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Chapter 5: Continuous-time Fourier Transform

Problem 5.1
(a)

The CTFT for x1(t) is given by

X 1 () =

jt
jt
[ t ] e dt + [1 t ] e dt

= 1+

[ ]
t

jt

2
2

=
(b)

[]

( j)

1
=

( j)
=

x1 (t )e jt dt = 1 +

[1 ]

( j)

( / 2)

( j) 2
e

2 cos()

sin 2 ( / 2)

= 2

jt

[1 ]

[ ]
t

e jt
e jt

( j)
( j) 2 0

[ ]

e j 1
e j
1
+

2
2
( j)
( j)
( j)

[]

1 cos()
2

= 2

[1 ]

( j)
1

2 sin 2 ( / 2)
2


= sinc 2 .
2

The CTFT for x2(t) is given by

X 2 ( ) =

x2 (t )e j t dt =

= t 4

e ( a+ j ) t
( ( a + j ))

4 at
4 ( a + j ) t
j t
dt
t e u(t )e dt = t e

( a + j ) t

+ 4t 3 (( e( a + j ))2 + 12t 2

e ( a+ j ) t
( ( a + j ))3

+ 24t (( e( a + j ))4 + 24 ( e( a + j ))5


0
( a+ j ) t

( a + j ) t

= [0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0] 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 24 ( ( a +1 j ))5 = ( a +24j )5 .

(c)

The CTFT for x3(t) is given by

X 3 ( ) =

x (t )e
3

1
2

j t

dt =

at

cos(0t )u(t )e

j t

dt =

1
2

( a + j ) t

e j0t + e j0t dt

0
0
( a + j j0 ) t
dt + 12 e ( a + j + j0 )t dt = 12 ( e( a + j j0 )) + 12 ( e( a + j + j0 ))
e
0
0
( a + j j ) t

( a + j + j ) t

= 12 0 ( ( a + j1 j0 )) + 12 0 ( ( a + j1 + j0 )) = 12 ( a + j1 j0 ) + ( a + j1+ j0 ) = ( a +aj+ )j2 + 2 .


0
(d)

The CTFT for x4(t) is given by

160

Chapter 5

X 4 ( ) =

x4 (t )e j t dt =

2 2

)
= exp ( j

2 2

exp( 2t 2 )e j t dt =

exp

( t + j 2 )2
2 2

exp[ t

+ 2 j 2t
2

]dt =

exp

t 2 + 2 j 2t + ( j 2 )2

2 2

exp ( j 2 ) dt

2
2 2

dt = exp ( j 2 ) 2 = 2 exp 22 2 .

2
2 2

Problem 5.2
(a)

By definition,

[ ]

X 1 () = 3e jt dt = 3 (e j)
jt

3 e j / 2
j

3
j

[e

1 =

3 j / 2
e
j

[e

j / 2

By definition,

X 2 ( ) =

0.5T

0.5e

jt

1.5T

dt +

0.5T

0.5T

e jt dt = 0.5 (e j )
jt

j 0.5T e j 0.5T
= 0.5
j e
= 0.5
j [ 2 j sin(0.5T ) ]

1
j

1
j

0.5T
0.5T

+ (e j )
jt

e j1.5T e j 0.5T

e jT [ 2 j sin(0.5T )]

sin(0.5T )
sin(0.5T )
T
T
+ 2e jT 0.5

= 0.5
0.5T

0.5T

= 0.5Tsinc ( 0.5T ) + Te jT sinc ( 0.5T ) .

(c)

By definition,
T

X 3 () = 1 Tt e jt dt = 1 Tt

) (e j) ( T1 ) (e j)
jt

jt

T
0

( ) (e j) (1j) ( T1 ) ( j1)

= 0 T1

1
2T

jT

e jT +

1
j
T

For = 0,

1
2T

1
j

1
2T

(1 e

X 3 () = 1 Tt dt = T2 1 Tt

/ 2)
[ 2 j sin( / 2)] = 6e j / 2 [sin(
]= 6e j / 2 [21/ sin(/ 2/ 2) ]

= 3e j / 2 sinc( / 2).
(b)

e j / 2

jT

)2

T
0

).

= 0 + T2 = T2 .

1.5T
0.5T

Solutions
(d)

By definition,
0

X 4 () =

(1 + )e
t
T

jt

= 1 + Tt

(e)

2
2T

) (e j) (T1 ) (e j)
jt

jt

= ( 1j)

dt + 1 Tt e jt dt

(T1 ) ( j1)

0+

0
T

+ 1 Tt

) (e j) ( T1 ) (e j)
jt

jt

(T1 ) (e j) + 0 ( T1 ) (e j)
jT

jT

T
0

( ) ( j1)

( 1j) + T1

[1 cos(T )] = 22 sin (T0.5T ) = 1/(0.45 T ) sin(0.(50.5T)T ) = Tsinc 2 ( 0.5T ) .


2

By definition,
T

X 5 ( ) = 1 0.5sin ( Tt ) e jt dt = e jt dt 0.5 sin ( Tt ) e jt dt


0

=A

=B

We consider different cases for the above integral.


Case I: ( = 0)

X 5 (0) =

x(t )dt =

=T

+ 0.5
/T

1 0.5sin ( Tt ) dt = dt 0.5 sin ( Tt ) dt


T

cos( T ) 0 = T +
t

T
2

[cos( ) cos(0)] = T T = T (1 1 )

Case II: ( 0, /T):


T

T
A = e jt dt = 1j e jt = 1j e jT 1 = j1 1 e jT
0

[ 0]

jt

B = 0.5 e2 2 { j sin ( Tt ) T cos ( Tt )}

2
T
0

for 0, T
T

= 20.5T2T 2 e jt j sin ( Tt ) + T cos ( Tt )

=0 at t =0,T

0
2

= 20.5T2T 2 T e jT T = 20.52TT 2 1 + e jT
2

Case III: ( = /T):

161

162

Chapter 5

B = 0.5 sin ( Tt ) e jt dt =
0

T
0.5
2j

j
j ( ) t
j ( + ) t
j
jt
e T e T e dt = 0.52 j e T e T dt
t

0.5
j 2T t
dt =
2 j 1 e
T

0
=
T
0.5
j 2T t

2 j 1 e dt = T
0

j 2T t
is periodic with period T ,
As e

e
0

j 2T t

dt = 0

0.5T
= 0.5
2 j [ t ]0 = 2 j
T

Combining, the above results, the CTFT can be expressed as


T (1 1 )

X 5 ( ) = j1 1 e jT 0.52 jT
1
jT
20.52TT 2 1 + e jT
j 1 e
T (1 1 )

= 2jT 4Tj
1
jT
20.52TT 2 1 + e jT
j 1 e

=0
= T
otherwise

=0
= T
otherwise

Problem P5.3

From magnitude and phase spectra shown in Fig. P5.3, the individual CTFTs can be expressed as follows
Fig. P5.3(b):

j 0.5

X 1 () = 1 e
0

Fig. P5.3(c):

1 e j 0.5

X 2 ( ) = 1 e j 0.5
0

Fig. P5.3(d):

1 e j / 3

X 3 ( ) = 1 e j / 3
0

W W
otherwise

W 0
0 W
otherwise
W 0
0 W
otherwise

Using the CTFT synthesis Eq. (5.9), the function x1 (t ) is calculated as follows.

Solutions

x1 (t ) =

1
2

X ( )e jt d =

1
2

e j 0.5 e jt d =

1
2

1 2 j sin [ (0.5 + t )W ]
=
j (0.5 + t )
2

1 e j (0.5+t )
1 e j (0.5+t )W e j (0.5+t )W
=

2 j (0.5 + t ) W 2
j (0.5 + t )
W

sin [ (0.5 + t )W ]
(0.5 + t )W

j (0.5 + t )

sinc W (t + 0.5) .

Using the CTFT synthesis Eq. (5.9), the function x2 (t ) is calculated as follows.

1
x2 (t ) =
2

1
X ( )e d = 2

jt

j ( 0.5+ t )

1
d +
2

j (0.5+ t )

1 e j ( 0.5+t )
1 e j (0.5+t )
1 1 e j ( 0.5+t )W e j (0.5+t )W 1
=
+
=
+
j (0.5 + t )
2 j (0.5 + t ) W 2 j (0.5 + t ) 0 2 j (0.5 + t )
=

2 jt sin(tW ) cos(tW )
1
1
+ e j 0.5W

2
j (t 2 0.25)
2 j (t 0.25)

1
1 + e j 0.5W ( 2 jt sin(tW ) cos(tW ) ) .
j 2 (t 0.25)
2

Clearly, at (t = 0.5), x2(t) is undefined in the above expression. Computing directly, we obtain
W

At t = 0.5:

x2 (0.5) =

1
2

j 0.5 j 0.5
e e d =

W
1
2

At t = 0.5: x2 ( 0.5) =

1
2

e j 0.5 e j 0.5 d =

d =

1
2 j

1
2

e j =
0

d =

1
2 j

1
2 j

e jW 1 .
0

e j =
W

1
2 j

e jW 1 .

Using the CTFT synthesis Eq. (5.9), the function x3 (t ) is calculated as follows.

x3 (t ) =

1
2

X ( )e jt d =

1
2

e j / 3e jt d +

1
2

j / 3

e jt d

jWt
1 j / 3 e jt
1 j / 3 e jt
1 j / 3 1 e jWt
1
j / 3 e
e
e
e
=
+
=
+e

jt
jt
2
jt W 2
jt 0 2

1
sin(Wt + / 3) sin( / 3)
[ 2 j sin(Wt + / 3) 2 j sin( / 3)] =

t
j 2 t

Clearly, at (t = 0), x3(t) is undefined in the above expression. Computing directly, we get

163

164

Chapter 5

x3 (0) =

1
4

0
W

(1 j 3) d + (1 + j 3) d =
W
0

W
4

1 j 3 + 1 + j 3 =

W
2

Although the functions x1 (t ) , x2 (t ) , and x3 (t ) have the same magnitude spectra, their phase spectra are
different. As a result, the time domain representations of these functions are different.

abs(x2 (t))

x1 (t)

For the special case W = , the three functions are plotted in Fig. S5.3. Since x2(t) is a complex function,
its magnitude is plotted in Fig. S5.3. The Matlab code is also included below.

Problem 5.3

1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
t

1
0.75
0.5
0.25
0
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
t

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
t

x3 (t)

1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-5

Fig. S5.3. Plots of functions in Problem P5.3.


% MATLAB code to plot the functions in Problem 5.3
del = 0.01;
t = -5:del:5;
W = pi ;
x1 = (W/pi)*sinc((W/pi)*(t+0.5)) ;
x2 = 1./(j*2*pi*(t.^2-0.25)).*(1+exp(j*0.5*W)*(2*j*t.*sin(t*W)-cos(t*W)));
x2(t==0.5) = 1./(j*2*pi)*(exp(j*W)-1);
x2(t==-0.5) = 1./(j*2*pi)*(exp(j*W)-1);
x3 = (sin(W*t+pi/3)-sin(pi/3))./(pi*t);
x3(t==0) = W/(2*pi) ;
subplot(3,1,1), plot(t, x1), grid on
title('Problem 5.3');

Solutions

xlabel('t')
% Label of
ylabel('x_1(t)')
% Label of
%
subplot(3,1,2), plot(t, abs(x2)), grid
xlabel('t')
% Label of
ylabel('abs(x_2(t))')
% Label of

X-axis
Y-axis
on
X-axis
Y-axis

subplot(3,1,3), plot(t, x3), grid


xlabel('t')
% Label of X-axis
ylabel('x_3(t)')
% Label of Y-axis

Problem 5.4

(a)

The partial fraction expansion is given by


X 1 () =

(1 + j)
1
2

+
(2 + j)(3 + j) (2 + j) (3 + j)

Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain

x1 (t ) = e 2t u (t ) + 2e 3t u (t ) .
(b)

The partial fraction expansion is given by


X 2 () =

1
1
0 .5
0.5

+
+
(1 + j)(2 + j)(3 + j) (1 + j) (2 + j) (3 + j)

Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain

x 2 (t ) = 0.5e t u (t ) e 2t u (t ) + 0.5e 3t u (t ) .
(c)

The partial fraction expansion is given by

X 3 () =

1
2

(1 + j)(2 + j) (3 + j)

1
0 .5
0
0 .5
+
+
+
(1 + j) (2 + j) (2 + j) 2 (3 + j)

Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain

x3 (t ) = 0.5e t u (t ) te 2t u (t ) + 0.5e 3t u (t ) .
(d)

The partial fraction expansion is given by


X 4 () =

1
2

(1 + j)(2 + 2 j + ( j) )
X 4 () =

or,

1 + j
1

(1 + j) (2 + 2 j + ( j) 2 )

1 + j
1

(1 + j) 1 + (1 + j) 2

Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain

x 4 (t ) = e t u (t ) e t cos t u (t ) .
(e)

The partial fraction expansion is given by


X 5 () =

1
(1 + j) 2 (2 + 2 j + ( j) 2 ) 2

1
(1 + j) 2

1.50
(2 + 2 j + ( j) 2 )

0.25(4 j + ( j) 2 )
(2 + 2 j + ( j) 2 ) 2

165

166

Chapter 5

or,

X 5 () =

1
(1 + j) 2

1.50
1 + (1 + j) 2

0.25(4 j + ( j) 2 )
(1 + (1 + j) 2 ) 2

Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain


0.25(4 j + ( j)
x5 (t ) = te t u (t ) 1.50e t sin t u (t ) + 1
(1 + (1 + j) 2 ) 2

)
.

Problem 5.5

Consider an arbitrary function (t), and assume that

p (t ) =

j t

dt .

Now, consider the integral

j ( t T )
j t
jT
(t ) p(t T )dt = (t ) e d dt = e (t )e dt d =
Changing the order of integration

j T

( )( d ) =

j T

jT

( )d

( )={ ( t )}

( )d

= , d = d

( )e

jT

................................................(1)

Note that the right hand side of Eq. (1) is the inverse CTFT of () computed at t = T, i.e., (T). Hence,

(t ) p(t T )dt =

()e

jT

d = 2(T ) .

The above equation is valid for any arbitrary (t) if and only if p(t) = 2(t) as can be seen from the
following property of the impulse response

2 (t )(t T )dt = 2(T ) .

In other words,

j t

dt = 2(t ) .

Interchanging the variables, t and , we obtain the required identity

j t

d = 2() .

Solutions

167

Alternate Proof:

Note that the above result can be proved directly from the CTFT pair
CTFT
1
2() .

2() = 1 e jt dt

By definition,

Since () = (),

2() = 2() =

jt

dt .

Problem 5.6

Using Eq. (5.40), the CTFT for a real-valued even function x(t) can be expressed as

X () =

x(t )e jt dt = 2 x(t ) cos(t )dt .

Since there is no complex value in the above equation, X() is real valued, i.e., Im{X()} = 0.

Also, X () = 2 x(t ) cos(t )dt = 2 x(t ) cos(t )dt = X () .


0

Therefore, X() is also an even function with respect to . Since, X() is real valued, Re{X()} =
Re{X()}.

Problem 5.7

Using Eq. (5.40), the CTFT for a real-valued odd function x(t) can be expressed as

X () =

x(t )e jt dt = j 2 x(t ) sin(t )dt .

Since x(t) is real, the product x(t)sin(t) is also real and so is the integral. Therefore, X() is pure
imaginary, i.e., Re{X()} = 0.

Also,

X () = 2 x(t ) sin( t )dt = 2 x(t ) sin(t )dt = X () .


0

Therefore, X() is also an odd function with respect to . Since, X() is imaginary-valued, Im{X()} =
Im{X()}.

Problem 5.8

(a)

Since
is not equal to

X 1 ( ) =

5
2 + j ( 5 )

X 1 () =

5
2 j ( + 5 )

5
2 j (5 )

168

Chapter 5
X1() does not satisfy the Hermitian property. Its inverse CTFT x1(t) is not real valued and is
complex. Nothing can be stated about the odd and even property of x1(t) from the Hermitian
property.

(b)

X 2 ( ) = cos 2 +

Since

is not equal to

X 2 () = cos 2 +

)=

)=

3
2

3
2

cos(2) + 12 sin( 2)

cos(2) 12 sin(2) ,

X2() does not satisfy the Hermitian property. Its inverse CTFT x2(t) is not real valued and is
complex. Nothing can be stated about the odd and even property of x2(t) from the Hermitian
property.

(c)

X 3 ( ) =

Since

5 sin [4( )]
( )

X 3 () =

is not equal to

5 sin [4(+ )]
( + )

5 sin [4 ( )]
( )

[4]
= 5 (sin
+ )

[4] ,
= 5 (sin
)

X3() does not satisfy the Hermitian property. Its inverse CTFT x3(t) is not real valued and is
complex. Nothing can be stated about the odd and even property of x3(t) from the Hermitian
property.

(d)

Since X 4 ( ) = (3 + 2 j ) ( 10) + (1 2 j )( + 10) = (3 + 2 j )( + 10) + (1 2 j )( 10)

is not equal to

X 4 () = (3 + 2 j ) ( 10) + (1 2 j )( + 10) ,

X4() does not satisfy the Hermitian property. Its inverse CTFT x4(t) is not real valued and is
complex. Nothing can be stated about the odd and even property of x4(t) from the Hermitian
property.
(e)

Since

X 5 ( ) =

is equal to

X 5 () =

(1 j)(3 j)2 (5+ 2 )


1

(1 j)(3 j)2 (5+ 2 )

X4() satisfies the Hermitian property. Its inverse CTFT x4(t) is real valued.
Since X4() is complex (neither pure real-valued or pure imaginary), x4(t) is neither even nor odd
with respect to t.

Problem 5.9

(a)

Applying the linearity property,

X 1 () = 5 + 3 cos(10t ) 7e 2t sin(3t )u (t ) = 5{1} + 3{cos(10t )} 7 e 2t sin(3t )u (t ) .


By selecting the appropriate CTFT pairs from Table 5.2, we get
X 1 () = 10(){1} + 3( 10) + 3( 10)
(b)

Entry (8) of Table 5.2 provides the CTFT pair


CTFT

sgn(t )
Using the duality property,

2
jt

CTFT

2
j

2 sgn( ) ,

21
( 2 + j) 2 + 3 2

Solutions

1
t

or,
(c)

CTFT

j sgn() .

Entry (7) of Table 5.2 provides the CTFT pair

e
Using the time shifting property, e

4 t

4 t 5

CTFT

4+8j .

4+8j e j 5 .
CTFT

Using the frequency differentiation property,

t2 e
t2 e

or,
(d)

169

4 t 5

4 t 5

CTFT

( j ) 2

200e j 5
CTFT

d2
d 2
1
4+ j

{e

j 5

8
4 + j

+ 16e j 5

1
( 4 + j) 3

Entry (17) of Table 5.2 provides the CTFT pair

(6 )
sin(5 t )
CTFT
5 sinc(5t ) = 5 5t rect (10 )
sin(3t )
3t

3 sinc(3t ) = 3

and

CTFT

rect

Using the multiplication property

[ (6 ) rect(10 )]
sin( 3t ) sin( 5 t )
CTFT
2 [rect (6 ) rect (10 )] ,
t

2
or,
or,

sin( 3t )
t

sin( 5 t )
t

CTFT

2 rect
2

t)
CTFT

52 rect ( 6 ) rect ( 10 ) ,
5 sin(3 t t)sin(5
2

where * is the convolution operation.


(e)

Entry (17) of Table 5.2 provides the CTFT pair

(6 )
sin( 4 t )
CTFT
4 sinc(4t ) = 4 4 t rect (8 ).
sin(3t )
3t

3 sinc(3t ) = 3

and

CTFT

rect

Using the time differentiation property,


1 d sin( 4 t )
dt
t

CTFT

( j) rect

(8 ).

Using the convolution property

[ (6 ) jrect(8 )]
sin( 3t )
sin( 4 t )
CTFT
dtd
2 [rect (6 ) jrect (8 )],
t
t
sin( 3t )
sin( 4 t )
CTFT
4 t dtd
j 2 rect (6 ).
t

2
or,
or,

sin(3t )
t

d sin( 4 t )
dt
t

CTFT

2 rect
2

170

Chapter 5

Problem 5.10

Using the linearity property,

X ( ) = 136 e2t 136 cos(3t ) + 134 sin(3t ) u (t )

= 136 e2t u (t ) 136 {cos(3t )u (t )} + 134 {sin(3t )u (t )}


= 136 2+1j 136 2 ( 3) + 2 ( + 3) 136 9j 2 + 134 2j ( 3) +

j
2

( + 3) + 134 93

= 136 2+1j 9j 2 + 92 2 26
[6 ( 3) + 6 ( + 3) + 4 j ( 3) 4 j ( + 3)]

= 136 (9(2)++j(2 )(9j)(22 )+ j ) 26


[(6 + j 4) ( 3) + (6 j 4) ( + 3)]

6
= (2+ j )(9
13 [ (3 + j 2) ( 3) + (3 j 2) ( + 3)]
2 )
2

which is the required result.

Problem 5.11

F {x(at )} =

From the definition of CTFT,

x(at )e

j t

dt .

We consider two different cases (a > 0) and (a < 0)


Case 1:

Assume a > 0. Substitute r = at in the above expression. The upper and lower limits of
integration stay the same and dr = a dt. The final result is
F {x(at )}

Case 2:

j ( ) r
= x(r )e a dra

1
a

x ( r )e

j ( a ) r

dr = 1a X

(a ) .

Assume a < 0. Substitute r = at in the above expression. The upper limit of integration is
r and the lower limit of integration is r , and dr = a dt. The final result is
F {x(at )} =

x ( r )e

j ( a ) r dr
a

1
a

x ( r )e

j ( a ) r

dr =

Combining the two cases, yields F {x(at )} =

1
a

1
a

x ( r )e

(a ) .

j ( a ) r

dr =

1
a

(a ) .

Problem 5.12

Comparing with Fig. 5.9(a), we observe that


h(t ) = x1

H () = 2 X 1 (2)

Using the scaling property,


or,
which simplifies to

(2t ) .

H () =

2
2

[2 sin( 4) + cos(2) 1] ,

H () = 16sinc

(4 ) 4sinc 2 ( ) .

Solutions

171

Problem 5.13

Using the definition of CTFT, we obtain

Fe

j 0 t

x(t ) = e

j 0 t

x(t )e

j t

dt =

x(t )e

j ( 0 ) t

dt = X ( 0 ) .

Problem 5.14

Using the convolution property,

x(t ) u (t )
X () 2() +
CTFT

1
j

],

x( )u(t )d 2 X (0) ( ) +
CTFT

or,

X ( )
j

x( )u(( t ))d 2 X (0) ( ) +


CTFT

or,

X ( )
j

x( )d 2 X (0) ( ) +
CTFT

or,

X ( )
j

Problem 5.15

(a)

Using the time scaling property, x(2t )


CTFT

1
2

(2 ).

CTFT

Using the frequency shifting property, e j 5t x(2t )

1
2

X ( 2+ 5 ) .

Substituting the value of X(), we obtain

1 3
{e j 5t x(2t )} = 12
0
12+11

= 112
0

+5

(b)

+5 3
elsewhere
11 5
5 1
elsewhere.

Using the frequency differentiation property,


CTFT
( jt ) 2 x(t )

d2X
d2

CTFT
t 2 x(t )
ddX2 .
2

or,
The CTFT of t2 x(t) is given by

F t 2 x(t ) =

d2
d 2

[(3 )] = dd [rect(3 )] = [( + 3) ( 3)] = [( 3) ( + 3)] .

172

(c)

Chapter 5
=t
Express (t + 5) dx
dt

dx
dt

+ 5 dx
.
dt

Using the time differentiation property, the CTFT of


dx
dt

dx
dt

is given by

CTFT

jX () .

Applying the frequency differentiation property to the above CTFT pair, gives

dx
dt

CTFT

j dd [ jX ()] = X () dX
d .

The CTFT of ( t + 5 ) dx
dt is given by

(t + 5) dx
= X () dX
+ 5 jX () .
dt
d

Substituting the value of X(), we obtain

(t + 5)

(d)

dx
dt

(
(

) (
) (

j 5 1 3 1

= j 5 1 + 3 1 +

2
3
2
3

)
)

03
30
elsewhere.

Using the time multiplication property,


x(t ) x(t ) 21 [ X () X ()] ,
CTFT

which implies that


F {x(t ) x(t )} =

(e)

1
2

[(3 ) (3 )].

Using the time convolution property,


CTFT
x(t ) * x(t )
X () X () ,

which reduces to
2

1 3

F {x(t ) x(t )} =

(f)

1 +

=
elsewhere

2
9

x(t ) cos 0 t 21 X () ( 0 ) +

1
2

2
3

3
elsewhere.

Using the time multiplication property,


CTFT

or,

x(t ) cos 0 t 12 X ( 0 ) +
CTFT

1
2

X () ( + 0 ) ,
X ( + 0 )

Case I: For 0 = 3/2, we obtain

x(t ) cos(3t / 2) 12 X
CTFT

3
2

) + 12 X ( + 32 ).

The two replicas overlap over (3/2 < 3/2), therefore,

Solutions

12 + +63 / 2

F {x(t ) cos(3t / 2)} = 1 3 / 2


2 + 6

173

92 32
32 32
3 9
2
2
elsewhere.

Case II: For 0 = 3, we obtain


x(t ) cos 3t 12 X ( 3) +
CTFT

1
2

X ( + 3) .

Since there is no overlap between the two shifted replicas,


1 +3
3

1
F {x(t ) cos 3t} = 2 1 3

or,

1 + 3
6
2
1 3
F {x(t ) cos 3t} = 2 6

+3 3
3 3
elsewhere.
6<0
0<6
elsewhere.

Case III: For 0 = 6, we obtain


x(t ) cos 6t 12 X ( 6 ) +
CTFT

1
2

X ( + 6 ) .

Since there is no overlap between the two shifted replicas,


1 + 6
3

1
F {x(t ) cos 3t} = 2 1 3

or,

1 + 6
6
2
1 6
F {x(t ) cos 3t} = 2 6

+6 3
6 3
elsewhere.
9 < 3
3<9
elsewhere.

Problem 5.16

(a)

From Table 5.2,

5
2 + j

inverse CTFT

5e 2t u (t ) .

Using the frequency shifting property,


5
2 + j ( 5 )

implying that
(b)

From Table 5.2,


5e 2t u (t ) e j 5t
inverse CTFT

x1 (t ) = 5e ( 2+ j 5)t u (t ) .
CTFT
cos(2t )
[( 2) + ( + 2)]. .

174

Chapter 5
Using the duality property,
CTFT
[(t 2) + (t + 2)]
2 cos( 2) = 2 cos(2) .

Using the frequency shifting property,


[(t 2) + (t + 2)] e

j 12 t

CTFT
,

2 cos 2( + 12
)

implying that
x 2 (t ) =

or,
(c)

1
2

[(t 2) + (t + 2)] e j

12

j t
jt
= 12 (t 2)e 12 + (t + 2)e 12

j
j 2
j
x 2 (t ) = 12 (t 2)e 6 + (t + 2)e 6 = 14 ( 3 j )(t 2) + ( 3 + j )(t + 2)e 3 .

From Table 5.2,

4 / 2 )
CTFT
rect ( 4t )
4sinc( 42 ) = 4 sin(
= 2 sin(2) .
( 4 / 2 )

Using the time scaling property,


CTFT
rect ( 4t2 )
2 2 sin(2 4 ) = 2 sin(4 ) .

Using the frequency shifting property,


rect

sin( 4 ( ))
(8t )e jt CTFT

2 ( ) ,

implying that
x3 (t ) = 52 rect

(d)

(8t )e jt .

Using the linearity property, we obtain

x4 (t ) = 1 {(3 + 2 j ) ( 10) + (1 2 j ) ( + 10)}


= (3 + 2 j ) 1 { ( 10)} + (1 2 j )1 { ( + 10)}
=

(3+ 2 j )
2

e j10t + (122 j ) e j10t .

Expanding the exponential terms using the Eulers formula, we obtain


x 4 (t ) =

(cos 10t + j sin 10t ) +

x 4 (t ) = 2 cos 10t

or,
(e)

( 3+ 2 j )
2

(1 2 j )
2

( 2 j )

(cos 10t j sin 10t )

sin 10t .

Taking the partial fraction expansion


X 5 () =
where

1
(1+ j) (3+ j) 2 (5+ 2 )

A
(1+ j)

B
(3+ j)

C
(3+ j) 2

jD+ E
( 5 + 2 )

A = 0.0625, B = 0.25, C = 0.125, D = 0.3125, and E = 0.6876 .

Calculating the inverse CTFT transform yields

x5 (t ) Ae t u (t ) + Be 3t u (t ) + Cte 3t u (t ) + D cos( 5t )u (t ) + E / 5 sin( 5t )u (t ) .

Solutions

175

Problem 5.17

(i) The functions are plotted in Fig. S5.17. The MATLAB code used to generate the plots is given below.
% MATLAB code to plot the functions in Problem 5.17
t = -10:0.01:10 ;
t4 = 0:0.001:10000 ;
% for plotting x4(t)
t = t + eps;
t4 = t4 + eps;
%for plotting x4(t)
%
x1 = exp(-2*abs(t));
% a=2
x2 = exp(-2*t).*(cos(5*t)).*(t>=0);
% a=2, w=5
x3 = (t.^4).*exp(-2*t).*(t>=0);
% a=2
x4 = sin(log(t4));
x5 = 1./t ;
x6 = cos(pi./(2*t)) ;
x7 = exp(-(t.^2)./(2*3*3)) ;
% sigma=3
%
subplot(4,2,1), plot(t, x1), grid
xlabel('t')
% Label of X-axis
ylabel('x1(t)')
% Label of Y-axis
axis([-5 5 0 1.3])
%
subplot(4,2,3), plot(t, x2), grid
xlabel('t')
% Label of X-axis
ylabel('x2(t)')
% Label of Y-axis %
axis([-5 5 -0.5 1.3])
%
subplot(4,2,4), plot(t, x3), grid
xlabel('t')
% Label of X-axis
ylabel('x3(t)')
% Label of Y-axis %
axis([-4 4 0 0.4])
%
subplot(4,2,5), plot(t4, x4), grid
xlabel('t')
% Label of X-axis
ylabel('x4(t)')
% Label of Y-axis %
axis([0.001 10000 -1.3 1.3])
%
subplot(4,2,6), plot(t, x5), grid
xlabel('t')
% Label of X-axis
ylabel('x5(t)')
% Label of Y-axis
axis([-1 1 -100 100])
%
subplot(4,2,7), plot(t, x6), grid
xlabel('t')
% Label of X-axis
ylabel('x6(t)')
% Label of Y-axis %
axis([-5 5 -1.3 1.3])
%
subplot(4,2,8), plot(t, x7), grid
xlabel('t')
% Label of X-axis
ylabel('x7(t)')
% Label of Y-axis %
axis([-5 5 0 1.3])

176

Chapter 5

x1(t)

0.5

0
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
t

0.4
1

0.3
x3(t)

x2(t)

0.5
0

0.2
0.1

-0.5
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
t

0
-4

-3

-2

-1

0
t

100
1
50
x5(t)

x4(t)

0.5
0

-0.5

-50

-1
1000

2000

3000

4000

5000
t

6000

7000

8000

-100
-1

9000 10000

-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0
t

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
t

1
1
x7(t)

x6(t)

0.5
0
-0.5

0.5

-1
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
t

0
-5

Fig. S5.17: Time-domain Waveforms for Problem 5.17


(ii)

(a)

x1(t ) dt =

a t

dt =

eat dt + e at dt = a1 eat
0

+ ( 1a ) e at

1
a

[1 0] a1 [0 1] = a2 < .

Since the condition in Eq. (5.59) is satisfied, the CTFT for x1(t) exists.
(b)

x 2(t ) dt =

e at cos(0t )u(t ) dt =

1
2

e at e j0t + e j0t dt

1
2

( a j ) t
( a + j ) t
e 0 dt + 12 e 0 dt
0

II

Integral I is given by

I=

1
2

( a j0 ) t

while Integral II is given by

dt = 12

e ( a j 0 ) t
( a j0 ) 0

= 12 0

1
( a j0 )

]= [

1
1
2 ( a j0 )

],

Solutions

II =

1
2

e ( a + j0 )t dt = 12

] = [0

( a + j 0 ) t
e
( a + j0 ) 0

1
2

1
( a + j0 )

]= [

1
1
2 ( a + j0 )

177

].

Therefore,

4 (t ) dt

= I + II = 12

1
( a j0 )

1
1
2 ( a + j0 )

1
a 2 + 02

< .

Since the condition in Eq. (5.59) is satisfied, the CTFT for x2(t) exists.

(c)

x3(t ) dt =

t e u (t ) dt = t 4e at dt = t 4

4 at

e at
(a)

at

+ 4t 3 ( e a )2 + 12t 2

e at
( a )3

= [ 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0] 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 24 ( 1a )5 =

24
a5

+ 24t (e a )4 + 24 (e a )5
0
at

at

< .

Since the condition in Eq. (5.59) is satisfied, the CTFT for x3(t) exists.
(d)

The function
x 4(t ) = sin(ln(t ))u(t )

is plotted in Fig. S5.17. Note that the horizontal axis uses a logarithmic scale. It is observed that the
function oscillates like a sine wave (although not with a constant period). Therefore, the function
has an infinite number of maximas and minimas. In addition,

x4(t ) dt = sin(ln(t )) dt

Therefore, the CTFT for x4(t) does not exist.

(e)

x5(t ) dt =

1
t

dt = 2 1t dt = 2 [ ln(t )]0

Since the condition in Eq. (5.59) is not satisfied, the CTFT for x5(t) does not exist.

(f)

x 6(t ) dt =

cos ( ) dt .
/2
t

Clearly the area enclosed by the cosine term would be infinite. Since the condition in Eq. (5.59) is
not satisfied, the CTFT for x6(t) does not exist. Also, it can be checked that x6(t) has an infinite
number of maximas and minimas, which is a second violation of the existence of the CTFT.

(g)

x7(t ) dt =

exp( 2t 2 ) dt =
2

exp(

t2
2 2

)dt = 2 < .

In evaluating the above result, we used the fact that the area enclosed by a bell curve is 1.
Mathematically, this implies that

1
2

[ ]
2

exp 2t 2 dt =

1
2

[ ]
2

exp (t2m2) dt = 1 ,

where m is a constant. Since the condition in Eq. (5.59) is satisfied, the CTFT for x7(t) exists.

178

Chapter 5

Problem 5.18

(a)

From the solution of Problem P4.11(a), the CTFS coefficients Dn of the rectangular pulse train are
obtained as

3
2
Dn = 0
3
jn

n=0
even n, n 0
odd n,

with fundamental frequency 0 = 1 radians/s. Therefore, the CTFT is given by

X 1() = 2

(b)

n =

n =
odd n

Dn ( n0 ) =3() j6 ( n) .

From the solution of Problem P4.11(b), the CTFS coefficients Dn of the rectangular pulse train are
obtained as

Dn =

3
4

n=0
n0

0.5 sin(0.5n)
n

with fundamental frequency 0 = /T radians/s. Therefore, the CTFT is given by


X 2() = 2

Dn ( n 0 ) =1.5()

n =

(c)

1n sin(0.5n)( nT ) .

n =
n0

From the solution of Problem P4.11(c), the CTFS coefficients Dn of the rectangular pulse train are
obtained as
1 ,
n=0
Dn = 12
j 2 n , n 0.
with fundamental frequency 0 = 2/T radians/s. Therefore, the CTFT is given by
X 3() = 2

n =

(d)

Dn ( n 0 ) =() j

1n ( 2Tn ) .

n =
n0

From the solution of Problem P4.11(d), the CTFS coefficients Dn of the rectangular pulse train are
obtained as
1,
2

Dn = 0,
2
( n) 2

n=0
even n, n 0
odd n, n 0.

with fundamental frequency 0 = /T radians/s. Therefore, the CTFT is given by

Solutions

X 4() = 2

(e)

n =

n =
n0
odd n

179

Dn ( n0 ) =() + 4 n1 ( nT ) .
2

From the solution of Problem P4.11(e), the CTFS coefficients Dn of the rectangular pulse train are
obtained as
12 (1 1 )

j 1 18
Dn =
1
2 ( n2 1)
1
jn

n=0

0.3408

n = 1 j 0.1933
=
0 n = even 0.1592
n2 1
j 0.3183
1 n = odd
n
n=0

n = 1
0 n = even
1 n = odd

with fundamental frequency 0 = /T radians/s. Therefore, the CTFT is given by


X 5() = 2

Dn( n0 ) = 0.6816

n =

= 0.6816() + j 0.3866( + T ) j 0.3866( T ) +

n 11 ( nT ) j 2 1n ( nT )

n =
n 0,1
even n

n =
n 0,1
odd n

Problem 5.19

(a)

From the solution of Problem P5.2(a), the CTFT of the aperiodic signal is given by

3
=0
X 1 () = 3e j / 2 sinc( / 2) = 3
j
) 0.
j (1 e
The signal shown in Fig. P4.6(a) is a periodic signal with a fundamental period T0 = 2 with one
period matching the function shown in Fig. P5.2(a). The fundamental frequency 0 = 1 and the
exponential CTFS coefficients are given by

Dn =

1
T0

X 1 ()

= n0

1
2

3
n = 0
n=0

2
=
3

jn0
) n 0 j 23n (1 e jn ) n 0
jn0 (1 e

which simplifies to

3
2
Dn = = jn3

0
(b)

n=0
odd n
even n, n 0.

From the solution of Problem P5.2(b), the CTFT of the aperiodic signal is given by

(0.5T ) + Te jT sinc(0.5T ) = sin(T / 2)1.5T

X 2 () = 0.5Tsinc

(1 + 2e

jT

=0
0.

180

Chapter 5
The signal shown in Fig. P4.6(b) is a periodic signal with a fundamental period T0 = 2T with one
period matching the function shown in Fig. P5.2(b). The fundamental frequency 0 = /T and the
exponential CTFS coefficients are given by

Dn = T1 X 2 ()
0

= n0

1
2T

1.5T

sin(n0T / 2)
1 + 2e jn0T
n0

3
= 0
n=0
= sin(n / 2) 4
jn
) n0
0 2n (1 e

which simplifies to

34
1

Dn = = 21n
2n
0

(c)

n=0
n = 4k + 1
n = 4k + 3
even n, n 0.

From the solution of Problem P5.2(c), the CTFT of the aperiodic signal is given by

X 3 () = 1
j +

0.5T
1
2T

(1 e

jT

=0
0.

The signal shown in Fig. P4.6(c) is a periodic signal with a fundamental period T0 = T with one
period matching the function shown in Fig. P5.2(c). The fundamental frequency 0 = 2/T and the
exponential CTFS coefficients are given by

Dn =

1
T0

X 3 ()

= n0

=
1
jn0
1
T

0.5T
1
n 202T

(1 e

jn0T

= 0
=
0 j 21n

0.5
1
4 n 2 2

(1 e

j 2 n

n=0
n0

which simplifies to

0.5
Dn = 1
j 2n
(d)

n=0
n 0.

From the solution of Problem P5.2(d), the CTFT of the aperiodic signal is given by

=0
T
X 3 () = Tsinc 2 ( 0.5T ) =
2 0.5T
Tsinc ( ) 0.
The signal shown in Fig. P4.6(d) is a periodic signal with a fundamental period T0 = 2T with one
period matching the function shown in Fig. P5.2(d). The fundamental frequency 0 = /T and the
exponential CTFS coefficients are given by

Dn = T1 X 3 ()
0

= n0

which simplifies to

1
2T

=0
T
0.5
n=0
=

2
2 0.5n0T
Tsinc ( ) 0. 0.5sinc (0.5n) n 0
0.5

Dn = 0
2
( n) 2

n=0
even n, n 0
odd n, n 0.

Solutions

181

(e) From the solution of Problem P5.2(e), the CTFT of the aperiodic signal is obtained as
T (1 1 )

X 5 ( ) = 2jT 4Tj
1
jT
20.52TT 2 1 + e jT
j 1 e

=0
= T
otherwise

The signal shown in Fig. P4.6(e) is a periodic signal with a fundamental period T0 = 2T and whose
one period is identical to the function shown in Fig. P5.2(e). Therefore, the fundamental frequency
0 = /T and the exponential CTFS coefficients are given by
Dn = T10 X (n0 ) =

1
2T

X (n0 )

T (1 1 )

1
1
= 2T j0 1 e j0T 0.52 jT
1
jn0T
T
2 0.5
1 + e jn0T
jn0 1 e
( n0 )2 T 2
T (1 1 )

= 21T Tj 1 e j 0.52 jT
T
jn
jn

0.5 T

jn 1 e 2 n2 2 1 + e
12 21

= j1 0.52jT
1
n
n
1
j 2n 1 (1) + 4 ( n2 1) 1 + (1)
12 (1 1 )

j 1 18
=
1
2 ( n2 1)
1
jn

n=0
n = 1
otherwise
n=0
n = 1
otherwise
n=0
n = 1
otherwise
n=0

n = 1
0 n = even
1 n = odd

Problem 5.20

(a)

Calculating the CTFT of both sides and applying the time differentiation property, yields

( j ) Y ( ) + 6 ( j ) Y ( ) + 11( j ) Y ( ) + 6Y ( ) = X ( ) ,
3

or,

(( j ) + 6 ( j )

or,

H ( ) =

+ 11( j ) + 6 Y ( ) = X ( ) ,

Y ( )
1
=
.
3
X ( ) ( j ) + 6 ( j )2 + 11( j ) + 6

The impulse response h(t) can be obtained by calculating the inverse CTFT of H(), which can be
expressed as
H () =

1
1
0.5
0 .5

+
+
(1 + j)(2 + j)(3 + j) (1 + j) (2 + j) (3 + j)

182

Chapter 5
Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain
h(t ) = 0.5e t u (t ) e 2t u (t ) + 0.5e 3t u (t ) .

(b)

Calculating the CTFT of both sides and applying the time differential property, yields

( j)2 Y () + 3( j)Y () + 2Y () = X () ,
or,

(( j)

or,

H () =

+ 3( j) + 2 Y () = X () ,
Y ()
1
.
=
2
X () ( j) + 3( j) + 2

The impulse response h(t) can be obtained by calculating the inverse CTFT of H(), which can be
expressed as
H () =

( j )

+ 3( j) + 2

1
1

(1 + j) (2 + j)

Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain

h(t ) = e t u (t ) e 2t u (t ) .
(c)

Calculating the CTFT of both sides and applying the time differentiation property, yields

( j)2 Y () + 2( j)Y () + Y () = X () ,
or,

(( j)

or,

H () =

+ 1( j) + 1 Y () = X () ,
Y ()
1
.
=
2
X () ( j) + 2( j) + 1

The impulse response h(t) can be obtained by calculating the inverse CTFT of H(), which can be
expressed as
1
H () =
(1 + j)2
Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain
h(t ) = te t u (t ) .
(d)

Calculating the CTFT of both sides and applying the time differentiation property, yields

( j)2 Y () + 6( j)Y () + 8Y () = ( j)X () + 4 X () ,


or,

(( j)

or,

H () =

+ 6( j) + 8 Y () = (( j) + 4)X () ,

( j ) + 4
1
Y ()
=
.
=
2
X () ( j) + 6( j) + 8 2 + j

The impulse response h(t) can be obtained by calculating the inverse CTFT of H(), which is given
by

Solutions

183

h(t ) = e 2t u (t ) .
(e)

Calculating the CTFT of both sides and applying the time differential property, yields

( j)3 Y () + 8( j)2 Y () + 19( j)Y () + 12Y () = X () ,


or,

(( j)

+ 8( j)2 + 19( j) + 12 Y () = X () ,

or,

H () =

Y ()
1
.
=
3
X () ( j) + 8( j)2 + 19( j) + 12

The impulse response h(t) can be obtained by calculating the inverse CTFT of H(), which can be
expressed as
H () =

( j )

+ 8( j) + 19( j) + 12
2

1/ 6
1/ 2
1/ 3
+
+
(1 + j) (3 + j) ( 4 + j)

Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain


h(t ) = 16 e t u (t ) 12 e 3t u (t ) + 13 e 4t u (t ) .

Problem 5.21

(a)

Calculating the CTFT of the input and output signals, we obtain


X () =

1
2 + j

and

Y () =

5
.
2 + j

The transfer function is given by


H () =

Y ()
= 5.
X ()

Calculating the inverse CTFT, the impulse response is given by


h(t ) = 5 (t ) .
In the frequency domain, the input-output relationship is given by

Y () = 5 X ()
y (t ) = 5 x(t ) .

or, in the time domain,


(b)

Calculating the CTFT of the input and output signals, we obtain


X () =

1
2 + j

and

Y () =

3
e j 4 .
2 + j

The transfer function is given by


H () =

Y ()
= 3e j 4 .
X ()

Calculating the inverse CTFT, the impulse response is given by


h(t ) = 3 (t 4) .

184

Chapter 5
In the frequency domain, the input-output relationship is given by
Y () = 3e j 4 X ()

y (t ) = 3x(t 4) .

or, in the time domain,


(c)

Calculating the CTFT of the input and output signals, we obtain


X () =

1
2 + j

and

Y () =

6
( 2 + j) 4

The transfer function is given by


H () =

Y ()
6
.
=
X () (2 + j) 3

Taking the inverse CTFT, the impulse response is given by

h(t ) = 3 t 2 e 2t u (t ) .
In the frequency domain, the input-output relationship is given by
(2 + j) 3 Y () = 6 X () ,
or,

[(8 + 12( j) + 6( j)

+ ( j) 3 Y () = 6 X () .

Calculating the inverse CTFT, the resulting differential equation is obtained as

d3y
dt
(d)

+6

d2y
dt

+ 12

dy
+ 8 y (t ) = 6 x(t ) .
dt

Calculating the CTFT of the input and output signals, we get


X () =

1
2 + j

and

Y () =

1
1
+
.
(1 + j) (3 + j)

The transfer function is given by


H () =

Y () (4 + 2 j)(2 + j)
2(2 + j) 2
=
=
.
(1 + j)(3 + j)
(1 + j)(3 + j)
X ()

Using partial fraction expansion, the transfer function is given by


H () =

2(2 + j) 2
1
1
2+

(1 + j) (3 + j)
(1 + j)(3 + j)

Taking the inverse CTFT, the impulse response is given by


h(t ) = 2(t ) + e t u (t ) + e 3t u (t ) .
In the frequency domain, the input-output relationship is given by
(1 + j)(3 + j)Y () = 2(2 + j) 2 X () ,
or,

[(3 + 4( j) + ( j) ] Y () = 2[(4 + 4( j) + ( j) ] X () .
2

Solutions
Calculating the inverse CTFT, the resulting differential equation is obtained as
d2y
dy
d 2x
dx
+
4
+
3
y
(
t
)
=
2
+ 8 + 8 x(t ) .
2
2
dt
dt
dt
dt

185

Problem 5.22

The transfer function of the RC series circuit is given by


H () =

1 /( jC )
1
1
1
=
=

.
R + 1 /( jC ) (1 + jCR ) CR 1 /(CR ) + j

Calculating the inverse CTFT, the impulse response of the system is obtained as
h(t ) =

1
e t /(CR ) .
CR

The output response is calculated by convolving the input signal with the impulse response h(t) in the
time domain. Figure S5.22 shows the convolution using graphical approach.
We consider the three cases separately:
Case I (t <= T/2):

Since there is no overlap between h() and v(t ), the output y(t) is 0.

Case II (T/2 < t <= T/2):

y (t ) =
Case III (t > T/2):

1
CR

The output y(t) is given by


t +T / 2

e /(CR ) dt =

t +T / 2
1
(CR) e /(CR )
= 1 eT /(2CR ) e t /(CR ) .
0
CR

The output y(t) is given by

1
y (t ) =
CR

t +T / 2
/( CR )

t T / 2

dt =

1
(CR )e /(CR )
CR

t +T / 2
t T / 2

= e T /( 2CR ) e T /( 2CR ) e t /(CR ) .

Combining the three cases, we obtain

T /(2 CR ) t /( CR )
y (t ) =
1 e
e
T /(2CR ) T /(2CR ) t /( CR )

e
e
e

For T = 2, R = 1M , C = 1 F ,

t T / 2
T / 2 < t T / 2
t >T /2

y (t ) = 1 e (t +1)
(e 1/ e) e t
2.3504

t 1
1 < t 1
t >1

The above output y (t ) is plotted in the last row of Fig. S5.22. The output response matches our
expectation from our circuit theory knowledge. At t = T / 2 , the input voltage becomes 1 volt, and the
capacitor starts charging resulting in an increase in the output voltage. The increase continues until
t = T / 2 at which the input becomes zero. After t = T / 2 , the capacitor starts discharging resulting in an

exponential decrease of the output voltage. The output voltage becomes zero at t = .

186

Chapter 5

h()
1
CR

1 e / CR
CR

h()

v()

v()
0

T2

T
2

v(t )

v(t )
t T2

t + T2

h() v(t )
1
CR

Case I:
(t < T/2)
t T2

1 e / CR
CR

t + T2

h() v(t )
1
CR

Case II:
(T/2 < t < T/2)

1 e / CR
CR

0 t+T
2

t T2

h() v(t )

Case III:
(t > T/2)

1
CR

1 e / CR
CR

y (t )
( for T = 2,
R = 1 M, C = 1 F)

t T2

t + T2

Solutions
Figure S5.22: Convolution of the input signal v(t) with the impulse response h(t) in Problem 5.22.

Program: The MATLAB code to plot y(t) in Problem 5.22


t = -2:0.001:3;
% P5.20(a)
y = 0*(t<=-1)+(1-exp(-t-1)).*(t>-1).*(t<=1)+(exp(1)-exp(-1))*exp(-t).*(t>1);
plot(t,y); grid on;
xlabel('t');
ylabel('y(t)');

Problem 5.23
(i)

As determined in Problem 5.22, the transfer function of the RC series circuit is given by
H () =

1
1

.
CR 1 /(CR ) + j

Calculating the CTFT of the input, we obtain

X 1 () = [( 0 ) + ( + 0 )] .
Using the modulation property, the CTFT of the output signal is obtained as
Y () = H () X 1 () =

1
1

( 0 ) +

( + 0 )
CR 1 /(CR ) + j
CR 1 /(CR ) + j

which reduces to

or,

Y () =

( 0 ) +

( + 0 ) ,
CR 1 /(CR ) + j 0
CR 1 /(CR ) j 0

Y () =

1 /(CR ) j 0
1 /(CR ) + j 0

( 0 ) +

( + 0 ) ,
2
2
CR 1 /(CR ) + 0
CR 1 /(CR ) 2 + 02
1 /(CR )

[( 0 ) + ( + 0 )]

CR 1 /(CR ) 2 + 02
j 0

[( 0 ) ( + 0 )] .
+

CR 1 /(CR ) 2 + 02

Y () =

or,

Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain


Y () =

j 0
1 /(CR )
1
1

cos(

t
)
+

j sin( 0 t ) ,
0
CR 1 /(CR ) 2 + 02
CR 1 /(CR ) 2 + 02

or,
y (t ) =
which can be expressed as

1
2

1 + C R 2 02

[cos(0 t ) + 0 CR sin(0 t )] ,

187

188

Chapter 5

y (t ) =
(b)

1
2

1+ C R

02

cos 0 t tan 1 ( 0 CR ) .

As determined in Problem 5.22, the transfer function of the RC series circuit is given by
H () =

1
1

.
CR 1 /(CR ) + j

Calculating the CTFT of the input, we obtain


X 1 () = j[( 0 ) ( + 0 )] .
Using the modulation property, the CTFT of the output signal is given by
Y () = H () X 1 () =

( 0 )

( + 0 )
jCR 1 /(CR ) + j
jCR 1 /(CR ) + j

which reduces to

or,

Y () =

1
1

( 0 )

( + 0 ) ,
jCR 1 /(CR ) + j 0
jCR 1 /(CR ) j 0

Y () =

1 /(CR ) + j 0
1 /(CR ) j 0

( 0 )

( + 0 ) ,

2
2
jCR 1 /(CR ) + 0
jCR 1 /(CR ) 2 + 02
1 /(CR )

[( 0 ) ( + 0 )]

jCR 1 /(CR ) 2 + 02
j 0

[( 0 ) + ( + 0 )] .
+

jCR 1 /(CR ) 2 + 02

Y () =
or,

Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain


Y () =

0
1 /(CR )
1
1
sin(
)

cos( 0 t ) ,
0
CR 1 /(CR ) 2 + 02
CR 1 /(CR ) 2 + 02

or,
y (t ) =

1
2

1 + C R 2 02

[sin(0 t ) 0 CR cos(0 t )] ,

which can be expressed as


y (t ) =

1
1 + C 2 R 2 02

Problem 5.24

The transfer functions obtained in Problem 5.20 are as follows:


(a) H ( ) =
(b) H ( ) =

( j )

+ 6 ( j ) + 11( j ) + 6
2

( j )

+ 3 ( j ) + 2

sin 0 t tan 1 ( 0 CR ) .

Solutions

(c) H ( ) =
(d)

( j ) + 2 ( j ) + 1
( j ) + 4
1
=
.
H ( ) =
2
( j ) + 6 ( j ) + 8 2 + j

(e) H ( ) =

( j )

+ 8 ( j ) + 19 ( j ) + 12
2

The MATLAB code to plot the magnitude and phase spectra is given below:
w = -5:0.001:5;
%
% P5.20(a)
H = 1./((j*w).^3+6*(j*w).^2+11*(j*w)+6);
subplot(5,2,1)
plot(w,abs(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.20(a): |H_1(\omega)|'); axis tight
subplot(5,2,2)
plot(w,angle(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.20(a): <H_1(\omega)'); axis tight
%
% P5.20(b)
H = 1./((j*w).^2+3*(j*w)+2);
subplot(5,2,3)
plot(w,abs(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.20(b): |H_2(\omega)|'); axis tight
subplot(5,2,4)
plot(w,angle(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.20(b): <H_2(\omega)');
axis tight
%
% P5.20(c)
H = 1./((j*w).^2+2*(j*w)+1);
subplot(5,2,5)
plot(w,abs(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.20(c): |H_3(\omega)|'); axis tight
subplot(5,2,6)
plot(w,angle(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.20(c): <H_3(\omega)'); axis tight
%
% P5.20(d)
H = (4+j*w)./((j*w).^2+6*(j*w)+8);
subplot(5,2,7)
plot(w,abs(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.20(d): |H_4(\omega)|'); axis tight

189

190

Chapter 5

subplot(5,2,8)
plot(w,angle(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.20(d): <H_4(\omega)'); axis tight
%
% P5.20(e)
H = 1./((j*w).^3+8*(j*w).^2+19*(j*w)+12);
subplot(5,2,9)
plot(w,abs(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.20(e): |H_5(\omega)|');
axis tight
subplot(5,2,10)
plot(w,angle(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.20(e): <H_5(\omega)'); axis tight

The spectra are plotted in Fig. S5.24.

P5.20(a): <H ()

P5.20(a): |H ()|

0.1 5
0. 1
0.0 5
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

2
0
-2
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0. 2
0. 1
-4

-3

-2

-1

0
1
(radia ns /s )

0. 6
0. 4
0. 2
-4

-3

-2

-1

-2
-4

-3

-2

-1

2
0
-2
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

(rad ians /s )

0. 5

P5.20(d): <H ()

P5.20(d): |H ()|

0. 4
0. 3

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
1
(radia ns /s )

0
-1
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

(rad ians /s )
P5.20(e): <H ()

0.0 6

-5

0.0 8
P5.20(e): |H ()|

(radia ns /s )

0.0 4
0.0 2
-5

(rad ians /s )

0. 8

0. 2
-5

0. 3

-5

P5.20(c): |H ()|

P5.20(b): <H ()

0. 4

-5

(rad ians /s )

P5.20(c): <H ()

P5.20(b): |H ()|

(radia ns /s )

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
1
(radia ns /s )

0
-2
-5

-4

-3

-2

Fig. S5.24: Gain and Phase responses for Problem 5.24.


Problem 5.25

The transfer functions obtained in Problem 5.21 are as follows:

-1

(rad ians /s )

Solutions

(a) H () =

Y ()
= 5.
X ()

(b) H () =

Y ()
= 3e j 4 .
X ()

(c) H () =

Y ()
6
.
=
X () (2 + j) 3

(d) H () =

Y () (4 + 2 j)(2 + j)
2(2 + j) 2
=
=
.
X ()
(1 + j)(3 + j)
(1 + j)(3 + j)

The MATLAB code to plot the magnitude and phase spectra is given below:
w = -5:0.001:5;
%
% P5.21(a)
H = 5*ones(size(w));
subplot(4,2,1)
plot(w,abs(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.21(a): |H_1(\omega)|'); axis([-5 5 0 5.25]);
subplot(4,2,2)
plot(w,angle(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.21(a): <H_1(\omega)'); axis tight
%
% P5.21(b)
H = 3*exp(-j*4*w);
subplot(4,2,3)
plot(w,abs(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.21(b): |H_2(\omega)|'); axis([-5 5 0 3.25]);
subplot(4,2,4)
plot(w,angle(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.21(b): <H_2(\omega)'); axis tight
%
% P5.21(c)
H = 6./((2+j*w).^3);
subplot(4,2,5)
plot(w,abs(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.21(c): |H_3(\omega)|'); axis tight
subplot(4,2,6)
plot(w,angle(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.21(c): <H_3(\omega)'); axis tight
%
% P5.21(d)
H = 2*(2+j*w).^2./((1+j*w).*(3+j*w));
subplot(4,2,7)
plot(w,abs(H)); grid on;

191

192

Chapter 5

xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.21(d): |H_4(\omega)|'); axis tight
subplot(4,2,8)
plot(w,angle(H)); grid on;
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('P5.21(d): <H_4(\omega)'); axis tight

The gain and phase spectra are plotted in Fig. S5.25.

P5.21(a): <H1()

P5.21(a): |H1()|

1
4

0
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

(radians/s)

(radians/s)

P5.21(b): <H2()

P5.21(b): |H2()|

3
2
1
0
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

2
0
-2
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0.6
0.4
0.2
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

(radians/s)

P5.21(c): <H3()

P5.21(c): |H3()|

(radians/s)

0
1
(radians/s)

2
0
-2
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

(radians/s)

P5.21(d): <H4()

P5.21(d): |H4()|

2.6
2.4
2.2

0.1
0
-0.1

2
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

(radians/s)

(radians/s)

Fig. S5.25: Gain and phase responses for Problem 5.25.


Problem 5.26
Case II with input signal given by sin(0t):

Let us assume that the transfer function H(0) = A(0) + jB(0) at the fundamental frequency 0 of the
sine wave. From the Hermitian property, we note that the real component of A(0) of H(0) is even, while
the imaginary component B(0) of H(0) is odd. Therefore,
H(0) = A(0) jB(0).
Using the modulation property, the CTFT of the output of the system is given by
Y () = H () j[( + 0 ) ( 0 )] ,

Solutions

193

Y () = j[H ( 0 )( + 0 ) H ( 0 )( 0 )] .

or,

Expressing H(0) and H(0) in terms of their real and imaginary components, we obtain
Y () = jA( 0 )[( + 0 ) ( 0 )] + B ( 0 )[( + 0 ) + ( 0 )] .
Calculating the inverse CTFT, the output y(t) is obtained as

y (t ) = A(0 ) sin(0t ) + B(0 ) cos(0t )


= ( A(0 )) 2 + ( B(0 )) 2 sin {0t + tan 1 ( B(0 ) / A(0 ))} .
= H (0 ) sin {0t + < H (0 )}
where

H ( 0 ) = ( A( 0 )) 2 + ( B( 0 )) 2

and < H ( 0 ) = tan 1 ( B( 0 ) / A( 0 )) .

Case I with input signal given by cos(0t):

Using the modulation property, the CTFT of the output of the system is given by
Y () = H () [( + 0 ) + ( 0 )] ,

Y () = [H ( 0 )( + 0 ) + H ( 0 )( 0 )] .

or,

Expressing H(0) and H(0) in terms of their real and imaginary components, we get

Y () = A( 0 )[( + 0 ) + ( 0 )] jB( 0 )[( + 0 ) ( 0 )] .


Taking the inverse CTFT, the output y(t) is given by

y (t ) = A(0 ) cos(0t ) B(0 ) sin(0t )


= ( A(0 )) 2 + ( B (0 ))2 cos {0t + tan 1 ( B (0 ) / A(0 ))} .
= H (0 ) cos {0t + < H (0 )}
where
H ( 0 ) = ( A( 0 )) 2 + ( B( 0 )) 2

and < H ( 0 ) = tan 1 ( B( 0 ) / A( 0 )) .

The above result states that the output of an LTI system with real-valued impulse response and a
sinusoidal signal at the input is another sinusoidal signal of the same fundamental frequency as the input.
Only the magnitude and phase of the sinusoidal signal are modified.

Problem 5.27

(i)

With x1(t) = cos(0t), the output of the RC circuit shown in Fig. P5.22 is given by
y (t ) = H ( 0 ) cos( 0 t + < H ( 0 ) )
where

H () =

1
.
1 + jCR

Substituting the value of the magnitude and phase of H(0) at the fundamental frequency = 0,
the output is given by

194

Chapter 5

y (t ) =
(ii)

1
1 + ( 0 CR )

cos 0 t tan 1 (CR ) .

As in part (i), the output of the RC circuit shown in Fig. P5.22 for x2(t) = sin(0t), is given by
y (t ) = H ( 0 ) sin ( 0 t + < H ( 0 ) )
1
.
1 + jCR

H () =

where

Substituting the value of the magnitude and phase of H(0) at the fundamental frequency = 0,
the output is given by
y (t ) =

1
1 + ( 0 CR )

sin 0 t tan 1 (CR ) .

The answers obtained above match with those obtained in Problem 5.23.
Problem 5.28

(i)

Based on the solution of Problem 5.26,


sin (3t )
H (3) sin (3t + < H (3) ) .

For R = 1M, and C = 0.1F, the transfer function is given by

H () =

1
.
1 + j 0.1

At = 3 radians/s, the magnitude and phase of the RC circuit is given by


H (3) =

1
1 + 0.3

= 0.9578 and < H (3) = 16.700 .

The output is given by

y1 (t ) = 0.9578 sin 3t 16.700 .


(ii)

Based on the solution of Problem 5.26,


cos(3t )
H (3) cos(3t + < H (3) )
and

sin ( 6t + 300 )
H (6) sin ( 6t + 300 + < H (6) )
At = 3 radians/s, the magnitude and phase of the RC circuit is given by
H (3) =

1
1 + 0.3

= 0.9578 and < H (3) = 16.700 .

Similarly, at = 6 radians/s, the magnitude and phase of the RC circuit is given by

Solutions

H (6) =

1
1 + 0.6

195

= 0.8575 and < H (6) = 30.960 .

Using the linearity property, the output is given by

y1 (t ) = 0.9578 cos 3t 16.700 4.2875 sin 6t 0.960 .


(iii) Based on the solution of Problem 5.26,
cos(2t )
H ( 2) cos(2t + < H (2) )
and
sin ( 2000t )
H (2000) sin ( 2000t + < H (2000) )

At = 2 radians/s, the magnitude and phase of the RC circuit is given by


H ( 2) =

1
1 + 0.3

= 0.9806 and < H (3) = 11.310 .

Similarly, at = 2000 radians/s, the magnitude and phase of the RC circuit is given by
H (2000) =

1
1 + 2000

= 0.0050 and < H ( 2000) = 89.710 .

Using the linearity property, the output is given by

y1 (t ) = 0.9806 cos 2t 11.3`0 + 0.0050 sin 2000t 89.710 .


(iv)

Based on Eq. (5.75)


exp( j 3t )
H (3) exp( j 3t + j < H (3) )
and
exp( j 2000t )
H (2000) exp( j 3t + j < H (2000) )

At = 3 radians/s, the magnitude and phase of the RC circuit is given by


H (3) =

1
1 + 0.3

= 0.9578 and < H (3) = 16.700 .

Similarly, at = 2000 radians/s, the magnitude and phase of the RC circuit is given by
H (2000) =

1
1 + 2000

= 0.0050 and < H (2000) = 89.710 .

Using the linearity property, the output is given by

y1 (t ) = 0.9578 exp j 3t j16.700 + 0.0050 exp j 2000t 89.710 .

196

Chapter 5

Problem 5.29

(a)

In Example 3.6, it was shown that

y (t ) = e t u (t ) e 2t u (t ) = e t e 2t u (t ).

(b)

From Table 5.2, the CTFT of x(t ) and h(t ) are obtained as

X () = 1+1j , and

H () =

1
2 + j

The CTFT of the output is then given by

Y ( ) = H ( ) X ( ) = (1+1j ) ( 2+1j ) = 1+1j 2+1j .


Calculating the inverse CTFT results in the output signal

y (t ) = e t e 2t u (t ).
(c)

As H () =

Y ( )
X ( )

1
2 + j

, the Fourier-domain input-output relationship can be expressed as


jY () + 2Y () = X () .

Calculating the inverse CTFT of both sides results in the following differential equation
dy
+ 2 y (t ) = x (t ) .
dt

The output can be obtained by solving the differential equation with input x(t ) = e t u (t )
and zero initial conditions y(0) = 0.
Zero-input Response: Due to zero initial condition, the zero-input response is yzi(t) = 0.
Zero-state Response: The characteristics equation is given by (s + 2) = 0 resulting in a single pole at
s = 2. The homogenous component of the zero-state response is given by
h
y zs
(t ) = Ae 2t .

Since the input x(t) = exp(t) u(t), the particular solution is of the form

y zsp (t ) = Ke t for t 0 .
Inserting the particular solution in the differential equation results in K = 1. Therefore,

y zsp (t ) = e t u (t ) .
The overall zero-state response is, therefore, given by
y zs (t ) = Ae 2t + e t

for t 0. To determine the value of A, we insert the initial condition y(0) = 0 giving

A + 1 = 0 A = 1
or, A = 1. The zero state response is given by

y zs (t ) = ( e t e 2t ) u (t )

Solutions

197

Total Response: By adding the zero-input and zero-state responses, the overall output is given by

y (t ) = y zi (t ) + y zs (t ) = ( e t e 2t ) u (t ).
=0

It is observed that Methods (a) (c) yield the same result.

Problem 5.30

(a)

For part (a), we assume that T = 1 in H1 ( ) and H 2 ( ) . From the solution of Problem P5.19(a),
the CTFT of Fig. P4.6(a) is given by
X 1() = 3() j 6

1
( n ) .
n
n =

odd n

Output for H1(): Since H1() eliminates all frequency components outside the range || 4 (as T
= 1), the output is given by
Y 1() = j 2( + 3) + j 6( + 1) + 3() j 6( 1) j 2( 3) .
Output for H2(): Since H2() eliminates all frequency components outside the range 4 || 8,
the output is given by
Y 1() = j 76 ( + 7) + j 65 ( + 5) j 56 ( 1) j 76 ( 3) .
(b)

From the solution of Problem P5.19(b), the CTFT of Fig. P4.6(b) is given by

X 2( ) = 1.5 ( )

n =
n0

1
n

sin(0.5n ) ( nT ) .

Output for H1(): Since H1() eliminates all frequency components outside the range || 4/T, the
output is given by
Y 2() = ( + T ) + 1.5() ( T ) .
Output for H2(): Since H2() eliminates all frequency components outside the range 4/T ||
8/T, the output is given by
Y 2() = 0 .
(c)

From the solution of Problem P5.19(c), the CTFT of Fig. P4.6(c) is given by
X 3() = () j

1n ( 2Tn ) .

n =
n0

Output for H1(): Since H1() eliminates all frequency components outside the range || 4/T, the
output is given by
Y 3() = () .
Output for H2(): Since H2() eliminates all frequency components outside the range 4/T ||
8/T, the output is given by

198

Chapter 5

Y 3() = j( +
(d)

2
)
T

j( 2T ) .

From the solution of Problem P5.19(d), the CTFT of Fig. P4.6(d) is given by
X 4() = 2

n =

n =
n0
odd n

Dn( n0 ) =() + 4 n1 ( nT ) .
2

Output for H1(): Since H1() eliminates all frequency components outside the range || 4/T, the
output is given by
Y 4() = 4 ( + T ) + () + 4 ( T ) .
Output for H2(): Since H2() eliminates all frequency components outside the range 4/T ||
8/T, the output is given by
Y 4() = 0 .
(e)

From the solution of Problem P5.19(e), the CTFT of Fig. P4.6(e) is given by

X 5( ) = 2

D ( n )

n =

= 0.6816 ( ) + j 0.3866 ( + T ) j 0.3866 ( T ) +

n =
n0
even n

1
n 2 1

( nT )

j 2 1n ( nT ).
n =
n 0,1
odd n

Output for H1(): Since H1() eliminates all frequency components outside the range || 4/T, the
output is given by
Y 5() = j 0.3866( + T ) + 0.6816() j 0.3866( T ) .
Output for H2(): Since H2() eliminates all frequency components outside the range 4/T ||
8/T, the output is given by
Y 5() = 13 ( +

2
) + 13 ( 2T ) .
T

Problem 5.31

(a)

The magnitude spectra of the two systems are calculated below

H1 () =
1
H 2 () =
0

400 + 2
400 + 2

=1

20
elsewhere.

The magnitude spectra are plotted in Fig. S5.31. From Fig. S5.31(a), we observe that the magnitude
|H1()| is 1 at all frequencies. Therefore, System H1() is an all pass filter.

Solutions

199

From Fig. S5.31(b), we observe that the magnitude |H2()| is zero at frequencies below 20
radians/s. At frequencies above 20 radians/s, the magnitude is 1. Therefore, System H2() is a
highpass filter.
H1 ()

H 2 ()

20

(a)

20

(b)
Fig. S5.31: Magnitude Spectra for Problem 5.31.

(b)

Calculating the inverse CTFT, the impulse response of the two systems is given by
h1 (t ) = 1

40 20 j
20 + j

}= {
1

40
20 + j

{1 } = 40e 20t u (t ) (t ) .

20 t
h2 (t ) = 1 { 1 rect( 40
) } = 1 { 1 } 1 { rect( 40
) } = (t ) 20
sinc( ) .

Problem 5.32

The transfer functions for the three LTIC systems are given by
System (a):
System (b):
System (c):

H1 () =

2
.
(1 + j) 2

H 2 () = () +

H 3 () = 2 +

1
.
j

5
1 j 2
=
2 + j 2 + j

The following Matlab code generates the magnitude and phase spectra of the three LTIC systems.
%MATLAB Program for Problem P5.32
%System (a)
clear;
num_coeff = [2];
denom_coeff = [1 2 1];
sys = tf(num_coeff,denom_coeff);
figure(1)
bode(sys,{0.02,100}); grid;
title('Bode Plot for System-1')
%System (b)
clear;
num_coeff = [1];
denom_coeff = [1 0];
sys = tf(num_coeff,denom_coeff);
figure(2)
bode(sys,{0.02,100}); grid;
title('Bode Plot for System-2')
%System (vc)

%
%
%
%

clear the MATLAB environment


NUM coeffs. in decreasing powers of s
DEN coeffs. in decreasing powers of s
specify the transfer function

% sketch the Bode plots


%
%
%
%

clear the MATLAB environment


NUM coeffs. in decreasing powers of s
DEN coeffs. in decreasing powers of s
specify the transfer function

% sketch the Bode plots

200

Chapter 5

clear;
num_coeff = [-2 1];
denom_coeff = [1 2];
sys = tf(num_coeff,denom_coeff);
figure(3)
bode(sys,{0.02,100}); grid;
title('Bode Plot for System-3')

%
%
%
%

clear the MATLAB environment


NUM coeffs. in decreasing powers of s
DEN coeffs. in decreasing powers of s
specify the transfer function

% sketch the Bode plots

The resulting Bode plots are shown in Fig. S5.32.

Bode Plot for System-1


20

Magnitude (dB)

0
-20
-40
-60
-80
0

Phase (deg)

-45
-90
-135
-180
-1

10

10

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

(a)
Bode Plot for System-3

20

5
Magnitude (dB)

10

-20

-5

-40
-89

-10
360

-89.5

315
Phase (deg)

Phase (deg)

Magnitude (dB)

Bode Plot for System-2


40

-90
-90.5

270
225
180

-91
-1

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

(b)

10

10

-1

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

(c)

Figure S5.32. Magnitude and phase spectra for systems in Problem 5.32.
Calculating Output:

System (a): Using the convolution property, the output of system (a) is given by

10

10

Solutions

Y1 ( ) =

2
[ ( 1) + ( + 1) ] = 2
(1 + j ) 2

1
(1+ j1) 2

( 1) + (11j1) ( + 1)
2

201

= j [ ( 1) ( + 1) ] .
Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain
y1 (t ) = sin t .
System (b): Using the convolution property, the output of system (b) is given by

1
Y2 ( ) = ( ) +
[ ( 1) + ( + 1) ] = 1j ( 1) + 1j ( + 1)

= j [ ( 1) ( + 1) ] .
Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain

y2 (t ) = sin t .
System (c): Using the convolution property, the output of system (c) is given by

Y2 ( ) =

1 j 2
[ ( 1) + ( + 1) ] = 12+j j2 ( 1) + 12+j j2 ( + 1)
2 + j

= j [ ( 1) ( + 1) ] .
Calculating the inverse CTFT, we obtain

y3 (t ) = sin t .
To explain why the three systems produce the same output for input x(t) = cost, consider Eq. (5.77),
which for 0 = 1 is given by
cos(t ) H (1) cos(0t + < H (1) ) .
Hermitian Symmetric H ( )

In other words, the output for x(t) = cos(t) depends only on the magnitude and phase of the system at =
1. For the three systems, we note that
H1 (1) = H 2 (1) = H 3 (1) = 1

and

< H1 (1) = H 2 (1) = H 3 (1) = 2 .


Since the magnitudes and phases of the three system transfer functions at = 1 are identical, the three

systems produce the same output y (t ) = sin t for x(t) = cos(t).


Problem 5.33

The MATLAB code for calculating the CTFTs is listed below.


% Problem 5_33(i)
ws = 200*pi;
% sampling rate
Ts = 2*pi/ws;
% sampling interval
tmin = -2; tmax = 2;
t = tmin:Ts:tmax;
% define time instants
x = sin(5*pi*t);
y = fft(x);
% fft computes CTFT
z = (2*pi*Ts/(tmax-tmin))*y;% scale the magnitude of y
z = fftshift(z);
% centre CTFT about w = 0

202

Chapter 5

w = -ws/2:ws/length(z):ws/2-ws/length(z);
subplot(221); plot(w,abs(z)); % CTFT plot of cos(w0*t)
axis([-20*pi 20*pi 0 max(abs(z))]);
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('|x_1(t)|');
title('x_1(t) = sin(5\pi t): Magnitude spectrum')
grid on
subplot(222); plot(w,angle(z).*abs(z)/max(abs(z)));
axis([-20*pi 20*pi -0.5*pi 0.5*pi]);
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('<x_1(t)')
title('x_1(t) = sin(5\pi t): Phase spectrum')
grid on
% end
%
% Problem 5_33(ii)
ws = 1000*pi;
% sampling rate
Ts = 2*pi/ws;
% sampling interval
tmin = -1.25; tmax = 1.25;
t = tmin:Ts:tmax;
% define time instants
x = sin(8*pi*t)+sin(20*pi*t);
y = fft(x);
% fft computes CTFT
z = (2*pi*Ts/(tmax-tmin))*y;% scale the magnitude of y
z = fftshift(z);
% centre CTFT about w = 0
w = -ws/2:ws/length(z):ws/2-ws/length(z);
subplot(223); plot(w,abs(z)); % CTFT plot of cos(w0*t)
axis([-40*pi 40*pi 0 max(abs(z))]);
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('|x_2(t)|');
title('x_2(t) = sin(8\pi t)+sin(20\pi t): Magnitude spectrum')
grid on
subplot(224); plot(w,angle(z).*abs(z)/max(abs(z)));
axis([-40*pi 40*pi -0.5*pi 0.5*pi]);
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
ylabel('<x_2(t)')
title('x_2(t) = sin(8\pi t)+sin(20\pi t): Phase spectrum')
grid on
% end

The magnitude and phase spectra are shown in Fig. S5.33.

Solutions

x 1(t) = sin(5 t): Magnitude spectrum

203

x 1(t) = sin(5 t): Phase spectrum

<x 1(t)

|x 1(t)|

1
2
1

0
-1

0
-60

-40

-20

20

40

60

-60

(radians/s)
x 2(t) = sin(8 t)+sin(20 t): Magnitude spectrum

-40

-20

20

40

60

(radians/s)
x 2(t) = sin(8 t)+sin(20 t): Phase spectrum

3
2

<x 2(t)

|x 2(t)|

0
-1

-100

-50

50

100

(radians/s)

-100

-50

50

100

(radians/s)

Figure S5.33. Magnitude and phase spectra for the sinusoidal signals in Problem 5.33.
Problem 5.35

The MATLAB code for calculating the output is listed below.


% Problem 5.35
t = -5:0.001:5;
% time waveforms with N samples each
x = exp(-t).*(t>=0);
h = exp(-2*t).*(t>=0);
% CTFT calculated for (2N-1) samples
Xfreq = fft(x,length(x)+length(h)-1);
Hfreq = fft(h,length(x)+length(h)-1);
% Scale the ffts
Xfreq = (2*pi*0.001/10) * Xfreq;
Hfreq = (2*pi*0.001/10) * Hfreq;
% Output
Yfreq = Xfreq .* Hfreq;
y = ifft(Yfreq);
y = (10/(2*pi*0.001))*y;
% plot
plot([-10:0.001:10],real(y));
xlabel('time (t)');
ylabel('output y(t)');
title('Problem 5.35');

The magnitude and phase spectra are shown in Fig. S5.35.

204

Chapter 5
0.2

output y (t)

0.15
0.1
0.05
0
-0.05
-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0
time (t)

10

Figure S5.35: Output waveform for Problem 5.35.


Problem 5.36
(i) Bode plots for the LTIC systems specified in Problem 5.20:

The MATLAB code for calculating the Bode plots for the LTIC systems specified in Problem 5.20 is
listed below.
% Problem 5.36
% Bode plot for Problem 5.20(a)
figure(1)
w = 0.01:0.01:100;
num = [1];
den = [1 6 11 6];
sys = tf(num,den);
bode(sys,{0.01,100});
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
title('P5.20(a)');
grid on
%
% Bode plot for Problem 5.20(b)
figure(2)
w = 0.01:0.01:100;
num = [1];
den = [1 3 2];
sys = tf(num,den);
bode(sys,{0.01,100});
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
title('P5.20(b)');
grid on
%
% Bode plot for Problem 5.20(c)
figure(3)
w = 0.01:0.01:100;
num = [1];
den = [1 2 1];
sys = tf(num,den);
bode(sys,{0.01,100});
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
title('P5.20(c)');
grid on

Solutions

205

%
% Bode plot for Problem 5.20(d)
figure(4)
w = 0.01:0.01:100;
num = [1 4];
den = [1 6 8];
sys = tf(num,den);
bode(sys,{0.01,100});
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
title('P5.20(d)');
grid on
%
% Bode plot for Problem 5.20(e)
figure(5)
w = 0.01:0.01:100;
num = [1];
den = [1 8 19 12];
sys = tf(num,den);
bode(sys,{0.01,100});
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
title('P5.20(e)');
grid on

The Bode plots are shown in Fig. S5.36.1 to Fig. S5.36.5 below.

P5.20(a)

Magnitude (dB)

-50

-100

Phase (deg)

-150
0

-90

-180

-270
10

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

(radians/s) (rad/sec)

Figure S5.36.1: Bode plot for LTI system specified in Problem 5.20(a) as required in Problem 5.36.

206

Chapter 5

P5.20(b)
0

Magnitude (dB)

-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
0

Phase (deg)

-45
-90
-135
-180

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

10

(radians/s) (rad/sec)

Figure S5.36.2: Bode plot for LTI system specified in Problem 5.20(b) as required in Problem 5.36.

P5.20(c)
0

Magnitude (dB)

-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
0

Phase (deg)

-45
-90
-135
-180

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

10

(radians/s) (rad/sec)

Figure S5.36.3: Bode plot for LTI system specified in Problem 5.20(c) as required in Problem 5.36.

Solutions

207

P5.20(d)
0

Magnitude (dB)

-10
-20
-30
-40

Phase (deg)

-50
0

-45

-90

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

10

(radians/s) (rad/sec)

Figure S5.36.4: Bode plot for LTI system specified in Problem 5.20(d) as required in Problem 5.36.
P5.20(e)
-20

Magnitude (dB)

-40
-60
-80
-100
-120

Phase (deg)

-140
0

-90

-180

-270

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

10

(radians/s) (rad/sec)

Figure S5.36.5: Bode plot for LTI system specified in Problem 5.20(e) as required in Problem 5.36.
The Bode plots have a one to one correspondence with the magnitude and phase spectra plotted in
Problem 5.20.
(ii) Bode plots for the LTIC systems specified in Problem 5.21:

Since the transfer function H() = 5 in part (a), the magnitude plot for part (a) is constant at 5 for all
frequencies. The phase is 0.
The transfer function H() = 3ej4 in part (b). Therefore, the magnitude plot for part (b) is constant at 3
for all frequencies. The phase is 4 represented by a straight line with a slope of 4. These two plots are
not plotted.

208

Chapter 5

The MATLAB code for calculating the Bode plots for the LTIC systems specified in parts (c) and (d) of
Problem 5.21 is listed below. The plots are shown in Fig. S5.36.6 and S5.36.7.

% Problem 5.36
% Bode plot for Problem 5.21(c)
figure(1)
w = 0.01:0.01:100;
num = [6];
den = [1 6 12 8];
sys = tf(num,den);
bode(sys,{0.01,100});
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
title('P5.20(c)');
grid on
% Bode plot for Problem 5.21(c)
figure(2)
w = 0.01:0.01:100;
num = [2 8 8];
den = [1 4 3];
sys = tf(num,den);
bode(sys,{0.01,100});
xlabel('\omega (radians/s)');
title('P5.20(d)');
grid on

P5.20(c)
0

Magnitude (dB)

-20
-40
-60
-80
-100

Phase (deg)

-120
0

-90

-180

-270

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

10

(radians/s) (rad/sec)

Figure S5.36.6: Bode plot for LTI system specified in Problem 5.21(c) as required in Problem 5.36.

Solutions

209

P5.20(d)
9

Magnitude (dB)

Phase (deg)

5
0

-5

-10

-15

-2

10

-1

10

10

10

10

(radians/s) (rad/sec)

Figure S5.36.7: Bode plot for LTI system specified in Problem 5.21(d) as required in Problem 5.36.