoueExA, KaBIepaOnIe ‘apyotepa owe Gav ya npowpN eKbAAWTN apa ot eBvumiopos, H mepiobog tov xaAign Opap nv ad-Xavapn, (634-644 1X.) Mav n nepiodog tay peyaAwy apa: Bikov KaLaXtiGeW KOI ing OpyawwGNs apa: Agpica6 xpatovs. © Opdp em)ixBnKs wor xaAi- ‘ong to 634, peta vo Bavaxo tov Apo’ Mnaxp, a2 bio.xnoe tore ApaBes expr 10 644. Ora vE0G Xa- -Aigng avéNafe t bioiknon otn Mebiva, 01 apash- eg MO\EHAKGs emXEIphoeis Gra HOpext Kar BopeI- ‘oavato\iké pia tne ApaBiag may oc eEeMEn. H Coigatioukn apaBish napovoia eixe yiver povInn ‘om vou HaAouivn Kai n Xipa (Hpa Kara tous Buzavuvods xpovixoypapous), n parevovaa wv Apifww Aaxtnboy, eixe Mepdoer ota xEpIA tov hovooelyavav A paBov. "Tnv erioxh tov Opp 01 ApaBes éxovv avoiger Meta tn Zupia Ga Karaiin@éouv Kat to lepoodfupa Kar Ga opiotikonoindei NapaBikh Katoxh tng Nafaictivne ‘pia noleynd pétona, O nddepog yivetar oxeGOv raxtéxpava orn vona Mecorotapia, evavua o1ovs enaveppavizauevous Tépoes, cin Bopera Tlahax cotivn wan Bpia Ka OUnv Ktw AiyuMTo, Odes ote: seiphoeis civen KaBap4 oxpatiatnés Ne abiewpo- ove tog tomKovg MANBePKE, Kopiing ing UTAH ‘pov. Pa tovg Karoixovg tng TaAaxctivng to aito- TéAzopa AN Lov GUYKPODECWY HAY axoN mo aBryopo, «poo n xiipa tous may ayiog torTg at Pp H_APABOISAAMIKH TTEPIOAOS, ‘ya tous B00 avuma.dovs, Love xpiouavors tov Bo- Zavtiov iat tovg povoocdpavous ApaBes. EMMAE ov cunv TlaAmativn, é1mog ka o1m Bopia, o mn: A@vopdc exe cuvnBioe amv napoccia KW ApaBuv qUMOpaN’ Kal LV apaBiKaV WAY, apod em Eva ‘aidva mepinow n ttepioxit avinxe oIpatiutiKa Gtovg Taooavides, Tap’ aX’ avta, 0 noAcwos Gev eivar € ‘vag amhog Tepinatog wv ApiBuv cipauacov Tnpog ta TepoodAvpa. H xacéxttnon tne FiaAmocivng, {8a nepmpever va oAoKAnpaBei n KavaKktnon tng F0- blag, nov eyive to 636, peta nv ita wv Buz ‘Yuv otn peyiikn pax tov Frappoox a Tepuovxba. ‘Try entonevn xpownd, 10 637, 8a KatGANwBOLY 1c. Tepoodvja Kai 8a opicuxorionn8ei n apaBiKn xa: Tox ung TaAmotivng ‘Ta Iepoodkupa xa1 n vuddoun TaAmotivn pe: 1a un dpafixn Kacaxtnon apxizovy va Eavayivo- Yea téno: BiayeraxomouKoD cnopiON. Kate. tov To audva 01 exéoeIg WY KPALGY AtaV nepiion Gav "ag onyepives: nmtopotoay o1 ApaBec xat 01 Buza- ‘VuNoi va eivar expaniatixa expo, aAAA avi6 Bev ‘ennobize inv avintvgn wv ettopinGy xa Guthu- aUKGy oxéoewy. Eto inv TlaAmotivn xar tn Dv- pia tc biexbixotoav o1 xptcniavoi Bezavuvoi Ke ‘avtiy tiny avaniapéesn tn covmpovoay ermo.es lotpanouxés emixeipioerc, aAAA avid Bev epndbiZe Ug OIROVOUIKEG KOI TIOAINGUIKEG GUvaAAAYES, 161 faitepa tv nepiodo wy Opaiabav. H Gevaoteia tov Opaiadav KuBepynoE to apa- BoloayiKd xadwpato and mM AapaoKd Kan Aca podavatohiopéevn oto Bezavuvé yovteo BioiKn- one, H moAMkh tg aveEvpnoxiac nop eyapwoce Ta lepocdfuya Kai n undfioinn MaAaistivn pera thy apaBikn Kataktnon apxitouv va Eavayivovtar tono1 SiayetaKopiotiKo Eynopiou 24 tg enéypeye va juny éxe1 eoutepmég avnmapabe (ex KOH E161 puTOpEOE KA avAITLUXBNKE N OIKOVO- nh 20 aI © MOOG LV YEON tov KPALOLS. Tia no ote 1otopixov n nepiobog roo xvBepun ‘oav 01 Opiates dev Bewpeitar nepiod0¢ ovdo0)- Havixob xaAIPHIOD, AAAA TepioBog KoOHIEHE Ba ‘rdeiac, AveEdpuma pos pe tn GupNGBexa A ave HHoBeIa tw 1GLOpIKAY yaa thy o1KOYEVEIG, aot tH Nepiodo avartWaoovear 01 texvec xa O HOMOLOG ‘omnv niepioxn mg Hepiag Kar tng Tlaaatotivneg xa ivan évag noAmiopog rokv®pnoKertiKog Kat To- dveBvIKOG 1 Opaiadec xvBepvnoay tov 1AayIKO KOOHO @ "MO 10 661 6a Lo 750 Kal otn BrapKEIG ACOH tov ae va n TaAotivn ax n Zopia npoogépovy omy vdpartomta tig Baoeig evog vow ppeoxoE HOA Hob. Ta nose KUIGpALa, OtKOg 10 avAKtOpO Ke 0 Léevor tov Opaiabay cin AqHOoKS, n 10 tépe- vor tov Bpaxov oa Tepogdlwua, népa ard inv KaAAMEXViKn tous aia ExooV KaL 10 BapOG ex ‘ppacng wag weadoyiag, Tow EPxivies amd to oxe- Sa5H0 tovg (em AEyovt Buzavave aetOxpaLopIKA npotwna), OUvExizet pe ta whuki Hou n pono tous yivetar avuxeinevo Sianpayudcevong xa Ka- ra\ayer cmv karaaKeon mow eEapretar and tovs exbikodg ing KiwvotavuvotrtaAng xan tovg enxpa- Aatovg texvites. Kapaxmpionxa avagéperar 61 {yia ra tenn tow Tepocodspiav zmoovtan va ert: lpatevtoév vexvites EoAovpyo: axon Ka AND mY Avw Aiyumto. H no\mouxn @XAndoemppeh oo avantwa0s- aw peta Bezavuved xa1 apaBoioapixot Ko. ‘ouov ciny Tlahaiotivn tray neépa ar va Keiopaa Huay n avainén evoc BpnoxeuruKoe BiaAdyaR, NOC 8a xapiges otovs povsouAyavous nv cuKmupIa va Horokngn rag Aumoye ‘And ro Xpomns rou lad Exuhitty» (EBviK Biphodrxn sn lonovig, Mbp. Areas, roréuevoe 100 Bp6y00 omy epousehip 1 kop ow Bo’ ‘anoxthoovy Opnoxevuxa Boynara Ka CrOUG XP ‘uavoig va Favaopyevacouw tny aroAoynuxh ove Beahoyia pe ta épya ka Mn oxy 100 Tadv- ‘vn Aquacxnvot mv Mavooip xat wou Nikohé- ‘op Moauxo8, siov epy4oinkav oun Aapooxd aAAG OloKANpOOMRaY [Ea UHV EyKALAGLAGH tovs om TaXaotivn, 10 t0vg Opalabeg n Tradasotivn nep- vier otny xupiapxia inc Baybatng ww ABBo.6uy, ov Ba BewpnBoLv ovv- ‘Voqot jie m xpoan ertoxh tov apaBor ‘oAapLXOD Ho\IoPe’. G4. akoAovOl ei n etoxn tov MapeAooxo at peta n enix ov Oarmbiv, eFOvaLY HOD TIpoepxOvtaL Kat e- Mmtaxivouv tiv napaKp tov apaBoloAauiKod aAupavo Otay Kava vo 100 audva 8a of wvBot o1 evo paBixes Grapaxec, 0 BaoiAeiog Bo Bovhyapo- Ovo ba Bedhoet Va BiexBnkhoes tv Epox Ye 10 mpooxnpa tng aneAevBepwanE Ww AyiUW To: hho Kar n eyphvn kau n avduntuEn me TaAaiotivns a biaxontel. Axon xeiporepa 8a Feomte! xa a+ ‘vuxpionavikes diayutec, 8a Katanipagel Kalo va fg ing Avaotaons, O avioxpatopixis xa 0 26)aq 16s atpatog Ba GuyKpavatoiv oun Bopeia Tada ‘oti7n oe px cepa aro aypippones pares. Avm 1 ‘SinAn gop Ban Boo éyxaapa o1 Bo nyEtes Ka Sc crmogacioavy Ou éxovv Kai GANA pétwHN va a: ‘oxoAnB0iv. Oa OUPYUWNBOOY KAI GXELIKG HE KG org anloznOGeIE Ya UE GBOES WV FNLELWY O Apapas Bcohsyos lwavons ‘Anyooxnvéc, ‘wv Mavoodp H avoxh yia tig xpiotiavikés KoIvotnteG rayatd 6tav o Bacifeiog BouftyapoKtovoc SreK5iKei thy Nafaictivn (© vaog mg Avéoraane Ba xuotei ye xphpata tov ‘@a:yi6n xaAign) xa n Tadauotivn 8a expnvetoe Fava Expl eHV eppavion ww otavpopopAV. H ponyounevn ofog Biexbiknon ine Madaotivng ‘anh rov Bovkyapoxtévo éBuce tédog oto Kina tng cavefx®pnoxiag Kai tng peysAng avoxng nov éber xVAV 01 HovooUAAYOL yaa. UE XpIGUAVIKES KON: unteg, Pia nv Kpauxh dove apxacay o1 MEvErg vic €B0AaMIORO tw XprGNavaV. O pLBREG OHS {ot eEtoAaAHOPOd Bev Mav avI6g MoD Ba eEAOGL: Avze env arlogoyh abykpoveng pe rove exaupaps: ‘pore, ot anojo: cinv tipaypauxouna Bev ovyKpOR- ‘omnway pe wove ApaBec, aAAA pe tors BeAtZoDKOKG cooxaravorg tng Méang Aveta, . TIPOZONA Thootg tov Navn ‘Apxny6e rou eBpemou e0v0us, 0 enipavearepog neva Tov Movon (Ticoobe Mney Nouv. Zénpuva we ‘rv nepadoon, ovveseuae ‘Tov Mawon oro op0g Eve er opiowme ws OvkaKa ‘ing Tang rou Meprupion. (© Mauonc, Avo now ‘nEBéves, roy ExpIae B1080%0 ‘rou, Sivovres ray cukoyia [Mao 0 inooig rou Navi opyiwuce enoreAcoparings +o orparé ry ESpaley, ‘exbinge ano yaw Nakaiorivn ‘ous Kerroioug nan @MAcg ‘quaes net anéiuoe \onhnpn raw neproxh aro ae Tou, ev onoio opvavuoe ot 12 @uAze. H apouota rou Arey auth rou BioprookoBneh aveneoa ‘orov Orb nor 10 had 08 lopofi, Stapudseoovre$ ‘rm niorm npog Tov éve nat Hovasine O¢6. LoWeWve He ‘ng napaseceic, 0 Inaous, ‘ou Maun meave oe ndinio 419 era xar orn ouvesSnon ‘ou haod rou lopaah exes rm ‘ton Tou Sinha ovov maven. 26 Za@poviog (638) ‘ano nig enpavrmere pes opeés mg exKAMOVaCTIRh oropieg was nev eves Stonavos, unépwaxos me 6Bobne napaBoone ovoBeAnnoyod. Kerayérav fan6 rm Aawaone nat eye foxntne orny Nanaiorivn, opioe rov Magiuo tov Ouohoynre, eva and tous ‘onpavmadrepous Marépes ing OpeoBoflac, not ‘oyuviorae evavriow rn ‘ewsonc av op6osokuv He ‘ous vovoousires me AdekavBpciac. Efektyn rnarprapans lepocokiwer ro 694 nor GepeAlwor rv ‘2p8680%n Bcohoyia nepi rw, {ue quoru rou Oetow pooineu -8éon Tm covernuge BekoSia 0 Maginos. Kara rv nepioBo “mg narpropniag rou oF ‘Apaties Kerchotav va epecehuya (637), napa ng npoonaaeits rou va ‘opyanioes ry apa ng bnadng. NeBove éve xp6v0 ‘berd natn Exednota wag TOV ‘Two us Ayio ong 11 Mepriou. ne ZaAavtiv (2138-1193) ra opoSind Zanax €h Nrw Foveoie maw Ayodpe, oH ‘nf mg niowmgs. Zoukraves ‘ng Atyonrou xan rng Topias, nag nev re Burmng Gopeiog ApemAG, "Spurie me Buvoereiag YoY ‘Aylousi8ov, Sisonuog ya ‘ov ayuva Tou evavriow rw ‘oraupopépuv. Badyicia -eyive mips me Zupiog m img Anyonow uo1 agoipcoe. ‘mv lepovoaiy nor Tm ‘Aenoxzia and rove xpwonavous, nonere 6 10 1191. Erm Avon few rwor8s cov wHss ovanporpexntos ohewotic, orn ouvéxsia ‘opie, €& ariag nat ¥86 ‘ouverng nohrimns Tou ‘enevavm orn Avon, lenexenoe tn enn £¥95 ‘yervarodupou Ket owepove inyLrn. Me rm ouvOren rou 1192 0 Zakavriv npérnoe rm upla nat nv Mladeiorin “eI rv epouoaAny- many uv napataksooun ineproniv nou népacay ore 2épie tow xpiotiawsn. peidepixog 4 Mnappiapoca (2123-1190) ‘Avronparopas ™m¢ eppavies, Avnke orev oxo tay Koxevordouge, Yepuiawne 8p6vo ro 1152, boréeenne Booniee rH6 tranias orny Nacie ‘evrexparopas tne Ayiag Puinns Avronperopies ‘orn Pajn v0 1155 ane 10 none ABpiow Zr, expoo savemuge rnv enavseraon ‘ou ApvaAdou me Mnpéore. uprapria rou om Noro tranio, navrpe ve To yo YoU Eppino Zr ye mw Koorevrta me Adra@iiog, Anpovo'0 Tov BaorAciou ag Tichlag. Me raw eiSnon ‘ng avenue re epoueaday ane rov Eohavrv Eexivnge ro 1189 emmepadng ray AurKoV Yio ‘a Trovpopopio, nave 70 ‘idpmesa rng ono, row loge Tou 1190, vivre ‘Tov novewe Zac me ‘Kunniog. W euynpouen rou bbe Tov nana oupsenoe orn ‘yephavinn cov nopasoan, ‘nv evernra rou yeppavinod é0vouc, navé To powavrmé ZeAip A’ (1467-1520) ‘oun sves eoukreves, © ‘Enovoneedeic ExAnpoc. To 1512 Biedexonue o7o Opovo ov Beyretir 8, 2900 ro" ‘exopomor ue rm BonecIe ‘ev yewroapuy Sologovavras rove ‘ekgous rou. Enenrene ‘rv Odupaweh ‘aampnae tipnwnes oxtoug, ohtd, gavermoe ‘ouviens, Bierate rm Bagh nar m opaye ndv ‘enriy pouooudewuy “pepinou 40.000 ormy enmpareia m6 furoxparopias. Miknoe oro Agepunaircay ro our o@xn ng Mepotag topana A° 70 4519 nor nposapmce rie couvinnce nepioxes rou KoupBiorav, rms Avs Meconorapiag, rng Zopiag wea mg AryurTou Kat 79 4517 novehate 10 Kenpo, oppuva ye rv napasoon, ‘© xakigng mg Aryurrou Too, wat FeAl ne@ave hive xpewa wera, oF namie 83 Ap8oup Tzé1y¢ MndAgovp. (1848-1930) ‘Ayyhog nobis Kot Ekurepmiy (1916-19) nan rAnpekouates unoupyes ™¢ [Ayyhiog or ZuyGouhe me pave (1918). Keronokéunae rv npdreor ‘aurodoixnon Te IphavBiag ‘ovriovaon raw hows nerprwra. Ng unovPYeS Eburepmaiv mg AyyAlog tueréan vo 1917 omy ‘pep yi rv note uvepyaoie Tuy Bv0 nparo ner eveive orny woropie we ‘Th Araaapuin Nnedoovp: _yuaern Branoutn nou eye corny Nahovoron £465 eOvIKoW eBpainon Kevrpou. fa nc weveAse unnpeoies ‘rou npos Te Gperevme £0v0¢ rou enovenonKe © vekog vou noynros, vie 70 nopéonyo mm epuvayidos. Anyocicuse eGhoye emarnpown® xat ‘eitoooemé Epya- Moxayevt Aumeévt Ap’ Ovg -Tiacep- Apagat (1929-) Rakmoriviog nonin, ‘yewmevos ormv Tepovoaha. oropos nnyting rou mahaterrwenoy {Aaob nor rou avroprinod iviatos AA ord. Enousooe ore Kévpo (1982- 56) nev ro 1986 tepuce Tav AN eorex. Ano vo 1969 ever emmeepadng rg Opyévions va nw AneAeubépuon Tm Flehaverivng (OAM); n ono sBpuonKe To 1964. To 1983 rn emBpoun Tov lopenawuy ov eveyaoe ve eynarokcipes rm Brpuré wot wo eynaracroee! orm ‘Towa. Encioe 70 1988 Tous ekaiorivous va ‘evaywupioour To Brews ‘ouvanapins Tou lopanh we eva avekoproro edaiorivieno nod’ Ynoernptse rov Lavra orev adeyo vou KOAnoU Kat ‘oBnynor raw OAM ong ‘ouvoynieg rn Matpinng 70 4991, evo v0 1993 ‘uneypave eipfun we ro opens, yevowbe nou Tow pepe evmutruno pe re ‘enpata orovccia mg OAN. To 1994 nape ro Noumeh apmune. ApiéA Zagév (1928-) ZrpenumIKdc Ket ‘mpweunoupyec rou topanh, ‘yewunuevos orn Moos, 1a ‘eybonxt Kowornra nou, ‘evnoera ue ra Rumour, ‘mrav dopnueyn we oxcotie ‘Sioxtnotae. Hav yovos, ‘govern xsiorov. ‘Avorpégrme x SEE avr, ‘soorahormés nat ‘iauopowee évav tre ‘epaxmpe. Eyive yeueros eg opyavarig raw Kopavro Unit 104 nar 5 npuroruneg sexe rou orm exnaldevon Tov oneuv meredpouioy, ig onoieg ‘pvoreea npocapuoce omy exnaiSevon Tou orparou. en orpanurmh Onrcia Tov IRynenKe npoownine NORA emiBpouuv ova posing 809m wor arayopnOAKe ya 10 pho rou om eraorpogé ro 1953 ‘nepinov 40 apatiniv oma kor To Savero 69 avepunuv. ‘To 1962 kernyopnonne ‘eneibh enérpete orm dowinh aoruvopia ve pret ‘ora orporonese npoopuyuy ‘uy Nadeveriviey Rat ve Savaruors exerovredes ‘and 7 erpariuTnes rou ‘emuxieg nan ckeAtye ‘npw0unoupyds tou lepank ‘70 2001, rpovres oxAneh ‘orton aro Makaiornans, ‘ekonodvovrac row neeogern aiuernph Bien _evevriov me Nehaieriviontg. Apxhc. 27 EVO eae Doyen WSN ReGen tr ra oe ena Cea eee? Te a ae UMC eo Sod eee ne ene eee cere CT Sree co oni ar an ey See Tere noe orc Pe ee a Hov-1éAn 1300 auivov) poptepel tg aAAEMGAAN- eee cre cy Se UR eect Seer Re eRe Se era Un age eee ney eres een tas Pea et Ce ate ee es Ran er mete See aca mc ee rc Une me ence Cy SO CO ad rants Ca aoa Pec ‘exovoypéqnan ron’ Sua eects Ev anévave Poe) ic oer Coy og PT} IVINS EWN Ce a aaa Sete con ence Pena kerr anne ce ren erste or Sonesta ited crates Cats Peer tecesestacks aca Sree tn ere erent eae esas H apaBieh xopiapxia tng TlaAmiotivne Erxivne Cee RCN eae oie eras amet eects ree a a eee tert teen ea ecg Cy one acent marten ana te oo Ron ees Ree arte eter tT eet er tnt ry eee et te peer rere ens ee eee een ts Pn een Seen ee Cee ns rete as ene ee enter eaten id re ee See Pees Te eect Seer eet XTAYPOMOPIES Onda Ouppavss 8 senpdooes ray Erovpogopia ia woneAcube- wan Taw Ayia Téntav nyétec mig Aryomtov, O1 ZeAtzovKOr, Nags coupKot fpavikhg rpoeAevons, ot oroiot nepi ta péoa tov 000 audva eixay aonadtel tov «opB6S0EO» 10ha- Lnloyo, tua Gn.Aabi oouvites, Kateixay mv Hore KA Kal owpatiouxh efovaia inc MEAUpIA poU- ‘oovlpavixiig avtoxparopiag ounv Bye war Meon. Avatohi top xaAupatov tnc Bayamns. O1 bau ‘es ottes, avtiBero1 npo¢ tnv «opB050Ei0» tng Ba- yang, enavaotamoay ka1 18pvaav avX6vORO 1 AauINO NaANPGr GIN AjyumtO Kax On mn pov ooclwaviKit AppiKit, 10 of1oio good. avtitaG00- tev otn Baybaun, H TaAaiouivn, wc ouvopiax ne- lost ev peow Tuv 680 avtayuVioTIKGV avtoKpatO- ‘iow, UmMAPEE Kai to Kpiapxo pétwNO ta” ToAeR Kaw ovyRpO:GEAY ELA tOV6. Kava tn Gidpxena tne Gexactiag 1080-1100 16a ‘vay 01 Kopi6tepo1 Holutixoi apxnyoi tov seAGLLIKOE ognov. To 1092 0 Bezipng (ipw2encepyoe) Nizay ‘A-MovAx, 0 npaypauikos nyétng wav ZEAtZooKY {yia navo a6 tpiavea xpévia, BaAOgovABNKCe. Eva iva apyétepa, © TeAtzovxog covhtavog Maaix Dax A’ néBave Kato ano none eoveAKES. To H Mafaictivn unfipge to Kupiapxo yétaono THV NOAepIKaV CUyKPOUGEWV HeTaED Tov ZeAtTouKav Kai tov PatpiSav outev 1094 o @anwiOne nadine tng Aryomov AA-Mov- cravoip emions méBave, Kai Gin cuvexeia npBe n ‘ceipa tov Bezipn wv. Ontos ouxvi ounBaives pe Ut ‘ano Acieg peytiAwv nyewoy, axohov8noe aanonpooe- ‘vaioAton6s Kau avapxia otov 1aAMULIKO KOOHO. FLA’ Ztavpopopia, n onoia knpoxOnxe an tov nana OvpBav6 jie Oxon inv anteAevBEpIGN toW Ayia ‘Tonwy ano vous amoovs yovoovhpavors 10 1095, Mpaypanixa Bev janopoboe va eixe EexW Hoe! Ki ‘an10 mo evvoIKes GrvBAKeE Yin Log ataDpOGO: ove. H eOvixin Kat Opnoxconikh Onpoypagia ine Tha Amotivng exeivn inv mepiobo nav a6ieuKepaE oI xiMopop@n. H MAeovémnta tov KaroiKaN, Apaties ‘HovoouAyavor, umhpEav pahAov covvites, Emiong ‘omnpxavy xoIvointes xowouawiv KX Bodin, 01 o- noies 6u0g avaygiBoha aniowedoboav jrewovotnies, Or novaovdndvor Bowpocoay wove EBpainv xan {ove xpiouavobs «avOpaovs tov BifNov», 01 ono! for eixay Bxxendpara ovxpoVA Pe TOV 10aHIKO VO- Ho, O€1 Opog MAREN rGoINTa je tovE RovooR NA: ‘yous. AV kar n petaxeipicn aviv tw peovonitoy Gieyepe ano nyem ve nyéIn KM aN EOE Ge pe (806, 1 apaBixn Kopiapxia, He KanOIES eEApEOEIS (Ocupiig tov 110 anda), Braxprvdeay ya inv avoxA, ng Or BpranBevaxés emtusieg ta oraypopépan’ ei av antotéAeopa va onotaxDoOv orabiaicl ve autove (ano ta teAn tov 110 ew¢ nepinov ta peoa TOO 1200 axdva) neploxt Hop exteivovtay axbov oF xihia xiMioueipa Kavé yhkog tng evpuaxtg Kan Aalouviaktig aKuic, © 1GAAMIKOC KOOHOS KaLEND- av ano aoBiyata exTAngns, o8ov xa1 amopias, ‘end Apaes noimtéc Bpnvocoay tv KaraAmyn mg Tepovoanp kai env Aer GoviovIORENNG AU Spacne tov evpitepoo 1ehayLIKOH KoGLOD EvavtiON Tay Gmoty xa NOALBEIOUN, énlag arroKaAOGoay ovg XpIotiaVOES 61 HoraoEApAVoL. APKETOA TODO TIhPEA too twxepo! Gate va eMznoowY nc apx Xxig EMBpophe ta otarpopopex, avti va ouvExt- Zowv va vgiotavtan Ug avugpdmntes eves nohenov, ‘ny xaoxnh, tny reiva Kar Brapopes appdote, 6x ‘AeEqv tnv emmADyA guy NOD MpoowEpAY 01 Kate: xuntég. Or mpoowoyes ato cn Zopia Kar env Tee Aaiotivn npog mv Aiyumto xa1 aAAa pépn toD a- fpafixod xOapoo umpEAV HO Rol. H opabn‘h EEO: 0¢ Eexivnce to 1098 je env KaAnYn ing Av: EIKG Kat KopupONKE ple avERW tn TupOD 10 1124 ~searanayy se eur THM % {eo er beato ferro eurfg: ruca us.rminamf faker ponnfiab’ ‘oy numero uel odin dima we dignatio heer mdignm af delauur"m¢ ohm monachum roreng: monattern haut. fab, omnoacueneabth hugone § Tlap’ 6X’ avea, or xaxaxmntég nopépeavay penovbun- ta otny TlaAaiocivn kad! d\n in Sigpxeia me @pa- ‘ykoxpatias, 1 oAaUkég rye In eMOXTIE KaLOVORL- -ZORY LovE KaLAKINIEC «pay ROVE, Evo N. ‘avtioworsn apaBikn AMEn yia tov 6po wotaxpogopog», BAAABI rioAepouie ro ‘ererpo, RABE Ge xphon YOLUG 10 190 ar ‘va, Thig eiBav Aoinov o1 povadwApAavor xpovIKO ‘ypdyor ug Braypogopiec; O peyahos Apaas rato- pukoc In a-ABip (+1293) bev Biaxprver Karo. ‘ovykeKpiyevo OpnoKevnixo xivipo Gug Peaypopo pec, aA.Na nig covGcer pe ya copatepn eGGmLAwon Tov BunkAV Xap ex¢ BapoG LOD ToAGp, vnoBe -xvboviag ng ex®pikés Opactnprountes Tov AUUKOY ‘ong apabixés mepioxes tne Tonaviag, ung EaxeAiag xa ine Bogeiag Awpuxng tov Lo aud. Maa aan hhepiba mg Mapabooaxng HovoouAnaviKng 10t0- ploypaiag Katnyope! tovg aipeuxoes GanniBes ‘mg Alyomtop 6u 01 i101 HpoGKAAEoaY Yous oLaL- ‘popépaKE va KataAABOUY tn Bopia Kau env Fada ‘rivA Gote va npootateypouv tnv AivemtO a6 1o%s Yehwzooxors. Opis, ontorabiniote Kan av AGW mc veidnyn yia ta Kivnipa tov oLaypopepuN, OL paypauxés avabpacess tov TANBvopod eixay & ‘vioves Braxypavoers Kara 10 pio y106 to 1200 axdva, 01 tomKo noosoukpavor apxovteg tng Zupiag xa ung TiaAay ‘ring erent va cuvaritovy povonepeic GuvBies [ne 199g Bpaykovg xox va TAANpivovy YopoLS wHO- téAaag oF avlodc. H eAAeryn roxuprig KaBouKng nyeoiNg, ontag M.x. avth Mov Ba pnopObGe va eIxE poapeper evag Buvatoc ZeXtzovKog nyémng omy Avoroln, Kat to BpnoxeouKd oxiopa pe ov bac niBeg mg Aryémtev, eixav anoweAcona m otvayn oping ewhnepwv Kar eboqvotwY ovAREXIOY Eva ‘ov tov @payRow. ZWEMKC, 600 TEPYAE O xpd \yos 1 Kato1KO1 ohne Kal e-pioadcepo HpoGApLS: roviay om xYpIApXIA LUV XpIEUAVOY 6LO NAPA BocaKé eBapos tov 1hatoHOE. Havti8paan too apaBxot KOouoD, no Eexivn- ‘oe rept ta péoa tov 1200 auava, éhaBe tn pops e- ‘voc iepot niokepoe (tzrsivt) HiBeaAoyia tov tepob okchov UMipE Baga evoonatwpévn Gtnv Wha: xc riot Kon oxetizetar nove any’ Oda je unv €v- O peydilog ApaBac iotopikéc Inv af-Adip ouvbeel tI Ztaupo@opies pe EFdnwon tng Auang ec Bapog tou lonay vou evog ayuva and un mAcupst wav wovooUAA- vyuv, To Kopavi nepiéxer apbover avanapactacers exci eiBovg ayGvuN Kal avapyiBosa umnpfE 1 rnyh npoeAevoeus via tn Bewpia tov tzixtivt. Tla- fparapotpe oct ata apxixt oraibia tng eEAMAwong, ‘mg Hovooolpavieng avioxpatopiag ctnv Eyyig kat Méon Avato\n Foc axdveg), 01 KavaKUMNE Kan PpmpoRtpusr MS ‘To yypago Eroupogopiog XTAYPOMOPIES 01 oroupopépor ‘emridevra! omy lepovonhiy 0 1099. Mecaravi wawiaradpa (Bu, BiphioBhxn TH¢ Fotbiag, Mapiar) ‘mo ovykeKpméva 600: avnkay om evyevh Tan kat eixev eiayyh He tov poi MoxipeB, Katt ‘av a1 Ppnoxevaké kivmipa. H peoauvnh 10a: Juki 1Bradoyia Beopobor Ou IApXE pOvOV évaG (Gc0¢ tov nopabieico ax évag npaypanKes nyeING ‘ot Tn, 0 xadigns. Fpaypatixa, Aiyes vimp£ay 01 nepiobor nov Bev paptupoov Kawa exBAwan tw SAVE Kara th BipKeIa TOV HeoMLUVIKGY xpevov. Qorooo, axpuBeig ja ét010 Hepiodo Bievee por oukpaviKos KOgHos Gta téAn tov LoD auuva. Otav 01 oravpopspor Anoiaoay wove AviovG To- novG 10 1089, 0 Giepaxduevos apaBrKOG KOPOG ei ‘xe Baye tnv 166d Tov tzANAvE, Kal O1 otarpapopAr, 01 ontoion npoogara eisay avantiger Guxés rove Be- tupieg Ya tov 1ep6 OCHO, KaLeINAY (0 ABeOADY KO mAcovextapa. Aev undpxer apgiBodia 6n avaeoa ong Bpn- oxectKés povooelyaviKes TaFerg UIMANAY IOXCpA & ‘xOpnxt ovvaio®npata evavtiow tw OpayKuY Kal n ‘8eAnon tng npod&nang evb tz1NAvr, To TIpSBANpA eouazérav oto va petaBibactei avt6s © Opnoxeutt og zag otovc orpanwrikobe nyELEC. To waWORE ‘yo ig aloxEvIpONS, aPKEIG avANUyYHEVO EKER ‘ny enon, anexpeye toxdv mpoandBerec eviaiag a- vvtiotaang evavtiov tay OpayKan, ayoo axopn kai 0 xaigng tng Baybaing, 0 avatatos Bpnoxevndg m- ‘em, apvaBnxe va UnOoINpiEEL UNV Bea tov La sat, Hl enavaporvion tg 15¢ag tov 1ep00 node noo vIIhpEe apYA Kar OtabiaKA Ka1 Gog ev6E Cn- peioo emipge n ayeon avianévimen ato BpnaKeo- {UXO pawaNOYO LO 1BLAV WoW KaLAKLOIOW 01 pers peyaor nyetes nov Bewpoovean vuevdo- Yor yid inv exbiogn wv Dpayxwv ano tn Pypia kat O1 tpeic peydlor nyétec nou Aewpouveat unevGuvol yia thy Exbiwén tov OpdyKov civar o1 Zévyxt, Noupevtiv Kat Saftavtiv 32 tw TlaAotivn fay 0 tovpxogevos Kefepvitng ‘ng MooodAng xa1 too XaAeriov, Zevyxt (1128. 1146), 0 yiog tov, apxixa epipng ing Bopiag ovo Xe ‘Ae Kar apy6tepa, wet inv KaLdACON tov GUNKOS aAIgei100 tow ardGN, oovAtavog ing AryeM0D, Novpevtiv (1147-117), xan 0 mAgav uniopevos. Kodpbo¢ orpamnyos tov teAeviaiov KaL apyotepa vpiapxog inc Arytittoy, ing Bopiag xan tng Meoo- otapiag, BaAavaly (1169/71-1183). H mparn eve aqioxh emrexia kata tov oraxpogopav ABE 6- av n BOco0a neve ota xépia tov ZevyKI 10 1144 Avan n evepyeta npomaeoe xan tn B Etaypopopia nov xnpéxBnke ot Pan eva xp6vo apyotepa, AAA ovyxporas euoxwoe Lov apabhKo KooHO xan aveotnoe tn pexpt tore vexph BEANO Ya t- Navi. H evonbinan ing Doping pe mv Afyonto, noe paypaononiiinxe Aiyo apyétepa até tov Nov- pevtiv kay Baavuy, wmipEe ken t0 mo anogacr ‘oud Baya ctny neprkiKAodn tov wpaykuKo’ Ba ‘caAciov ony HaAaotivn, To teAuxo Ktonmua © Vavtiow tov dpdrykuv npBe 10 1187, 6tav 0 evan ‘Bhima MAgow roxcpetepoc nyémg tow TodapAKOR Koouov, 0 ZaAavtiy, cuverprype ta cxpareouaca tw ex®pov o1n peaxn cov Xativ, wax Alyo apyotepa ne oxe cm OpiquBevws avaxauaAniyn eng Lepovoa- Ann, nepiopizovtag tovg ADMKObs oth Gtev Mop ‘6a me Seu HaAmetivne petagd TpinwoAns xa Praga Zin peomovixh povoowdpavnen ooveiOnan n Te povoanp noté Sev xaveixe tnv eFfxo0v00 Been tng ‘Mexkag Kat mg Medivac, 2ro nAnion tow Diaypo- ‘poptan, 16g, tHopoboe Kal KaxAWgEpe: va Yive Gn- avnxd BpneKevaKe Kévipo, EEAAAOD ot OO: ‘oovkpeivor miotevay Ou and uv TepovoaAnys a VaAQe © npoiphtng Modpe® oro avpavio BasiAeI0 al n avaataan tv naépa inc Aevtépag Tlapovciag {8a eAauiBave xipa exed. EmuitAéoy, 6001 Bev ebxav 1m Bevatétnea va mpayparorionmoowy ro exe. 1po- ‘okuvnna om MEKKa, ynopotoav va oUyKEVTpO> Kare opiorepa: Boor cunv lepovoaAnp. O avtaywviowxdc Opn 0 Eakavtiv ‘OKetOKOg pavAIOROC TOY GteaKPOOPOY ENEAAE va EvOVTI TOU ‘00rd ved bidotaen Gen enpooia ie néAng. ——PIxepbou oe peoanavKs 1a 10 Bavato top ZaAaveiv 10 1193, n_xeIp6ypap0. Bumnoteia wv AYIEBGON, mw onoia Kare debi, Gpv0e o ios, Biaondarnxt or aowve- © Zokavriv avy na Kpavibia, tov ouoiuw ox nyeces Kava MOXA TOU Xariv xkanp0i¢ noAEHOCAW 1OV¢ enOAeINORE- vous otnv Avatakn @payKovg, aANA Sev Giotazav an Va GeApAXnoovY pazi tovg ya va vTEPION- ovy @XAaW toma pooooCAKaVUY MyETOV. Mo- ovotin 86a tov 1¢p00 HOAEUOD eM-zNoE Kat av: Shoe Kate to MpOLO 06 tov Toe arava, 01 VEES OMIKES OWBAKEG Kal 10 EMKPALOCVEE tome a1 Hpooomnks Gopyepovta cvBdppevaY LNW e1pn ‘vin auvinapEn pe tove pdyKous. To 1228, was ora, 0 AyiovBibne nyepovag tov Katpov, ad-Ma- ‘Aix aA- KapiA (1218-1238), ne exousn ovpipuvia e- niéoipewe tnv IepovoaAnp otove otavpowpepoes, nov enehe va {nV Kparhoocy EXPL 10 1284, pia TOME cunwevia aDiavonmn ota xpovIa 100 Za aviv, Tote, ma KaWoOpyia BevaGtela, au we ovpicipuvuw Mapedooxan, avAABE ow Tip9oKR- ‘io Kan © Mayehovios otpamyés eat peAAovLKOG covatavog tng Aryéros ah-Zaxip Mainnépy (2200-1277) vItéBaXe 1ovg payxoUG Ge CUVEE xh ata oin porxn inc Péizac. H aveigtaon tv pa {KV eixe ma AaB to aXcBpro KtoMMpA KAI n o- piouxn exbiugn tovs fav ama Bepa xp6wor. Me tw mitdon me AKpag, to 1291, eEapaviornxay xa ta PAetIala aropewapia tne HoLKte KaLOXNE ot ‘ouponaaicuviaxh axtn, Onov eEANAoD ard to 11a; xai éniena Siatnposcay povixa pia ox1GHN aA oBamth GnapEn ae wovgovduavano eBags, pin,orPaaia CCahen ., Orient et Oecident au temps des Cross, Pari 198. hrenkraute A., Saladin, Albany, NY 1 IM. A History of Palestine, 694-1028, Cambridge 1982 Hass J, History of Palestine: The last two thousand soars, New York 1894 Hildebrand C., The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives, Edinburgh 198, Holt P.M, The eastern Mediterranean tn the period of the Crusades, Warminster 178 (oo; EP). Maso 8, O1 avpopopice ano in exon wa AgaBon Parkes J A History of Palestine from 135 A.D. to _mocora times, Land Riley Stith J, The Crusades: A Short History, London Runciman S.A History of the Crasades, Cambridge 19515 Dabsiine A, O ApaBac ropiovenipac Iam aX-ABIp we snp? ya env 11opta wou Branpopopia a LwV Bomvtivooe\eonexeorun, ABN 18 . 33 34 Tou TANNH EAKKA, ervixoupoo xamyn Nedrepng nat Siyyporns loropiag, Thy MeooyeraKi EnouSv, Favericrrgte Ayaiou Lug apxée tov 1600 a2. 01 OBopaWo, ExovtAG NG ert ‘xia8ei ota BaAxAvia, écipeyay tv mpooaxh too Tpo¢ ta vorioavaradixa cbvopa me avtoxpatopiag ov, Via va avupetortiooy B60 coBapot¢ xIv6i: ‘yoog: inv reponch duvaateia tov PayaBiOiv (1502 11736) -n onoia exeivn env enoxn efeLiogotav oe 1 ‘oxepe avtimand tov¢ omy Eyer Avarokn— xa Tove aipennxove HovoovdyavoUg MyepOviCKOLG tng ‘qvatohixng Muxpag Aoiag, To 1514 1a orparetpara tov coudtdvou BeAip. A’ (1512-20) viknoay tov¢ Yat ‘paBiGec om paxn top Toahvupe xe otn avvexeia Tpoxopnoav mpos to couttavtto to ManehovKe (1251-1517), Kataxtaviag to XaXem, tn AapooKd a1 tovg Ayioug Tonovg to 1516 xa1 to Kaipo 10 1517.3? autéc ue nepraxtc enpoxeso va peivowv Ya éooegag axdveg, Eu¢ to xeBOvE tov 1917. Kaua tn Oidpxcia me oBopavariie xvpiapxiag m TlaAaiotivn bev aroteAovoe EexwpIow NOK o- roma, Htav mepioootepe Ywwom He ta apabrKa. ovopata ah-Apve a\-Movxartioa Cepo¢ Teno), aBiig neprAauBaver inv IepovoaAtp. pe 10 tee vor a-AKoa, art” onov obnguva pe tv 12AcqLK nnapaboon o fpophime Maayeb avnABe arov ov- fpawotg, xa Zoopla aTzavoptiyia (vouia Pepi), ‘enex6n fray pspog tng Neyopevng MeyaAng Supiag, 400 XPONIA 080) 1 ontoja cnnepa KaAoMeL YeoypagnKe tn Zopia, ‘ny Topdavia, tov Aifavo xa1 m Avnxn Oxén ing Topbavias, Hi TlaAaotivn a n Zupia eixay yaa tovg OBo- avoog sGiaitepn omKovoqnne, eptnopucn xa Bpn- Coxevnkh onpaaia. Téheig, Onlag n TepovcaAnp, n Aapackds kai to Xakém, may rnyés enpavaKGN {e005u%, nov npOEpxOVTAV aN opoLG OIA YEP xa mpolovta, ong aouxes kai Biotexvixes Opaotn- fmomies, oth Giakivnon wv epmopeypaKY aL ‘tov aA NSBpnoKOUS (KeqaanKc opod. ivan xa axenpicuxo du to 1828 n Dupia jazi pe mv AL YYoulto npocndprzav 10 1/8 tav GvvaALKGY yopado- YIKOY €0600V tne OBouavIKNE AvLoKoMLOpia, Entiong o1 nodes avtes trav ax16 va cHovbaxotepa. evipa BiaperaxoulotiKos epnopion mg Meang Avatohig, Bin Aapaoxd kar thy Tepocoa yy Be" _portaios peranpatee ayopazay pnlaxaprea Kat tae Ehyav péow tng Bnpe10b, evo peysAo pepo tow YewpyiKGY eptopeuRALY KaLEvBEVOrAY 1IpOG tn Tipovoa xa1 tay KevouavuvoonoAn xar ano exe pos ta. BaAxavia kat tnv xevipnkn Bepomn. Em- Mov Pooo1 kai Appévior npookwvntéc nepvoo- ‘oay ané to XaXém npog tv TepovoaArp kay BnBdeen Kal vouotepG N AGLAOKOs OvYREVIpUNE xaQe xpow xiAaBe¢ ripooKLvntes ano 10 Bopp ar tny Avatokh om mopeia rove yia tn Mex. ‘kai tn Mebiva, onov yevvi®nxe xai éznoe © Mo aneB. Th Bropytwwon Kar xaBoSMynoN tov Mpo- ‘axwviajatog nog ng 600 1epé¢ MACE Tov Tog vahipBave 0 6105 0 GoUALAVOS, YeYOUS How LoL pootbibe s8iaitepo xtpos, aod to npooKwvnua vommonoiver mv oBwpavixh Kvpigpxia omv kap6ia top pocoo\paviKod KOapoR. Tia aXove avrotg rove Abyovg n oBwyaviKth eGov ca ciny Tladmouivn at tn Bopia inv ovyKevipe Ovass 1g eviews om Bencey oe Yxpopoupa rng nepi6Sau 1830-40 MANIKH KATOXH tuxh, Evo ony Adyepia Kar inv Tovnaia tomes - Ait KaropB00qv va avaAaBouy inv e€oocia je UAV ‘voxi ing KavaravuoonaAne xox oun Aiyumto ‘gn\o8ogor nyetec, onac o Mouxtpavt AAs (Mo: ‘saet AA) (1805-49), anquofsimnody tn voqmouna img Kevtpnkng eFovoiac, 01 MepIoxty tw Ayu TO: nov Tapépewav vd ayiego oBapAVIKO EAEYNO. Pi tv xaAitepn Oioiknon tov¢ 61 OBwpavo: Us xp ‘oay o¢ woocpa BiAaéuaa (nepigéperee): tag Aaa ‘ox0d, O10 offoio aviike n TlaAmouvn, roo Xademt ‘0b, ig Tpitiokng Ka ano 10 1660 tng FaGsvUG. TO KaBeve aM avea SionkoUvEEY aII6 nd Biopi0 [EO ‘ano nv Ywnh TieAn Ge evvepyasia pe wa vioma kp awyapxia oudepaGew (uovoouApavuN 1epé- (oy) Kai ayldvndov (npoeou). O naodg nepiBa) Acta anno yoaunateic, Aoyiotes xm to ourBo®hio ‘avinenaw af apeIoex.N, 10 onoio Gvwebpiaze oe ta ta XpovIna Siactipata. Oray pia tomKh o1KoE- ve1an onda emxeipoboe va aA Aaye ano mo Bojan eFocaie, ono oewein ne TE KOEI “Am oxn Aqooxo xa tn Xe 0 180, n Yun xn Ife avudpocce SuvajKa: eneBavovtas forpaniot, cxpeyovtas 1ov eva” tomKo myetn & Yartiov co GAOL, n eefryoptzavtag» 006 Hen ‘fies tng efotoiac mc He Biogiay 10 Oe CHM dec froncnmxégatBepyninkie Borg. Hy ave ce tnapiotxOXG, OD Ma’ KYpioe, GANA Ox: aTO- xxAziomit, Topo. Ta NpBp!a MAY MBNKARGOVO- yk kav ot nroxDi 100g nla’ toxpe@nevEL va nary exhoIoLe wopLLE NAL va NPoOREDOLY pets amperes, To aviahAayn Ya Uv Inpeoie 1ov¢ ma n noon ep WH POPE rovouveheyav kan daKnon nyeHONTKAC eEOUOING ¢ nepiopiopéeva 6 Mexpi tn Bekaetia tou 1880 01 EBpaio! otnv Maflaiativn Sev Eenepvoucav tour 35.000, eve to 1914 eptacav touc 85.000 Tov peyaAWV NBhewv. To 1887 to aavezdia tng Te povoany eyive Biden Ka To enénevo ét0¢ an. Datistnxe 10 véo Bihaet tng Bnpv108, o10 otiolo © WGxBNKaY ta cavizaxia tng NaptAo’s xa tng Axpac. Ba TéAn tov 1900 ai. o HANBvoRes ung Taha livng avepxotav Ge miepittov 650,000-700,000, Or epiooétepor Karoxkoboav 61o BiAaét tng Tepov: ‘aA, 10 Tio 1ep6 Kan eoyope, Kau GLO BphaKEYAA fay povoouhpavor couvites, To OGoGT WW Xp} ouavov Apabuy itay 12-15%, evd ota Bte oa Yyizaxia Z0G0aV Kat o1ites WovooLAHAVE, KUpOG Spovzor, H MAsovornta taY KaLOIKUY AIA’ QeAE: x01 (Xwprxo}) Kat BpioKovray und tov Edeyxo LY GelxnBwy, 01 onolo1 eixay thy vMOxpéwon va et copaniovy tous gopous xax va Biatnpowy tn aE. Owe em tavzmpat o1 ocixnbeg éxnoav NépOE Kav npovoptiay tovc, evi evioxt®nke n Bon ov mob civ orxoyevenov tng IepoveaAny (aA-Xovoetv1 a) Xakivu, aA-Nooadijm x.6.) Kar tw adv pe Yow nakaiouvinxi ndhPov. O1 orKayeveree aD tec Katebxay ueyaAec exxtavers yns, eixav to Ouxa ha Va pevexooy ota vornKé BiouKNAKG auBOCNa xm Beokoyixe 6peyara, eoodaBotoay avayeca ‘om kevipixi xoBépynon kat tov tomIKd HANDY ‘oho Kai Guvepyizoviay je tous npovxoVtes tne v- +0 Nomodéuw pe ra Biyora tng navidhous ory Féga», arg 11 Mopriou 1799. Nivoras (1804) ov Antoine-Jean Gross (Mouasia Aovipov,Mapia). Kara, 0 Aépdog Mndhgoup, whnrig ra eyxaivia row Efpaixou Navemotnpiou 10 1925. An opiatep6 ‘mopoxohouBouv oan Te, Maynves, oF XN. Mahi, A. Fxivoymepy, 0: opxipoBivor Méip kot Koux, 0 op X aynoueh xa o 5p XG Baxyav ai®pov Kat tov OBspavd GrovkmUi ine repI@eper 4g tovg, Mew inv emxpainon wy NeotovpKwv n. femppon tovg REIGBNKE, je amoréAcopa opiopeves, va wio8emooty may s8e0hoyia tov apaBIKo’ EBM kiopo8 Ka va oIpapOON Kad wv TovpRuV. O1 xpionavoi ApaBes exyetaA AedinKaY nv eopUIAK ‘kh o1kovoK Gieiobvon oun TiaAaiotivn jet 10 ‘€Aog tov Kpiatxot mohéyov (1858-56) xa onpet- ‘Goay a€sohoyn npéabi c1ovs topes tov epNpIoD, ‘mg 6ioiknonG, tov YpaMAAY Kar tng MOAI Meppianévor xpiouavoi Tiaka.orivio: BiaBazay e- ‘gmpepibeg xax BiB\ia, noo twndvovtay Gin Aapa ‘ox kar tn Bnpv10, Kat opiopeves movores naa louviaxes oukoyeveies EoteAvaY 1a Maud tows va loniovBaaaw ato gnmioyevo ApepuKavK® Fave: ‘ocho tng Bnporos. Bx ysoa tov epacyévoe a ava xpiouavoi ApaBes Grapapducay onpavaxd pode om avarrmén 109 toIKot Kal fob apaBIKOd eBVIKICHOO Kat GLVEBAAAV GRY ABeoAoYIKH GU: Yypotnn Bidgopov HOAIIKGY KoupKUN, Eva and {@ ofoia, to Miia, Bpioxetan onpepa oun e€e- ‘a orn Dept Kat to Tp. éxp1 un Gexaetia too 1890 o1 EBpaion curw THakavaivn Bev Gaepovoan tous 36000. Ope peta th Bodogovia 100 roag00 ing Pootag AdEEAvEpOD B10 1881 nat tie Gwe Mov aKONoLD NOR, sahtieg Bpaion averrxactnay ve KaLapeyOON Gr Bepomn, ug HITA nai m Méon Avarok Ta fa tv evavtioon rng oBanavisigweBEyRONG Kat tig evupdoers tov ApaBun, 0 eBpaixoc mAnDo- pos ouny TaXaiodvn avg wa to 1914 e9ta- Ge 06 85.00 n wo 12% tov owwolinod MANGO. Tepinow 60.000 eyxataotabncy otig NOMIG, x fog ot TepovodAn, xa 25.000 ae yep = técee pip ta onc ee ayopactet ao cto ‘orxodt opyevionoes nal cixe xnpoxdei ava. owplotog €yyeng buoxtncia too eBpalxod Aa06. ano fpoeav aypounodc oxiopovs veo eidoug (ia rynoste), pe ovAAovIRD EAeYxO tng Mapa Kant un Geen 100 A Tayoopoy Tao ot Bpetavot kar or Tao oxganea va. Bice anys ta «Bo tng aappcoveas OBWpavIRS AE toxgntopiag orn Méon AvatoX Or mparon edaav tn voua Dopia wa wo Ip wa ot Bee pot to rpotoumn Sepia, tv Kida xan tn Moco, H Tladmioien rednxe vn waBeotic OcBv0bs ent fpnons. Opus, ans 2 NoenBpiow 1917, 0 Bperavéc ‘noepybe EEatepiew Nopboc MaAROUP YwuCt0 noinde mv anagacn ing KeBEpyMORG rOD ve Uo Cnpget tv i9goon epic ebvaxig cova outw Tiadaictivn. H Avaxnpvgn Madgovp ened va epeéoer naBopiuixn tv topela tng sotopiag tum Ha\motivn wa 0 choxAnpn mn Meon Ave vant BNOPRNOIA, Howrant A, Joropia wv ApaBinov Aas, ABiva, Nea Bop AlBavng 1988 Inaleik ., The Ottoman Empire: Conquest, Organization and Beonomy, London, Variorar Reprints, 197% ‘Khoury PS, Urban Notables and Arab Nationalism: ‘he Politics of Damascus 10001290, Cambridge, Camrkdge University Press, 13, Lewis B, O: Apatieg om ovopia, ABs, Cnet 1685. wis Bh. Méon Avnroln xa! Avon, Abn, Hamazent Muslih MLY., Phe Origins of Palestinian Nationalism, ‘New York, Columbia University Pros, 18. (Owen R. (et), Studies inthe Beonomte and Social Uistory of Patestine inthe Ninoteonth and Twentieth Centuries, London, Macmillsn, 108, Joo Tiavroy Mariani coxa aya Sy pov leaping Favemrarnpoe Koning Big ox AMpOvOIEY n peyAM IatopAKA MEpIO6|oG nop ouafanxt ovoprizexue Biopnxcv xh eave «an, ota «én te 1906 Ka NG apHKE OD 200K eae, 1G tote 1ooppontcs Lov KOHL eLaBAANOVTAY Ue vwvone pub woes, Nea exxovoumtt evipe orn Yer Yoagia we NOAMOROY MpoGEAKLEY exarORREpNA avpanoeg npoxaavtag th jeyahixepn pevoxivn- Gon a2 tw yigoI® Hoxb 8 avBoaretnEc. ME Ga ciov xoIU¥iKO 16, cv aveamiypEvn Ain aA 2M nai oe Hae YONA 100 LHROLOION KDOHOD, ave ‘SeixOnnay eo} Noo oxtos, KexaAvovtag MALES rataataoeig Xa ooppottieg, ON Ma GICIKO, 01 FeNiEnc auée owvobedOnxa ano wexxpes Evian ‘al agopnieg meet ow «xONNGBNITW Ka GLY vo liea wv cuuneptgopor, me Weaoyaas wa 100 yo Too oxeymic tow evEpOrTaW. Mia aM tas TOA te avoyeveori¢ Noo cibav 10 ox exeivn tv TepIObO JM to peta ro» avToMIAOO. To Koja Low av HeBpAIKAY eXBMAdOEON Yiya ‘WxGdnxe ain Booia etn Genetia 10 1880 xan CE MAOPNKE he BxdvoREG NoowEE oe OOKANPN tnY Eyponn ote enoyeve xpoma, Hpoxaheor parixé jreravnoeig eBpaikaw HAnBoopy,ané en Pooia wBiaitepa. Ano my (eAPLKaiG, oxeBow Bio EKA rip BBpcior netaviecevda Gu HTTA ono Kan cuiweicouv tn Baom wo woxvpov eBpaixoe ctoLse 0 6m xopa auth. Tok» AryoteDo1, oxebov 60.000, rpaynic’ npog tnv oBapavikh, Yow axon, Ta Aaictivn. Mapa n oxetxka yxph rgotiinon nop oe uno rw avimorioniow ApGBa” KaLOKAN tne Bashow o1 nodeunees owv@hucc Hao KivBowos€ Famiwong tov emxeiphinay otn Méon Avarokh xv Baynes xo uaaind eEouhwH6 wy Epa (oe KHOIKOY tng epIORRG, ME KM ave ox aL ny aupotpovon ww Bpetamea apxay mov, oro OXEEIKO KepEAMO, avEeIGMIZAY pe KaxtHOMO ove ApaBes. To yeyovg au oboe oF apc ficeen avetporin Kav 1eoppOMIAY awapoG ea 80 sowbrmice, mapa co yeyovos Ox, apAOuntaKA, ot Tieknotivio ¢£axnSouBoveay va avunpoounet> ov 1a2/3 tov owvohinod MANPeaO me nepIONNG 1 Broavadoyia naw mpoexure poxaAEGE I p70 ‘anoanonbinon cow ps068uv ax oF evoMce & Boat opebes, emionee, npieionpcs xan even onus, ipoaOnaav Biaua ta oe Bepor tow yenovou touc autiiata pe ageyec, mepnaincers spo Kad ponioxpcrikrs emioe, Kae eons ‘TaveEaptncia tng lopbaviag ova 1046 Ka po Cpinon eno auc unc Avani OxOng avoige © te Acvuno Keypathai omny emporctopiay, cv BEAETE, 0 Tiadmoraxoy znmpacoe, Bra 198, 10 KoAKo« 100 Iopaa mepiehabe v peyadstepo nepoc to cbapoes, 1g TaAeictivng emipoxvovtac ot 6pop0 Ing mp0 ‘pode Centiogxtbnabc Ta\aiotvices. ‘01 payosies noo 01 axpOEEIO: aoxAn- puuonoi evepav ot Boparin pewapép- Anka’ otn Kp Tladcuoti, ono xa eEaodorBawv va BuAlz00% toon AvP ov ote apa xox tv anyon, ‘Onyemc me raparporiormg ow wort, opydwwong, rou perénera ‘pwBunoupyou ou lopafa Mevaxéy Mnéyxnv Maino ing BperavoyaAAig eniéyBaons a Ke tahanBavel tn xeposvnco tov Die, puavovtas He ‘xpi m Buiipoya tov Zovtz. Apyotepa, 8a avayxaote: va arfoaep8ei peté tn 6ie8VA KataKpavy Kal tM snapépSaon tov HITA xa1 tng Dobie ws Evoong 1 apaises wiper Bev jpmopecav va GrapoppO ‘oovv eviaia won ariévavu ovo Fopan.A war ibn a: Tmo ta tekn m¢ Sexaetiag 100 “50 ep\paviorxay 0 pateg paxnnikés FaAmaniaK opyaNOCI pe € rukegaAnig in «anax» tov Trdaep Apayar, evi 10 1964 18pocta1 n Opydwwan yia env AneAcvBEpw0n tng HaAaiotivns (PLO). O eniuevos peytshoc crab 16s evar o Takepag tav EEL Huepén, tov Tonio ov 1967, Katt tov onioio 10 TopahX KaveAaBe tn Awpiba tng Tazag, in xepodvnco tov Bit, uv vatoAu IepovoaAin, aAoKAnon tn Avunsh Oxon tov lopSavn Kan ta vpopata tov Pkohaw ane tm Dept H nepioboc nov axodou8el, pe env éviown ave To Mafaictiviaké anotefei tnv Kapéia tou Megavatonixals kar cuvbéetal jie dftouc toUC Nofeyouc: ané tov AiBavo yexp! tov Kein opaeon Tv Bt umepdvvapew yope and m Mécn Avaroin, eBnyei atn przocnecuixonoincn {ow pazov Kat Guny euyavien HOAAGW HaAMCU: viaxav opyavaoewn, of onoies npooraBoww va a- vamrefouy aviaptikh Spon ota Katexopeva rm. Aqiouviaxé ebayn. To TopanA anavea ne ox Ane ‘aviinowa evavtiov tw yenovIKaW apaBiKu xu ox; Orig pe 10 BoRBapSiap6 tov aepodponiow me Bnpetat to 1968 kat inv KaIastpoph BeKABoW aE: porthavw To NoépBp.o ov 1967 to LyBodhio Avpaeiag tov OHE yneioe opopuva nv amoygacn 242, pe "nw omfoia zniotoe tnv arioxopnan ww 1opanAwiov ‘owpareupduay ano ta nakmauviaKa eBewgn, aAAa KaAoive Kat 1a apaBiKtt xpatn va GesaGtoLY inv ‘aveEaptncia tov Topan o¢ «aopaan Kar avayvo- pionéva cwvopa». To Iopand Bev exappioge note nv anopacn avm, evo otn ovvexeia to TTaAmon- ‘viako aitotéeoe ayopHit Ya oxAnpEs eoutepmKeS ovyxpotoes omnv Topbavia, pe Boyar névtote org Tahaiotiviors poopvyes 1 ApaBes npoond®noay, tov OxuBp0 woo 1073, va avaxtiioavv 1 ebayn nov eixe KataNABeL 10 TopanA, aAAd, napa tov npoIO aIPVIEIGEHO, 19 Topaind Kpamoe tig Béoeis 100, xwpig va epapHOdeL noté oote Kat tv anbgaon 338 tov 1873 ya arto: xbpnin ano ca Katexépeva eBdpn. ‘To NotpBpwo tov 1977 0 Aryumog mpoebpog Avounp BA David npayparortotet mv iotopnch & nioxeyh tov omnv TepavoaXnp xa to Mapua too 1979 n Aiyontog Kat to Topan viioypagowy ovv’ ‘hxn eipAvng, atnoKodhoxaveac GutApatnKes oxe ocx. To Topan anioxopnoe 10 1982 ano va axyu- rue eBéipn tiov xaveixe, aAAG Aiyous phves ap: yotepa exséBade otov AiBavo ya va eEpvbetepO 1 Ug naA@ionMiaKeg Suvapers o1 anoles Bpodoay ‘ano ta opununprd tous oto vou AiBavo. O1 Ta: Amouvio: avuoTaoNKGY npwIKd ent eKALO NRE PES fom Bnpvio, Kai enema ano ToAaopxcia Kan ago: Boots 1gpanAwais BoRBaphicpa’y xiAIdBeg vo mot Tadmiotivion eyxarédeiyay tov Aifav0. © 1987 elvan n ce1pé 100 iBxov tov nada uviaxod Ado’ Gta KatExoREVA EAN vo Eoxivnoel mnv npwtn exgnvaxn efEyepoN nov Eeive ywwoth os «Ivugavier . O1 wie pot TaAaiotivion we ug etpeg aveuteto izovv rove néworthov¢ Jopan vob atpactares Ka ipoogépovv exarovtabeg vexpods clov ayloea Tove, KoBopionxn xapuih ya 10 Tadaasuviaxd anoue coe 0 nOACHOS Olov Kono to 1991, weta tay er Bon 100 Ipax oto KovBe. apaBixds xdonos SrmotnKe avénesa om vnOGtpIEN pos UE HITTA a1 t0 Tax kar peta tov teppaticyd wv ov kpoboeuy 01 Hywpeves Hokucies, emaypedoune- vec ano 10 véo bieBves Kina, pe mv eEagavion me @AAng unepbevaane, auBaNoo’ Gin Gb kAnon ing Aidoxeyng tng MaSpiing (01 ouvopiAieg Bev obmyouN ae aTotEAcopa, @A- Aa tov Toovio tov 1992 10 Kpyauxd Konya tov TopaiiA, ue emxepadng tov Prat Papmv, xep- ize: ug exhoyes xan apsizer pwouKes GrarpayHa- reverie tav na\aiouviaxh nyvoi. Hi évtovn ma: pooknviaxi Biarpaypateucn obnyei Guy 16.opl kh eogavia tov Oodo, n onoia emogpayiounxe ‘tov Kho 190 AevKOO OiKOD, to BeMePBpIO woo 1998, pe in xeipayia too Purzax Pam xox tov Tiecep Apapat, O1 Sv Mcvpéc vrioypAovY Ara anpoEN ApxoW yia tay avtovonia Wa HaAAICt ‘akov eBay Kai yia pan good emannonore- a1 n ayoiBaia avayvopian 1ov 1opANAIWOD Kod ove kar tng Opyavwons yaa nv AmteAevB pun ing Jahaiotivng ag exmpooarton tov naAaiouvia- 0b Aa. 01 npaixor wives epapHoyne wy avAPOVIE 1Ov Ocko Snynoepyoov KAina eogopiag ota HaAMOU- ‘viand eBaygn ple tav lepropiovevn vAorfoinon mg nahe1onviexng aucovoniag, n omoia empenet tov Apapat va enistpeyer botepa and 27 xpovia, tov Mera tn ouppevia tou Ooo (ZentépBpioc 1993), 0 Fidcep Apapat ematpépel Uotepa and 27 xpovia otn Fava Tobho tov 1984, om Taza. H eipnvevuxn SiabiKa- ta Sev e€PMogetai BéBaia Opa, yiati or axpai ¢ iahap Keg opyamacers aovexizowv ug BopBioN- eg 1ove emBEDEIG wg aveinOIva ta HELA KaKC ‘vac. H epappoyh tay axpipoviow xapaxmnpize- tal am aovexeic avaBodés ft vuavaxuphoeis Ke ‘we amto tnv topanAivn THAeupA, ev Bev Aeinocy at 91 axpaiec evepyeies, OM1og n extédeon 29 Tl- evctvlow or a ne Repent and pavnd MABETPNANKOL dex =a Hipayxétepn ouyna onpervera og 4 Noep- S0pHOW oF ‘pen oe 1886, 4a” expo Topamax. MODIRPEHOREE tue tr paonenpy Fann Pa cea an ABET beytevpaon cfu ato Teh ABD, OBipoy Iie. SwnmHTE fer ooo vor iadexen anavia ye oxAnpA wixoa FANN ATCOTONAG Gt EMOCOENG tw CAMRHCKY aL EO Ns 1948 Bewexan yc ro Bavaro exo eHAKY aN HonBA Broo oF ktpio tov OHE oro worn Aiawo . H 1 panlivn Aes, evioxeqvn ano 0 hia avaoge Davee noo SnjorpYOLV ot EMBKOeIE ta TENA ‘wa xepties ng ex oye Kat 0 Yeog pAb oe Mnevianiv Neravidxo npoomabet ue wae {pono va avaxoyes tv egapOYn wv oxRpWNIO tov Doho, H apvnon inc icpankwvne KeBepynons vat oovexioe ty enxspnch ig ao ¥ aon ‘and ebayn vMnoxpeorer rove TlaAnioxivioeg va awoooe ng anpayTaaevorig Ka) oF Hopves Pe H KPIZH SHMEPA TleAncieg avaAapBavovy in peoodéBnon. To Ae- xEnBpo tov 1998 o KAiviov emoxémtetar ta ne: Aaiouvinxe eBagn Kax expove! AdYO G10 NaAALEL ‘iox$ KoroBotAwo vnoompizovtag éuueca env na: Amisemexn aveEaprncia, ‘To Maio tov 1899 0 nyétng tov Epyauxod Kop- navoc Exobve Mindpax kepbizet ovvipinuxn viKn Evava tov Netaviexov, QoG0o, xan avio¢ apveitan va expapyooet ta axpgavnpeva ato Ooro, Kal to 4: ‘xeF50 peragépetm tov Toto tov 2000 eto Kay Niéubivt, érm00 0 mpoetipog KAivtov mpocraeet va nevoxet ina oungovia yia va OdOKANG|OE pe Eva SpiquBo tn Ontcia tov. O1 covomIAies anowy vouv Vint o Mnipax Sev eivan BrareBemevog yd HHapaxophoeis, avepewrizovtag xa to gaoya Ing fautag tov aug eniepxopevec ex Aoyes tov ‘eB pove- pov 2001, ug onoies Kepbizer © ApLeA Bapsv, 0 oipaing avBpumog yia tors TlaAmiotivioes, 0 o- nolo xavapépver va oxnyatioes KuBepynon pai he wo Boyanxé Koypa xan Eexiwé mv ooo1acn Kn nia avarpomth OAav tov GuPAVIGW Nov éxOUY erm tevxéei pe mv TlaAaiouviagh Api. xe nponyn®ei n KaAA oxebiaopEvn mp6: Anon tov Zap6v oto Mpoatihio tww tza- iav otnv TepovoaAnp, to BertépSp10 tov 2000, tov éGwoe ro évavopa ya tn véa kar nob mo a1pamph eféyepon mov Ba peiver ‘omy 10109 ws n «lvupavia 100 AA Axoo», a6 10 Gvopa top 1g900 tenevors tng Iepovoany. Za ‘pov 8EAnae va npokantor my opyh ww Tada fouviov ia va Undpxer n ayopuin yia mv mo WA xa Bian Kataoto\ Hop yvopIEAY Note, Ata Toe zovv ad 19 @Orvoxtapo tov 2000 expr ue nEpES 1Ha¢ ious va enepyoi oF ayprounta ta Beavd nov E- xOo¥ vinodtE! ANO thY apxn tov HpAiavos HT xatéppevon tov ovvopiAtov oto Kapmt Ntét Bive tov To®\uo tov 2000 owveaXe om Snyoepyia 0s rlponiayavOiouxo’ peBov bu unApge «yevvar Meta tov néfeyo tou 1967, dflec 01 KuBepvageic tou lopanit ouvéxicav TOV ENOIKIGHO TwV nafaictiviaKéV Eba—pav 46 ‘B0pn npoopopa” and tov Mkapax tv ona ap- Li@iake, Kata {pow aveENyNtO, © Apapat xa Oo laxohovWobv ac ti nepes Hac elvan HoIpaia, yiati ABNKE YA loLOpIKN evKaIpa. Opws xo KaT NUiBivt n topandiva MAevpA. Gev epwpaviatnxe Sxatedeivn va Granpaypatevtei, napa pavo va BoAiWookomioer Lig avabpavers ue GAN AED. ‘pac ong wBée¢ now KateBeae o MpEct pac KAWTON. THao and ug eweddaxeg oxnves oto Bépetpo tov Auepisavod npoBipoo unipxe n with payne ‘UxOua n onoia Bapaiver KaODAuTUKG odOKANGN ‘nv Tiepio6o nov Fexiva an tv KaGAnygn tg Av ‘ung OxOng tov TopSavn Kar tng Pazag pera tov nodepo too 1967. To lopan, pe Odes ng BiaBoxaKe xBepvncets too, Bev énnape mote va GuveXizel tov eONKIOpO tay NaAGLONVIAKG eBapAy, Gate Pe I Snmroupyia tetehcopevow va ynv omapEeL Toue BovaoUma emotpo~ns ciNV HponyouREVA Kata oraon. Rot eEnyeitan Kar n x@Abotepyia GAwW Tov evBepvhoruy va GuzMthOODY 10 TEAIKS KOBCOU wv ebagay Kat ta znthpata Lav GovepWV, Lav OF IONOY, YoV MpOOBEYWY, 1oD vEpOD KaL Ung TepoL Expo gédayyo THs “Xayxiva» xoreuBtverat ov Anpiho Tou 1948 ané i ToTeh ABB mpos THV IepovoaAy, ve ovdxo rv arahay me, ApIoTepG, 0 Nropive Mney-Troupiov ‘poxnp¥oaet my ‘Spuan ‘ou xparoug You topaqA © amg 14 Maiou 1948 cro TEA ABIB, xt ond 10 roprpéro rou narépa 1oW swnapod cd5upau Xepxr aap. I6iaitepa ya 10 ziknya wv oxstonay, o1 a- piOyuot eivar ovvipunruxoi. H avantufii tous, noe é- et xatabikogtel enaverAnnnéva ano tov OHE og rapaBiaon too Ate8vod¢ Atkaiov Kai tv GORA: ‘oeav ing Tevetng, antotedei axpoyuvinio Ai80 tng ropanAivng oypaunyikhs, AkoMN Kax BELA 1g CUE- ‘gavieg 100 oho, o api®nds rove avgiinKe Kau Eeniepva ofyiepa tovs 200, ue Eva aovoo enoiKww ‘naw até 200,000, 01 onoiot Ba mpémter va. Tpoote Bo‘ axove enonkov¢ Tov eyKaLaLGBNKAY Gin a paBnh, avarOAnKh TepovoaAiy xa1 01 onoio1 Ee TEpVOBY Ka aUIOL tOrE 200.000. ‘Thy iia oY © noAaouviaxés mAndvopes on Avuxn OxBA Kaa 1m Aupiba me Pazag, nov graves ta 8,4 exctoyt- ‘la, ao OKT AO {O GvvEXIZOPEVO ATIOKACIERO,e WO 3,7 exaxopipia TlaAaiotivio: npdopoyec napa: évoww navia uc YeoviKEs apaBés xopeS He to ‘pau ig emtpopNs om Marpiba ToLG... TO a: ‘vaupanxé parvopevo tov Iopan va emdione évay ebapik6 GupBIBaopO xan ravtaxpova va. epHTAE E110 mpéBAnpa ev ¢Enyeitar pove pe vmodoy! Conodg eoutepnkig noAIIKAA. To wI6Ba8p0 tov ei ‘yar 9 [680¢ tv pwxonopWY EBpaiuy exoiKwy noo Bebsvovv ou eivas €va eBv0G nov yopIce om yn to. H bectepn Onog Ivmpavta anotéhece eva HoIonxa avitepo eMtineGo avunapaBecns, yrati ‘ev aepiopiomxe ma eu MeIpeC WV IKPOY NaI- ‘uiv @AM ripoxwpnoe oF tio BvvanuKes oHpES a- ‘vuiotaong, Evi n mpaen Ivngervta anefkenc ot rican mpos to Topan yia Siaripaypateven, vopa to zmoonevo eivai n ane\ev@épucn OXuv wv HI: Amouviaxav ebay, eva otn Gtpamny Kh tw Ta- Amonvioy fav coping n npoon@eia va Snoop \yboowy 11g npotmo8tecer ya t cumetoxn Ka dA: Awy mapayovtwy oF ye VEU epnvevuaxt GrabIKa. H xoBépvnan Zapov npooavatoAionne eEapsiig ‘oan vi08étnon plag cipainynKhe Hou amteBAEmE ‘ounv ihn vnovopevon Gc env teAnen ef apOpw- ‘on ing noAmouviexcng nyeotas. Exovtag eFaapa- Aloe tov IAfipn nupapepwud, eu Lpandivih koruvia, wav Sovapeuv nov ABeday mn Gueevvén: ‘on ye un aAAn mAcvpi, o Dapov apeOnke anept- ‘ondotoc 0¢ wha okAnpn avapéxpnon pexpr Bewetov be tay maAaonviaxA nyeoia. H otpatnynKA rob Dapov itaw’ va ripoetomaces thy Yepanivh Ka tn bie8vh KoWwA ywoRN ya env sEAApN tabUEN KaBe e&tpemetkn evépyeiag pie tov TiaAaiotivio yen xan any TlaAmouviaxh Apxa, Gote va ptopel va ipeyer inv wth olpanouUK Bia evevua otous eH Bpvaxovs Beopots ww HaAaiouviow. H kdipaxwan eprace oryt arya oto «expiaAaKO cevipio va Beopndel n Tlakaicuviaxh Apxn o¢ ceexépg> Kat 0 Apap €qteca UMEEBLVOE Ya Kd H xuBépvnon Eapov ulodétnce pia otpatnyikh nou anéBflene otnv nfinpn unovoyeuon Ing naflaiotiviakng nyeciag ‘Be 1poploKpankh evipyera! © Zapdv eEaoyadice ‘nv apepikavixh eovaivean siBn mpv ano ta ipa- {iki Yeyovoud mg Tng ZertewBoiov 2001 au Heme ano avte ovvExige avevoxAnto¢ th peBoonKn expappoya tov axebiow tov. Apyti aANA GraBepa, oF canpo\nituxeg exteAccerg» xopupaioy TaAmou: viow éBacav in Bean tove GUE GapwLIKES ema Pp 47 H KPIZH SHMEPA H mpoopuyie Exel opxioes. ahaierinaxss foeig tav appAIUY Kar tov BapaKiopevuY GUg ne: Amouviaxte ndkerg mg Avaxic OxONe, Ne aNIOKO- xaTauhoy6s 670 gop en apayn oun’ Teeviy nono Ba Haped tn Nap ak Niapivt aon ing o19 navBeo tor HaptUPIKAN RAE He ou Aifovou, 0 a un Papa wa en Bai ei TU 1948 FeqbopIotKdg Iva © pOOG LN HwopEVuN To- 48 Ateaov or GAN tny egLign top Tadaicuviaxod ~znuiatog, yiatt vnoctnpizovy Kai eviGxbOLY Gta: cpa to Kpatos tov IopanA ano tn Guy me I {Speone tov, amok Aciovtac ravtexpova thy onlorG- Shui’ emppon ing Evparne ome nepIosn aoch nov anoLeAci arioxAciotKch appobi6tnta LOVE, Te pa Ouuc n peoavatodnkh GoyKpoLEN aNTELACi va e rextaBei Kau va B¢Ge1 Ge xivBuVO ta waxponpEde- ona cpepuravixd ovpepovte. Ono n oxpamynkh too Rapdv eva abe Gn, ka kata6kcopévn Ge anorexia, foto Kat a, BExpL ‘ya auoberxBei auto mepitpava, 8a onpEOLY exe H peoavatofikh ouyKpouon aneifei va enexta8ei kai va Gége! ce Kiveuvo ta yaxponpédeapa apepikaviKa cUn@pepovta LpBec Bepdtov. H nadacuviaxh eféyepon Sev hhnlopei va KaLaoLaAE! He oIpaLOLKA yeaa. H. 10: paniivn xown ywunn Bev propel va eHoounpizer fioviog Ma axpaia MOANA, n omoia Bev Npo- ‘ayéper kaya evaAAGKUK AbGN KaL to XopIbIEAO ‘nv eiphvn kai env compacta nov enooxt®nxe npo- PARAOyIKG 0 Zapdv. AV 0 Papav ageBei arepiona. log va ook AnpGUEI to 4épYOD tov, oF GovémTEES 8c eivar Karaotpoyuxes Ox1 novo yia in Méon Ava: ToAR, GAAA a1 Yd ta paxponpEBeopa ovRIpEpo- vta tov Hvopevav Tokitexiv Gtnv mepioxn, ta 0. noia Bev tautizoviar pe ug ripotepadente ‘coc n xuBepvNEN Mnious, GnAGbh pe pa via ex ‘oxpateia evavtiov tov lpi. ardoo, n KUBEpYNIN to Fapdy, pe Tn axe ‘xh KI KOpUPAIOW GLEAENGY too EpyaUiK® Kop. laatos, avapeod tous Kat to BpaBeio «Noumed Ex. pavng>-Dmov Tepes, KaLdwepe va mcigel yeyaXo [HEpOC ing BieBWOdG KOI YUNG Ou o Taso ‘viog nyEUE eivaL LIEOBEVE HHpooUTMKA yia tHV popoxpatia yiati Bev Kaveltirote yid Va tay art: peer, Mpoxenar yia anata, yiati n ropa Awa xxvBépyncn ywupizei noXd Kaa 6u o1 emseiphoe, ‘aoKtOviag Bev LHopadv Va anorpaIObY ma obte ano tov 1610 tov Apapa Ka Novo Ja ovCIGEUK HOMINKN MpoortKh expmvniene ieE|Go0 8a N0- ‘p0ce va nepiopide1 Km apyowepa va eEaAeihyer 10 ‘gauvopevo auto ing ciyxporng avBpunoBuciag ‘Texora rohan nporaan Bev ‘m povn Sovayn nop Ba propobce va mv mpoapé: feet, uc Hwoutves Hadtcies. H anootaAn vo Ko- Dav Tlaoved ora jiéoa AnpiAiov Bev jinopeae va hoe, ows, and GoyKadvwer to yeyoros O11 n KofepvAION Lopov ‘Sev BEE Hc ovpUNies tov OoNo, Bev BENE ave- Enpinto nadaionviaKo Kpat0¢, @ANA anaBNerter (om BiaiGvion tng Katoxng wv HEAMOUVIAKAY & Say6x, otn Giathonon Kai thy enéKtaGN tv 30 Panky onacHOY xe1 evBexopevus omV aver ‘yvopion jag Tepiopionevng avrovopiag oe opt ‘opévoug BuNaKovg-yKELO rTov Ba Bploxovear avve. xu oto Eheog tw 1opanAmwiv BuvayewV "To oaovéapaBino oxEbi0 nov eyKpiOnKE ORO: va ano tv apaBirn SiaoKeyn KopvpE ota EAN Maptiow npoogepe mia iBavrxn roropnxn eDKaIpia, eEoopanizovtag 10 péyioto yia 10 KpALoG too Topan: mv aopahn onapg.i vou Kai env wAsipn & FopaAwvon wy oxéoeov 1p ne wor apasixo xoope. Me uc e&eAigbi¢ Oyog wv LEACIGiOY eBOORAGAY HHnpayepizerar wax avt6 to oxeDuo, wax to naAMot viaxo zmnpa Eavayepva ony mpatoyevA popyn Tov, ¢ zhnLA avaywapiang {ov GLoIKerdBoog atdypatos eves Ano va. éxet to O1Kb tou avayvupt ‘ouévo iar 1060 KpALOG. COnoieg x ev 8a evar Op0¢ 01 Spcpanxs eB AK Ze, n peAovinen npoorTtnsh Bev propel va eivat @AAn ano inv expnvns oovenapEn B00 xpatay, ing Tlamotivng kar tov Topanna, xopig avyxpo0: ‘orig, HOAELOKE H {poHOKpALiA Ka 10 MApEABOY E Seige ou oF B60 Ado! pOPOW va cUVLTpEOUW. Maxponpo8eopa Sev unepxer evaAAaKuKn ASon népa an6 inv opouxA MONIKA emiAvGN 100 Zn. tapatos. Ta oevipia yia yevmxcunévn abyKoOuGN 1nOvo EHV KataoTpOpA jINOpOEY va eMpEpOLv. OL 800 Aaot Gey Ba npénes va avuperottizovta ayo Baia ic povInoe KivGvvos, we untpa auto uny oni. EemnBobv efspewores A ipojoKpates, AAA. a 1 ‘oonIH01 etaipen o€ Eva expnVIKD NEpBAAAOV. AVG ‘nog elvan Ko 10 omfolo npénea va GovesDntononh ‘Got do01 popoty va exmpetoovy KaBopIOUKA OG voxeg ung Mepioxne, 1 weheuiaiec 6ianpaypatctoee avieca ‘oug Bvo Mevpéc Mov éywav tov Ta io tov 2001 éBerfav 611 vnApxODY MED) ‘aia cevewvonang ax y1a ra mo enna: ‘xa muniata, onto eng TepoveaAhy, tow onagpon, tng aviaAAayhg eBagav Kal tne em Coxpo.phg tw" HpoopoyeN. Pia va enavaAngee:, w- ‘v600, n-eipnveuukh B:aB1KaGIa HHpened va LepL: Tuotel opiouNt kai quetaxAnta n caatoxveia row opupadnKE Us tehevraies eBSopAbes. On eAmibec ‘onlug yia expnvnen eMiAvon arpépavean ka ott ies tag Komavieg WwW TANGY, oxovg TlaAaiotiv (ong Kan tov TopanAwvi¢, 01 oxOIO! pov avLO: unopotv va Booey ta aopaXh BepEhia evc e1pn- Vikob HéAAOvL0G: Koptpaior EBpatioi ot ohdKAnpo to¥ Koop bia: BAcrowy tapa tov Kivuvo EVE WED KENALOG AVE Congmuopob, Aoyw ing eyKANpaUKAE HOArKC LG ‘nppwvng lgpan ivi xuBEpU NING, Ka KaLeYYER- Aovw tov Fapov og 10 wxcipdtepo exApd tov Topi», znuaveag tov éueo0 tepuanond tne Kato: Xfig wav HaA@oUViaKGY ebayer, De ddes UE xOPES ‘avk{vovem 01 avnbpacers evavnia oe avn inv Ka: Taorevagpévn :OisjlopgN nBLKA adLxia, n oMoL iver ato Biya tov napeABEViog -nov avawpiBoXa Sixaio‘tar UAH Ka avayvuipron- to Susaiopa va ‘Snmrovpyed 1a Buxa tov Bvpara onpepa. To aiodn- a evoxnic Evpanaiay xa1 Apepisavay yia 10 ONo- xabtoa Hav vnieatnoay 01 EBpaios ané roc vazi, Sev anopei pe Kavéve tpn va. pecaKperTetaL O€ e- Eayviono, OF avox Kal Ge UHOOTHPEN wh €- Kopupaioi EBpaio: biaBAénouv tov Kivbuvo evoc véou KUPaTOG avticnpIticpOU, Aoyo tng eykiinyatikng nofirtikng tou lspanA YykAapauxay mpdéeav in¢ KoBEpvnonc Bapov. 0 wBoAiKog p80 Ou n HaAduotivn Atay pa Opa pig Ad6, €Xer Katappetoe cb Kan xpovia, ‘Taps 8a npéne1 6No pag va Spacouue date va Ka: apgevort n avtiAnyn nov KaAAepyeitar 6 ob Hadmotivior eivan évag Aaog Hoe nepioaeter ote G10 100 nv natpiba. Ooo yaa tous iB100G,Ga106 Aé- 1 xm 0 peytiAoc momtne tov Maxpotve Nrapov- fg, «Sev popobv va xévouv tinote Ao, mapa va flval Kal va Tapapévocy axon mepioo6tepo Ta: Aaetiviow. . OKAivrov pe ‘oug Mnapox x Apagér ovo oxéruxo Koy Nreywr vo 2000 aga. Beer 01 korvovixoi aydveg omy apxaxdenca, Wadanotivn, Adds, Pog), pexaopanc ©. N. ToaBéa, ABnva 1864 TKOYPOrANNH® 8, mxo Kat Aen tpayouss yro tm Tahatativn, Aw6svn, Aiwa Travvwa 1982 DANIEL-ROPS H., ‘Hxadnyepiva zon ow Trakaiozivm orove xodvous tov ‘noo, yexapp. BAAng AvyENOD, Tanebiyas, AAA 190 Favre ‘Tiacép Apagar, Evag ayavac, sma 2a yra raw Trahanorivn, hetaigp. Ekin Kexponoitoe, Nea Zivopa- A.A. Arbavns, ‘Adve 1988 ‘ABTEAD A.N ‘Aaxnaig me yeopyiag- Avamrugic mg yewpyiac ev Alytmre, BabvAwvia, XaA5aia, Tiadasortv, Apxaia EARA61 xan Apraia Taio, Geooahovixn 1957 OlKoNOMOY HB, tev Takaiotivn ‘apraiodoyucai épeuvar xat n ‘Ayia Tpaph, Abia 1969 Oveanne TAauxol dpopor: Adpiauxi- Meooye1og-Aiyurrtog- Tradartem, 01 Ere woo BiB, ABhva 1947 DAoPA-KAPABIA © Tagibetoviag, Alyee pépeg omy Tadaortvn, McGabp10 1994 Xpurroy 11x, EAAnvieh rapocetia ornv Tadanocivn, Kepowev0s @xooaiovixn 1960 AHLSTROM 6. ‘The history of ancient Palestine from the palaeolitnic period to Alexander's conquest, JSOT Press, Dognive 1993 ARAV P. Follenistic Palestine: settlement patterns and city 50 planning, 897-931 BCE., England BA.R., Of popbn 1969 COHEN A. Palestine in the 16th century ‘Patterns of government and administration, Magnes Press, Hebrew University, IrpovoaAny 1973, Population and revenue in the towns of Palestine in the sixteenth century, Princeton Press, Iipivotov Dumant ap, ‘Merchants, socioeconomic Change and the State in Ottoman Palestine: The Naplus region, 1800-1860, Georgetown Univ. Teopiztdowy 1990 GRIFFITH S. H. Arabie Christianity in the ‘monasteries of ninth-century Palestine, Aldershot, Hants: Brookfield, Vt: Variorum, 1992 Guysc., Les Philistins: Colonie grecque de la Palestine, MagoaXia 1856 HAMELG.H., Poverty and charity in Roman Palestine, first three centuries CEE, University of California Press, Mnépichet 1980 HEYBERGER B. Les chretiens du Proche-Orient au temps de la reforme catholique, Syrie, Liban, Palestine, XVIle-XVIIIe siecles, Ecole francaise de Rome, Palais Farnese, Pon 1994 Hirrre. History of Syria, including Lebanon and Palestine, ‘Macmillan, Aovbivo 1851 JOHN R. ‘The Palestine diary, Palestine Research Center, Bnpvt6¢ 1870 LIL Red. ‘Byzantium and the crusader states 1096-1204, studies in the relation of the byzantine empire with the crusader states in Syria and Palestine between 1096 and the fourth crusade in 1204, Clarendon Press, Ogpop6n 1993 NICHOLSON RL. Tancred: a study of his carver and work in thelr relation to the frst Crusade and the establishment of the Latin states in Syria and Palestine, AMS Press, Néa Yopxn 1978 Oxe x. Mt, ‘The Palestine question and the ‘Turks: A study in retrospect (1560-1860), The Cyprus Turkish Cultural Association, ‘Ayxopa 1987 Parrirr, ‘The Jews in Palestine, 1500 1892, Woodbridge, Wolfeboro, Bayods 1987 PITMAN E.R, ‘Mission life in Greece and Palestine as lustrated in the missionary labours of Mary Brisco! Baldwin, Cassel, Aevbivo xx Ripar.W, Death cult practices in ancient Palestine, University of Michigan, Mitoryxaw 1973 Scuick r., The Christian communities of Palestine from Byzantine to Jslamie rule, Darwin Press Tipivowo 1985 VALLAF.R., Le natouffen, une culture | prehistorique en Palestine, J | Gabalda, Tapio: 1975 WorsFoun W.B, Palestine of the mandate," F. Unwin Ie, ovbivo (2925) Wricit Gru. ‘Ancient building in south Syria and Palestine E.J, Brill, Aaweey 1985 ZAHLAN A.B, Science and higher education {In Ierael, institute for Palestine Studies, Bnpotde 1970

Bewerten