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Exam 2: Lecture

II. The American Revolution and the
emergence of free black communities.
Kelly Nichols - September 28th - October 30th
Monday, September 28th


# Blacks and the U.S. Revolution
# Slavery and the New Nation
# First Anti-Slavery Movement
Patriot Policy (1775-1779)
Loyalist Policy (1775-1779)
Patriot Policy (1779-1781)
- Slavery was acceptable prior to the American Revolution (began April 1775)
- Questioned the role of slavery (after A.Rev)
- Religious component
- Okay to own each other?
- This caused split between Catholics
Crispus Attucks (?), Boston Massacre, March 1770
# Military Participation
# Seeking Liberty
- Why?
- Big Picture: Growing dissatisfaction & discomfort with England
- More taxes and trade regulations
- More profit for England and only allowed for trade with England
- Colonies job was to make England money
- Colonies had no say
- No taxation without representation
- Who was Crispus Attucks?
- Runaway slave sided with colonists in challenging the British
-Military Participation:

- Should Africans serve?

- patriots / loyalists?
- What was their role?
- Prior to war, Blacks were not allowed to be in the militia
- Not allowed to bear arms
- Fear of slave rebellion & used as control method
- Evidence says different!
- allowed them to serve when labor was needed
-Seeking Liberty: (All of this takes place within a few months)
- Patriot Policy (1775- 1779)
- Continental Congress
- Was left to decide what role Blacks should play
- Decided: Only free Blacks may join the militia
- ** This was not followed
- (This took place in 1775 after was began)
- George Washington
- Head of continental army
- Made own decision
- No Blacks may serve
- Blacks already serving were allowed to finish their term
- Loyalist Party (1775- 1779)
- Lord Dunmare = Brilliant
- Mimicked what the Spanish had done and promised slaves and
indentured servants would be freed at the end of their service
- Also, all slaves who crossed British line would be free from slavery
- Does not apply to Loyalist slave owners
- Patriot slaves may help in effort and receive freedom
- This presented a dilemma for Blacks:
- Support Loyalists:
- Freedom
- Support Patriots:
- Didn't want Blacks to serve
- 20,000 receive sanctuary/ fight for the British
- 1,000 actually serve
- This trend lasts till WWII
- Blacks serving non-combat roles: servants & laborers
- Lord Dunmare had all black unit
- Ethiopian Regiment

- Radically segregated unit with White Commander (common)

- Blacks own motto: Liberty for Slaves
-unofficial motivation for participation
- South Carolina and Georgia did not join with the rest of the states
- Fear that guns would turn on their own masters
- 5000 Participated in Independence
- Blacks served 3 year terms
- White served 3 months - 1 year term
- Blacks were:
- Volunteered
- Drafted (Free Blacks)
- Substituted ( For White Owners if Owner drafted)
- Similarities and Roles Blacks served:
-Typical Roles Loyalist Policy (1775-1779) : Non- Combat role and same in Patriot
Policy (1779-1781) fear of arming Blacks.
- Patriot Policy (1775-1779) has radically integrated units
- Loyalist Policy (1775-1779) had radically segregated
- Patriot Policy (1779-1781) White commanders
- 1 instance of a Black Commander
- There were problems:
- Draft Substitution
- Slaves were wanted back by their owners
- Used courts and legislature for Blacks who's masters lied
- When the British evacuated
-They brought 14,000 Blacks with them
- Canada
- England
- African (Sierra-Leone) English
- Loyalist slaves were returned
- Some loyalists received slaves
- Some slaves were freed and then sold outside the US
- Those who sought sanctuary & did not serve were more likely to have been
Wednesday, September 30th
- Military
- Court / Legislatures
- Slaves were told they would get freedom
- Go to court and sue

- Use Abolitionists
- State constitutions included pieces of our own constitution
- Some people petitioned to legislatures to end slavery
- Resistance ( Organized; armed )
- Some slaves tried to run away in the confusion of the war
Toussaint LOuverture
# St. Domingue > Haiti
# Richmond, VA
# Banditti
- St. Domingue = French
- French engaging in war in France (1789)
- Whites granted rights and Blacks were not
- 500k slaves ( on Haiti)
- 50k Free Blacks & growing
- 35k Whites
- August 1791:
- Rebellion of Free Blacks and Slaves
- Battle lasted 13 years
- Toussaint LOuverture = leader
- Jean Jaques Dessalines = principal lieutenant
- 1804 > Now Haiti
- second country to gain freedom from Europe
- News of this reaches American soil
- Aug 1800
- Gabriel Prosser > Richmond, VA
-Attempt at uprising stopped
- Was Hung
- 100 Slaves arrested
Friday, October 2nd
Constitutional Convention, Philadelphia 1787
# Declaration of Independence
# U.S. constitution
- Representation - 3/5th compromise

- Atlantic Slave Trade Delay decision for 20 years

- Fugitive Slaves - Right to reclaim
- Conflict between two Fundamental Rights:
- What guarantees do I have as an owner if my place runs away?
- Was decided that if ones slave runs away you can go get him/her
- The word slave was not in constitutions, slaves were referred too as Other persons
Early Laws Affecting Slavery
# Northwest Ordinance (1787)
# Fugitive Slave Act (1793)
# District of Columbia (1801)
- Constitution plays both sides
- Ohio River: Separation Point
- NorthWest Ordinance above Ohio River (1787)
- Fugitive Slave act of 1793
- Extension of Fugitive Slave cause
- Right to Reclaim:
- Procedure
- Accused blacks not allowed to defend themselves
- State Officials
- state officials required to get involved
- Punishment
- Federal crime to help slaves
- Fined $500 (More than $12,000 today!)
- Personal Liberty Laws (1793 act)
- Gave thee accused means of defending themselves in court
- Attempt to protect
- Law that leads to Washington D.C.
- Should slave trading be allowed in our Nations capital?
- Yes
- D.C. turned into a MAJOR slave trade center
- Foreign diplomats see this
- America is embarrassed
Anthony Denezet , Benjamin Franklin
- Religious Evolution

- Is slavery a Christian thing to do?

- Abolition Society
- Benjamin Franklin was president of Abolition society
- person involved in 1st wave of Anti- Slavery movement
- Abolishment societies in every state except South Carolina and Georgia
- Personnal Liberty Laws
- Education
- Financially Independent
- Protection
- Anthony Denezet was an abolitionist who fought for Black education
Monday, October 5th
Wednesday, October 7th
Friday, October 9th
Monday, October 12th
Wednesday, October 14th
Expanding Free Black Population
White Reaction
# Legal
# Social
# Colonization
- How white people responded to the growth in African Americans
- Quakers:
- African Americans should be fully integrated
- Dominant perspective: be in society without the same rights and responsibilities
- Another set of laws for African Americans
- Beginning of 19th century: Segregation in Both N & S by culture rather than law
- Colonization:
- Full equality or be different?
- Free blacks should not at all! Encouraged to leave/ forced too
Philadelphia, 1842
# Racial Segregation/ Exclusion
# Harassment/ Violence
- Black among group being targeted
- Full scale race riot (see picture)
- 1829 Limited to one part of Ohio
- Cincinnati (**IMPORTANT**)
- why? On the border of Free and Slave states

Big city in Ohio

- 1820 > 1830
- 2% > 10%
- In 1829:
- Blacks had 30 days to meet bond requirements
- $500 & register
- Would be kicked out of state
- Black leaders got time extension on ^
- Send delegation to Canada during this time
- do this in an attempt to get the law repealed
- attempts were made to get Black people to leave.
- 1000 leave city
- Would African Americans be stopped on their way to Canada?
- No able to travel through most northern states
- Sierra Leone (1787)
- Liberia (1847)
- Canada becomes favorite place for Blacks
- For those who decide that they would like to leave
- Fugitive Slaves
# First Wave: Mid 1780s - 1806
# Second Wave: 1816 - 1861
# Supporters vs Opponents
- First waves after American Revolution
- Sierra Leone - Immigration to colonization
- Thomas Jefferson
- James Madison
- White Prejudice
- Black Desire for Revenge
- Slave (rebellion)
- Free ( resentful past/ ongoing enslavement)
- Fear of Race Mixing > Inappropriate
- Laws done to prevent this were not effective
- Solution to ^^^^ this?
- Free all slaves and ship all African people elsewhere
- This would encourage freedom of slaves & legislature ( Southern) to abolish slavery
- Most Anti- Slavery activists: silent / against the idea of Colonization movement

- Resurgence: Gabriel Prosser attempted rebellion caused first wave to last longer than it
should have
- This rebellion did not actually take place
- Slavery was a National Security Issue
- Plot Advocated colonization
- Second wave began really in 1817
- American Colonization Society (1816)
- Christmas season
- Significant colonization
- Established Liberia
- Federal Government buys land
- Established this colony in 1822
- Second wave: Who is supporting gets more complicated
- Was the goal to End Slavery?
- Some people had different agendas
- Where are they going?
- Wanted to Christianize Africa
- Christian base of Liberia
- Members of ACS
- Slaveholders!
- Their agenda: getting rid of Free Black population in the South
- Threat to slavery institution the larger the Free population gets.
- Sending the Free Blacks = Next Best Thing
- Supporters of this include:
- James Monroe
- John Adams
- Andrew Jackson
- 1850s [ Republican Party / Abraham Lincoln ]
- What could possibly happen to Free Blacks?
- Encouraged/ Forced to leave US
- Number of people who supported this movement
Friday, October 16th
(refer back to powerpoint from Wednesday: Colonization & Maps)
- Popular destination for Slaves was Canada
- Fugitive Slave Cause
- Slave Owners can go get their slaves

- Slave Act:
- As long as they stayed in the United States Fugitive Slaves could be taken
into slavery ( and really no guarantee for free slaves)
- Unless slaves had committed a crime ( except for the crime of running away) they were
allowed into Canada
- Canada: ( Blacks have:)
- Ability to vote
- Ability to serve on a jury
- Ability to testify in court
- Racially integrated schools
- America had none of this
- Why Canada? = Better
- 40,000 Blacks went to Canada
- Most Black Leaders attacked these movements
- ACS:
- Anti & Pro slavery in the group
- Black Leaders focused on Slave Owners within the group
- Get Rid of Free Blacks rather than encouragement
- David Walker:
- This is our country as much as it is your country
- Blacks that went back to their home country discovered that most had become
Americanized and didn't adapt back into their African ways
- Estimated 70,000 Free Blacks during the first half of the 19th century
- half a million existed during this time
- Prince Saunders Haiti
Monday, October 19th
Social Divisions
# Churches
# Press
# Associations
# Bondage Status
# Class
# Physical Features (Color Consciousness)

- Social Distinction
- Class Divisions
-Physical Features
- Color consciousness
- Free Blacks that looked down upon Blacks in slavery
- Some Free Blacks owned slaves
-1830 census
- 3700 2% (Black) slave holders
- This was 1/3 of the white slave holder population
- I dont want to be a slave, but okay if you're a slave and its okay for me to own a
- Bought themselves out of slavery, bought family
- This is considered a Transfer in ownership Not Freedom
- Pro- Slavery advocates use Free Blacks to say that they cannot manage themselves
- Bondage Status
- within owner household
- Some slaves saw themselves above certain free slaves
- In some cases, Slaves would have more material wealth and better living
- Class Differences
-Within free Black communities
- Advantages > got property & success.
- Most Free Black owners did little or nothing to prepare or help them for free life
- Unless able to catch a break:
- Low end unskilled jobs
- Low chance to acumenate property and material wealth
- Education
- Free Public Education
- Southern public education did not exist had to pay for it
- Whites & Blacks included
-Physical Features:
- Any African Blood in you = African
Wednesday, October 21st
- (* continuing on Social Divisions power point)
- Racially mixed (Ohio) were allowed to vote
- Generally, mixed people were seen as just Black
- How did African Americans view this?
- Known as Color Consciousness
- Middle and upper class were more aware of their social standing than working class

- Aware of the glass ceiling (What they were able to achieve)
- Paul Cauffe - Promoted colonization because no glass ceiling
# Churches
# Schools
# Press
# Associations
sometimes highlighted divisions based on color, class, and a variety of things
- Were discrimintated against legally, attempt to discourage black institutions
- Had to meet in secret ( in south )
- Led to clear regional differences
- Led to one another ( church had press and would promote religious & political)

Absalon Jones, Richard Allen Black Church Movement

# Origins and Functions
# South vs North
# Separate vs Integrated Church
- Had to be a conversion to Christianity ( African Religion - Christian)
- 2ns Great Awakening
- Attracted too:
- Baptists
- Methodists
- The way these two groups worshiped were appealing to Blacks. Comparable
to Black Roots
- emotionalism of religious service
- This was involved in many African services \
Friday, October 23rd
Monday, October 26th
Wednesday, October 28th