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DCC3113 - Highway

and Traffic
Engineering
Lecturers name:
Sapinah binti Hadi
Civil Engineering Department (Level 0)
DCC 3113 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

Course outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
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Introduction to Highway and Traffic


Transportation Planning
Pavement Materials
Construction of Flexible Pavement
Construction of Rigid Pavement
Traffic Control Equipment and Road Furniture
Flexible Pavement Design
Junction Design
Traffic Management
Highway Maintenance

DCC 3113 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

Assessment
Final Examination Assessment (FE) 50%
Coursework Assessment (CA) 50%
Assessment

Percentage (%)

Test(2)

20%

Quiz(2)

5%

Case Study(2)

15%

Presentation (2)

10%

TOTAL

50%

DCC 3113 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

Chapter 1:
Introduction to Highway and
Traffic
DCC 3113 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

Subtopic:
O 1.1 History of highway construction and road laws and

acts
O 1.2 Concept of traffic, highway and road laws and acts
in Malaysia
O 1.3 Concept of road laws and acts of traffic and
transportation

DCC 3113 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

What is traffic engineering?


Traffic Engineering is an engineering division which
involved planning, geometric design and traffic
operations of roads and highways, road network
maintenance of roads, road drainage, road furniture

DCC 3113 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

What is highway engineering?


Definition : Highway engineering is an
engineering discipline branching from civil
engineering which involves the design,
construction and maintenance of Highway
Systems.
Highway Engineers must take into account future
traffic flows, design of highway
intersections/interchanges, geometric alignment
and design, highway pavement materials and
design, structural design of pavement thickness,
and pavement maintenance.

DCC 3113 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

O Transportation

Is the movement of people and goods from one location to another.


O Common forms of transportation include planes, trains, automobiles,
and other two-wheel devices such as bikes or motorcycles.
O

O Transportation Engineering
O Is the application of technology and scientific principles to the

planning, functional design, operation and management of


facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the
safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical, and
environmentally compatible movement of people and goods
transport.

DCC 3113 HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING

Functions of Transportation

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Construction structure

Flexible Pavement Structure


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Flexible
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Rigid

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Profession

Profession that involve in transportation construction of


road and highway:
a.
b.

c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.

Surveyor
Road and highway engineer
Traffic engineer
Geologist
Structural engineer
Hydrologist
Mechanical engineer
Electrical engineer
Electronic engineer
Socialist
Psychologist
Architect

l.
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Act related to road


a)Road Transport Act 1976
b)Environmental Quality Act 1974
c)Urban and Rural Planning Act 1976
d)Local Government Act 1976 and Federal Territory Act
1973.

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a)Road Transport Act 1976 rev. 1987


O An Act to make provision;
for the regulation of motor vehicles and of traffic on roads and

other matters with respect to roads and vehicles thereon;


for the protection of third parties against risks arising out of
the use of motor vehicles
for the co-ordination and control of means of and facilities for
transport;
for the co-ordination and control of means of and facilities for
construction and adaptation of motor vehicles;
for connected purposes.

ENACTED by the Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong


with the advice and consent of the Dewan Negara and Dewan
Rakyat in Parliament assembled, and by the authority.

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Local Authority Parking Notice

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b)Environmental Quality Act 1974


O Environmental Quality Act 1974 came into

force on 1 April 1988. Act relating to the


prevention, abatement, control of pollution,
coordinate all activities relating to discharge
of wastes into the environment and
enhancement of environment quality.

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c) Urban And Rural Planning Act 1976


O An act for the proper control and regulation

of town and country planning in peninsular


Malaysia.
O Local authorities responsible for organizing,
controlling and planning of land use and
building development in the area, the
Structure Plan and Local Plan.

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Local Government Act 1976 And Federal Territory


Act 1973.

O An act to revise and consolidate the laws

relating to local government. Local authority


area, boundaries and status of an area
declared by the state authority.

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History of Development of Roads


a) Early Road (laterite road)
b) Roman Road
c) After Roman Road

d) Modern Road

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a)Early Road (Laterite Road)


After invention of wheel, animal drawn

bullock carts continued to be popular mode


of transport for quiet a long time.
This necessitated providing hard surface for
wheeled carts.
The first hard surface was discovered in
Mesopotamia at about 3500 B.C.

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b)Roman Road
Romans developed very elaborate systems of

roads mainly for the purpose of military


movements.
The main characteristics of Roman roads were
as follows:
They were very thick. In some places the road was

as much as 1.22metres thick.


They were straight
They were usually made for military purposes.
Roads were not built on soft soil formations but
on hard stratum reached after excavation.
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Cross section of Roman Road

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c)After Roman Roads


Pierre Tresaguet
ii. John Metcalf
iii. Thomas Telford
iv. John Macadam
i.

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i.Pierre Tresaguet
O The main characteristics of Tresaguets design were:
O He improved the drainage by the formation of

O
O
O

convex.
Thickness of the road was about 30cm.
Wearing surface are camber.
He also emphasised the need for continuous
maintenance of road to keep it in good shape.
A cross slope of about 1 in 45 was used to be
developed in the road surfaced by adjusting
thickness mainly in top and intermediate layers.

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Cross section of Pierre Tresaguet

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ii.John Metcalf
O The main characteristics of John Metcalfs design

were:
O Drainage is important to maintain strength of road.
O The strength of road depend to the stability of

foundation layer. Used large stone at foundation


layer.

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Cross section of John Metcalf

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iii.Thomas Telford
The main characteristics of Telfords design were:
O Used big sized stones in foundation wearing from 17-22cm to
develop a firm base.
O Provided cross drains under foundation layer to keep the subgrade in dry condition.
O Level sub-grade on embankment or cutting was prepared in
the required width.
O It was essential that each stone of the base course should be
laid perpendicular to the finished surface or subgrade.

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Cross section of Thomas Telford

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iv.John Macadam
The main characteristics of Macadams design were:
O Using entirely new concept of road construction.
O Recognized the importance of sub-grade compaction and drainage.
O Using a broken stone layer of few centimeter thickness can sustain much
heavier load than a thick layer of big size stones.
O Size of the aggregate to be used in wearing course was decided
according to requirements of stability under the effect of vehicles.
O Subgrade was prepared and compacted to the required width of the
road.
O Prepared subgrade was given the same camber, as to be given to the
finished road surface.

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Cross section of John Macadam

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Comparison between Macadam and Telford Roads.


Telford Road

Macadam Road

Roads are costlier.

They were cheaper.

Subgrade was kept horizontal due to which


drainage of subgrade was not proper.

Subgrade was given in 1 in 36 cross slope.


This aspect helped in better subgrade
drainage.

Used larga sized for foundation. Size of stone


varied from 17cm near egdes to 22cm at the
centre of road.

A 5cm was the maximum size of the


aggregate used for foundation layer.

There have four layers namely foundation


layer, two layers of intermediate coat and
4cm thick wearing top layer.

There have three layers which is two layers


each of 13cm compacted thickness as
foundation layers and 5cm thick surfacing
layer.

Total thickness of road structure was about


40cm

Total thickness of road structure was about


25cm.

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History Of Road Laws In Malaysia

Road Transport Department (RTD) had been set up on 1937, under the
Traffic Enactment 1937, British Army Law of Federated Malay States. By
that time, the administration was known as Road Transport Board,
performed its function to control and issue the license of good
transportation vehicles manufacturing and public vehicles. Since the
administration of Tanah Melayu on 1st April 1946, the authority of the
board has been replaced by Register Office and Motorcar Inspection for
the whole Tanah Melayu.

Before 1937, the controlling of motorcars was placed under 4 (four)


Federated Malay States governed by Perak and Selangor District Police,
Chief Inspector of Negeri Sembilan and six (6) District Officer in Pahang.
The controlling was not enforced at Federated Malay States. Apart 4 (four)
states mentioned above, there were 11 (eleven) separated administration
was given the authority of motorized vehicles until Traffic Enactment 1037
was approved.

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Due to launching of the department, a road law which was known as


Road Traffic Ordinance 1958, was approved to replace Traffic
Enactment 1937. Since the duty of enforcing the laws was very
important especially for commercial vehicles, Enforcement
Department had been set up to carry out the function of
enforcement.
On 1st April 1946, Road Transport Department had been set up
purposely to coordinate all aspects related to transportation of the
nationwide. Accordingly to its existence, various acts related to the
roads transportation have been regulated such as Road Traffic
Ordinance 1958 and Road Transport Act 1987. The objectives is to
standardize the nation transportation system increased rapidly in
1980. By each day, RTD getting loaded with its burden of
responsibilities in improving its quality of service.
Therefore, restructuring has been done to improve the efficiency in
order to suit the need and current interests. Since there is existence
of the various functions in every department, the various
innovations have been created to improve the quality of efficiency
in the services. The era of 90's showed the rapid development
because there was quite a high demand in the transportation
system.
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RTD is one of the organization under land department of


Ministry of Transport. It is responsible to cater the counter
services for vehicle and driving license and enforces Road
Transport Act 1987 to ensure the quality of good driver and
the road worthiness vehicle. RTD is also an organization that
directly give its services to public and committed to provide
high quality services, managing its income and enforce the
transportation act transparently and effectively.

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Category of highway in Malaysia


Toll Highway
Federal Road

State Road
Council/city Road
Rural road

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a)Toll highway
O Prepared to continue the path of moving

O
O
O

vehicles in and out of control and involves the


interchange, has two land and one emergency
lane.
Highway maintenance work is under the Federal
Government and implemented by the Malaysia
Highway Authority (LLM)
Have interchanges, especially in the exit path.
Has two to three lanes and one emergency lane.
Rest and reaction facilities, places of refuge for
motorcyclists shelter when it rains, the
emergency phone and other.

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b)Federal Road
O The ordinance is enacted under the Federal Roads.
O Linking the state capital, airport, railway station and

ports.
O There is 3 way:
O Federal Road 1, Kangar JB
O Federal Road 2, KL Kuantan
O Federal Road 3,Kuantan Kota Bahru.
O Federal government is responsible for maintaining
this road.
O Maintenance work done through the State Public
Work Department and paid by the federal
government.
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c)State Road
O Is the branches of the federal route to

connect the cities and towns.


O Work on state maintenance is the duty of
the State Government and implemented by
the State Public Works Department.(PWD)

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d)Council/city Road
O Roads within the jurisdiction of local

authorities such as the Town Council, City


Council, District Council.
O Where is the ability of local council workers
is limited, so maintenance work can be
carried out by PWD District.
O Branch of the state road.

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e)Rural Road
O Road are not paved with gravel if the lower

specification
O Under the jurisdiction of the District Office.
O Road types of land.
O The maintenance work is the responsibility
of the District Office.

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Agencies That Are Involved In Highway And


Roads:
Road and Highway construction

Public Work Department (JKR), Malaysia Highway


Authority(LLM), Town/City/District/Local Council, Highway
Planning Unit,

Road Laws and Acts

Jabatan Alam Sekitar

Traffic

Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan

Transportation

Lembaga Pelesenan Pengangkutan Jalan

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Summary of the function government agencies in road and


transport administration
Function

Department/agency involved

Planning, financing, and control of road


construction

Economic Planning Unit


Highway Planning Unit

Design, construction and maintenance of


roads and highways

Public work Department


Malaysian Highway Authority

Road licensing

Road Transport Department


Commercial Vehicle Licensing Board

Control and enforcement

State Police
Road Transport Department

Road Safety

Road Safety Council

Preservation of environment

Department of Environment.

Town and country planning

Department of town and country planning

Providing
urbanAND
traffic
facilities
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HIGHWAY
TRAFFIC
ENGINEERINGLocal Authorities

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Important/purpose of the
introduction of acts related to roads
O An Act to provide for the safety of Malaysia,

preventive detention, the prevention of


subversion, elimination of organized
violence against persons and property in
certain areas in Malaysia, and for matters
incidental thereto.

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Important of act enforcement aspect related


to roads and road laws
O To change the mentality of road user has

tough and arrogant on the road.


O To reduce the rate of road accidents and
fatalities
O Improvement approaches or methods of
operation.

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Environmental Quality Act 1974


Air
Sound

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