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of the gear train shown in Fig. P6.26. The bearings

shown allow the shafts to rotate freely.

(a) Determine the torque TD required for equilibrium

of the system.

(b) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid 1.5-in.diameter steel shafts. Determine the magnitude of

the maximum shear stresses acting in each shaft.

(c) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid steel shafts,

which have an allowable shear stress of 12,000 psi.

Determine the minimum diameter required for each

shaft.

Fig. P6.26

Solution

(a) Torque TD required for equilibrium:

10 in.

10 in.

TD = TA

= (525 lb-ft)

= 875 lb-ft

6 in.

6 in.

(b) Shear stress magnitudes if shafts are solid 1.5-in.-diameter:

Ip =

D4 =

32

32

T1 R1 (525 lb-ft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)

1 =

=

= 9,506.85 psi = 9,510 psi

I p1

0.497010 in.4

2 =

=

= 15,844.75 psi = 15,840 psi

0.497010 in.4

I p2

Ans.

Ans.

(c) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in

terms of the unknown diameter D:

TR

=

Ip

Ip

D4

= 32

= D3 =

R

D / 2 16

Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:

16 T1

16(525 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)

D13

=

= 2.673803 in.3

allow

(12, 000 psi)

D1 1.387958 in. = 1.388 in.

D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

= 4.456338 in.3

(12, 000 psi)

Ans.

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D of the gear train shown in Fig. P6.27. The bearings

shown allow the shafts to rotate freely.

(a) Determine the torque TA required for equilibrium

of the system.

(b) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid 30-mmdiameter steel shafts. Determine the magnitude of

the maximum shear stresses acting in each shaft.

(c) Assume shafts (1) and (2) are solid steel shafts,

which have an allowable shear stress of 60 MPa.

Determine the minimum diameter required for each

shaft.

Fig. P6.27

Solution

(a) Torque TA required for equilibrium:

150 mm

150 mm

TA = TD

= (1, 200 N-m)

= 782.609 N-m

230 mm

230 mm

(b) Shear stress magnitudes if shafts are solid 30-mm-diameter:

Ip =

D4 =

32

32

T R (782.609 N-m)(30 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)

1 = 1 1 =

= 147.622 MPa = 147.6 MPa

79,521.564 mm 4

I p1

2 =

=

= 226.354 MPa = 226 MPa

79,521.564 mm 4

I p2

Ans.

Ans.

(c) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in

terms of the unknown diameter D:

TR

=

Ip

Ip

D4

T

= 32

= D3 =

R

D / 2 16

Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:

16 T1

16(782.609 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)

=

= 66, 429.915 mm3

D13

2

allow

(60 N/mm )

D1 40.500 mm = 40.5 mm

D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

= 101,859.164 mm3

2

(60 N/mm )

D2 46.702 mm = 46.702 mm

Ans.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

includes shafts (1) and (2), which are solid 1.375-in.diameter steel shafts. The allowable shear stress of

each shaft is 5,000 psi. The bearings shown allow

the shafts to rotate freely. Determine the maximum

torque TD that can be applied to the system without

exceeding the allowable shear stress in either shaft.

Fig. P6.28

Solution

Section properties:

I p1 =

32

D4 =

32

allow I p1 (5,000 psi)(0.350922 in.4 )

Tmax =

=

= 2,552.16 lb-in.

1.375 in./2

R1

Torque relationship:

T1

T

8 in.

= 2

or T1 = T2

= 1.60 T2

8 in. 5 in.

5 in.

T1 controls

The torque in shaft (1) controls; therefore, T1 = 2,552.16 lb-in. Consequently, the maximum torque in

shaft (2) must be limited to:

5 in.

T2 = T1

= 0.625(2,552.16 lb-in.) = 1,595.10 lb-in. = 132.9 lb-ft

Ans.

8 in.

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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includes shafts (1) and (2), which are solid 20-mmdiameter steel shafts. The allowable shear stress of

each shaft is 30 MPa. The bearings shown allow the

shafts to rotate freely. Determine the maximum

torque TD that can be applied to the system without

exceeding the allowable shear stress in either shaft.

Fig. P6.29

Solution

Section properties:

I p1 =

32

D4 =

32

allow I p1 (30 N/mm 2 )(15,707.963 mm 4 )

Tmax =

=

= 47,123.890 N-mm

20 mm/2

R1

Torque relationship:

T1

T2

=

200 mm 80 mm

or T1 = T2

200 mm

= 2.50 T2

80 mm

T1 controls

The torque in shaft (1) controls; therefore, T1 = 47,123.890 N-mm. Consequently, the maximum torque

in shaft (2) must be limited to:

80 mm

T2 = T1

= 0.4(47,123.890 N-mm) = 18,849.556 N-mm = 18.85 N-m

Ans.

200 mm

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motor applies a 160 lb-ft torque to the gear at A. A

torque of TC = 250 lb-ft is removed from the shaft

at gear C, and the remaining torque is removed at

gear D. Segments (1) and (2) are solid 1.5-in.diameter steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shafts, and the

bearings shown allow free rotation of the shaft.

Determine:

(a) the maximum shear stress in segments (1) and

(2) of the shaft.

(b) the rotation angle of gear D relative to gear B.

Fig. P6.30

Solution

Section properties:

I p1 =

32

D4 =

32

Torque relationship:

TA

T

10 in.

= B

= 2.50 TA = 2.50(160 lb-ft) = 400 lb-ft

hence TB = TA

4 in. 10 in.

4 in.

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 400 lb-ft. A torque of 250 lb-ft is removed from

the shaft at gear C; therefore, TC = 250 lb-ft. The torque in shaft (2) must satisfy equilibrium:

M x = T1 + TC + T2 = 0

T2 = T1 TC = 400 lb-ft 250 lb-ft = 150 lb-ft

To summarize:

T1 = 400 lb-ft

T2 = 150 lb-ft

(a) Maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and (2):

T R (400 lb-ft)(1.5 in./2)(12 in./ft)

1 = 1 1 =

= 7, 243.315 psi = 7, 240 psi

0.497010 in.4

I p1

Ans.

=

= 2, 716.243 psi = 2, 720 psi

0.497010 in.4

I p2

Ans.

2 =

TL

(400 lb-ft)(60 in.)(12 in./ft)

1 = 1 1 =

= 0.048289 rad

G1 I p1 (12, 000, 000 psi)(0.497010 in.4 )

2 =

T2 L2

(150 lb-ft)(40 in.)(12 in./ft)

=

= 0.012072 rad

G2 I p 2 (12, 000, 000 psi)().497010 in.4 )

Note: There is not enough information given to say whether these twist angles are positive or negative.

However, both twist angles will have the same sign.

say B = 0 rad

(since this is our reference)

D = B + 1 + 2

= 0 rad + 0.048289 rad + 0.012072 rad = 0.060361 rad = 0.0604 rad

Ans.

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6.31 In the gear system shown in Fig. P6.31, the motor applies a 300 lb-ft torque to the gear at A. A torque

of TC = 500 lb-ft is removed from the shaft at gear C, and the remaining torque is removed at gear D.

Segments (1) and (2) are solid steel [G = 12,000 ksi] shafts, and the bearings shown allow free rotation of

the shaft.

(a) Determine the minimum permissible

diameters for segments (1) and (2) of the shaft if

the maximum shear stress must not exceed 6,000

psi.

(b) If the same diameter is to be used for both

segments (1) and (2), determine the minimum

permissible diameter that can be used for the

shaft if the maximum shear stress must not

exceed 6,000 psi and the rotation angle of gear D

relative to gear B must not exceed 0.10 rad.

Fig. P6.31

Solution

Torque relationship: The motor applies a torque of 300 lb-ft to gear A. Since gear B is bigger than

gear A, the torque on gear B will be increased in proportion to the gear ratio:

TA

T

10 in.

= B

= 2.50 TA = 2.50(300 lb-ft) = 750 lb-ft

hence TB = TA

4 in. 10 in.

4 in.

Let the positive x axis for shaft BCD extend from gear B toward gear D. In order for shaft BCD to be in

equilibrium with the torques as shown on gears C and D, the torque at B must act in the negative x

direction. Consequently, TB = 750 lb-ft.

Draw a free-body diagram that cuts through shaft (1) and includes gear B. From this FBD, the torque in

shaft (1) is:

M x = 750 lb-ft + T1 = 0

T1 = 750 lb-ft

From the problem statement, we are told that a torque of

500 lb-ft is removed from the shaft at gear C. In other

words, TC = 500 lb-ft. Draw a FBD that cuts through shaft

(2) and includes both gears B and C. From this FBD, the

torque in shaft (2) is:

M x = 750 lb-ft + 500 lb-ft + T2 = 0

T2 = 250 lb-ft

To summarize:

T1 = 750 lb-ft

T2 = 250 lb-ft

(a) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in

terms of the unknown diameter D:

TR

=

Ip

D4

T

32

=

= D3 =

R

D / 2 16

Ip

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permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:

16 T1

16(750 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)

=

= 7.639437 in.3

D13

allow

(6, 000 psi)

D1 1.969490 in. = 1.969 in.

D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

= 2.546479 in.3

(6, 000 psi)

Ans.

(b) The rotation angle of gear D with respect to gear B is equal to the sum of the angles of twist in shaft

segments (1) and (2):

D B = 1 + 2 0.10 rad

Since the same solid steel shaft is to be used for both segments (1) and (2):

TL

TL

1

0.01 rad 1 1 + 2 2 =

[T1 L1 + T2 L2 ]

G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 GI p

or rearranging:

Ip =

32

D4

= 0.5500 in.4

(12, 000, 000 psi)(0.1 rad)

D 1.538 in.

Since the shaft has already been designed for stresses and since the diameter that is required to satisfy

the rotation angle requirement is smaller than D1 determined in part (a), the minimum diameter required

for a constant diameter shaft between gears B and D is:

Dmin = 1.969 in.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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motor applies a torque of 220 N-m to the gear at

A. A torque of TC = 400 N-m is removed from the

shaft at gear C, and the remaining torque is

removed at gear D. Segments (1) and (2) are solid

40-mm-diameter steel [G = 80 GPa] shafts, and

the bearings shown allow free rotation of the

shaft.

(a) Determine the maximum shear stress in

segments (1) and (2) of the shaft.

(b) Determine the rotation angle of gear D

relative to gear B.

Fig. P6.32

Solution

Section properties:

I p1 =

32

D4 =

32

Torque relationship:

TA

TB

=

100 mm 300 mm

hence TB = TA

300 mm

= 3TA = 3(220 N-m) = 660 N-m

100 mm

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 660 N-m. A torque of TC = 400 N-m is removed

from the shaft at gear C. The torque in shaft (2) must satisfy equilibrium:

M x = T1 + TC + T2 = 0

T2 = T1 TC = 660 N-m 400 N-m = 260 N-m

To summarize:

T1 = 660 N-m

T2 = 260 N-m

(a) Maximum shear stress in shafts (1) and (2):

T R (660 N-m)(40 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)

1 = 1 1 =

= 52.521 MPa = 52.5 MPa

251,327.41 mm 4

I p1

2 =

=

= 20.690 MPa = 20.7 MPa

251,327.41 mm 4

I p2

Ans.

Ans.

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TL

(660 N-m)(1.5 m)(1,000 mm/m) 2

1 = 1 1 =

= 0.049239 rad

G1 I p1 (80,000 N/mm 2 )(251,327.41 mm 4 )

T2 L2

(260 N-m)(1.0 m)(1,000 mm/m) 2

2 =

=

= 0.012931 rad

G2 I p 2 (80,000 N/mm 2 )(251,327.41 mm 4 )

Note: There is not enough information given to say whether these twist angles are positive or negative.

However, both twist angles will have the same sign.

say B = 0 rad

D = B + 1 + 2

= 0 rad + 0.049239 rad + 0.012931 rad = 0.062170 rad = 0.0622 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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motor applies a torque of 400 N-m to the gear at

A. A torque of TC = 700 N-m is removed from the

shaft at gear C, and the remaining torque is

removed at gear D. Segments (1) and (2) are solid

steel [G = 80 GPa] shafts, and the bearings shown

allow free rotation of the shaft.

(a) Determine the minimum permissible

diameters for segments (1) and (2) of the shaft if

the maximum shear stress must not exceed 40

MPa.

(b) If the same diameter is to be used for

segments (1) and (2), determine the minimum

permissible diameter that can be used for the

shaft if the maximum shear stress must not

exceed 40 MPa and the rotation angle of gear D

relative to gear B must not exceed 3.0.

Fig. P6.33

Solution

Torque relationship:

TA

TB

=

100 mm 300 mm

hence TB = TA

300 mm

= 3TA = 3(400 N-m) = 1, 200 N-m

100 mm

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 1,200 N-m. A torque of TC = 700 N-m is

removed from the shaft at gear C. The torque in shaft (2) must satisfy equilibrium:

M x = T1 + TC + T2 = 0

T2 = T1 TC = 1, 200 N-m 700 N-m = 500 N-m

To summarize:

T1 = 1, 200 N-m

T2 = 500 N-m

(a) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in

terms of the unknown diameter D:

TR

=

Ip

Ip

D4

= 32

= D3 =

R

D / 2 16

Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:

16 T1

16(1, 200 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)

=

= 152, 788.745 mm3

D13

allow

(40 N/mm 2 )

D1 53.460 mm = 53.5 mm

D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

= 63, 661.977 mm3

2

(40 N/mm )

D2 39.929 mm = 39.9 mm

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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(b) The rotation angle of gear D with respect to gear B is equal to the sum of the angles of twist in shaft

segments (1) and (2):

D B = 1 + 2 (3)( /180) = 0.052360 rad

Since the same solid steel shaft is to be used for both segments (1) and (2):

TL

TL

1

0.052360 rad 1 1 + 2 2 =

[T1 L1 + T2 L2 ]

G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 GI p

or rearranging:

Ip =

32

D4

= 549, 083.270 mm 4

2

(80, 000 N/mm )(0.052360 rad)

D 48.6 mm

Since the shaft has already been designed for stresses and since the diameter that is required to satisfy

the rotation angle requirement is smaller than D1 determined in part (a), the minimum diameter required

for a constant diameter shaft between gears B and D is:

Dmin = 53.5 mm

Ans.

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motor applies a torque of 250 N-m to the gear at A.

Shaft (1) is a solid 35-mm-diameter shaft, and

shaft (2) is a solid 50-mm-diameter shaft. The

bearings shown allow free rotation of the shafts.

(a) Determine the torque TE provided by the gear

system at gear E.

(b) Determine the maximum shear stresses in

shafts (1) and (2).

Fig. P6.34

Solution

(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear B is:

72

TB = TA

= 3TA = 3(250 N-m) = 750 N-m

24

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 750 N-m and TC = 750 N-m. The torque on gear

D is found from:

60

TD = TC

= 2 TC = 2(750 N-m) = 1,500 N-m

30

Shaft (2) has the same torque as gear D; therefore, T2 = 1,500 N-m and

TE = 1,500 N-m

Ans.

To summarize:

T1 = 750 N-m

T2 = 1,500 N-m

I p1 =

I p2 =

32

32

D14 =

D24 =

32

32

(50 mm) 4 = 613,592.32 mm 4

T R (750 N-m)(35 mm/2)(1,000 mm/m)

1 = 1 1 =

= 89.090 MPa = 89.1 MPa

I p1

147,323.51 mm 4

2 =

=

= 61.115 MPa = 61.1 MPa

I p2

613,592.32 mm 4

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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motor applies a torque of 600 N-m to the gear at A.

Shafts (1) and (2) are solid shafts, and the bearings

shown allow free rotation of the shafts.

(a) Determine the torque TE provided by the gear

system at gear E.

(b) If the allowable shear stress in each shaft must

be limited to 50 MPa, determine the minimum

permissible diameter for each shaft.

Fig. P6.35

Solution

(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear B is:

72

TB = TA

= 3TA = 3(600 N-m) = 1,800 N-m

24

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 1,800 N-m and TC = 1,800 N-m. The torque on

gear D is found from:

60

TD = TC

= 2 TC = 2(1,800 N-m) = 3, 600 N-m

30

Shaft (2) has the same torque as gear D; therefore, T2 = 3,600 N-m and

TE = 3, 600 N-m

Ans.

To summarize:

T1 = 1,800 N-m

T2 = 3, 600 N-m

(b) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in

terms of the unknown diameter D:

TR

=

Ip

Ip

D4

= 32

= D3 =

R

D / 2 16

Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:

16 T1

16(1,800 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)

=

= 183,346.494 mm3

D13

2

allow

(50 N/mm )

D1 56.810 mm = 56.8 mm

D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

= 366, 692.989 mm3

2

(50 N/mm )

D2 71.576 mm = 71.6 mm

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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torque of TE = 900 lb-ft is delivered at gear E.

Shafts (1) and (2) are solid shafts, and the bearings

shown allow free rotation of the shafts.

(a) Determine the torque provided by the motor to

gear A.

(b) If the allowable shear stress in each shaft must

be limited to 4,000 psi, determine the minimum

permissible diameter for each shaft.

Fig. P6.36

Solution

(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear E creates a torque in shaft (2) of T2 = 900 lb-ft.

Accordingly, the torque applied to gear D is also equal to 900 lb-ft. The torque on gear C is found with

the gear ratio:

30

TC = TD

= 0.5 TD = 0.5(900 lb-ft) = 450 lb-ft

60

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear C; therefore, T1 = 450 lb-ft and TB = 450 N-m. The torque on gear

A is found from:

24 TC 450 lb-ft

Ans.

TA = TB

=

=

= 150 lb-ft

72 3

3

To summarize:

T1 = 450 lb-ft

T2 = 900 lb-ft

(b) Determine minimum diameters: The elastic torsion formula can be rearranged and rewritten in

terms of the unknown diameter D:

TR

=

Ip

D4

T

32

=

= D3 =

R

D / 2 16

Ip

Using this expression, solve for the minimum acceptable diameter of each shaft:

16 T1

16(450 lb-ft)(12 in./ft)

=

= 6.875494 in.3

D13

allow

(4, 000 psi)

D1 1.9015 in. = 1.902 in.

D23

16 T2

allow

Ans.

= 13.750987 in.3

(4, 000 psi)

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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torque of TE = 720 lb-ft is delivered at gear E.

Shaft (1) is a solid 1.50-in.-diameter shaft, and

shaft (2) is a solid 2.00-in.-diameter shaft. The

bearings shown allow free rotation of the shafts.

(a) Determine the torque provided by the motor to

gear A.

(b) Determine the maximum shear stresses in

shafts (1) and (2).

Fig. P6.37

Solution

(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear E creates a torque in shaft (2) of T2 = 720 lb-ft.

Accordingly, the torque applied to gear D is also equal to 720 lb-ft. The torque on gear C is found with

the gear ratio:

30

TC = TD

= 0.5 TD = 0.5(720 lb-ft) = 360 lb-ft

60

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear C; therefore, T1 = 360 lb-ft and TB = 360 N-m. The torque on gear

A is found from:

24 TC 360 lb-ft

Ans.

TA = TB

=

=

= 120 lb-ft

72 3

3

To summarize:

T1 = 360 lb-ft

T2 = 720 lb-ft

I p1 =

I p2 =

32

32

D14 =

D24 =

32

32

(2.00 in.) 4 = 1.570796 in.4

T R (360 lb-ft)(1.50 in./2)(12 in./ft)

1 = 1 1 =

= 6,519.98 psi = 6,520 psi

I p1

0.497010 in.4

2 =

=

= 5,500.396 psi = 5,500 psi

I p2

1.570796 in.4

Ans.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

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connected by the gears shown in Fig. P6.38. The

shaft lengths are L1 = 300 mm and L2 = 500 mm.

Assume that the shear modulus of both shafts is

G = 80 GPa and that the bearings shown allow

free rotation of the shafts. If the torque applied at

gear D is TD = 160 N-m,

(a) determine the internal torques T1 and T2 in

the two shafts.

(b) determine the angles of twist 1 and 2.

(c) determine the rotation angles B and C of

gears B and C.

(d) determine the rotation angle of gear D.

Fig. P6.38

Solution

(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2)

of T2 = 160 N-m.

M x = TD T2 = 0

T2 = TD = 160 N-m

Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also equal to 160 N-m. The

torque on gear B is found with the gear ratio:

54 teeth

TB = TC

= 1.8 TC = 1.8(160 N-m) = 288 N-m

30 teeth

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 288 N-m. To summarize:

T1 = 288 N-m

T2 = 160 N-m

Ans.

Section properties:

I p1 =

D14 =

32

32

(b) Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):

TL

(288 N-m)(300 mm)(1,000 mm/m)

1 = 1 1 =

= 0.013581 rad

G1 I p1

(80,000 N/mm 2 )(79,521.56 mm 4 )

2 =

T2 L2

(160 N-m)(500 mm)(1,000 mm/m)

=

= 0.012575 rad

G2 I p 2 (80,000 N/mm 2 )(79,521.56 mm 4 )

Ans.

Ans.

(c) Rotation angles of gears B and C: The rotation of gear B is found from the angle of twist in shaft

(1):

1 = B A

B = A + 1 = 0 rad + (0.013581 rad) = 0.01358 rad

Ans.

As gear B rotates, gear C also rotates but it rotates in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the

rotation is dictated by the gear ratio:

54 teeth

54 teeth

C = B

= (0.013581 rad)

= 0.024446 rad = 0.0244 rad

Ans.

30 teeth

30 teeth

The rotation of gear D is found from:

2 = D C D = C + 2 = 0.024446 rad + 0.012575 rad = 0.037021 rad = 0.0370 rad

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

connected by the gears shown in Fig. P6.39. The

shaft lengths are L1 = 6 ft and L2 = 10 ft. Assume

that the shear modulus of both shafts is G =

12,000 ksi and that the bearings shown allow

free rotation of the shafts. If the torque applied at

gear D is TD = 225 lb-ft,

(a) determine the internal torques T1 and T2 in

the two shafts.

(b) determine the angles of twist 1 and 2.

(c) determine the rotation angles B and C of

gears B and C.

(d) determine the rotation angle of gear D.

Fig. P6.39

Solution

(a) Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2)

of T2 = 225 lb-ft.

M x = TD T2 = 0

T2 = TD = 225 lb-ft

Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also equal to 225 lb-ft. The

torque on gear B is found with the gear ratio:

54 teeth

TB = TC

= 1.8 TC = 1.8(225 lb-ft) = 405 lb-ft

30 teeth

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 405 lb-ft. To summarize:

T1 = 405 lb-ft

T2 = 225 lb-ft

Ans.

Section properties:

I p1 =

D14 =

32

32

(b) Angles of twist in shafts (1) and (2):

TL

(405 lb-ft)(6 ft)(12 in./ft)2

1 = 1 1 =

= 0.031669 rad = 0.0317 rad

G1 I p1 (12,000,000 psi)(0.920772 in.4 )

2 =

T2 L2

(225 lb-ft)(10 ft)(12 in./ft) 2

=

= 0.029323 rad = 0.0293 rad

G2 I p 2 (12,000,000 psi)(0.920772 in.4 )

Ans.

Ans.

(c) Rotation angles of gears B and C: The rotation of gear B is found from the twist angle in shaft (1):

1 = B A

B = A + 1 = 0 rad + (0.031669 rad) = 0.0317 rad

Ans.

As gear B rotates, gear C also rotates but it rotates in the opposite direction. The magnitude of the

rotation is dictated by the gear ratio:

54 teeth

54 teeth

C = B

= (0.031669 rad)

= 0.057004 rad = 0.0570 rad

Ans.

30 teeth

30 teeth

The rotation of gear D is found from:

2 = D C D = C + 2 = 0.057004 rad + 0.029323 rad = 0.086327 rad = 0.0863 rad

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

gears shown in Fig. P6.40. The design

requirements for the system require (1) that both

shafts must have the same diameter, (2) that the

maximum shear stress in each shaft must be less

than 6,000 psi, and (3) that the rotation angle of

gear D must not exceed 3. Determine the

minimum required diameter of the shafts if the

torque applied at gear D is TD = 1,000 lb-ft. The

shaft lengths are L1 = 10 ft and L2 = 8 ft.

Assume that the shear modulus of both shafts is

G = 12,000 ksi and that the bearings shown

allow free rotation of the shafts.

Fig. P6.40

Solution

Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2) of

T2 = 1,000 lb-ft.

M x = TD T2 = 0

T2 = TD = 1, 000 lb-ft = 12, 000 lb-in.

Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also 12,000 lb-in. The torque on

gear B is found with the gear ratio:

48 teeth

TB = TC

= 0.6667 TC = 0.6667(12, 000 lb-in.) = 8, 000 lb-in.

72 teeth

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 8,000 lb-in.

Diameters based on allowable shear stresses: The elastic torsion formula gives the relationship

between shear stress and torque in a shaft.

TR

=

Ip

The torques in both shafts have been determined, and the allowable shear stress is specified. Rearrange

the elastic torsion formula, putting the known terms on the right-hand side of the equation:

Ip T

=

R

Express the left-hand side of this equation in terms of the shaft diameter D:

D4

T

32

= D3 =

D / 2 16

16 T1 16(8, 000 lb-in.)

=

= 6.790614 in.3

D13

2

(6, 000 lb/in. )

D1 1.894 in.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

16 T2 16(12, 000 lb-in.)

D23

=

= 10.185916 in.3

(6, 000 lb/in.2 )

D2 2.17 in.

Of these two values, D2 controls. Therefore, both shafts could have a diameter of 2.17 in. or more and

the shear stress constraint would be satisfied.

The angles of twists in shafts (1) and (2) can be expressed as:

TL

TL

1 = 1 1

2 = 2 2

G1 I p1

G2 I p 2

The rotations of gears B and C are related since the arclengths turned by the two gears have the same

magnitude. The gears turn in opposite directions; therefore, a negative sign is introduced.

RCC = RBB

The rotation angle of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1): B = 1. Therefore, the rotation

angle of gear C can be expressed in terms of T1.

R

R

R TL

N TL

C = B B = B 1 = B 1 1 = B 1 1

RC

RC

RC G1 I p1

N C G1 I p1

The rotation angle of gear D is equal to the rotation angle of gear C plus the twist that occurs in shaft

(2):

D = C + 2

and so the rotation angle of gear D can be expressed in terms of the torques T1 and T2:

N TL

TL

D = B 1 1 + 2 2 3

N C G1 I p1 G2 I p 2

Shafts having the same diameters and the same shear moduli are required for this system; therefore, Ip1 =

Ip2 = Ip and G1 = G2 = G. Factor these terms out to obtain:

1 NB

1 NB

T1 L1 + T2 L2 3 I p

T1 L1 + T2 L2

G I p NC

G (3) N C

Express the polar moment of inertia in terms of diameter to obtain the following relationship:

D4

=

32 N B

T1 L1 + T2 L2

G (3) N C

32

48 teeth

= 29.050810 in.4

D 2.32 in.

Since this minimum diameter is greater than the diameter needed to satisfy the shear stress requirements,

the rotation angle constraint controls.

Therefore, the minimum shaft diameter that satisfies all requirements is D 2.32 in.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

gears shown in Fig. P6.41. The design

requirements for the system require (1) that both

shafts must have the same diameter, (2) that the

maximum shear stress in each shaft must be less

than 40 MPa, and (3) that the rotation angle of

gear D must not exceed 3. Determine the

minimum required diameter of the shafts if the

torque applied at gear D is TD = 1,200 N-m. The

shaft lengths are L1 = 2.5 m and L2 = 2.0 m.

Assume that the shear modulus of both shafts is

G = 80 GPa and that the bearings shown allow

free rotation of the shafts.

Fig. P6.41

Solution

Torque relationship: The torque on gear D creates a torque in shaft (2) of

T2 = 1,200 N-m.

M x = TD T2 = 0

T2 = TD = 1, 200 N-m

Accordingly, the torque applied to gear C is also 1,200 N-m. The torque on

gear B is found with the gear ratio:

48 teeth

TB = TC

= 0.6667 TC = 0.6667(1, 200 N-m) = 800 N-m

72 teeth

Shaft (1) has the same torque as gear B; therefore, T1 = 800 N-m.

Diameters based on allowable shear stresses: The elastic torsion formula gives the relationship

between shear stress and torque in a shaft. This equation can be rearranged in terms of the outside

diameter:

TR

3 T

=

D =

Ip

16

16 T1 16(800 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)

D13

=

= 101,859.16 mm3

(40 N/mm 2 )

D1 46.70 mm

Solve for the minimum acceptable diameter in shaft (2):

16 T2 16(1, 200 N-m)(1,000 mm/m)

D23

=

= 152, 788.75 mm3

2

(40 N/mm )

D2 53.46 mm

Of these two values, D2 controls. Therefore, both shafts could have a diameter of 53.46 mm or more

and the shear stress constraint would be satisfied.

The angles of twists in shafts (1) and (2) can be expressed as:

TL

TL

1 = 1 1

2 = 2 2

G1 I p1

G2 I p 2

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

The rotations of gears B and C are related since the arclengths turned by the two gears have the same

magnitude. The gears turn in opposite directions; therefore, a negative sign is introduced.

RCC = RBB

The rotation angle of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1): B = 1. Therefore, the rotation

angle of gear C can be expressed in terms of T1.

R

R

R TL

N TL

C = B B = B 1 = B 1 1 = B 1 1

RC

RC

RC G1 I p1

N C G1 I p1

The rotation angle of gear D is equal to the rotation angle of gear C plus the twist that occurs in shaft

(2):

D = C + 2

and so the rotation angle of gear D can be expressed in terms of the torques T1 and T2:

N TL

TL

D = B 1 1 + 2 2 3

N C G1 I p1 G2 I p 2

Shafts having the same diameters and the same shear moduli are required for this system; therefore, Ip1 =

Ip2 = Ip and G1 = G2 = G. Factor these terms out to obtain:

1 NB

1 NB

T1 L1 + T2 L2 3 I p

T1 L1 + T2 L2

G I p NC

G (3) N C

Express the polar moment of inertia in terms of diameter to obtain the following relationship:

32 N B

D4

T1 L1 + T2 L2

G (3) N C

48 teeth

32

(800 N-m)(2.5 m) + (1, 200 N-m)(2.0 m) (1,000 mm/m) 2

72 teeth

=

(80, 000 N/mm 2 )(3)( /180)

= 9, 078,378.05 mm 4

D 54.89 mm

Since this minimum diameter is greater than the diameter needed to satisfy the shear stress requirements,

the rotation angle constraint controls.

Therefore, the minimum shaft diameter that satisfies all requirements is D 54.9 mm.

Ans.

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

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