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FROM INDIO TO FILIPINO

Chapter 7 of the History Of the Filipino People by Teodoro Agoncillo,

The Filipinos began to fight the


Spaniards the moment they settled
permanently in 1565 and continued
this resistance to the end of their
rule in 1898 for a total of 333 years.
All these pocket of resistance for
various causes burst into a national
struggle as the Filipinos fought to
liberate themselves from Spanish
domination in the Philippine
revolution.

IN THIS CHAPTER, REVOLTS ARE


CATEGORIZED FOR CONVINIENCE;
PERSONAL, (LED BY FORMER DATUS,
MAGINOOS AND MAHARLIKAS) AND
RELIGIOUS LEADERS
RESISTANCE TO OPPRESSIVE SPANISH
INTRODUCED ECONOMIC AS WELL AS
RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS
LAND PROBLEMS

A. PERSONAL MOTIVES
Some revolts are personally led by
former barangay datus and
maharlika.
- some reasons of their revolts are
Forced Labor, tributes and over taxes.

Lakandula and Soliman, 1574


They are the lasts Manilas Chieftain
Their families are exempted from tribute and forced
labor until 1884
Another benefit is their exclusive right to keep their
name.
Lakan Dula (or Lakandula) and Soliman, revolted in
1574 because of Lavezares who confiscated the
land properties and tolerated the corrupt
encomendero.

CONSPIRACY OF MAHARLIKAS
Lead by Agustin de Legazpi, son of Lakandula
and his first cousin, Martin Pangan (Manila and
Bulacan)
Failed because Antonio Susabau of Calamianes
and Amarlahagi { datu of Bay, Laguna}
revealed the plot to the Spanish authorities
When the masterminds were caught, they
were beheaded in public as a warning against
their crime, and their heads were spiked for
public exhibition.

Their houses were plowed and sown with


salt, and all their properties were
sequestered.
The minor datus were banished to
Mexico {among them were Pitong
Gatang, Felipe Salonga and Dionisio
Kapulong} and swore loyalty by
anointing their necks with a split egg.

PAGANISM AND IDOLATRY


Spanish friars had converted zealously the Filipinos en
masse, as exemplified by 30 babaylans in bohol who
in 1611 smashed their ancestral idols and altars and
even joined the childrens class in cathecism.
Not all the highly respected shamans surrendered to
the loss, not only of their tangible means of income
but also their time honored personal prestige, in
barangay.
They withdrew the woods before the arrival of the
missionaries who successfully utilized various enticing
conversing methodology
They found out that the living in the Christianized
reduccion under the peal of the bells was irritating.

TAMBLOT OF BOHOL, 1621-1622


Tamblot of Bohol was an outlawed babaylan,
employed magic and religion to abandon
Christianity
he slashed the bamboo and wine gushed forth
and rice emerged; promised that the
mountains will rise up against the enemies
and if any Indians died, they will be revived
was crushed by Juan de Alcarazo, alcalde
mayor of Cebu, and his men.

DATU BANKAW
Although baptized as a Christian in his youth,
he apostasized in his old age.
With babaylan Pagali, he built an appropriate
temple to the diwatas and pressed six towns
to rise up in arms.
Used magic to attract devotees saying that
they could petrify the Spaniards and the
woman or child could easily change the
enemies into clay.
Alcarazo checked the revolt and bankaws
severed head was impaled on a bamboo stake.

DAGOHOY IN BOHOL
started by Francisco Dagohoy; longest revolt; a cabeza
de barangay
causes of revolt: forced labor; refusal of Jesuit , Fr.
Gaspar Morales to give Sagarino, his brother, a
Christian burial, on the groud that he died in the duel
and had not received the extreme unction

Sagarino was a constable in Talibon who was slain while


carrying out the order of the same priest; upon the
order of Fr. Morales, Sagarinos rotting corpse were
exposed for 3 days in front of Inabagan church.

along with the leaders of Tagbilaran, Baclyon and


Dauis, Dagohoy proclaimed free Bohol ; refused
unjust payment of tribute and forced labor.
however, Dagohoy did not lived to see the ending
of the uprising
Religious Motives: Gospel, Gold and Glory
a.Miguel Lanab {NW Cagayan} and Alababan of
Capinatan (Apayao)
revolted in June 1625, by mutilating and beheading
the Dominicans Fr. Alonzo Garcia.

RELIGIOUS MOTIVES
The continuous hispanization of the Filipinos throught
the religion was in line with the Spains policy. Gospel,
Gold and Glory
Various attempts were made to convert other
neighboring unconverted groups by using a newly
Christianized chieftain by using them for being model for
the other barangay members will follow.
-

Miguel Lanao ( 1625-1627)


Tapar (1663)
Francisco Rivera (1718)
Ermano Apolinario Dela Cruz (1840-1844)
Muslims in the Southern Philippines
Igorots in the Cordillera

MIGUEL LANAB
Revolted in June 1625 with Alabanan of Capanitan
From Apayao
Revolted by mutilating and beheading the
Dominicans,
Fr. Alonzo Garcia cut to pieces and fed the flesh to
the pigs
Bro. Onofre Palao
Lanab and Alabanan forced the Isnegs to escape with
them in the mountains, set fire to the churches,
desecrate the images and loot properties. As a
consequence, the newly converted Isnegs, voluntarily
forced to turn their backs in the faith and flee to the
mountains.

In 1626, a Spanish punitive force


was dispatched to check the Isnegs
uprising, a great number of palms
were destroyed by the vindicative
Spaniards to starve the isnegs and
forced them to surrender.

TAPAR
Proclaimed himself God Almighty , appropriated
catholic terminologies and did not find any need for
Spanish Curates/Church People as he believed that
they had their own pope, priest and bishop, Jesus
Christ, Holy Ghost and Trinity.
1663, they slew Fr. Francisco De Mesa, burned the
house and church and fled and fled to the mountain.
By employing hired spies, the Spaniards captured the
principal teachers
Their corpses were carried back to the port of Iloilo,
fastened to bamboo poles in Jaluar River.

FRANCISCO RIVERA
Like the Magtangaga revolt in Cdo, another religious
uprising in Tuguegarao led by Francisco Rivera,
appropriated for himself the title, Papa Rey(pope &
king)
Deprived the citizens and dependents of the church.
Gave back to the missionaries the rosaries,
ecapularies and other religious objects.
Attacked the Spaniards led by the alcalde mayor who
held up in Lal-lo.
Only few of Riveras men responded as his
Tuguegarao believers got tired by his irreligious and
despotic rule.
The uprising was stopped by Juan Pablo Orduna from

ERMANO APOLINARIO DE LA CRUZ


PHASE I
1814-1841

Founding of the Cofradia San Jose- founded with Br. Ciriaco


de los Santos centering around the cults of San Francisco and
the famous brown image Our Lady of Peace and voyage of
Antipolo.
5 years later, the confraternity was named Confradia del Sr.
San Jose I voto del Santisimo Rosario and proselytized in
Tayabas and Laguna.

Apolinario dela Cruz was appointed as principal sponsor and


Octavio Ignacio de San Jorge as promoter, Laguna, Hermano
Mayor.

The confraternity met monthly in the 19th day honoring St.


Josephs day by paying a fee of 1 real ( 12 centavos)
a incentive any of the member who will bring 12 more new
recruits was entitled to one vote; Apolinario brought 48 entitled
him as Alcalde Mayor.

Was an ex donee (lay) in San Juan de dios Hospital, even


when he was appointed in the fraternity.
The restiveness started when it was outlawed by Gov.
Marcelino de Oraa in 1841 and members arrested including
its secretary, Octavio Ignacio de san Jorge.
Ermano Pule was captured and shot to death, his body was
quartered; his head was hung in front of their house; his 2 hands
and feet were hung inside cages and placed in guardhouse.
PHASE II
After 20 years, the confraternity was announced in public on
Corpus Cristi by Br. Florentino Tuason.
In the Lenten season, the members were reunited and built their
church and convent.
-They recruited the apparition of the Virgin of Rosary, Octavio
prescribed new religious rites and promising eternal bliss as a
reward in the life after, abolism of the tribute and freedom.

-Januario Labios, own elected priest.


profeta y pontifice(prophet and Pope)
- Labios, Enriquez, and Cordero initiated the
rebirth Cofradia de San Jose and led the
prayers and excursions to Mt. Banahaw, the
same families had actively partipated Ermanos
Rules revolt in 1841.
The Confradia died out with the capture of
Labios and his adherents in 1871.

RESITANCE TO SPANISH IMPOSED


INSTITUTION
The constitution, taxation, forced labor,
galleon trade and monopolis on tobacco were
the cause of Filipino Revolt,
Magalat
Sumudoy, Caraga Revolts (17th century)
Magtangaga Revolt
Palaris and Silang
Ambaristo (19th century)

1.)Magalat, chief of Tuguegarao


The reason of Cagayanos to revolt is
the illicit/not permitted collection
The revolt stopped when some paid
hirelings of the Spaniards
assassinated him
In eastern Mindanao, another revolt
was made due to unjust collection
in kind

2.)Sumudoy
Juan Ponce Sumudoy, son of babaylan and
datu Pedro Caamug from Catubig, started a
revolt in Bikol region
This was a reaction to Governor Diego
Fajardos order of shifting recruitment of the
Irksome polo y servicios personales
However, the revolt was fast by using
Christian Lutawe, Francisco Ugbo and Alonso
Macombon
By early july, they reached Sumudoys camp,
dragged her mother and threw her over a
precipice, sumudoys head was presented to
the alcalde mayor by his two former follower

3.) Magtangaga
Chief of Malaueg ( Rizal, Cagayan)
Assisted by chief ot Tuao, Tomas
Sinaguigan, led the itawis on Gaddangs
in the middle of Cagaya areas,
mobilizing 3000 men to oust the hated
alcalde mayor
Magtangaga revolt failed.

4.) Juan Caragay


Revolted in Dagupan because
the unlawful collection of
tributes and forced labor.
While successful murdering
the Governor, Caragay was
slain headed by Juan Ramos

5.) Palaris
Pangasinan experienced economic resistiveness
as a consequence of destructive floods and
poor harvest, which was further aggravated by
alcalde mayor, Joaquin de Gamboa.
The regular tribute increased by 2 times in spite
of natural disasters forcing farmers to pay more
than normal.
Juan Dela Cruz Palaris spearheaded a
rebellion against Gamboa, In the end, palaris
was betrayed by his own sister to the towns
gobernadorcillo and brought to lingayen where
he was hanged.

6.) Silang
Diego Silang opposed the exaction of the comun,
drafting of polistas and other unscrupulous practices
of the new alcalde mayor, Antonio Zabala.
Fearing Silangs threat to Spanish lives, the bishop
ordered Miguel Vicos with Pedro Buecbuec fired a
musket through Silangs back, several pricipales in the
belief that he was still alive sadistically, stabbed the
already dead body of Silang.
After the death of silang, alcalde mayor Manuel Arza y
Uruttia initiated the hot pursuit of the remaining
rebels led by his widow, Maria Josefa Gabriella de
Silang.

Sebastian Andaya and Miguel Flores


were hanged along the Ilocos Sure
coastline with Gabriella Silang
compelled to watch the slow death
of her faithful soldiers, she was
herself executed last in Vigan, on
September 20, 1763

7.) Basi Revolt


Two monopolized items, tobacco and basi sparked the
revolt
as an over reaction to the implementation of the
estanco (tobacco monopoly), resistance broke out in the
upper Cagayan.
2 kalinga leader Lagutao and Shaman, Baladdon led
the revolt.
On the last day of March 1785, Lagutao presented
himself to the follwers as their liberator from the
Spanish imposition of the tobacco monopoly.
As a counter offensive attack, the authorities mustered
300 men, reinforced by 2000 auxiliaries from
bayumbong, bagabag and carig under the command of
Mateo Cabal, who pursued Lagutaos party and in
struggle killed the leader

8.) Estanco Revolt

Lt. Andres Magtanong and SubLt. Francisco Malibiran killed the


teniente visitador and the tobacco
guards as the reaction to the
introduction of Estanco.
Their families properties were
confiscated, they mutineers
themselves were hanged, their
bodies quartered and their heads
put on a stakes for public display.

9.) Ambarasito
Some Ilocano Military defectors who
escaped form Vigan staged an armed
revolt in July, against the oppressive
monopoly of spirituous liquors.
After the bravest right hand man of the
leader, Pedro Mateo, the revolt failed,
with the rebels summarily hanged and
their bodies mutilated.
Spirituous liquors and other government
items and games were enjoyed by most
Filipinos especially the clase pobre.

PEASANT UNREST ,1745


Tagalog regions were marked by peasant unrest which
started in the hacienda towns of silang in Cavite,
spreading blood to the rice growing provinces nearby.
Led by the principals of Silang under Joseph De la
Vega, Francisco Santos de Medina, Ignacio
Marcelo, Julio Lopez de Montoya, Andres Pulido
and Francisco Gonzales, they assaulted the
controversial hacienda and razed the granaries and
houses to the ground in Latag and Lantic.
The revolt spread as far as meycauayan in bulacan
and batangas.
However, the tagalog rebellion FAILED and the
leaders either put to death or banished.

1.) PARANG AND UPAY , 1822


Another revolt broke out once again in the hacienda
towns of cavite headed by Luis de los
Santos(parang) and Juan Silvestre(upay) .
48 Farmers tagged as a reunion of bandits joined up
and the unrest spread to the rice and sugar producing.
Continuation of a farmer struggle 80 years back
What aggravated the already intense situation were
forced labor and exaction of tribute in the form of
firewood for use in the Imus church construction.
Parang and Upay temporarily surrendered to
authorities through amnesty in 1828 but resumed
their uprising in the 1830, Parang finally met his death
by execution in 1835

2.) EL TULISAN, MID 1860


Cavite experienced another resurgence of
agrarian trouble against the land abuses of the
friars, with Casimiro Camerino labeled El
Tulisan by the Spaniards. He was warmly
supported by the cavitenos who knew the
reason for his defiance.
1869, personally granted amnesty at the Imus
Hacienda by Gov. Carlos Maria de la Torre.
He was executed by the use of Garrote Vil
(replaced death by hanging in 1832)

MORO RESISTANCE
From 1718 to 1762 and from 1850 to 1878
It started when the reestablishment of Fort
Pilar in Zamboanga in 1750.
The Spaniards failed miserably to subjugate
the Moros in the 1750.
Thousands of Christians were captured during
the Moro raids, resulting in the decimation of
population in the Visayas.
Retaliation for Spanish acts of reducing Moro
captives to slavery and razing their homs,
landed and personal properties to the ground

The British capture of Manila in 1762


and the pockets of resistance in Luzon
and the Visayas reduced Spanish
attention to Mindanao and Sulu
1876, Jolo had surrendered to spain and
the Moro Wars were carried out mainly
through the Juramentado or Sabil Allah
ritual

FAILURE OF THE REVOLTS


All the earlier resistance which occurred
almost in the cyclical pattern were failures.
Because of the insular make up of the
Philippines, the early Filipinos were
conditioned to live and feel apart form each
other for almost 333 years.
As a consequence, there was a wide
communication gap between the Filipinos of
Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao, there were a
multitude of major and minor ethnolinguistic
groups but no lingua franca, much less a
national language to communicate with one

The Spanish bureaucrats, spearheaded


by the friars deliberately refused to
teach and promote their language. They
simply reasoned out that there was a
lack of language materials as grammars
and vocabularies, lack of teaching
strategy for an alien tongue and above
all, lack of qualified teachers of
language.