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GERMAN ATV RULES AND STANDARDS

WASTEWATER - WASTE

STANDARD
ATV - A 126E
Principles for Wastewater Treatment in Sewage
Treatment Plants according to the Activated Sludge
Process with Joint Sludge Stabilisation with
Connection Values between 500 and 5.000 Total
Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents
December 1993

ABWASSER ABFALL GEWSSERSCHUTZ


GERMAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE WATER ENVIRONMENT

GERMAN ATV RULES AND STANDARDS


WASTEWATER - WASTE

STANDARD
ATV - A 126E
Principles for Wastewater Treatment in Sewage
Treatment Plants according to the Activated Sludge
Process with Joint Sludge Stabilisation with
Connection Values between 500 and 5.000 Total
Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents
December 1993
ISBN 978-3-934984-15-8

Distribution:
Deutsche Vereinigung fr Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser und Abfall e.V.
Theodor-Heuss-Allee 17 D-53773 Hennef
P.O. Box 11 65 D-53758 Hennef
Tel.: 00 49 22 42 / 8 72-120 Fax: 00 49 22 42 / 8 72-100
E-Mail: vertrieb@atv.de Internet: www.atv-dvwk.de

ATV-A 126E
The ATV Working Group 1.7.4 "Operation and Maintenance of Pumping Stations,
Pressure Pipelines and Stormwater Tank Systems" has prepared the following Standard.
These principles have been prepared by the ATV Specialist Committee 2.10 Small
Sewage Treatment Plants to which the following members belong:
Dipl.-Ing. Albrecht, Essen
Dr.-Ing. Baumgart, Essen
LBDir Bucksteeg, Mnchen
Dipl.-Ing. Grosche, Radebeul
RD Dr. Kollatsch, Halle/S
Dipl.-Ing. Maus, Arnsberg (Chairman)
LBDir Schweizer, Rottweil
LRBDir Tiedke, Minden
Dipl.-Ing. Tuttahs, Bochum
LBDir Voss, Kiel
Dr.-Ing. Zerres, Stuttgart

The Standard presented here has been prepared within the framework
of the ATV committee work, taking into account the ATV Standard A
400 "Principles for the Preparation of Rules and Standards" in the
Rules and Standards Wastewater/Wastes, in the January. 1994
.version. With regard to the application of the Rules and Standards,
Para. 1 of Point 5 of A 400 includes the following statement "The
Rules and Standards are freely available to everyone. An obligation to
apply them can result for reasons of legal regulations, contracts or
other legal grounds. Whosoever applies them is responsible for the
correct application in specific cases. Through the application of the
Rules and Standards no one avoids responsibility for his own actions.
However, for the user, prima facie evidence shows that he has taken
the necessary care.

All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of
this Standard may be reproduced in any form by photocopy, microfilm or any other
process or transferred or translated into a language usable in machines, in particular
data processing machines, without the written approval of the publisher.

Gesellschaft zur Frderung der Abwassertechnik e.V. (GFA), Hennef 1993

Produced by: Rheinischer Landwirtschafts-Verlag G.m.b.H., Bonn

December 1993

ATV-A 126E

Contents
Preface ..................................................................................................................................................

Area of Application ................................................................................................................

Processes ...............................................................................................................................

3
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.2
3.2.1
3.3
3.4

Dimensioning..........................................................................................................................
Loading Values.........................................................................................................................
Wastewater Inflow ....................................................................................................................
Water Pollution .........................................................................................................................
Sludge Yield .............................................................................................................................
Activated Sludge Section .........................................................................................................
Aeration Tanks .........................................................................................................................
Secondary Sedimentation ........................................................................................................
Sludge Storage Reservoir ........................................................................................................

7
7
7
8
8
8
9
11
14

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

Construction Principles.........................................................................................................
General.....................................................................................................................................
Primary Pumping Stations........................................................................................................
Flow Measurement...................................................................................................................
Stormwater Treatment .............................................................................................................
Mechanical Pre-treatment ........................................................................................................
Screens, Sieves .......................................................................................................................
Grit Chamber............................................................................................................................
Grease Trap .............................................................................................................................
Aeration Tanks .........................................................................................................................
Secondary Sedimentation Tanks .............................................................................................
Operational Building and Ancillary Works................................................................................
Other Structures for the Safeguarding of Operations ..............................................................

14
14
14
15
15
16
16
16
16
17
17
18
18

5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Sludge Treatment and Disposal ...........................................................................................


Sludge Yield .............................................................................................................................
Sludge Consistency and Dewatering Capability ......................................................................
Sludge Storage.........................................................................................................................
Sludge Dewatering ...................................................................................................................

18
18
19
19
20

Operation ................................................................................................................................

20

Symbols...................................................................................................................................

21

December 1993

ATV-A 126E

Preface
The ATV Specialist Committee 2.10, from the start of its work and now for over two
decades, has followed the development and the practical application of activated sludge
plants with joint sludge stabilisation.
With the introduction of Appendix 1 of the General Basic Administrative Regulations on
the Minimum Requirements for the Discharge of Wastewater into Lakes and Rivers, the
classification sizes of sewage treatment plants were regraded and the respectively
associated minimum requirements were again tightened. ATV Standards A 126 and A
131 must therefore be revised and newly matched to each other for limitations. Thus, the
limit of the area of application was reduced from the previous 10,000 to 5,000 total
number of inhabitants and population equivalents (IPE).
ATV Specialist Committee 2.6 has thoroughly reworked ATV Standard A 131
Dimensioning of Single-Stage Activated Sludge Plants with More Than 5000 Total
Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents with regard to deliberate nitrogen and
phosphorus removal. The new version of this Standard was published in February 1991.
The new version of ATV Standard A 126 presented here Principles for Wastewater
Treatment in Sewage Treatment Plants According to the Activated Sludge Process with
Joint Sludge Stabilisation with Connection Values between 500 and 5000 Total Number
of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents takes into account, above all in comparison
with the area of application of ATV Standard A 131, different minimum requirements for
plants of expansion sizes < 5000 IPE and the resultant process-technical concept.
The following, essential aspects mark this Standard:
-

ATV Standard 126 regulates dimensioning, construction and operation of the


complete sewage treatment plant. The regulations are kept deliberately simple and
clear.

As small sewage treatment plants are fundamentally more operationally sensitive


than large plants due to larger variations in loading and less staff, simple
constructional design and robust mechanical and electrical equipment and simple
operation have priority over precise process technology.

Nitrogen removal is not generally demanded with sewage treatment plants < 5000
IPE. The run-offs of small sewage treatment plants contribute in sum to a minor
degree only to the nitrogen loading of lakes and rivers. However, the operational
advantage of denitrification should be used for the stabilisation of the treatment
process and for the reduction of the wastewater discharge. This statement does not
contradict the requirement, in individual cases, for specific (thoroughly optimised)
nitrogen removal from pollution control areas.

Without a thoroughly optimised denitrification a dimensioning parameter for the


sludge loading corresponding with the previous dimensioning recommendations of
BDS = 0.05 kg/(kg.d), in deviation to that of ATV Standard A 131, can remain retained
in ATV Standard A 126. Operationally desired denitrification takes place with sewage
treatment plants < 5000 IPE, with regard to the requirement for simplicity in
constructional design, equipment and operation, for practical reasons simultaneously.
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ATV-A 126E
If, in individual cases, a thoroughly optimised denitrification is necessary then the
dimensioning principles of ATV Standard A 131 can be applied.
-

Small sewage treatment plants are, in the main, newly constructed in comparison
with the large ones for which mainly inventory expansion and rehabilitation are fitting.
In the future, even more than the average number of plants of small development
size will be built, in particular for the improvement of wastewater treatment in rural
areas as, inter alia, a balanced water management, the ecological retention of small
flowing waters or economic reasons support this. Statistic data evaluations can - as
proposed in ATV Standard A 131 - often not be furnished for the design of small
sewage treatment plants. The initial loads and the development values must then be
determined via formulations from experience. Thus the application of simple
dimensioning rules can also be practical.

With small sewage treatment plants, which are dimensioned, constructed and operated
according to the recommendations of this Standard, discharge values which meet the
current requirements of sewage treatment plant size classifications 1 and 2 according to
Appendix 1 of the Basic Wastewater Administrative Regulations (Rahmen-AbwVwV) can
be met with careful operation. The practice oriented determinations should here serve so
that defective cheap solutions are avoided equally as exaggerated, luxury solutions;
rather, the bandwidth for water quality managerially necessary, technically practical and
economically suitable planning, construction and operation should be shown.
The November 1987 Edition of ATV Standard A 126 is replaced with the publication of
this Standard.

1 Area of Application
This Standard applies for the planning, construction and operation of sewage treatment
plants according to the activated sludge process with joint sludge stabilisation with
connection values between 500 and 5000 total number of inhabitants and population
equivalents (IPE).
The given area of application of between 500 and 5000 IPE does not represent the
respective upper and lower application limit for this process. Activated sludge plants with
joint sludge stabilisation can also be suitable for connection values over 5000 IPE. The
lower limit of the area of application of 500 IPE is derived from the fact that, as a rule,
small plants cannot be fed with stormwater.
The following summary gives an overview of the standard specifications and regulations
in which stipulations are made for activated sludge plants with joint sludge stabilisation
for connection values outside those applicable for ATV Standard A 126.
ATV Standard A 131
Dimensioning of Single-Stage Activated Sludge Plants with Connection Values over 5000
Total Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents.

December 1993

ATV-A 126E
ATV Standard A 122
Principles for the Dimensioning, Construction and Operation of Small Sewage Treatment
Plants with Aerobic Biological Treatment Stage for Connection Values between 50 and
500 Total Number of Inhabitants and Population Equivalents.
DIN 4261, Part 2/Part 4
Small Sewage Treatment Plants with Wastewater Aeration - Application, Dimensioning,
Execution and Test/Operation and Maintenance (Area of application up to 8 m3/d
domestic and industrial wastewater inflow; this corresponds to a connection value up to
some 50 inhabitants)
In addition the following standard specifications and regulations are still to be applied in
certain cases of application:
ATV Standard A 109
Standards for the Connection of Autobahn Facilities to Sewage Treatment Plants
ATV Standard A 123
Treatment and Disposal of Sludge from Small Sewage Treatment Plants
ATV Standard A 129
Wastewater Disposal from Recreational and Tourist Installations
DIN 19520
Wastewater from Hospitals, Standards for Treatment
In addition attention is drawn to:
DIN 19569
Wastewater treatment plants Principles for the design of structures technical
equipment

2 Processes
The activated sludge process with joint sludge stabilisation is characterised in that the
sludge loading in the aeration tanks is low and a sludge digestion can be dispensed with.
From this there results:
-

a good treatment performance,


as very low BOD5 and COD run-off values are achieved;

a large loading margin,


as the loading variations, which are typical with small connection values, are picked
up in the large volume aeration tanks;
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ATV-A 126E
-

a high operational safety,


as large buffer capacities as well as simplicity of process and the operation of the
overall plant confer a high degree of operational safety and process stability;

a simple stabilisation of the sludge,


as there is no primary sedimentation tank, there is therefore no resultant raw sludge
to be treated and the surplus sludge removed from the aeration tanks is extensively
stabilised under aerobic conditions;

possibilities for a reduction of nutrients,


as the ammonium compounds are nitrified and denitrification is also possible through
control or limitation of the oxygen addition. Simultaneous precipitation can be
employed for phosphorus elimination.

Due to these characteristics activated sludge plants with joint sludge stabilisation offer
favourable preconditions for the treatment of wastewater from small communities,
localities and settlements. Operational difficulties such as the formation of bulking and
floating sludge cannot, even with these plants, be completely excluded. These can
appear in particular if commercial or industrial dischargers significantly influence the raw
wastewater or cause large surge loads.

3 Dimensioning
3.1

Loading Values

3.1.1 Wastewater Inflow


If with sewage treatment plants of this size, in particular in the lower range, statistically
assessable data on the amount of wastewater and its development are not available the
following is to be assumed for residential areas:
QD = 0.004 l/s per inhabitant, corresponding to 0.144 m3/h per inhabitant.
The portion of wastewater from commerce for local disposal is included in this inflow.
Sewer infiltration water is to be taken into account separately according to local
conditions. The maximum dry weather inflow from communities with commerce and
industry to cover the outside requirement is to be calculated in individual cases and is:
Qdw = QDI + Qi

in m3/h

QDI = QD + QC + QI

in m3/h

The combined sewage flow that must be treated in a plant can is calculated as:
Qcs = nQDI + Qi

in m3/h

As a rule for dimensioning purposes n = 2.


Qcs = 2QDI + Qi

in m3/h
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ATV-A 126E
The dimensioning of stormwater tanks with a direct discharge into the sewage treatment
plant is to be matched with the QD value relevant for the dimensioning of the sewage
treatment plant.
3.1.2 Water Pollution
The following inhabitant related loads are to be assumed for dimensioning:
BOD5
COD
Filterable substances (DSo)
TKN
P

= 60 g/d*)
= 120 g/d
= 70 g/d
= 11 g/d
= 2.5 g/d

The loads from supernatant liquor from gravity thickeners are included in the above load
details. BOD5 and nutrient loads from commercial and industrial concerns which cover
the outside requirement are to be determined in individual cases.
3.1.3 Sludge Yield
From experience an excess sludge yield of 1.0 kg/kg, referred to the degraded BOD5,
can be taken as a basis with domestic wastewater.
With normal degradation of the organic pollutants fed in the disposable sludge yield of:
-

not thickened (ca. 1.0 % DSM) ca. 5 l/(PEd);


pre-thickened (ca. 2.5 % DSM) ca. 2 l/(PEd);
stored (ca. 5.0 % DSM) ca. 1 l/PEd).

With simultaneous treatment of stormwater the above DSM (dried solid matter) values
increase by up to 20 %; however, as a rule, the given specific sludge yields remain the
same due to the better thickening through the additional mineral contents from the
surface water inflow.
In cases in which a deliberate P-elimination is also demanded with sewage treatment
plants of this area of application, simultaneous precipitation is applied. If the Sludge
Volume Index reduces through this then a higher dry solids content can be set. The
absolute quantity of organic dry solids in activated sludge then remains almost even.
Thus also no changes result for the sludge volumes. The dry mass of the sludge
increases according to the precipitant applied.

*) Only this value is included in the dimensioning procedure

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ATV-A 126E
3.2

Activated Sludge Section

3.2.1 Aeration Tanks

VAT =

B d,BOD5

in m3

B DS DS AT

or
VAT =

B d,BOD5

in m3

B V,BOD5

in kg/(m3 d)

as BV,BOD5 = BDS DSAT

The following is to be applied for the determination of the volumetric content for the
treatment of wastewater with sludge stabilisation:
BOD5 sludge loading
BDS 0.05 kg/(kgd)
This corresponds to a sludge age
tDS 20 d
with a surplus sludge production
SSB ~ 1 kg DSM/kg BOD5
With this dimensioning the sludge can be extensively aerobically stabilised and the
ammonia nitrogen nitrified over a large part of the year. With appropriate operation a
partial denitrification is possible.
With deliberate denitrification (dimensioning in accordance with ATV Standard A 131), a
sludge age of tDS = 25 days results.
According to practical experiences, depending on the sludge index, the following dry
substance contents and volumetric loading can be assumed:
Wastewater
containing

SVI
ml/g

BDS,BOD5
kg/kgd

DSAT
kg/m3

BV,BOD5
kg/m3d

small organiccommercial part

75 - 100

0.05

0.25

high organiccommercial part

100 - 150

0.05

0.20

high and extremely


fluctuating organic
commercial part

150 - 200

0.50

0.15

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ATV-A 126E
The dimensioning values are not altered (see Sect. 3.1.3) with the application of
precipitant for P-elimination.
3.2.2

Aeration Installations

The necessary oxygen transfer capacity in wastewater is:


OC =

OL B d,BOD5
24

in kg/h

Oxygen load OL 3.0 kg/kg


Hence
OC =

B d,BOD5
24

= 0.125 B d,BOD5

in kg/h

This value, with normal communal wastewater, covers the oxygen consumption by
micro-organisms for carbon and nitrogen oxidation purposes as, as a rule, the ratio
TKN:BOD5 ~ 1:5. As 4.6 grams of oxygen per gram of ammonia nitrogen is used for the
complete nitrogen oxidation, oxygen shortage can occur if the ratio TKN:BOD5 rises to
levels above 1:3.5 (e.g. due to such industries as, inter alia, slaughterhouses). In such a
case it is advisable to verify the additional oxygen demand for the nitrogen oxidation. If
inflows of digested sewage are to be expected, an additional 2 mg/l of oxygen per 1 mg/l
of hydrogen sulphide for oxidation. If the method of intermittent aeration is selected for
denitrification this is to be taken into consideration with the design and selection of the
aeration system. The increase in capacities should take place corresponding with the
duration of the off-times (increase of the oxygen loading value).
If the oxygen supply capacity in clear water under standard conditions is quoted, this
figure must be higher by a factor of 1/ than the calculated necessary oxygen supply
capacity in wastewater (oxygen transfer correction factor = 0.5 - 0.9 depending on the
type of aeration installation). In practice the following design values for oxygen yield
and/or oxygen transfer in sewage have proven their value, and they should only be
deviated from in very special cases:
Surface Aerator
Oxygen yield OCN = 1.0 - 1.6

kg/kWh

Required motor output

N=

OC
OC N

kW

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ATV-A 126E
Fine-Bubble Diffused Air Aeration
The air volume flow QA which is needed to achieve the required oxygen transfer capacity
in wastewater (OC), calculated dependant on the depth of air introduction hE is:
QA =

OC
fO2 hE

in m3/h

Specific oxygen utilisation


-

without separate recirculation fO2 = 8 10 g/m 3 per m of depth of air introduction

with separate recirculation

fO2 = 12 15 g/m 3 per m of depth of air introduction

Plug-flow aerators are calculated for an airflow of maximum 10 Nm3/(h.m). With a


minimum admission of 3 Nm3/(hm) a control range of 3:1 results. Larger control ranges
must be covered by switching in and out aerator pipe trains.
Manufacturer's details are to be taken for the calculation of point aerators. Here attention
is to be paid that the reduction of the specific oxygen transfer compared with pure water
transfer performance is taken into account.
A value of VA ~ 15 m/s should be applied for the air velocity in the pipelines.
The power density of the circulation installations with separate circulation, referred to the
tank volume can, under favourable conditions, be under 2 Watt/m3.
In practice, depending on the shape and volume of the tank, the sludge content, and the
circulation system, values between 3 and 8 Watts/m3 result.
Guaranteed values for both the oxygen transfer capability, the energy absorption and
also the minimum flow rate at the tank bottom should be given by the manufacturer. It
these deviate from the values already verified in practice then verification on the finished
structure is recommended.
3.3

Secondary Sedimentation

From a process technology point of view, secondary sedimentation and aeration are to
be considered as a unit. It follows from the dimensioning regulations that the dry solids
content of the aeration tank and the sludge volume index determine the size of the
secondary sedimentation tank. Savings with the aeration tank volumes, which are to be
balanced only by higher dry substance contents for the balance of the permitted sludge
loading, lead to larger secondary sedimentation tanks.
The hydraulic feeding and the with this achievable thickening of the return sludge are
relevant for the dimensioning.
Therefore, in any case, the highest inflow independent of dry or rainy weather, is to be
applied. The maximum surface feeding results as:

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ATV-A 126E
qA =

qSV
DS AT SVI

in m/h

The maximum sludge volume feed qsv is


-

for hopper-bottom tanks

600 l/(m2 h)

for circular tanks with scrapers

450 l/(m2 h)

The required tank surface can be calculated as follows:


A SS =

Q dw
qA

or

Qcs
qA

in m2

The necessary tank depths are:


-

for hopper-bottom tanks


(Fig. 1)

for circular tanks


with scraper
(Fig. 2)

hf = n . rSS
hc 1/3 hf
with wastewater treatment
hc 2.0 m
with combined wastewater treatment
hc 3.0 m
hi 1.2 hc
htot 4.0 m
hmin 3.5 m

Alternatively a secondary sedimentation tank dimensioning in accordance with ATV


Standard A 131 is permitted.
The weir crest feed rate with maximum inflow may not exceed the value of 10 m3/(mh).
For technical construction and economic reasons hopper-bottom tanks are made with
diameters up to about 10 - 12 m. Above this circular tanks with scrapers are used: the
diameter of the central structure should be 1/5 to 1/6 of the diameter of the relevant
dimensioning surface.
The transfer flow of the return sludge pumps is to be so designed that the return ratio
RV is, in general, 100 %, with Sludge Index values 120 mg/l up to 150 %, referred to
the dry weather inflow Qdw. The return sludge feed must be controllable.

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ATV-A 126E

Fig. 1:

Hopper-bottom tank

Fig. 2

Circulator tank with scraper

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ATV-A 126E
3.4

Sludge Storage Reservoir

Storage space for the following storage periods should, as far as possible, be made
available for the anticipated surplus sludge quantities:
with disposal ensured throughout the year
with agricultural utilisation to bridge a vegetation period or the winter

1 month
6 months

4 Construction Principles
4.1

General

As is general with sewage treatment plants a safe, extensively fault-free and simple
operation is to be sought with the planning and construction of small sewage treatment
plants, with which the maintenance tasks are kept to a minimum. With small sewage
treatment plants therefore attention is to be paid particularly to the fact that a wastewater
technician cannot be permanently present. The desired simple and robust design will
therefore, as a rule, be adopted in the lower range. Even with small sewage treatment
plants the use of instrumentation and control techniques will increase. Installations
offered today are cheaper, operationally safer and require less maintenance than
previously. They make it possible to integrate these plants into a broad control and
monitoring system.
4.2

Primary Pumping Stations

Small wastewater inflows with considerable fluctuations must be dealt with by small
sewage treatment plants and their pumping stations. When designing the pumps account
is to be taken that the daily peaks with dry weather inflow, referred to the daily average,
are clearly higher than with larger plants. Storage space should be available to balance
the inflow variations. The volume of the inflow sewer can also be used as security.
Due to the small inflows often one pump would be sufficient to convey the total inflow.
However, with the necessarily smaller machinery the solid matter carried by the
wastewater leads clearly more frequently to blockages than with pumping equipment for
larger plants. These possible operational faults and the necessary maintenance and
repair tasks in any case require suitable installations and a reserve pump of the same
size. Operational safety takes precedence over cost and energy saving.
Archimedean screws are used for pressureless raising of wastewater in open flumes.
With this even small dry weather inflows can be conveyed economically as their
efficiency only deteriorates significantly at less than 30 % of rated output. A special
advantage of Archimedean screw pumps is the fact that intermittent charging of the
treatment plant can be avoided.
When centrifugal pumps are used in pumping stations the units are more reliable and
easier to maintain if a dry-well installation method is used. As a more sophisticated
structure is necessary for them small treatment plants often have to rely on submersible

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ATV-A 126E
pumps. Pumping stations with submersible pumps should, however, only be installed if
there are clear construction costs advantages.
It may be sensible to use pneumatic pumping stations as primary pumping stations for
sewage treatment plants if one has to pump over great distances. Odour and concrete
corrosion problems due to digested sewage and the resultant development of hydrogen
sulphide are avoided due to the specific mode of operation of pneumatic pumps with a
switchable blown stage. Due to the generally worse efficiency one must frequently
reckon with significantly higher electricity costs than with centrifugal pumps. With
conveyance using centrifugal pumps the odour and concrete corrosion problems are
manageable if the pressure line is temporarily charged with compressed air or ends in a
ventilated degassing shaft. The extracted exhaust air can be directed into the aeration
tank when using compressed air aeration, otherwise via a compost filter.
4.3

Flow Measurement

Sewage treatment plants within this scope of application are to be fitted with a flow
measurement device. It may be of a simple design and should also be suitable for the
measurement of small inflows. Siting of the measurement devices in the outlet brings
advantages also due to the reduced danger of blockages. A secure access to the
metering point must be guaranteed. Further information on the design and locating of
measurement devices is to be taken from DIN 19559.
4.4

Stormwater Treatment

Both combined and separate sewerage systems are also employed for stormwater
treatment in small catchment areas. The siting of stormwater tanks within the area of the
sewage treatment plant is, from the operational point of view, the most favourable. In this
case they should be so designed that, with operating faults, they can also serve as
collection tanks.
Due to the small inflows which can be accepted by sewage treatment plants in the lower
range the control of the emptying of stormwater tanks and the danger of blockage of the
small pipe cross-sections is a problem; the smaller the emptying quantity is, the more
uncertain is the control.
The throttle devices without outside energy which are available function according to
different procedures. To be sought is a possibility for direct, smooth matching on site.
The emptying gradient (base height difference) should be as small as possible; deposits
may not occur either before or after the throttle device.
Emptying via either pumps installed in the tank or via the primary pumping station has
shown itself to be advantageous. However, with centrifugal pumps the dependence
between conveyance height (markedly different filling level in the stormwater tank or
suction space) and conveyance stream is to be taken into account and, under certain
circumstances, balanced using an appropriate control technique.

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ATV-A 126E
4.5

Mechanical Pre-treatment

4.5.1 Screens, Sieves

For small plants one cannot do without automatically cleared screens/sieves as a


protective device to remove floating solids and textile materials. Fundamentally, a
hydraulic verification is necessary for the selected device.
The accrued screenings/sievings must, in any case, be removed from the wastewater.
Depositing in closable containers has proved effective. A comminution and return into the
wastewater flow must not, in any case, occur. The installation of a press and dewatering
facility with disposal into a container or conveyance in a bagging installation, also the
washing of sievings, can prove useful.
Screens are employed with aperture widths of from 6 to 20 mm. With the larger aperture
widths operational problems can occur with advanced wastewater and sludge treatment
as well as with the agricultural utilisation of sewage sludge due to clogging and
blockages. With the smaller aperture widths and with sieves the amount of
screenings/sievings rises with increasing proportion of faeces, which can make disposal
more difficult.
At screens or sieves which cannot be overflowed an emergency overflow with a simple, if
required overflowable, manually cleanable rack screen (spaces up to approx. 100 mm) is
necessary in order to prevent a back-up in the sewer network and an overflow of the
channels with a failure of the automatic clearance device.
Screen/sieve installations are fundamentally, for reasons of frost protection and to
protect against the development of odours, small animals, birds, container back-up due
to rain and generally for the establishment of better working conditions, to be provided
with a superstructure. Care is to be taken for sufficient ventilation.
4.5.2 Grit Chamber

Ventilated grit chambers should be employed in the upper application range. Circular grit
chambers represent a suitable solution for plants of the lower application range and as
an alternative primarily with tight conditions. Sludge deposits can be partially reduced,
using a lightly bubbling aeration or through a stirrer to even out the circular water
movements. With an aerated grit chamber and with a circular grit chamber the sand is
cleared by means of a mammoth pump or submerged wastewater pump.
A sand grader can be an advantage for better separation of mineral and organic particles
for sewage treatment plants of the upper range with aerated grit chambers and circular
grit chambers.
4.5.3 Grease Trap

Many operational problems with floating solids on aeration and secondary sedimentation
tanks can be avoided by installing a grease trap. This also offers the advantage with
accidents involving oil of drawing off the oil at a suitable point before entry into the

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ATV-A 126E
aeration tank. With an aerated grit chamber or circular grit chamber normally the grease
trap is combined constructionally with these.
4.6

Aeration Tanks

The activated sludge stage is operated without primary treatment. Tank shape and
aeration system are to be so selected that sludge depositing does not occur.
Compact construction methods are frequently offered which combine the activated
sludge stage and the secondary sedimentation, in particular with small sewage treatment
plants. Here, attention is to be paid that the locally conditioned peculiarities in the inflow
conditions are taken sufficiently into account with the design of individual plant
components. A dispersed construction method offers the opportunity to design individual
plant components as required. With compact construction methods this is to be verified
in individual cases. With balanced tailoring to the local situation and the construction site
conditions, and taking into account all necessary ancillary equipment, the dispersed
construction method need not be more expensive than a compact plant. The smaller tank
volumes make the increased employment of prefabricated construction elements,
particularly with concrete and other basic construction elements, more easy.
Oxygen transfer and water circulation systems determine the constructional shape of an
aeration tank. It is important both for tanks and power units to be matched to one another
as well as to save energy with a simple and effective oxygen regulation. Aeration takes
place via pipe, point, disc and plate aerators. Additional power units for the circulation
make an intermittent operation of the oxygen transfer installation; thus the denitrification
is encouraged. However, with this the stabilisation is fundamentally to be ensured.
As a rule newly built sewage treatment plants are not fully loaded when taken into
service as a certain provisioning for the future is necessary and normal. The desired
sludge loading can, however, be set and, with staged regulation, the oxygen supply can
be operated with energy saving through appropriate reduction of the sludge content in
the aeration tank.
Aeration and circulation installations must also be removable even with full tanks insofar
as only one tank is available. The aeration installations should be so combined that can
be raised completely from the tank.
4.7

Secondary Sedimentation Tanks

Deep hopper-bottomed tanks with vertical flow are particularly suitable for small sewage
treatment plants as mobile sludge removal facilities are not necessary. The design of the
outflow must be such that an extensively even removal from the top surface can be
achieved. They must be maintenance friendly and accessible for cleaning tasks. Scum
boards or equivalent facilities combined with reliably functioning installations, removable
in winter, are to be provided for the removal of floating sludge. A good degassing of the
inflow to the secondary sedimentation tank encourages the settling effect.
The bottom scraper must be removable from a filled tank insofar as only one tank is
available.

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4.8

Operational Building and Ancillary Works

An operational buildings also necessary in plants in the lower application range. A control
box for low voltage distribution, a store for holding plant specific spare parts with work
bench and working area to perform monitoring functions or set up in-house monitoring,
and sanitary facilities are to be planned as minimum equipment required. Attention is to
be paid that there is a sufficient number of wash-down hose connections throughout the
plant. A telephone connection is to be planned.
Even sewage treatment plants of the above area of application must be capable of
approach by heavy vehicles for the removal of sludge or larger repairs. Carriageways
must have a minimum curve radius of 12 m and a minimum width of 3.5 m. Pavements
must be at least 0.6 m wide and must have at least a loosely compacted surface. With
paved paths, slabs must be placed close to one another.
An easily approachable point for the taking of samples is to be constructed within the
area of the run-off from the sewage treatment plant.
4.9

Other Structures for the Safeguarding of Operations

Due to the disproportionate costs it will generally not be possible to avoid completely
interruptions resulting from power failure, by providing reversible power supply or a
stand-by power unit, or to avoid a mechanical breakdown by keeping complete units of
equipment in store. A parallel arrangement of individual process stages can be practical
with plants in the upper area of application. In individual cases consideration must be
given to the question as to what extent by-passes are necessary to deal with emergency
situations. The possibility of providing power using mobile generators is at least also to
be planned. Mechanical installations must not only be easily exchangeable but also are
to be arranged in an easily accessible manner. Fault indicators are to be provided.
Screens/sieves are fundamentally to be provided with cover for protection against frost.
Heating of individual components is, from experience, not sufficient. In areas with long
periods of frost grit chambers should also be included in the cover, at least the sand
discharge device should be protected against freezing up. Centrifugal aerators must be
protected against becoming out of balance due to freezing spray with the aid of a
covering. Roller type aerators can have a heated cover. Aeration tanks with compressed
air aeration are, as a rule, less endangered by frost. The same applies with secondary
sedimentation for hopper tanks as they penetrate deep into the ground. In open sludge
silos the circulation facility is to be operated more when there is a danger of frost.

5 Sludge Treatment and Disposal


5.1

Sludge Yield

In activated sludge plants with joint sludge stabilisation sludge occurs only as surplus
sludge. In special cases such as, for example, in places with erosion endangered outer
areas or heavy traffic loading due to agricultural vehicles, considerable increments may
also have to be applied, even with grit chambers that function well, to the values given in
Sect. 3.1.3 due to the washing away of the finest mineral components with the surface
water. In sewage treatment plants with additional phosphorus elimination using
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simultaneous precipitation the solids load increases in comparison with the pure
biological operation.
5.2

Sludge Consistency and Dewatering Capability

Aerobic stabilised sludge thickens less readily in comparison with digested sludge.
Various organic substances are not, or only with difficulty, amenable to aerobic
degradation. Therefore, with a longer storage of aerobic stabilised sludge in sludge sites,
a post-precipitation occurs under anaerobic conditions. Consequently the dewatering
behaviour of the aerobic stabilised sludge is considerably improved. A storage of more
than two years is advantageous. Subsequently the sludge can be well dewatered
mechanically.
A floating sludge layer can form in the sludge silo, particularly in the warm season, which
prevents the separation of the supernatant liquor. With sludge from stabilisation plants
which, except with lower temperatures, extensively nitrify, the formation of floating sludge
is considerably encouraged by the buoyancy effect of gaseous nitrogen which forms due
to the denitrification which occurs in the silo. This process can be reduced or prevented
by previous denitrification in the wastewater treatment part of the sewage treatment plant
or with additional stirrers and circulating devices in the silo.
The dewatering capability is often better if the sludge indicates a high proportion of
mineral components. However, a too heavy sludge can, even after a short storage time,
become so solidified that it can only be kept in a transportable condition by increased
circulation. For this a robust, transportable vortex impeller type submersible pump or a
high performance agitator is practicable. It is recommended that silo installations are so
equipped with flushing connections that critical pipelines can be cleaned. Suitable pumps
(e.g. eccentric screw pumps) must be provided as sludge transportation power units.
The content of hazardous substances in surplus sludge from domestic wastewater is, as
a rule, insignificant so that, from this point of view, an agricultural utilisation is possible. In
soft water areas or supply networks with varying drinking water properties, one has to
reckon with high zinc and copper levels. In addition increased contents of hazardous
substances in sludges can, as a rule, be traced back to commercial users of sewers.
Even if such discharges meet the requirements of the state of technology ,with a
substantial commercial wastewater component, the content of hazardous substances in
sewage sludge can be excessive. Insofar as the levels cannot be adequately reduced
through extensive requirements on the user of the sewer other disposal methods are to
be sought. Regular sewage sludge examinations can give information about unhealthy
conditions in the catchment area.
5.3

Sludge Storage

Sludge silos in which the sludge still thickens due to gravity serve as intermediate
storage for surplus sludge. Height adjustable installations for the removal of separated
sludge liquor are to be provided. Circulation devices should have a power density of
from 30 - 70 Watt/m3 according to container size and sludge properties.
Dependant on the case it is sensible to divide the required storage capacity between at
least two storage units. With this it can also be avoided that long-term stored and newly
yielded surplus sludge mix together. Furthermore, with mobile dewatering with several
storage tanks, the filtrate water yielded can be collected in order to dose it to the plant.
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With closed sludge silos attention is to be paid to digester gas which forms. In some
cases measures to protect against explosions are necessary. Odour nuisances can also
come from open sludge basins which, for example, can be prevented by additional water
impoundment.
5.4

Sludge Dewatering

If wet sludge cannot be utilised in agriculture, as a rule, mechanical dewatering is


necessary. The choice of the dewatering process depends ion the requirements of
sewage sludge disposal. If the sludge has to be stored in a dump the necessary
properties for this in accordance with the rules of the dump operator are to be achieved.
With the dimensioning of the wastewater treatment stage the treatment of the yielded
filtrate water must also be taken into account in all cases as it does not occur
continuously, despite the selection of the smallest dewatering unit, due to the inherent
over-capacity of this installation. This applies particularly when sludge is dewatered in
mobile dewatering facilities at long intervals and the filtrate water is yielded in surges in
large quantities. In order not to load non-adapted activated sludge in surges in this way,
possibilities for intermediate storage and dosed input into the aeration tank are to be
provided.
Should sludge be transported to a large sewage treatment plant for further treatment
then technical feasibility and costs of a preliminary dewatering, e.g. using a centrifuge,
can be investigated.
For plants in the lower design capacity natural dewatering of sludge on sufficiently
dimensioned drying sites can certainly also be taken into consideration.

6 Operation
Sewage treatment plants require a regular, working daily monitoring and maintenance.
This requires appropriately trained sewage treatment plant personnel who observe the
individual operational processes and, if required, intervene. The treatment performance
must be checked regularly through in-house examinations. Holiday and illness deputation
must be ensured.
Practical experience has shown that, with a sewage treatment plant with a design
capacity of 5000 IPE without ancillary plants (e.g. pumping stations or stormwater tanks
in the sewer network) some eight hours per working day are to estimated for operation,
maintenance and in-house monitoring. For plants of the upper area of application one
full-time member of staff and at least a number of hours from an additional assistant are
necessary for this. With sewage treatment plants at the lower limit of the area of
application one has to reckon with an average working daily time requirement of three
hours.
Plants must be so designed that, independent of the design capacity, routine tasks can
be completed by one man in two hours per day. The additional working time is then
available for larger scale maintenance tasks and small repairs. The association of
personnel, in particular between sewage treatment plants of the lower limit of the area of
application to larger neighbouring sewage treatment plants in which trained personnel for
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such tasks are available is recommended. These personnel are then also available if
tasks are to be carried out which require at least two persons, for example for reasons of
accident prevention. Creation and equipping of a laboratory site/laboratory and the scope
of in-house monitoring depend on the relevant regulations of the Federal State and the
local conditions.

7 Symbols
Symbol
English
ADS
ASS
Bd,BOD5
BDS
BV,BOD5

Unit

German
[tTS]

Sludge age

[ANB]

[Bd,BSB5]

kg/d

[BTS]

kg/(kgd)

[BR,BSB5]

Surface of secondary sedimentation tank

kg/(m d)
3

DSAT

[TSBB]

kg/m

DSo

[TSo]

g/d

DSM

[TR]
g/(m m)
[hz]

hE

BOD5 load per day


BOD5 sludge loading
BOD5 volumetric loading
Dry matter content in activated sludge tank
Filterable substances
Dried solid matter

fO2
hc

Designation

Specific oxygen utilisation

Depth of cylindrical top above hopper of hopper-bottomed tank

Depth of air introduction; height of rise of compressed air in the


water

hf

[ht]

Depth of funnel of hopper-bottomed tank

hi

[he]

Depth of inlet in hopper-bottomed tank

Minimum depth of secondary sedimentation tank


Total depth of secondary sedimentation tank

hmin
htot

[hges]

IPE

[EW]

IPE

Inhabitant and population equivalents

kW

Motor output

N
OL

[OB]

kg/kg

Oxygen load, quotient from oxygen transfer capacity-and-BOD5


volumetric loading

OC

kg/h

Oxygen transfer capability in clear water under normal conditions

OCN

kg/kWh

Oxygen yield in clear water

Daily wastewater discharge

[QL]

m /h

Air volume flow

[Qg]

m /h

Commercial wastewater discharge

[Qmz]

m /h

Combined wastewater discharge

[Qh]

m /h

Domestic wastewater discharge

[Qs]

m /h

Domestic and industrial wastewater discharge

[Qt]

m /h

Dry weather discharge

[Qf]

m /h

Sewer infiltration water discharge

[Qi]

Industrial effluent flow rate

Stormwater discharge into the contaminated water sewer of a


separate sewer system

Q
QA
QC
Qcs
QD
QDI
Qdw
Qi
QI
Qr

m /h

m /h
m /h

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Symbol
English

Unit

Designation

German

QSS

[QS]

m3/h

tDS

[tTS]

qA

m/h
2

qSV

l/(m h)

Daily yield of surplus sludge


Schlammalter
Surface loading
Sludge volume feed rate

rSS

[rNB]

SSB

[SB]

kg/kg

Specific surplus sludge production, referred to Bd,BOD5

SVI

[ISV]

ml/g

Sludge Volume Index

TKN
VAT

Radius of secondary sedimentation tank

Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration (ammonia-N and organic N)


[VBB]

Useful capacity of activated sludge tank


Oxygen supply factor

OC

kg/h

OCN

kg/kWh

Oxygen transfer capability in wastewater


Oxygen yield in wastewater

Translators note:
While the main terms remain unchanged as they are recognised internationally, the indices used reflect the
English translation of the individual German parameter. For simplicity and clarity these have been chosen to
match as far as possible the German indices. Where this is not possible the original German symbol is
placed in square brackets after the English version. This procedure is not intended to create new symbols
for the English-speaking engineering community but serves solely to make German symbols/indices
comprehensible to non-German speakers.

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