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Exam 2: Lecture

Notes
II. The American Revolution and the
emergence of free black communities.
Kelly Nichols - September 28th - October 30th
Monday, September 28th

SLAVERY & FREEDOM IN THE AGE OF REVOLUTION


# Blacks and the U.S. Revolution
# Slavery and the New Nation
# First Anti-Slavery Movement
Patriot Policy (1775-1779)
Loyalist Policy (1775-1779)
Patriot Policy (1779-1781)
- Slavery was acceptable prior to the American Revolution (began April 1775)
- Questioned the role of slavery (after A.Rev)
- Religious component
- Okay to own each other?
- This caused split between Catholics
BLACKS & THE U.S. REVOLUTION
Crispus Attucks (?), Boston Massacre, March 1770
# Military Participation
# Seeking Liberty
- Why?
- Big Picture: Growing dissatisfaction & discomfort with England
- More taxes and trade regulations
- More profit for England and only allowed for trade with England
- Colonies job was to make England money
- Colonies had no say
- No taxation without representation
- Who was Crispus Attucks?
- Runaway slave sided with colonists in challenging the British
-Military Participation:

- Should Africans serve?


- patriots / loyalists?
- What was their role?
- Prior to war, Blacks were not allowed to be in the militia
- Not allowed to bear arms
- Fear of slave rebellion & used as control method
- Evidence says different!
- allowed them to serve when labor was needed
-Seeking Liberty: (All of this takes place within a few months)
- Patriot Policy (1775- 1779)
- Continental Congress
- Was left to decide what role Blacks should play
- Decided: Only free Blacks may join the militia
- ** This was not followed
- (This took place in 1775 after was began)
- George Washington
- Head of continental army
- Made own decision
- No Blacks may serve
- Blacks already serving were allowed to finish their term
- Loyalist Party (1775- 1779)
- Lord Dunmare = Brilliant
- Mimicked what the Spanish had done and promised slaves and
indentured servants would be freed at the end of their service
- Also, all slaves who crossed British line would be free from slavery
- ONLY OF PATRIOT SLAVES
- Does not apply to Loyalist slave owners
- Patriot slaves may help in effort and receive freedom
- This presented a dilemma for Blacks:
- Support Loyalists:
- Freedom
- Support Patriots:
- Didn't want Blacks to serve
- 20,000 receive sanctuary/ fight for the British
- 1,000 actually serve
- This trend lasts till WWII
- Blacks serving non-combat roles: servants & laborers
- Lord Dunmare had all black unit
- Ethiopian Regiment

- Radically segregated unit with White Commander (common)


- Blacks own motto: Liberty for Slaves
-unofficial motivation for participation
- South Carolina and Georgia did not join with the rest of the states
- Fear that guns would turn on their own masters
- 5000 Participated in Independence
- Blacks served 3 year terms
- White served 3 months - 1 year term
- Blacks were:
- Volunteered
- Drafted (Free Blacks)
- Substituted ( For White Owners if Owner drafted)
- Similarities and Roles Blacks served:
-Typical Roles Loyalist Policy (1775-1779) : Non- Combat role and same in Patriot
Policy (1779-1781) fear of arming Blacks.
- Patriot Policy (1775-1779) has radically integrated units
- Loyalist Policy (1775-1779) had radically segregated
- Patriot Policy (1779-1781) White commanders
- 1 instance of a Black Commander
- There were problems:
- Draft Substitution
- Slaves were wanted back by their owners
- Used courts and legislature for Blacks who's masters lied
- When the British evacuated
-They brought 14,000 Blacks with them
- Canada
- England
- African (Sierra-Leone) English
- Loyalist slaves were returned
- Some loyalists received slaves
- Some slaves were freed and then sold outside the US
- Those who sought sanctuary & did not serve were more likely to have been
sold
Wednesday, September 30th
- Military
- Court / Legislatures
- Slaves were told they would get freedom
- Go to court and sue

- Use Abolitionists
- State constitutions included pieces of our own constitution
- Some people petitioned to legislatures to end slavery
- Resistance ( Organized; armed )
- Some slaves tried to run away in the confusion of the war
SEEKING LIBERTY: ORGANIZED RESISTANCE
Toussaint LOuverture
# St. Domingue > Haiti
# Richmond, VA
# Banditti
- St. Domingue = French
- French engaging in war in France (1789)
- Whites granted rights and Blacks were not
- 500k slaves ( on Haiti)
- 50k Free Blacks & growing
- 35k Whites
- August 1791:
- Rebellion of Free Blacks and Slaves
- Battle lasted 13 years
- Toussaint LOuverture = leader
- Jean Jaques Dessalines = principal lieutenant
- 1804 > Now Haiti
- second country to gain freedom from Europe
- News of this reaches American soil
- Aug 1800
- Gabriel Prosser > Richmond, VA
-Attempt at uprising stopped
- Was Hung
- 100 Slaves arrested
Friday, October 2nd
SLAVERY & THE NEW NATION
Constitutional Convention, Philadelphia 1787
# Declaration of Independence
# U.S. constitution
- Representation - 3/5th compromise

- Atlantic Slave Trade Delay decision for 20 years


- Fugitive Slaves - Right to reclaim
- Conflict between two Fundamental Rights:
- LIBERTY VS PROPERTY
- What guarantees do I have as an owner if my place runs away?
- Was decided that if ones slave runs away you can go get him/her
- PROPERTY > LIBERTY
- The word slave was not in constitutions, slaves were referred too as Other persons
SLAVERY AND THE NEW NATION
Early Laws Affecting Slavery
# Northwest Ordinance (1787)
# Fugitive Slave Act (1793)
# District of Columbia (1801)
- Constitution plays both sides
- Ohio River: Separation Point
- NorthWest Ordinance above Ohio River (1787)
- Fugitive Slave act of 1793
- Extension of Fugitive Slave cause
- Right to Reclaim:
- Procedure
- Accused blacks not allowed to defend themselves
- State Officials
- state officials required to get involved
- Punishment
- Federal crime to help slaves
- Fined $500 (More than $12,000 today!)
- Personal Liberty Laws (1793 act)
- Gave thee accused means of defending themselves in court
- Attempt to protect
- Law that leads to Washington D.C.
- Should slave trading be allowed in our Nations capital?
- Yes
- D.C. turned into a MAJOR slave trade center
- Foreign diplomats see this
- America is embarrassed
1ST ANTI- SLAVERY MOVEMENT: 1780s - 1810s
Anthony Denezet , Benjamin Franklin
- Religious Evolution

- Is slavery a Christian thing to do?


- Abolition Society
- Benjamin Franklin was president of Abolition society
- person involved in 1st wave of Anti- Slavery movement
- Abolishment societies in every state except South Carolina and Georgia
- Personnal Liberty Laws
- Education
- Financially Independent
- Protection
- Anthony Denezet was an abolitionist who fought for Black education
Monday, October 5th
Wednesday, October 7th
Friday, October 9th
Monday, October 12th
Wednesday, October 14th
GROWTH/ REGULATION OF FREE BLACKS
Expanding Free Black Population
White Reaction
# Legal
# Social
# Colonization
- How white people responded to the growth in African Americans
- Quakers:
- African Americans should be fully integrated
- Dominant perspective: be in society without the same rights and responsibilities
- Another set of laws for African Americans
- Beginning of 19th century: Segregation in Both N & S by culture rather than law
- Colonization:
- Full equality or be different?
- Free blacks should not at all! Encouraged to leave/ forced too
WHITE REACTION: SOCIAL
Philadelphia, 1842
# Racial Segregation/ Exclusion
# Harassment/ Violence
- Black among group being targeted
- Full scale race riot (see picture)
- 1829 Limited to one part of Ohio
- Cincinnati (**IMPORTANT**)
- why? On the border of Free and Slave states

Big city in Ohio


- 1820 > 1830
- 2% > 10%
- In 1829:
- Blacks had 30 days to meet bond requirements
- $500 & register
- Would be kicked out of state
- Black leaders got time extension on ^
- Send delegation to Canada during this time
- do this in an attempt to get the law repealed
- attempts were made to get Black people to leave.
- 1000 leave city
- Would African Americans be stopped on their way to Canada?
- No able to travel through most northern states
- Sierra Leone (1787)
- Liberia (1847)
- Canada becomes favorite place for Blacks
- For those who decide that they would like to leave
- Fugitive Slaves
COLONIZATION
WHITES & COLONIZATION
# First Wave: Mid 1780s - 1806
# Second Wave: 1816 - 1861
BLACKS & COLONIZATION
# Supporters vs Opponents
- First waves after American Revolution
- Sierra Leone - Immigration to colonization
- Thomas Jefferson
- James Madison
- White Prejudice
- Black Desire for Revenge
- Slave (rebellion)
- Free ( resentful past/ ongoing enslavement)
- Fear of Race Mixing > Inappropriate
- Laws done to prevent this were not effective
- Solution to ^^^^ this?
- Free all slaves and ship all African people elsewhere
- This would encourage freedom of slaves & legislature ( Southern) to abolish slavery
- Most Anti- Slavery activists: silent / against the idea of Colonization movement

- Resurgence: Gabriel Prosser attempted rebellion caused first wave to last longer than it
should have
- This rebellion did not actually take place
- Slavery was a National Security Issue
- Plot Advocated colonization
- Second wave began really in 1817
- American Colonization Society (1816)
- Christmas season
- Significant colonization
- Established Liberia
- Federal Government buys land
- Established this colony in 1822
- Second wave: Who is supporting gets more complicated
- Was the goal to End Slavery?
- Some people had different agendas
- Where are they going?
- Wanted to Christianize Africa
- Christian base of Liberia
- Members of ACS
- Slaveholders!
- Their agenda: getting rid of Free Black population in the South
- Threat to slavery institution the larger the Free population gets.
- Sending the Free Blacks = Next Best Thing
- Supporters of this include:
- James Monroe
- John Adams
- Andrew Jackson
- 1850s [ Republican Party / Abraham Lincoln ]
- What could possibly happen to Free Blacks?
- Encouraged/ Forced to leave US
- Number of people who supported this movement
COLONIZATION SITES:
SIERRA LEONE, LIBERIA, HAITI
Friday, October 16th
(refer back to powerpoint from Wednesday: Colonization & Maps)
- Popular destination for Slaves was Canada
- Fugitive Slave Cause
- Slave Owners can go get their slaves

- Slave Act:
- As long as they stayed in the United States Fugitive Slaves could be taken
back
into slavery ( and really no guarantee for free slaves)
- Unless slaves had committed a crime ( except for the crime of running away) they were
allowed into Canada
- Canada: ( Blacks have:)
- Ability to vote
- Ability to serve on a jury
- Ability to testify in court
- Racially integrated schools
- America had none of this
COLONIZATION SITES:
WESTERN TERRITORIES, CANADA
- Why Canada? = Better
- 40,000 Blacks went to Canada
- Most Black Leaders attacked these movements
- ACS:
- Anti & Pro slavery in the group
- Black Leaders focused on Slave Owners within the group
- Get Rid of Free Blacks rather than encouragement
- David Walker:
- This is our country as much as it is your country
- Blacks that went back to their home country discovered that most had become
Americanized and didn't adapt back into their African ways
- Estimated 70,000 Free Blacks during the first half of the 19th century
- half a million existed during this time
- Prince Saunders Haiti
Monday, October 19th
FREE BLACK COMMUNITIES
Social Divisions
Institutions
# Churches
# Press
# Associations
SOCIAL DIVISIONS
# Bondage Status
# Class
# Physical Features (Color Consciousness)

- Social Distinction
- Class Divisions
-Physical Features
- Color consciousness
- Free Blacks that looked down upon Blacks in slavery
- Some Free Blacks owned slaves
-1830 census
- 3700 2% (Black) slave holders
- This was 1/3 of the white slave holder population
- I dont want to be a slave, but okay if you're a slave and its okay for me to own a
slave.
- Bought themselves out of slavery, bought family
- This is considered a Transfer in ownership Not Freedom
- Pro- Slavery advocates use Free Blacks to say that they cannot manage themselves
- Bondage Status
- within owner household
- Some slaves saw themselves above certain free slaves
- In some cases, Slaves would have more material wealth and better living
conditions
- Class Differences
-Within free Black communities
- Advantages > got property & success.
- Most Free Black owners did little or nothing to prepare or help them for free life
- Unless able to catch a break:
- Low end unskilled jobs
- Low chance to acumenate property and material wealth
- Education
- Free Public Education
- Southern public education did not exist had to pay for it
- Whites & Blacks included
-Physical Features:
- Any African Blood in you = African
Wednesday, October 21st
- (* continuing on Social Divisions power point)
- Racially mixed (Ohio) were allowed to vote
- Generally, mixed people were seen as just Black
- How did African Americans view this?
- Known as Color Consciousness
- Middle and upper class were more aware of their social standing than working class

Africans
- Aware of the glass ceiling (What they were able to achieve)
- Paul Cauffe - Promoted colonization because no glass ceiling
FREE BLACK INSTITUTIONS
# Churches
# Schools
# Press
# Associations
sometimes highlighted divisions based on color, class, and a variety of things
- Were discrimintated against legally, attempt to discourage black institutions
- Had to meet in secret ( in south )
- Led to clear regional differences
- Led to one another ( church had press and would promote religious & political)
FREE BLACK CHURCHES

Absalon Jones, Richard Allen Black Church Movement


# Origins and Functions
# South vs North
# Separate vs Integrated Church
- Had to be a conversion to Christianity ( African Religion - Christian)
- 2ns Great Awakening
- Attracted too:
- Baptists
- Methodists
- The way these two groups worshiped were appealing to Blacks. Comparable
to Black Roots
- emotionalism of religious service
- This was involved in many African services \
Friday, October 23rd
Monday, October 26th
Wednesday, October 28th