Sie sind auf Seite 1von 14

SOIL

Describe how soil forms.


Explain the characteristics of
soil.
Distinguish between factors
that affect soil development.

The Nature of Soil


What is soil
and where
does it
come
from?

The Nature of Soil

A layer of rocks and minerals covers the


Earths surface.
Weathering breaks down rocks into
smaller and smaller pieces.
These fragments become high quality soil
after plants and animals live in it.
Plants and animals add organic
matter.

Question: What is organic matter?


Leaves,

etc.

twigs, roots, dead worms, insects, and

The Nature of Soil


Soil: A mixture of

weathered rock, decayed


organic matter, mineral
fragments, water and air.

The Nature of Soil

Question: How long can it

take for soil to develop?


Thousands of years

The Nature of Soil

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Factors that can affect soil


formation.
Climate
Slope of land
Types of rock
Types of vegetation
Amount of time rock has weathered.

The Nature of Soil

Composition of soil: Where


does the organic material in
soil come from?
Most

organic material comes


from plants.
Animals and microorganisms
provide additional organic
material.

The Nature of Soil

After plant and animal material gets into


the soil, fungi and bacterial cause it to
decay.
The decayed organic matter turns into
humus.

The Nature of Soil

Horizons: Different layers of


soil.

Soil Profile: All the layers of


soil.

The Nature of Soil

A Horizon: Top layer of soil.


Might be covered with litter.

Litter: Consists of leaves,


twigs, and other organic
material. Eventually changes
to humus by decomposing.

The Nature of Soil

B Horizon: 2nd layer, lighter


in color, contains less humus,
less fertile.

Contains material moved down from A


horizon by the process of leaching.

The Nature of Soil

Leaching: Removal of minerals


that have been dissolved in
water.

The Nature of Soil

C Horizon: Bottom of soil profile.


Consists of partially weathered
rock. Often the thickest layer.
Does not contain much organic
matter.

Question: What would be below the C


Horizon?

Rock

The Nature of Soil

Soil Types Reflect Climate:

Different climates have different soils. Soil


temperatures and moisture affect the
quality of soils.

Question: Which would have more


organic matter; deserts or prairies.
Desert

soils contain little organic


matter and are thinner.
Prairie soils have thick A horizons.