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MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

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D ESEL ENGINE

FUNDAMENTALS

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS DIESEL ENGINES & FUEL SYSTEMS E-TEXT D D ESEL ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 4
MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS DIESEL ENGINES & FUEL SYSTEMS E-TEXT D D ESEL ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 4
MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS DIESEL ENGINES & FUEL SYSTEMS E-TEXT D D ESEL ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 4
MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS DIESEL ENGINES & FUEL SYSTEMS E-TEXT D D ESEL ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 4

4

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS DIESEL ENGINES & FUEL SYSTEMS E-TEXT D D ESEL ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 4
MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS DIESEL ENGINES & FUEL SYSTEMS E-TEXT D D ESEL ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 4
MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS DIESEL ENGINES & FUEL SYSTEMS E-TEXT D D ESEL ENGINE FUNDAMENTALS 4

DIESEL

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FUEL

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E-TEXT

D ESEL ENGINE

FUNDAMENTALS

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D

MODULE CONTENTS

SECTION CONTENTS

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS SECTION CONTENTS MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS 4 MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS 4.1 FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEMS

4 MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

4.1 FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEMS

© 2011 DEFS

Overview Fuel supply systems In-line pump Rotary pump Common rail Unit injection Fuel supply pumps Plunger pump Diaphragm pump Gear pump Roller cell Fuel filters Filtering material Types of filters Fuel pipes Water separators Filter service Injector filters Revision questions

4.1 FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEMS

3

Types of filters Fuel pipes Water separators Filter service Injector filters Revision questions 4.1 FUEL SUPPLY
Types of filters Fuel pipes Water separators Filter service Injector filters Revision questions 4.1 FUEL SUPPLY
Types of filters Fuel pipes Water separators Filter service Injector filters Revision questions 4.1 FUEL SUPPLY
Types of filters Fuel pipes Water separators Filter service Injector filters Revision questions 4.1 FUEL SUPPLY
Types of filters Fuel pipes Water separators Filter service Injector filters Revision questions 4.1 FUEL SUPPLY
Types of filters Fuel pipes Water separators Filter service Injector filters Revision questions 4.1 FUEL SUPPLY
Types of filters Fuel pipes Water separators Filter service Injector filters Revision questions 4.1 FUEL SUPPLY
Types of filters Fuel pipes Water separators Filter service Injector filters Revision questions 4.1 FUEL SUPPLY
Types of filters Fuel pipes Water separators Filter service Injector filters Revision questions 4.1 FUEL SUPPLY
Types of filters Fuel pipes Water separators Filter service Injector filters Revision questions 4.1 FUEL SUPPLY

DIESEL

ENGINES

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D ESEL ENGINE

FUNDAMENTALS

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D

MODULE CONTENTS

SECTION CONTENTS

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS SECTION CONTENTS MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS Fuel return line Injector Fuel tank Distributor Fuel
Fuel return line Injector Fuel tank Distributor Fuel filter pump Glow plug
Fuel return line
Injector
Fuel tank
Distributor
Fuel filter
pump
Glow
plug

Fig 2. Schematic diagram of a distributor pump fuel injection system

Courtesy of Bosch

Common Rail Fuel System

A general fuel system layout of a common rail fuel system is shown in Fig 3. In a common rail system an electric or gear pump is used to supply fuel to the high pressure pump. Electric supply pumps are mainly used on cars and the gear pump is used on all other commercial applications.

The electric fuel supply pump is located inside the fuel tank and operates as soon as the ignition switch is turned on. This ensures fast engine starting as the low pressure fuel circuit is charged prior to engine being started.

The gear supply pump on the other hand is flanged to the back of the high pressure common rail pump and is driven by it’s input shaft.

Both fuel supply pumps draw fuel via a pre filter in the fuel tank then pump the fuel through the fuel filter before delivering it to the high pressure pump. Fuel bypassed from the fuel rail helps to supplement the fuel flow in the low pressure circuit and leak off fuel from within the high pressure pump returns to the fuel tank.

Fuel filter Fuel rail (common rail) Common rail High pressure fuel pump fuel line Fuel
Fuel filter
Fuel rail
(common rail)
Common rail
High pressure
fuel pump
fuel line
Fuel supply
Return
Injector
pump
line
Fuel tank

Fig 3. Schematic diagram of a common rail fuel injection system.

Courtesy of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge

© 2011 DEFS

4.1 FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEMS

5

diagram of a common rail fuel injection system. Courtesy of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge © 2011 DEFS 4.1
diagram of a common rail fuel injection system. Courtesy of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge © 2011 DEFS 4.1
diagram of a common rail fuel injection system. Courtesy of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge © 2011 DEFS 4.1
diagram of a common rail fuel injection system. Courtesy of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge © 2011 DEFS 4.1
diagram of a common rail fuel injection system. Courtesy of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge © 2011 DEFS 4.1
diagram of a common rail fuel injection system. Courtesy of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge © 2011 DEFS 4.1
diagram of a common rail fuel injection system. Courtesy of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge © 2011 DEFS 4.1
diagram of a common rail fuel injection system. Courtesy of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge © 2011 DEFS 4.1
diagram of a common rail fuel injection system. Courtesy of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge © 2011 DEFS 4.1
diagram of a common rail fuel injection system. Courtesy of MAN Nutzfahrzeuge © 2011 DEFS 4.1

DIESEL

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MODULE CONTENTS

SECTION CONTENTS

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS SECTION CONTENTS MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS 4 MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS 4.2 INJECTORS Overview

4 MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

4.2 INJECTORS

Overview Injector operation Injector nozzles Multi hole nozzles Pintle nozzles Mechanical unit injector operation Electronic unit injector operation Common rail injector Injector service (conventional) Injector service (common rail) Injector testing Isolating a faulty injector Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos

© 2011 DEFS

4.2 INJECTORS

15

injector Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.2 INJECTORS 15
injector Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.2 INJECTORS 15
injector Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.2 INJECTORS 15
injector Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.2 INJECTORS 15
injector Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.2 INJECTORS 15
injector Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.2 INJECTORS 15
injector Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.2 INJECTORS 15
injector Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.2 INJECTORS 15
injector Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.2 INJECTORS 15
injector Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.2 INJECTORS 15

DIESEL

ENGINES

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D ESEL ENGINE

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D

MODULE CONTENTS

SECTION CONTENTS

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS SECTION CONTENTS MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS The injector section consists of a nozzle body and

The injector section consists of a nozzle body and needle valve assembly. The operation of the nozzle assembly is identical to that of a conventional injector in that fuel pressure acts on the needle valve shoulder lifting the needle valve off its seat allowing fuel to pass through the multi spray holes and atomise into the combustion chamber.

Injector operation is described under the following headings:

No injection

Start of injection

End of injection

Solenoid

valve spring

Ball valve

& seat

Fuel - (from common rail)

Command

piston

Nozzle spring

seat Fuel - (from common rail) Command piston Nozzle spring Solenoid coil Valve body Orifice plate

Solenoid

coil

Valve

body

Orifice

plate

Control

chamber

Nozzle

needle

Fig 12. Schematic diagram of a common rail injector showing ‘no injection’

Courtesy of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd

No injection

With the solenoid coil not energised, the solenoid valve spring presses the valve body and valve ball onto the ball seat of the orifice plate closing off fuel flow through the orifice plate. Inside the control chamber the pressure rises to that of the fuel rail. The same pressure is also applied to the nozzle needle shoulder. The fuel pressure now acting on the nozzle needle shoulder cannot overcome the combined forces of the fuel pressure acting on top of the command piston and the nozzle spring. Therefore, the nozzle needle stays seated on the nozzle seat as shown in Fig 12.

© 2011 DEFS

Start of injection

When the solenoid coil is energised by the electronic control module, the electromagnetic force draws the valve body upward allowing the ball seat to open. Fuel in the control chamber now passes through the orifice plate and flows to the fuel tank. With the pressure of the fuel in the control chamber now reduced, the fuel pressure acting on the underside of the nozzle needle shoulder is great enough to lift the nozzle needle off it seat. Fuel under pressure now flows through the nozzle spray holes and is atomised as it enters into the combustion chamber as shown in Fig 13. Note: As fuel flow into and out of the control chamber is controlled by inlet and outlet restricting orifii, rail pressure is not noticeably reduced during injection by the small quantity of fuel returning to the fuel tank.

by the small quantity of fuel returning to the fuel tank. Spring Ball valve (open) Fuel

Spring

Ball valve

(open)

Fuel - (from common rail)

Command

piston

Nozzle spring

Solenoid

coil

Valve

body

Reduced

pressure in

control

chamber

Fuel - (to fuel tank)

Nozzle

needle

Fig 13. Schematic diagram of a common rail injector showing ‘start of injection’

Courtesy of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd

The engine control unit determines the length of the injection period by energising the injector’s electrical solenoid coil for the pre-injection, main and possibly post-injection periods. In order to achieve multiple injections during the power stroke, some injectors are using a second solenoid coil to assist in the rapid opening and closing of the nozzle needle.

4.2 INJECTORS

21

are using a second solenoid coil to assist in the rapid opening and closing of the
are using a second solenoid coil to assist in the rapid opening and closing of the
are using a second solenoid coil to assist in the rapid opening and closing of the
are using a second solenoid coil to assist in the rapid opening and closing of the
are using a second solenoid coil to assist in the rapid opening and closing of the
are using a second solenoid coil to assist in the rapid opening and closing of the
are using a second solenoid coil to assist in the rapid opening and closing of the
are using a second solenoid coil to assist in the rapid opening and closing of the
are using a second solenoid coil to assist in the rapid opening and closing of the
are using a second solenoid coil to assist in the rapid opening and closing of the

DIESEL

ENGINES

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FUEL

SYSTEMS

E-TEXT

D ESEL ENGINE

FUNDAMENTALS

D
D

MODULE CONTENTS

SECTION CONTENTS

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS SECTION CONTENTS MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS 4 MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS 4.3 FLANGE &

4 MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS

© 2011 DEFS

Overview Function of injection pump Flange mounted injection pumps Construction Pumping principle Plunger and helix Delivery valve function In-line injection pump Construction Camshaft design Pump lubrication Automatic advance unit Pump servicing Pump to engine timing Mark method Spill time method Advanced and retarted timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites

4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS

31

and retarted timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites 4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS
and retarted timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites 4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS
and retarted timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites 4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS
and retarted timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites 4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS
and retarted timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites 4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS
and retarted timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites 4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS
and retarted timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites 4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS
and retarted timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites 4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS
and retarted timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites 4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS
and retarted timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites 4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS

DIESEL

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D

MODULE CONTENTS

SECTION CONTENTS

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS SECTION CONTENTS MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS Inlet port Spill port Plunger helix Charging cycle Port
Inlet port Spill port Plunger helix
Inlet
port
Spill
port
Plunger helix

Charging cycle

Port closing

(start of delivery)

Delivery

Spill port opening (end of delivery)

Fig 5. Charging and delivery cycle (maximum fuel position)

Courtesy of Bosch

Delivery of fuel ceases when the plunger helix passes the barrel spill port (or control port), and the delivery valve returns to its seat. During the remainder of the stroke, the fuel displaced by the plunger simply returns to the gallery via the vertical slot, cut away area and spill port. Thus fuel ceases to be injected when the helix uncovers the spill port.

Metering the fuel charge Since the plunger is cam driven, its stroke is constant and cannot be varied to control the quantity of fuel injected per stroke. However, the effective part of the pumping stroke can be

varied to control the quantity of fuel injected per stroke simply by rotating the plunger in the barrel.

Fuel delivery begins at the instant the top of the plunger covers the barrel ports and continues until the helix edge uncovers the spill port, at which point fuel trapped above the plunger is allowed to return to the fuel gallery.

Thus the effective pumping stroke ceases when the spill port is uncovered, and is directly controlled by the distance through which the plunger must travel before the edge of the helix passes the bottom of the spill port.

Inlet

port

Spill port
Spill
port

No delivery

bottom of the spill port. Inlet port Spill port No delivery Plunger helix Partial delivery Maximum
bottom of the spill port. Inlet port Spill port No delivery Plunger helix Partial delivery Maximum

Plunger

helix

Partial delivery

Maximum delivery

Fig 6. Control of fuel delivery

Courtesy of Bosch

© 2011 DEFS

4.3 FLANGE & IN-LINE INJECTION PUMPS

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delivery Fig 6. Control of fuel delivery Courtesy of Bosch © 2011 DEFS 4.3 FLANGE &
delivery Fig 6. Control of fuel delivery Courtesy of Bosch © 2011 DEFS 4.3 FLANGE &
delivery Fig 6. Control of fuel delivery Courtesy of Bosch © 2011 DEFS 4.3 FLANGE &
delivery Fig 6. Control of fuel delivery Courtesy of Bosch © 2011 DEFS 4.3 FLANGE &
delivery Fig 6. Control of fuel delivery Courtesy of Bosch © 2011 DEFS 4.3 FLANGE &
delivery Fig 6. Control of fuel delivery Courtesy of Bosch © 2011 DEFS 4.3 FLANGE &
delivery Fig 6. Control of fuel delivery Courtesy of Bosch © 2011 DEFS 4.3 FLANGE &
delivery Fig 6. Control of fuel delivery Courtesy of Bosch © 2011 DEFS 4.3 FLANGE &
delivery Fig 6. Control of fuel delivery Courtesy of Bosch © 2011 DEFS 4.3 FLANGE &
delivery Fig 6. Control of fuel delivery Courtesy of Bosch © 2011 DEFS 4.3 FLANGE &

DIESEL

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D ESEL ENGINE

FUNDAMENTALS

D
D

MODULE CONTENTS

SECTION CONTENTS

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS SECTION CONTENTS MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS 4 MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS 4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE

4 MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP

Overview VE Pump Construction and operation Fuel supply pump Pumping and fuel distribution Fuel metering Delivery valve Mechanical governor Variable speed Solenoid shut off valve Automatic advance unit Air-fuel ratio control Pump timing Revision questions Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos

© 2011 DEFS

4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP

44

Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP 44
Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP 44
Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP 44
Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP 44
Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP 44
Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP 44
Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP 44
Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP 44
Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP 44
Industry updates Related web sites Additional diagrams/photos © 2011 DEFS 4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP 44

DIESEL

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D ESEL ENGINE

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D

MODULE CONTENTS

SECTION CONTENTS

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS SECTION CONTENTS MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS Governor assembly Pressure control valve Fuel supply
Governor assembly Pressure control valve Fuel supply pump
Governor
assembly
Pressure control
valve
Fuel supply
pump
assembly Pressure control valve Fuel supply pump Cam plate Automatic advance unit Fig 2. Cut away

Cam plate

Automatic advance unit

Fig 2. Cut away section of a VE fuel injection pump

Courtesy of Bosch

Overflow restriction orifice

Maximum fuel

adjust screw

Solenoid shut off valve

Distributor head with high pressure pump

Fuel Supply Pump

Low pressure charging of the pump housing is accomplished, by a vane type fuel supply pump situated at the drive end of the distributor pump. Fuel flow is from the fuel tank through the fuel filter and into the vane pump, from here it enters the pump housing at pressures that vary between 360 kPa and 810 kPa. Generally there is no fuel feed pump fitted to this fuel system, as the vane pump serves this purpose.

Being a constant displacement pump, the fuel supply pump can deliver several times the amount of fuel required for injection.

Fuel from tank

Pressure control valve piston To pump housing Rotor Vane
Pressure control
valve piston
To pump
housing
Rotor
Vane

Drive shaft

Therefore, when the pump housing pressure reaches a predetermined level, excess fuel delivery is relieved via a pressure control valve and returned back to the inlet side of the fuel supply pump, as shown in Fig 3.

The pressure control valve is located beside the fuel supply pump and is of the spring loaded piston type. This valve is pre-set on manufacture and requires no further adjustment.

For the purpose of self bleeding and cooling of the entire pump, fuel circulates through an overflow restricting orifice back to the fuel tank. The overflow restricting orifice is 0.6 mm in diameter and is situated in the banjo bolt in the fuel return line on top of the pump housing as shown in Fig 2. While this orifice allows fuel to return to the fuel tank, it offers sufficient restriction to fuel flow from the fuel supply pump to cause the injection pump housing to be pressurised. Further, in conjunction with the fuel supply pump pressure control valve, the orifice is responsible for the pump housing fuel pressure necessary for the charging of the high pressure chamber and the operation of the automatic injection advance unit.

Fig 3. Schematic diagram of the operation of a vane type fuel supply pump

© 2011 DEFS

4.4 DISTRIBUTOR TYPE INJECTION PUMP

46

3. Schematic diagram of the operation of a vane type fuel supply pump © 2011 DEFS
3. Schematic diagram of the operation of a vane type fuel supply pump © 2011 DEFS
3. Schematic diagram of the operation of a vane type fuel supply pump © 2011 DEFS
3. Schematic diagram of the operation of a vane type fuel supply pump © 2011 DEFS
3. Schematic diagram of the operation of a vane type fuel supply pump © 2011 DEFS
3. Schematic diagram of the operation of a vane type fuel supply pump © 2011 DEFS
3. Schematic diagram of the operation of a vane type fuel supply pump © 2011 DEFS
3. Schematic diagram of the operation of a vane type fuel supply pump © 2011 DEFS
3. Schematic diagram of the operation of a vane type fuel supply pump © 2011 DEFS
3. Schematic diagram of the operation of a vane type fuel supply pump © 2011 DEFS

DIESEL

ENGINES

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FUEL

SYSTEMS

E-TEXT

D ESEL ENGINE

FUNDAMENTALS

D
D

MODULE CONTENTS

SECTION CONTENTS

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS SECTION CONTENTS MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS 4 MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS 4.5 GOVERNORS Overview

4 MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

4.5 GOVERNORS

Overview Function of a governor Classification of governors Types of governors Governor terminology Graphs of governor control and engine fuelling Mechanical governors Constant speed Variable speed Idle maximum speed Pneumatic governor Electronic governor Revision questions

© 2011 DEFS

4.5 GOVERNORS

57

Variable speed Idle maximum speed Pneumatic governor Electronic governor Revision questions © 2011 DEFS 4.5 GOVERNORS
Variable speed Idle maximum speed Pneumatic governor Electronic governor Revision questions © 2011 DEFS 4.5 GOVERNORS
Variable speed Idle maximum speed Pneumatic governor Electronic governor Revision questions © 2011 DEFS 4.5 GOVERNORS
Variable speed Idle maximum speed Pneumatic governor Electronic governor Revision questions © 2011 DEFS 4.5 GOVERNORS
Variable speed Idle maximum speed Pneumatic governor Electronic governor Revision questions © 2011 DEFS 4.5 GOVERNORS
Variable speed Idle maximum speed Pneumatic governor Electronic governor Revision questions © 2011 DEFS 4.5 GOVERNORS
Variable speed Idle maximum speed Pneumatic governor Electronic governor Revision questions © 2011 DEFS 4.5 GOVERNORS
Variable speed Idle maximum speed Pneumatic governor Electronic governor Revision questions © 2011 DEFS 4.5 GOVERNORS
Variable speed Idle maximum speed Pneumatic governor Electronic governor Revision questions © 2011 DEFS 4.5 GOVERNORS
Variable speed Idle maximum speed Pneumatic governor Electronic governor Revision questions © 2011 DEFS 4.5 GOVERNORS

DIESEL

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MODULE CONTENTS

SECTION CONTENTS

MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS SECTION CONTENTS MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS Control Control lever rack spring Centrifugal weights
Control Control lever rack spring Centrifugal weights
Control
Control
lever
rack
spring
Centrifugal
weights

Governor

Fig 3. Mechanical governor with centrifugal weights

Courtesy of Bosch

Simple Constant Speed Governor

Constant speed governors are fitted to engines that are required to run at a set or constant speed, and are governed to this set speed.

Applications include engines that power alternator sets, water pumps, conveyors, etc.

The simple constant speed governor as shown in Figs 4 consists of two pivoted flyweights, fixed to a pivot plate, which rotates with the pump camshaft, a sliding control sleeve, a pivoted fork and a governor spring. Spring force acts against the sleeve, forcing it against the lever arm of the flyweights, which are forced in towards the shaft.

As the shaft rotates, centrifugal force causes the flyweights to move outwards from the shaft, the lever arm thrusting against the sleeve. Thus the sleeve is balanced between spring force on the one end and the force exerted by the flyweights on the other.

The governor mechanism connects to the pump rack via the pivoted fork, one end of which engages in a groove in the sleeve with the other end connecting to the rack via a link.

Should the engine speed drop due to an increase in engine load, the centrifugal force acting on the weights will decrease, allowing the spring to push the sleeve along the shaft. This movement will move the rack, via the pivoted fork, to increase the fuel supply to the engine.

On the other hand, should the engine speed increase due to a lightening of the load, the subsequent increase in centrifugal force will fling the flyweights outwards and the lever arms will force the sleeve along the shaft against the spring. Movement in this direction will move the rack to reduce the fuel delivery from the pump.

Thus any change in the engine speed will cause an immediate change in the quantity of fuel injected, which will compensate for the speed change.

Simple Variable Speed Governor

In applications where engines may be required to operate at any selected speed, variable speed governors are used. These governors govern the engine at any set engine speed, from idle to maximum. Governors of this type are used extensively in engines for earthmoving equipment and farm tractors.

Fuel control rack Fixed throttle position Fulcrum lever Governor spring Pumping element Sliding sleeve
Fuel control rack
Fixed
throttle
position
Fulcrum lever
Governor spring
Pumping
element
Sliding sleeve

Centrifugal

weights

Maximum fuel rack stop screw

Fig 4. A simple constant speed governor

© 2011 DEFS

4.5 GOVERNORS

61

Centrifugal weights Maximum fuel rack stop screw Fig 4. A simple constant speed governor © 2011
Centrifugal weights Maximum fuel rack stop screw Fig 4. A simple constant speed governor © 2011
Centrifugal weights Maximum fuel rack stop screw Fig 4. A simple constant speed governor © 2011
Centrifugal weights Maximum fuel rack stop screw Fig 4. A simple constant speed governor © 2011
Centrifugal weights Maximum fuel rack stop screw Fig 4. A simple constant speed governor © 2011
Centrifugal weights Maximum fuel rack stop screw Fig 4. A simple constant speed governor © 2011
Centrifugal weights Maximum fuel rack stop screw Fig 4. A simple constant speed governor © 2011
Centrifugal weights Maximum fuel rack stop screw Fig 4. A simple constant speed governor © 2011
Centrifugal weights Maximum fuel rack stop screw Fig 4. A simple constant speed governor © 2011
Centrifugal weights Maximum fuel rack stop screw Fig 4. A simple constant speed governor © 2011