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# 6.79 The torsional assembly of Fig. P6.

79 consists
of a cold-rolled stainless steel tube connected to a
solid cold-rolled brass segment at flange C. The
assembly is securely fastened to rigid supports at A
and D. Stainless steel tube (1) and (2) has an
outside diameter of 3.50 in., a wall thickness of
0.120 in., and a shear modulus of G = 12,500 ksi.
The solid brass segment (3) has a diameter of 2.00
in. and a shear modulus of G = 5,600 ksi. A
concentrated torque of TB = 7 kip-ft is applied to
the stainless steel pipe at B. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in the
stainless steel tube.
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in brass
segment (3).
(c) the rotation angle of flange C.

Fig. P6.79

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the stainless steel tube and the solid brass
segment are:

I p1 =
I p3 =

32

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut around joint

B, where the external torque TB is applied:
M x = T1 + T2 + TB = 0
(a)

## and also consider a FBD cut around joint C. Although there is

not an external torque applied at joint C, the section properties
of the torsion structure change at C.
M x = T2 + T3 = 0 T2 = T3
(b)
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2

3 =

T3 L3
G3 I p 3

(c)

Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three shafts must equal zero:
1 + 2 + 3 = 0
(d)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (d)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
TL
T1 L1
TL
+ 2 2 + 3 3 =0
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3

(e)

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Solve the Equations: The approach used here will be to reduce the variables in Eq. (e) by replacing T1
and T3 with equivalent expressions involving T2. From Eq. (a):
T1 = T2 + TB
(f)
Substitute Eqs. (b) and (f) into Eq. (e) and simplify to derive an expression for T2:
TL
(T2 + TB ) L1 T2 L2
+
+ 2 3 =0
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3
L
L
L
T L
T2 1 + 2 + 3 = B 1
G1 I p1
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3

TB L1
G1 I p1
T2 =
L
L1
L
+ 2 + 3
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3
Note that G1 = G2 and Ip1 = Ip2. Compute T2:
(7 kip-ft)(30 in.)(12 in./ft)
(12,500 ksi)(3.643915 in.4 )
T2 =
30 in. + 22 in.
18 in.
+
4
(12,500 ksi)(3.643915 in. ) (5,600 ksi)(1.570796 in.4 )
= 17.3547 kip-in.
Substitute this result into Eq. (f) to compute internal torque T1:
T1 = T2 + TB = 17.3547 kip-in. + (7 kip-ft)(12 in./ft) = 66.6453 kip-in.
and from Eq. (b):
T3 = T2 = 17.3547 kip-in.

(e)

Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitudes in the three members are:
T R (66.6453 kip-in.)(3.500 in./ 2)
1 = 1 1 =
= 32.0 ksi
I p1
3.643915 in.4
TR
(17.3547 kip-in.)(3.500 in./ 2)
2 = 2 2 =
= 8.34 ksi
I p2
3.643915 in.4
T R (17.3547 kip-in.)(2.000 in./ 2)
3 = 3 3 =
= 11.05 ksi
I p3
1.570796 in.4
(a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Stainless Steel Tube:
1 = 32.0 ksi

Ans.

## (b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Brass Shaft:

3 = 11.05 ksi

Ans.

(c) Rotation Angle of Flange C Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends:
1 = B A
B = A + 1
Similarly, the angle of twist in member (2) can be defined by:
2 = C B
C = B + 2

(f)
(g)

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To derive an expression for C, substitute Eq. (f) into Eq. (g), and note that joint A is restrained from
rotating; therefore, A = 0.
C = 1 + 2
The angle of twist in member (1) is:
TL
(66.6453 kip-in.)(30 in.)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1 (12,500 ksi)(3.643915 in.4 )
The angle of twist in member (2) is:
TL
(17.3547 kip-in.)(22 in.)
2 = 2 2 =
G2 I p 2 (12,500 ksi)(3.643915 in.4 )
The rotation angle of flange C is thus:

Ans.

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## 6.80 The torsional assembly of Fig. P6.80 consists

of a cold-rolled stainless steel tube connected to a
solid cold-rolled brass segment at flange C. The
assembly is securely fastened to rigid supports at A
and D. Stainless steel tubes (1) and (2) have an
outside diameter of 3.50 in., a wall thickness of
0.120 in., a shear modulus of G = 12,500 ksi, and
an allowable shear stress of 50 ksi. The solid brass
segment (3) has a diameter of 2.00 in., a shear
modulus of G = 5,600 ksi, and an allowable shear
stress of 18 ksi. Determine the maximum
permissible magnitude for the concentrated torque
TB.

Fig. P6.80

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the stainless steel tube and the solid brass segment
are:

I p1 =
I p3 =

32

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut around joint

B, where the external torque TB is applied:
M x = T1 + T2 + TB = 0
(a)

## and also consider a FBD cut around joint C. Although there is

not an external torque applied at joint C, the section properties
of the torsion structure change at C.
M x = T2 + T3 = 0 T2 = T3
(b)
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2

3 =

T3 L3
G3 I p 3

(c)

Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three shafts must equal zero:
1 + 2 + 3 = 0
(d)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (d)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
TL
T1 L1
TL
+ 2 2 + 3 3 =0
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3

(e)

Solve the Equations: Since the problem is expressed in terms of allowable stresses, it is convenient to
rewrite Eq. (e) in terms of stresses. In general, the elastic torsion formula can be rearranged as:

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TR
T
=
Ip
Ip R
which allows Eq. (e) to be rewritten as:
1 L1 2 L2 3 L3
+
+
=0
(f)
G1 R1 G2 R2 G3 R3
Also using the elastic torsion formula, Eq. (b) can be expressed in terms of stress:
2 I p 2 3 I p3
I

=
3 = 2 p2
(g)
R2
R3
R3 R2 I p 3
Substitute Eq. (g) into Eq. (f) to obtain
1 L1 2 L2 L3 2 I p 2
+
+
=0
G1 R1 G2 R2 G3 R2 I p 3
Simplify:
L2
L I
+ 3 p2

L
G2 R2 G3 R2 I p 3
L I
L
1 1 = 2 2 + 3 p 2
1 = 2
L1

G1 R1
G2 R2 G3 R2 I p 3

G1 R1

Substitute values:

3.643915 in.4
22 in.
18 in.
+

1 = 2
30 in.

## (12,500 ksi)(3.50 in./2)

= 3.840193 2
This calculation demonstrates that the shear stress in segment (1) of the stainless steel tube is much
larger than the shear stress in segment (2). If the shear stress magnitude in segment (1) is 50 ksi, then
the shear stress magnitude in segment (2) will be:

2 =

= 13.020179 ksi
3.840193
Next, we need to check the corresponding shear stress in brass shaft (3). From Eq. (g):
R I
3 = 2 3 p2
R2 I p 3

(h)

Substitute the magnitude obtained for 2 in Eq. (h) into this expression and calculate the corresponding
shear stress magnitude in shaft (3):
4
2.00 in./2 3.643915 in.
3 = (13.020179 ksi)
= 17.259466 ksi 18 ksi
O.K.

4
3.50 in./2 1.570796 in.
Now that the maximum shear stresses in the three shaft segments are known, the torques in each
component can be computed:

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T1 =
T2 =
T3 =

1 I p1
R1

2 I p2
R2

3 I p3
R3

## (50 ksi)(3.643915 in.4 )

= 104.1119 kip-in.
( 3.50 in./2 )

## (13.020179 ksi)(3.643915 in.4 )

= 27.1111 kip-in.
( 3.50 in./2 )

## (17.259466 ksi)(1.570796 in.4 )

=
= 27.1111 kip-in.
( 2.00 in./2 )

Maximum Permissible Torque TB: From Eq. (a), the torque TB acting on the assembly must not
exceed:
TB ,max = T1 T2 = 104.1119 kip-in. (27.1111 kip-in.) = 131.2230 kip-in.= 131.2 kip-in.
Ans.

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6.81 The torsional assembly of Fig. P6.81a consists of a solid 75-mm-diameter bronze [G = 45 GPa]
segment (1) securely connected at flange B to solid 75-mm-diameter stainless steel [G = 86 GPa]
segments (2) and (3). The flange at B is secured by four 14-mm-diameter bolts, which are each located
on a 120-mm-diameter bolt circle (Fig. P6.81b). The allowable shear stress of the bolts is 90 MPa, and
friction effects in the flange can be neglected for this analysis. Determine:
(a) the allowable torque TC that can be applied to the assembly at C without exceeding the capacity of
the bolted flange connection.
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in bronze segment (1).
(c) the maximum shear stress magnitude in stainless steel segments (2) and (3).

Fig. P6.81a

## Fig. P6.81b Flange B Bolts

Solution
Section Properties: For bronze segment (1) and stainless steel segments (2) and (3), the polar moments
of inertia are identical:

I p1 = I p 2 = I p 3 =

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut around

flange B:
M x = T1 + T2 = 0
T1 = T2
(a)

## and also consider a FBD cut around joint C, where the

external torque TC is applied:
M x = T2 + T3 + TC = 0
(b)
Capacity of Flange B: The flange at B is secured by four 14-mm-diameter bolts, which are each
located on a 120-mm-diameter bolt circle. The allowable shear stress of the bolts is 90 MPa, and each
bolt acts in single shear. The cross-sectional area of a single bolt is:

Abolt =

## (14 mm) 2 = 153.9380 mm 2

4
The shear force that can be provided by each bolt is:
Vbolt = (90 N/mm 2 )(153.9380 mm 2 ) = 13,854.4236 N
The total torque that can resisted by the bolts is thus:
TB ,max = (4 bolts)(13,954.4236 N/bolt)(120 mm/2) = 3,325, 062 N-mm
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The internal torques in segments (1) and (2) cannot exceed this magnitude; therefore, based on Eq. (a):
T1 = T2 = 3,325, 062 N-mm
(c)
From Eq. (b), we observe that the external torque applied to the shaft is related to internal torques T2 and
T3. We must determine the relationship between these two internal torques by developing a
compatibility equation, which is based on the geometry of deformations for this configuration.
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2

3 =

T3 L3
G3 I p 3

(d)

Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three segments must equal
zero:
1 + 2 + 3 = 0
(e)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eqs. (d)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (e)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
TL
T1 L1
TL
+ 2 2 + 3 3 =0
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3
Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (f) for T3, noting that Ip1 = Ip2 = Ip3, G2 = G3, and T1 = T2:
TL
L G L
T L G I
T3 = 1 1 + 2 2 3 p 3 = T1 1 3 + 2
L3 G1 L3
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 L3
Substitute the values determined for T1 and T2 in Eq. (c) into Eq. (g) to compute T3:
400 mm 86 GPa 750 mm
T3 = (3,325, 062 N-mm)

(f)

(g)

## = (3,325, 062 N-mm)(3.786111)

= 12,589, 054 N-mm
(a) Allowable Torque TC: From equilibrium equation (b),
TC = T2 T3
= 3,325, 062 N-mm (12,589, 054 N-mm)
= 15,914,116 N-mm = 15.91 kN-m

Ans.

## (b) Shear Stress Magnitude in Bronze Segment (1):

T R (3,325, 062 N-mm)(75 mm / 2)
1 = 1 1 =
= 40.1 MPa
I p1
3,106,311 mm 4

Ans.

(c) Shear Stress Magnitude in Stainless Steel Segments (2) and (3):
T R (12,589, 054 N-mm)(75 mm / 2)
3 = 3 3 =
= 152.0 MPa
3,106,311 mm 4
I p3

Ans.

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## 6.82 The torsional assembly shown in Fig. P6.82

consists of solid 2.50-in.-diameter aluminum [G =
4,000 ksi] segments (1) and (3) and a central solid
3.00-in.-diameter bronze [G = 6,500 ksi] segment
(2). Concentrated torques of TB = T0 and TC = 2T0
are applied to the assembly at B and C,
respectively. If T0 = 20 kip-in., determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
aluminum segments (1) and (3).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
bronze segment (2).
(c) the rotation angle of joint C.

Fig. P6.82

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the aluminum and bronze segments are:

I p1 = I p 3 =
I p2 =

32

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut around

joint B, where the external torque TB is applied:
M x = T1 + T2 + T0 = 0
(a)

## and also consider a FBD cut around joint C, where the

external torque TC is applied:
M x = T2 + T3 + 2T0 = 0
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2

3 =

(b)

T3 L3
G3 I p 3

(c)

Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three shafts must equal zero:
1 + 2 + 3 = 0
(d)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (d)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
TL
T1 L1
TL
+ 2 2 + 3 3 =0
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3

(e)

Solve the Equations: The approach used here will be to reduce the variables in Eq. (e) by replacing T1
and T3 with equivalent expressions involving T2. From Eq. (a):
T1 = T2 + T0
(f)
and from Eq. (b):
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T3 = T2 2T0
Substitute Eqs. (f) and (g) into Eq. (e) and simplify to derive an expression for T2:
(T2 + T0 ) L1 T2 L2 (T2 2T0 ) L3
+
+
=0
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2
G3 I p 3
L
L 2T L
TL
L
T2 1 + 2 + 3 = 0 3 0 1
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3 G3 I p 3 G1 I p1
2T0 L3 T0 L1

G3 I p 3 G1 I p1
T2 =
L
L1
L
+ 2 + 3
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3
Since G1 = G3 and Ip1 = Ip3, Eq. (h) can be further simplified and T2 can be computed as:
T ( 2 L3 L1 )
T2 = 0

G1 I p1 L1 + L3 + L2
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2

(g)

(h)

20 kip-in.
2(12 in.) 12 in.

12 in. + 12 in.
24 in.
(4,000 ksi)(3.834952 in. )
+

4
4
(4,000 ksi)(3.834952 in. ) (6,500 ksi)(7.952156 in. )
= 7.711461 kip-in.
Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (f) and (g) to obtain T1 and T3:
T1 = 7.711461 kip-in. + 20 kip-in. = 27.711461 kip-in.
T3 = 7.711461 kip-in. 2(20 kip-in.) = 32.288539 kip-in.
=

Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitudes in the three segments are:
T R (27.711461 kip-in.)(2.500 in./ 2)
1 = 1 1 =
= 9.03 ksi
I p1
3.834952 in.4
T2 R2 (7.711461 kip-in.)(3.000 in./ 2)
=
= 1.455 ksi
I p2
7.952156 in.4
T R (32.288539 kip-in.)(2.500 in./ 2)
3 = 3 3 =
= 10.52 ksi
3.834952 in.4
I p3

2 =

3 = 10.52 ksi

Ans.

## (b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Bronze Segment:

2 = 1.455 ksi

Ans.

(c) Rotation Angle of Flange C Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends:
1 = B A
B = A + 1
Similarly, the angle of twist in member (2) can be defined by:
2 = C B
C = B + 2

(i)
(j)

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To derive an expression for C, substitute Eq. (i) into Eq. (j), and note that joint A is restrained from
rotating; therefore, A = 0.
C = 1 + 2
The angle of twist in member (1) is:
TL
(27.711461 kip-in.)(12 in.)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1 (4, 000 ksi)(3.834952 in.4 )
The angle of twist in member (2) is:
TL
(7.711461 kip-in.)(24 in.)
2 = 2 2 =
G2 I p 2 (6,500 ksi)(7.952156 in.4 )
The rotation angle of flange C is thus:

Ans.

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## 6.83 The torsional assembly shown in Fig. P6.83

consists of solid 2.50-in.-diameter aluminum [G =
4,000 ksi] segments (1) and (3) and a central solid
3.00-in.-diameter bronze [G = 6,500 ksi] segment
(2). Concentrated torques of TB = T0 and TC = 2T0
are applied to the assembly at B and C,
respectively. If the rotation angle at joint C must
not exceed 3, determine:
(a) the maximum magnitude of T0 that may be
applied to the assembly.
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
aluminum segments (1) and (3).
(c) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
bronze segment (2).

Fig. P6.83

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the aluminum and bronze segments are:

I p1 = I p 3 =
I p2 =

32

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut around

joint B, where the external torque TB is applied:
M x = T1 + T2 + T0 = 0
(a)

## and also consider a FBD cut around joint C, where the

external torque TC is applied:
M x = T2 + T3 + 2T0 = 0
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2

3 =

(b)

T3 L3
G3 I p 3

Torque in Segment (3): From the problem statement, the rotation angle at C must not exceed 3;
consequently, the angle of twist in segment (3) must be the opposite of this value:
3 = 3 = 0.052360 rad
From the torque-twist relationships, the internal torque in segment (3) can be computed:
GI
TL
3 = 3 3
T3 = 3 3 p 3 =
= 66.9327 kip-in.
12 in.
G3 I p 3
L3
Consider Rotation Angle of Flange C Relative to Support A: The rotation angle at C is given by the
sum of the angles of twist in segments (1) and (2). This rotation angle must not exceed 3.
TL
TL
(c)
C = 1 + 2 = 1 1 + 2 2 3 = 0.052360 rad
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2
from Eq. (b):
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T2 = T3 + 2T0
(d)
and from Eq. (a):
T1 = T2 + T0 = (T3 + 2T0 ) + T0 = T3 + 3T0
(e)
Substitute the expressions derived for T1 and T2 in Eqs. (d) and (e) into Eq. (c):
(T3 + 3T0 ) L1 (T3 + 2T0 ) L2
+
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2
Simplify
L
3L
L
2 L2
T3 1 + 2 + T0 1 +
G1I p1 G2 I p 2
G1I p1 G2 I p 2
Solve for T0:
L
L
0.052360 rad T3 1 + 2
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2
T0
3L1
2 L2
+
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2
and compute:

12 in.
24 in.
+
4
4
(4,000 ksi)(3.834952 in. ) (6,500 ksi)(7.952156 in. )
T0
3(12 in.)
2(24 in.)
+
4
(4,000 ksi)(3.834952 in. ) (6,500 ksi)(7.952156 in.4 )
41.4591 kip-in.
Backsubstitute this value into Eq. (d) to compute T2:
T2 = T3 + 2T0 = 66.9327 kip-in. + 2(41.4591 kip-in.) = 15.9855 kip-in.
and backsubstitute this value into Eq. (e) to compute T1:
T1 = T3 + 3T0 = 66.9327 kip-in. + 3(41.4591 kip-in.) = 57.4446 kip-in.
(a) Maximum magnitude of T0:
T0,max = 41.5 kip-in.

Ans.

Maximum Shear Stress Magnitudes: The maximum shear stress magnitudes are:
T R (57.4446 kip-in.)(2.500 in./ 2)
1 = 1 1 =
= 18.72 ksi
I p1
3.834952 in.4
T2 R2 (15.9855 kip-in.)(3.000 in./ 2)
=
= 3.02 ksi
I p2
7.952156 in.4
T R (66.9327 kip-in.)(2.500 in./ 2)
3 = 3 3 =
= 21.8 ksi
I p3
3.834952 in.4

2 =

3 = 21.8 ksi

Ans.

## (c) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Bronze Segment:

2 = 3.02 ksi

Ans.

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## 6.84 The torsional assembly shown in Fig. P6.84

consists of a solid 60-mm-diameter aluminum [G
= 28 GPa] segment (2) and two bronze [G = 45
GPa] tube segments (1) and (3), which have an
outside diameter of 75 mm and a wall thickness
of 5 mm. If concentrated torques of TB = 9 kN-m
and TC = 9 kN-m are applied in the directions
shown, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
bronze tube segments (1) and (3).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
aluminum segment (2).
(c) the rotation angle of joint C.

Fig. P6.84

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the aluminum and bronze segments are:

I p1 = I p 3 =
I p2 =

32

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut around

joint B, where the external torque TB is applied:
M x = T1 + T2 + TB = 0
(a)

## and also consider a FBD cut around joint C, where the

external torque TC is applied:
M x = T2 + T3 TC = 0
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2

3 =

(b)

T3 L3
G3 I p 3

(c)

Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three shafts must equal zero:
1 + 2 + 3 = 0
(d)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (d)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
TL
T1 L1
TL
+ 2 2 + 3 3 =0
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3

(e)

Solve the Equations: The approach used here will be to reduce the variables in Eq. (e) by replacing T1
and T3 with equivalent expressions involving T2. From Eq. (a):
T1 = T2 + TB
(f)
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## and from Eq. (b):

T3 = T2 + TC
Substitute Eqs. (f) and (g) into Eq. (e) and simplify to derive an expression for T2:
(T2 + TB ) L1 T2 L2 (T2 + TC ) L3
+
+
=0
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2
G3 I p 3

(g)

L
L
T L
L
T L
T2 1 + 2 + 3 = B 1 C 3
G1 I p1 G3 I p 3
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3

TB L1 TC L3
+
G1 I p1 G3 I p 3
T2 =
L
L1
L
+ 2 + 3
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3
Since G1 = G3 and Ip1 = Ip3, Eq. (h) can be simplified further and T2 can be computed as:
1 (TB L1 + TC L3 )
T2 =

G1 I p1 L1 + L3 + L2
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2

(h)

1
(9, 000, 000 N-mm)(325 mm) + (9, 000, 000 N-mm)(325 mm)
4

325 mm + 325 mm
400 mm
(45,000 N/mm )(1,353,830 mm )
+

(45,000)(1,353,830) (28,000)(1,272,345)

## = 4,385, 216 N-mm

Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (f) and (g) to obtain T1 and T3:
T1 = 4,385, 216 N-mm + 9, 000, 000 N-mm = 4, 614, 784 N-mm
T3 = 4,385, 216 N-mm + 9, 000, 000 N-mm = 4, 614, 784 N-mm
=

Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitudes in the three segments are:
T R (4, 614, 784 N-mm)(75 mm / 2)
1 = 1 1 =
= 127.8 MPa
1,353,830 mm 4
I p1
T2 R2 (4,385, 216 N-mm)(60 mm / 2)
=
= 103.4 MPa
1, 272,345 mm 4
I p2
T R (4, 614, 784 N-mm)(75 mm / 2)
3 = 3 3 =
= 127.8 MPa
1,353,830 mm 4
I p3

2 =

1 = 127.8 MPa

Ans.

## (b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Aluminum Segment:

2 = 103.4 MPa

Ans.

(c) Rotation Angle of Joint C Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends:
1 = B A
B = A + 1
Similarly, the angle of twist in member (2) can be defined by:

(i)

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2 = C B

C = B + 2
To derive an expression for C, substitute Eq. (i) into Eq. (j), and note that joint A is restrained from
rotating; therefore, A = 0.
C = 1 + 2
The angle of twist in member (1) is:
TL
(4, 614, 784 N-mm)(325 mm)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1 (45, 000 N/mm 2 )(1,353,830 mm 4 )
The angle of twist in member (2) is:
TL
(4,385, 216 N-mm)(400 mm)
2 = 2 2 =
G2 I p 2 (28, 000 N/mm 2 )(1, 272,345 mm 4 )
The rotation angle of flange C is thus:

(j)

Ans.

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## 6.85 The torsional assembly shown in Fig. P6.85

consists of a solid 60-mm-diameter aluminum [G
= 28 GPa] segment (2) and two bronze [G = 45
GPa] tube segments (1) and (3), which have an
outside diameter of 75 mm and a wall thickness
of 5 mm. If concentrated torques of TB = 6 kN-m
and TC = 10 kN-m are applied in the directions
shown, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
bronze tube segments (1) and (3).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
aluminum segment (2).
(c) the rotation angle of joint C.

Fig. P6.85

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the aluminum and bronze segments are:

I p1 = I p 3 =
I p2 =

32

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut around

joint B, where the external torque TB is applied:
M x = T1 + T2 + TB = 0
(a)

## and also consider a FBD cut around joint C, where the

external torque TC is applied:
M x = T2 + T3 TC = 0
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2

3 =

(b)

T3 L3
G3 I p 3

(c)

Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the two ends of the torsion structure are securely
attached to fixed supports at A and D, the sum of the angles of twist in the three shafts must equal zero:
1 + 2 + 3 = 0
(d)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (d)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
TL
T1 L1
TL
+ 2 2 + 3 3 =0
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3

(e)

Solve the Equations: The approach used here will be to reduce the variables in Eq. (e) by replacing T1
and T3 with equivalent expressions involving T2. From Eq. (a):
T1 = T2 + TB
(f)
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## and from Eq. (b):

T3 = T2 + TC
Substitute Eqs. (f) and (g) into Eq. (e) and simplify to derive an expression for T2:
(T2 + TB ) L1 T2 L2 (T2 + TC ) L3
+
+
=0
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2
G3 I p 3

(g)

L
L
T L
L
T L
T2 1 + 2 + 3 = B 1 C 3
G1 I p1 G3 I p 3
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3

TB L1 TC L3
+
G1 I p1 G3 I p 3
T2 =
L
L1
L
+ 2 + 3
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2 G3 I p 3
Since G1 = G3 and Ip1 = Ip3, Eq. (h) can be simplified further and T2 can be computed as:
1 (TB L1 + TC L3 )
T2 =

G1 I p1 L1 + L3 + L2
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2

(h)

1
(6, 000, 000 N-mm)(325 mm) + (10, 000, 000 N-mm)(325 mm)
4

325 mm + 325 mm
400 mm
(45,000 N/mm )(1,353,830 mm )
+

(45,000)(1,353,830) (28,000)(1,272,345)

= 3,897,970 N-mm
=

Backsubstitute this result into Eqs. (f) and (g) to obtain T1 and T3:
T1 = 3,897,970 N-mm + 6, 000, 000 N-mm = 2,102, 030 N-mm
T3 = 3,897,970 N-mm + 10, 000, 000 N-mm = 6,102, 030 N-mm
Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitudes in the three segments are:
T R (2,102, 030 N-mm)(75 mm / 2)
1 = 1 1 =
= 58.2 MPa
1,353,830 mm 4
I p1
T2 R2 (3,897,970 N-mm)(60 mm / 2)
=
= 91.9 MPa
1, 272,345 mm 4
I p2
T R (6,102, 030 N-mm)(75 mm / 2)
3 = 3 3 =
= 169.0 MPa
1,353,830 mm 4
I p3

2 =

3 = 169.0 MPa

Ans.

## (b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Aluminum Segment:

2 = 91.9 MPa

Ans.

(c) Rotation Angle of Joint C Relative to Support A: The angle of twist in member (1) can be
defined by the difference in rotation angles at the two ends:
1 = B A
B = A + 1

(i)

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## Similarly, the angle of twist in member (2) can be defined by:

2 = C B
C = B + 2
To derive an expression for C, substitute Eq. (i) into Eq. (j), and note that joint A is restrained from
rotating; therefore, A = 0.
C = 1 + 2
The angle of twist in member (1) is:
TL
(2,102, 030 N-mm)(325 mm)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1 (45, 000 N/mm 2 )(1,353,830 mm 4 )
The angle of twist in member (2) is:
TL
(3,897,970 N-mm)(400 mm)
2 = 2 2 =
G2 I p 2 (28, 000 N/mm 2 )(1, 272,345 mm 4 )
The rotation angle of flange C is thus:

(j)

Ans.

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6.86 A solid 1.50-in.-diameter brass [G = 5,600 ksi] shaft [segments (1), (2), and (3)] has been stiffened
between B and C by the addition of a cold-rolled stainless steel tube (4) (Fig. P6.86a). The tube (Fig.
P6.86b) has an outside diameter of 3.50 in., a wall thickness of 0.12 in., and a shear modulus of G =
12,500 ksi. The tube is attached to the brass shaft by means of rigid flanges welded to the tube and to the
shaft. (The thickness of the flanges can be neglected for this analysis.) If a torque of 400 lb-ft is applied
to the shaft as shown in Fig. P6.86a, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in segment (1) of the brass shaft.
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in segment (2) of the brass shaft (i.e., between flanges B and C)
(c) the maximum shear stress magnitude in the stainless steel tube (4).
(d) the rotation angle of end D relative to end A.

Fig. P6.86a

## Fig. P6.86b Cross Section Through Tube

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the brass shaft and the stainless steel tube are:

I p1 = I p 2 = I p 3 =
I p4 =

32

32

## (a) Shear Stress Magnitude in Brass Segment (1):

T R (400 lb-ft)(1.500 in./ 2)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
= 7, 243.3 psi = 7, 240 psi
0.497010 in.4
I p1

Ans.

Statically Indeterminate Portion of the Shaft: The portion of the shaft between B and C is statically
indeterminate.
Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram that cuts
through the shaft between B and C and includes the
free end of the shaft at A:
M x = T2 + T4 + 400 lb-ft = 0
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
2 = 2 2
4 = 4 4
G2 I p 2
G4 I p 4

(b)

Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the tube and shaft are securely connected by the rigid
flanges, the angles of twist in both members must be equal; therefore,
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2 = 4
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eqs. (b)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (c)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
T2 L2
TL
= 4 4
G2 I p 2 G4 I p 4

(c)

(d)

## Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for T2:

4
L G I p2
20 in. 5, 600 ksi 0.497010 in.
T2 = T4 4 2
T
= 4
= 0.0611047 T4

4
L2 G4 I p 4
20 in. 12,500 ksi 3.643915 in.
and substitute this result into Eq. (a) to compute the torque T4 in the stainless steel tube (4):
T2 + T4 = 0.0611047 T4 + T4 = 1.0611047 T4 = 400 lb-ft

T4 = 376.9656 lb-ft
The torque in brass shaft segment (2) is therefore:
T2 = 400 lb-ft T4 = 400 lb-ft (376.9656 lb-ft) = 23.0344 lb-ft = 23.0 lb-ft
(b) Maximum Shear Stress in Brass Segment (2): The maximum shear stress in segment (2) is:
TR
(23.0344 lb-ft)(1.50 in./ 2)(12 in./ft)
Ans.
2 = 2 2 =
= 417.1 psi = 417 psi
0.497010 in.4
I p2
(c) Maximum Shear Stress in Stainless Steel Tube (4): The maximum shear stress in tube (4) is:
TR
(376.9656 lb-ft)(3.50 in./ 2)(12 in./ft)
Ans.
4 = 4 4 =
= 2,172.5 psi = 2,170 psi
3.643915 in.4
I p4
(d) Rotation Angle of End D Relative to End A: The angle of twist of segment (1) is:
TL
(400 lb-ft)(12 in.)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1 (5, 600, 000 psi)(0.497010 in.4 )
The angle of twist in brass segment (3) has the same value:
The angle of twist in brass segment (2) is:
TL
(23.0344 lb-ft)(20 in.)(12 in./ft)
2 = 2 2 =
(5, 600, 000 psi)(0.497010 in.4 )
G2 I p 2

The rotation angle of end D relative to end A is the sum of these three angles of twist:
D = 1 + 2 + 3

Ans.

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6.87 A solid 60-mm-diameter cold-rolled brass [G = 39 GPa] shaft that is 1.25-m long extends through
and is completely bonded to a hollow aluminum [G = 28 GPa] tube, as shown in Fig. P6.87. Aluminum
tube (1) has an outside diameter of 90 mm, an inside diameter of 60 mm, and a length of 0.75 m. Both
the brass shaft and the aluminum tube are securely attached to the wall support at A. When the two
torques shown are applied to the composite shaft, determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
aluminum tube (1).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in brass
shaft segment (2).
(c) the maximum shear stress magnitude in brass
shaft segment (3).
(d) the rotation angle of joint B.
(e) the rotation angle of joint C.

Fig. P6.87

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for tube (1) and brass shafts (2) and (3) are:

I p1 =

32

I p 2 = I p3 =

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut

around joint C through segment (3):
M x = T3 8 kN-m = 0
T3 = 8 kN-m (a)

## and also consider a FBD cut around joint B:

M x = T1 T2 + T3 + 20 kN-m = 0
T1 + T2 = T3 + 20 kN-m = 12 kN-m

(b)

Eq. (b) reveals that the portion of the shaft between A and B is statically indeterminate. The five-step
solution procedure will be used to determine T1 and T2 in this portion of the shaft.
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2

(c)

Geometry of Deformation Relationship: Since the aluminum tube and the brass shaft are securely
bonded together, the angles of twist in both members must be equal; therefore,
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1 = 2
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eqs. (c)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (d)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
T1 L1
TL
= 2 2
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2

(d)

(e)

## Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (e) for T1:

4
L G I p1
28 GPa 5,168,902 mm
T1 = T2 2 1
T
= 2
= 2.916667 T2

4
L1 G2 I p 2
39 GPa 1, 272,345 mm
and substitute this result into Eq. (b) to compute the torque T2 in brass shaft (2):
T1 + T2 = 2.916667 T2 + T2 = 3.916667 T2 = 12, 000 N-m

T2 = 3, 063.830 N-m
The torque in aluminum tube (1) is therefore:
T1 = 12, 000 N-m T2 = 12, 000 N-m 3, 063.830 N-m = 8,936.170 N-m
(a) Maximum Shear Stress in Aluminum Tube: The maximum shear stress in aluminum tube (1) is:
T R (8,936.170 N-m)(90 mm / 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
Ans.
1 = 1 1 =
= 77.8 MPa
5,168,902 mm 4
I p1
(b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Brass Shaft Segment (2):
TR
(3, 063.830 N-m)(60 mm / 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
2 = 2 2 =
= 72.2 MPa
1, 272,345 mm 4
I p2

Ans.

## (c) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Brass Shaft Segment (3):

T R (8, 000 N-m)(60 mm / 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
3 = 3 3 =
= 188.6 MPa
1, 272,345 mm 4
I p3

Ans.

## (d) Rotation Angle of Joint B:

TL
(8,936.170 N-m)(0.75 m)(1, 000 mm/m) 2
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1
(28, 000 N/mm 2 )(5,168,902 mm 4 )
or

2 =

T2 L2
(3, 063.830 N-m)(0.75 m)(1, 000 mm/m) 2
=
G2 I p 2
(39, 000 N/mm 2 )(1,272,345 mm 4 )

Ans.

## (e) Rotation Angle of Joint C:

TL
(8, 000 N-m)(0.5 m)(1, 000 mm/m) 2
3 = 3 3 =
(39, 000 N/mm 2 )(1,272,345 mm 4 )
G3 I p 3

Ans.

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## 6.88 The gear assembly shown in Fig. P6.88 is

subjected to a torque of TC = 100 N-m. Shafts (1)
and (2) are solid 20-mm-diameter steel shafts, and
shaft (3) is a solid 25-mm-diameter steel shaft.
Assume L = 400 mm and G = 80 GPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in shaft
(1).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in shaft
segment (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear E.
(d) the rotation angle of gear C.

Fig. P6.88

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the shafts are:

I p1 = I p 2 =
I p3 =

32

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut through

shaft (2) and around gear C:
M x = T2 + TC = 0
T2 = TC = 100 N-m (a)

## Next, consider a FBD cut around gear B through shafts (1)

and (2). The teeth of gear C exert a force F on the teeth of
gear B. This force F opposes the rotation of gear B. The
radius of gear B will be denoted by RB for now (even though
the gear radius is not given explicitly).
M x = T2 T1 F RB = 0
(b)
Finally, consider a FBD cut around gear E through shaft (3).
The teeth of gear B exert an equal magnitude force F on the
teeth of gear C, acting opposite to the direction assumed in
the previous FBD. The radius of gear E will be denoted by
RE for now.
T
M x = T3 F RE = 0
F = 3
(c)
RE
The results of Eqs. (a) and (c) can be substituted into Eq. (b) to give
R
T1 = 100 N-m + T3 B
RE
The ratio RB/RE is simply the gear ratio between gears B and E, which can also be expressed in terms of
gear teeth NB and NE:
N
24 teeth
T1 = 100 N-m + T3 B = 100 N-m + T3
= 100 N-m + 0.4T3
(d)
60 teeth
NE
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Equation (d) summarizes the results of the equilibrium considerations, but there are still two unknowns
in this equation: T1 and T3. Consequently, this problem is statically indeterminate. To solve the
problem, an additional equation must be developed. This second equation will be derived from the
relationship between the angles of twist in shafts (1) and (3).
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
3 = 3 3
G1 I p1
G3 I p 3

(e)

## Geometry of Deformation Relationship:

The rotation of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1):
B = 1

and the rotation of gear E is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (3):
E = 3
However, since the gear teeth mesh, the rotation angles for gears B and E are not independent. The
arclengths associated with the respective rotations must be equal, but the gears turn in opposite
directions. The relationship between gear rotations can be stated as:
RBB = REE
where RB and RE are the radii of gears B and E, respectively. Since the gear rotation angles are related to
the shaft angles of twist, this relationship can be expressed as:
RB1 = RE3
(f)
Compatibility Equation:
Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eq. (e)] into the geometry of deformation relationship [Eq. (f)]
to obtain:
TL
TL
RB 1 1 = RE 3 3
G1 I p1
G3 I p 3
which can be rearranged and expressed in terms of the gear ratio NB /NE:
TL
N B T1 L1
(g)
= 3 3
N E G1 I p1
G3 I p 3
Note that the compatibility equation has two unknowns: T1 and T3. This equation can be solved
simultaneously with Eq. (d) to calculate the internal torques in shafts (1) and (3).
Solve the Equations: Solve for internal torque T3 in Eq. (g):
N L G I
T3 = T1 B 1 3 p 3
N E L3 G1 I p1

## and substitute this result into Eq. (d):

T1 = 100 N-m + 0.4T3

N L G I
= 100 N-m + 0.4 T1 B 1 3 p 3
N E L3 G1 I p1

24 teeth 38,349.5 mm 4
= 100 N-m 0.4 T1

4
60 teeth 15, 708.0 mm
= 100 N-m 0.390624 T1
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## Group the T1 terms to obtain:

100 N-m
T1 =
= 71.9102 N-m
1.390624
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (d) to find the internal torque in shaft (3):
T1 = 100 N-m + 0.4T3
T1 100 N-m 71.9102 N-m 100 N-m
=
= 70.2246 N-m
0.4
0.4
(a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (1):
T R (71.9102 N-m)(20 mm / 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
= 45.8 MPa
15, 708.0 mm 4
I p1
T3 =

## (b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (3):

T R (70.2246 N-m)(25 mm / 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
3 = 3 3 =
= 22.9 MPa
I p3
38,349.5 mm 4

Ans.

Ans.

## (c) Rotation Angle of Gear E:

TL
(70.2246 N-m)(1.25)(400 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
3 = 3 3 =
G3 I p 3
(80, 000 N/mm 2 )(38,349.5 mm 4 )

E = 3 = 0.01145 rad

Ans.

## (d) Rotation Angle of Gear C:

TL
(71.9102 N-m)(1.25)(400 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
(80, 000 N/mm 2 )(15,708.0 mm 4 )
G1 I p1

2 =

T2 L2
(100 N-m)(400 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
=
(80, 000 N/mm 2 )(15,708.0 mm 4 )
G2 I p 2

## C = B + 2 = 1 + 2 = 0.028612 rad + 0.031831 rad = 0.0604 rad

Ans.

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## 6.89 The gear assembly shown in Fig. P6.89 is

subjected to a torque of TC = 800 lb-ft. Shafts (1)
and (2) are solid 1.625-in.-diameter aluminum
shafts and shaft (3) is a solid 2.00-in.-diameter
aluminum shaft. Assume L = 20 in. and G = 4,000
ksi. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in shaft
(1).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in shaft
segment (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear E.
(d) the rotation angle of gear C.

Fig. P6.89

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the shafts are:

I p1 = I p 2 =
I p3 =

32

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut through

shaft (2) and around gear C:
M x = T2 + TC = 0
T2 = TC = 800 lb-ft (a)

## Next, consider a FBD cut around gear B through shafts (1)

and (2). The teeth of gear C exert a force F on the teeth of
gear B. This force F opposes the rotation of gear B. The
radius of gear B will be denoted by RB for now (even though
the gear radius is not given explicitly).
M x = T2 T1 F RB = 0
(b)
Finally, consider a FBD cut around gear E through shaft (3).
The teeth of gear B exert an equal magnitude force F on the
teeth of gear C, acting opposite to the direction assumed in
the previous FBD. The radius of gear E will be denoted by
RE for now.
T
M x = T3 F RE = 0
F = 3
(c)
RE
The results of Eqs. (a) and (c) can be substituted into Eq. (b) to give
R
T1 = 800 lb-ft + T3 B
RE
The ratio RB/RE is simply the gear ratio between gears B and E, which can also be expressed in terms of
gear teeth NB and NE:
N
24 teeth
T1 = 800 lb-ft + T3 B = 800 lb-ft + T3
= 800 lb-ft + 0.4T3
(d)
60 teeth
NE
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Equation (d) summarizes the results of the equilibrium considerations, but there are still two unknowns
in this equation: T1 and T3. Consequently, this problem is statically indeterminate. To solve the
problem, an additional equation must be developed. This second equation will be derived from the
relationship between the angles of twist in shafts (1) and (3).
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
3 = 3 3
G1 I p1
G3 I p 3

(e)

## Geometry of Deformation Relationship:

The rotation of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1):
B = 1

and the rotation of gear E is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (3):
E = 3
However, since the gear teeth mesh, the rotation angles for gears B and E are not independent. The
arclengths associated with the respective rotations must be equal, but the gears turn in opposite
directions. The relationship between gear rotations can be stated as:
RBB = REE
where RB and RE are the radii of gears B and E, respectively. Since the gear rotation angles are related to
the shaft angles of twist, this relationship can be expressed as:
RB1 = RE3
(f)
Compatibility Equation:
Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eq. (e)] into the geometry of deformation relationship [Eq. (f)]
to obtain:
TL
TL
RB 1 1 = RE 3 3
G1 I p1
G3 I p 3
which can be rearranged and expressed in terms of the gear ratio NB /NE:
TL
N B T1 L1
(g)
= 3 3
N E G1 I p1
G3 I p 3
Note that the compatibility equation has two unknowns: T1 and T3. This equation can be solved
simultaneously with Eq. (d) to calculate the internal torques in shafts (1) and (3).
Solve the Equations: Solve for internal torque T3 in Eq. (g):
N L G I
T3 = T1 B 1 3 p 3
N E L3 G1 I p1

## and substitute this result into Eq. (d):

T1 = 800 lb-ft + 0.4T3

N L G I
= 800 lb-ft + 0.4 T1 B 1 3 p 3
N E L3 G1 I p1

## 24 teeth 1.570796 in.4

= 800 lb-ft 0.4 T1

4
60 teeth 0.684563 in.
= 800 lb-ft 0.367135 T1
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## Group the T1 terms to obtain:

800 lb-ft
T1 =
= 585.165 lb-ft
1.367135
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (d) to find the internal torque in shaft (3):
T1 = 800 lb-ft + 0.4T3
T1 800 lb-ft 585.165 lb-ft 800 lb-ft
=
= 537.087 lb-ft
0.4
0.4
(a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (1):
T R (585.165 lb-ft)(1.625 in./ 2)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
= 8,334.3 psi = 8.33 ksi
0.684563 in.4
I p1
T3 =

## (b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (3):

T R (537.087 lb-ft)(2.00 in./ 2)(12 in./ft)
3 = 3 3 =
= 4,103.0 psi = 4.10 ksi
I p3
1.570796 in.4

Ans.

Ans.

## (c) Rotation Angle of Gear E:

TL
(537.087 lb-ft)(1.25)(20 in.)(12 in./ft)
3 = 3 3 =
(4, 000, 000 psi)(1.570796 in.4 )
G3 I p 3

E = 3 = 0.0256 rad

Ans.

## (d) Rotation Angle of Gear C:

TL
(585.165 lb-ft)(1.25)(20 in.)(12 in./ft)
1 = 1 1 =
(4, 000, 000 psi)(0.684563 in.4 )
G1 I p1

2 =

T2 L2
(800 lb-ft)(20 in.)(12 in./ft)
=
G2 I p 2 (4, 000, 000 psi)(0.684563 in.4 )

## C = B + 2 = 1 + 2 = 0.064110 rad + 0.070118 rad = 0.1342 rad

Ans.

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## 6.90 A torque of TC = 380 N-m acts on gear C of

the assembly shown in Fig. P6.90. Shafts (1)
and (2) are solid 35-mm-diameter aluminum
shafts and shaft (3) is a solid 25-mm-diameter
aluminum shaft. Assume L = 200 mm and G =
28 GPa. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
shaft (1).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
shaft segment (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear E.
(d) the rotation angle of gear C.

Fig. P6.90

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the shafts are:

I p1 = I p 2 =
I p3 =

32

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut through

shaft (2) and around gear C:
M x = T2 + TC = 0
T2 = TC = 380 N-m (a)

## Next, consider a FBD cut around gear B through shafts (1)

and (2). The teeth of gear E exert a force F on the teeth of
gear B. This force F opposes the rotation of gear B. The
radius of gear B will be denoted by RB for now (even though
the gear radius is not given explicitly).
M x = T2 T1 F RB = 0
(b)
Finally, consider a FBD cut around gear E through shaft (3).
The teeth of gear B exert an equal magnitude force F on the
teeth of gear C, acting opposite to the direction assumed in
the previous FBD. The radius of gear E will be denoted by
RE for now.
T
M x = T3 F RE = 0
F = 3
(c)
RE
The results of Eqs. (a) and (c) can be substituted into Eq. (b) to give
R
T1 = 380 N-m + T3 B
RE
The ratio RB/RE is simply the gear ratio between gears B and E, which can also be expressed in terms of
gear teeth NB and NE:
N
54 teeth
T1 = 380 N-m + T3 B = 380 N-m + T3
= 380 N-m + 1.285714 T3
(d)
NE
42 teeth
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Equation (d) summarizes the results of the equilibrium considerations, but there are still two unknowns
in this equation: T1 and T3. Consequently, this problem is statically indeterminate. To solve the
problem, an additional equation must be developed. This second equation will be derived from the
relationship between the angles of twist in shafts (1) and (3).
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
3 = 3 3
G1 I p1
G3 I p 3

(e)

## Geometry of Deformation Relationship:

The rotation of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1):
B = 1

and the rotation of gear E is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (3):
E = 3
However, since the gear teeth mesh, the rotation angles for gears B and E are not independent. The
arclengths associated with the respective rotations must be equal, but the gears turn in opposite
directions. The relationship between gear rotations can be stated as:
RBB = REE
where RB and RE are the radii of gears B and E, respectively. Since the gear rotation angles are related to
the shaft angles of twist, this relationship can be expressed as:
RB1 = RE3
(f)
Compatibility Equation:
Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eq. (e)] into the geometry of deformation relationship [Eq. (f)]
to obtain:
TL
TL
RB 1 1 = RE 3 3
G1 I p1
G3 I p 3
which can be rearranged and expressed in terms of the gear ratio NB /NE:
TL
N B T1 L1
(g)
= 3 3
N E G1 I p1
G3 I p 3
Note that the compatibility equation has two unknowns: T1 and T3. This equation can be solved
simultaneously with Eq. (d) to calculate the internal torques in shafts (1) and (3).
Solve the Equations: Solve for internal torque T3 in Eq. (g):
N L G I
T3 = T1 B 1 3 p 3
N E L3 G1 I p1

## and substitute this result into Eq. (d):

T1 = 380 N-m + 1.285714 T3

N L G I
= 380 N-m + 1.285714 T1 B 1 3 p 3
N E L3 G1 I p1

54 teeth 38,349.5 mm 4
= 380 N-m 1.285714 T1

4
42 teeth 147,323.5 mm
= 380 N-m 0.430305 T1
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## Group the T1 terms to obtain:

380 N-m
T1 =
= 265.6776 N-m
1.430305
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (d) to find the internal torque in shaft (3):
T1 = 380 N-m + 1.285714 T3
T3 =

=
= 88.9174 N-m
1.285714
1.285714

## (a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (1):

T R (265.6776 N-m)(35 mm / 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
= 31.6 MPa
I p1
147,323.5 mm 4

Ans.

## (b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (3):

T R (88.9174 N-m)(25 mm / 2)(1, 000 mm/m)
3 = 3 3 =
= 29.0 MPa
I p3
38,349.5 mm 4

Ans.

## (c) Rotation Angle of Gear E:

TL
(88.9174 N-m)(2)(200 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
3 = 3 3 =
(28, 000 N/mm 2 )(38,349.5 mm 4 )
G3 I p 3

E = 3 = 0.0331 rad

Ans.

## (d) Rotation Angle of Gear C:

TL
(265.6776 N-m)(2)(200 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1
(28, 000 N/mm 2 )(147,323.5 mm 4 )

2 =

T2 L2
(380 N-m)(200 mm)(1, 000 mm/m)
=
G2 I p 2 (28, 000 N/mm 2 )(147,323.5 mm 4 )

## C = B + 2 = 1 + 2 = 0.025762 rad + 0.018424 rad = 0.0442 rad

Ans.

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## 6.91 A torque of TC = 30 kip-in. acts on gear C

of the assembly shown in Fig. P6.91. Shafts
(1) and (2) are solid 2.00-in.-diameter stainless
steel shafts and shaft (3) is a solid 1.75-in.diameter stainless steel shaft. Assume L = 8 in.
and G = 12,500 ksi. Determine:
(a) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
shaft (1).
(b) the maximum shear stress magnitude in
shaft segment (3).
(c) the rotation angle of gear E.
(d) the rotation angle of gear C.

Fig. P6.91

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moments of inertia for the shafts are:

I p1 = I p 2 =
I p3 =

32

32

## Equilibrium: Consider a free-body diagram cut through

shaft (2) and around gear C:
M x = T2 + TC = 0
T2 = TC = 30 kip-in. (a)

## Next, consider a FBD cut around gear B through shafts (1)

and (2). The teeth of gear E exert a force F on the teeth of
gear B. This force F opposes the rotation of gear B. The
radius of gear B will be denoted by RB for now (even though
the gear radius is not given explicitly).
M x = T2 T1 F RB = 0
(b)
Finally, consider a FBD cut around gear E through shaft (3).
The teeth of gear B exert an equal magnitude force F on the
teeth of gear C, acting opposite to the direction assumed in
the previous FBD. The radius of gear E will be denoted by
RE for now.
T
M x = T3 F RE = 0
F = 3
(c)
RE
The results of Eqs. (a) and (c) can be substituted into Eq. (b) to give
R
T1 = 30 kip-in. + T3 B
RE
The ratio RB/RE is simply the gear ratio between gears B and E, which can also be expressed in terms of
gear teeth NB and NE:
N
54 teeth
T1 = 30 kip-in. + T3 B = 30 kip-in. + T3
= 30 kip-in. + 1.285714 T3
(d)
NE
42 teeth
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Equation (d) summarizes the results of the equilibrium considerations, but there are still two unknowns
in this equation: T1 and T3. Consequently, this problem is statically indeterminate. To solve the
problem, an additional equation must be developed. This second equation will be derived from the
relationship between the angles of twist in shafts (1) and (3).
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
3 = 3 3
G1 I p1
G3 I p 3

(e)

## Geometry of Deformation Relationship:

The rotation of gear B is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (1):
B = 1

and the rotation of gear E is equal to the angle of twist in shaft (3):
E = 3
However, since the gear teeth mesh, the rotation angles for gears B and E are not independent. The
arclengths associated with the respective rotations must be equal, but the gears turn in opposite
directions. The relationship between gear rotations can be stated as:
RBB = REE
where RB and RE are the radii of gears B and E, respectively. Since the gear rotation angles are related to
the shaft angles of twist, this relationship can be expressed as:
RB1 = RE3
(f)
Compatibility Equation:
Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eq. (e)] into the geometry of deformation relationship [Eq. (f)]
to obtain:
TL
TL
RB 1 1 = RE 3 3
G1 I p1
G3 I p 3
which can be rearranged and expressed in terms of the gear ratio NB /NE:
TL
N B T1 L1
(g)
= 3 3
N E G1 I p1
G3 I p 3
Note that the compatibility equation has two unknowns: T1 and T3. This equation can be solved
simultaneously with Eq. (d) to calculate the internal torques in shafts (1) and (3).
Solve the Equations: Solve for internal torque T3 in Eq. (g):
N L G I
T3 = T1 B 1 3 p 3
N E L3 G1 I p1

## and substitute this result into Eq. (d):

T1 = 30 kip-in. + 1.285714 T3

N L G I
= 30 kip-in. + 1.285714 T1 B 1 3 p 3
N E L3 G1 I p1

## 54 teeth 0.920772 in.4

= 30 kip-in. 1.285714 T1

4
42 teeth 1.570796 in.
= 30 kip-in. 0.968994 T1
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## Group the T1 terms to obtain:

30 kip-in.
T1 =
= 15.2362 kip-in.
1.968994
Backsubstitute this result into Eq. (d) to find the internal torque in shaft (3):
T1 = 30 kip-in. + 1.285714 T3
T3 =

## T1 30 kip-in. 15.2362 kip-in. 30 kip-in.

=
= 11.4830 kip-in.
1.285714
1.285714

## (a) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (1):

T R (15.2362 kip-in.)(2.00 in./ 2)
1 = 1 1 =
= 9.70 ksi
I p1
1.570796 in.4

Ans.

## (b) Maximum Shear Stress Magnitude in Shaft (3):

T R (11.4830 kip-in.)(1.75 in./ 2)
3 = 3 3 =
= 10.91 ksi
I p3
0.920772 in.4

Ans.

## (c) Rotation Angle of Gear E:

TL
(11.4830 kip-in.)(2)(8 in.)
3 = 3 3 =
G3 I p 3 (12,500 ksi)(0.920772 in.4 )

E = 3 = 0.01596 rad

Ans.

## (d) Rotation Angle of Gear C:

TL
(15.2362 kip-in.)(2)(8 in.)
1 = 1 1 =
G1 I p1 (12,500 ksi)(1.570796 in.4 )

2 =

T2 L2
(30 kip-in.)(8 in.)
=
G2 I p 2 (12,500 ksi)(1.570796 in.4 )

## C = B + 2 = 1 + 2 = 0.012416 rad + 0.012223 rad = 0.0246 rad

Ans.

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6.92 The steel [G = 12,000 ksi] pipe shown in Fig. P6.92 is fixed to the wall support at C. The bolt holes
in the flange at A were supposed to align with mating holes in the wall support; however, an angular
misalignment of 2 was found to exist. To connect the pipe to its supports, a temporary installation
torque TB must be applied at B to align flange A with the mating holes in the wall support. The outside
diameter of the pipe is 3.50 in. and its wall thickness is 0.216 in.
(a) Determine the temporary installation torque
TB that must be applied at B to align the bolt
holes at A.
(b) Determine the maximum shear stress initial
in the pipe after the bolts are connected and the
temporary installation torque at B is removed.
(c) If the maximum shear stress in the pipe shaft
must not exceed 12 ksi, determine the maximum
external torque TB that can be applied at B after
the bolts are connected.

Fig. P6.92

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moment of inertia for the pipe is:

I p1 = I p 2 =

## (3.50 in.) 4 (3.068 in.) 4 = 6.034313 in.4

32

(a) Temporary Installation Torque TB: The shaft, which is fixed to the support at C, must be rotated
2 so that the connection at A can be completed. Consequently, segment (2) must be twisted 2 (or
0.034907 rad) by the temporary torque TB. From the torque-twist relationship for shaft (2)
TL
2 = 2 2
G2 I p 2
the temporary torque TB is:
GI
Ans.
= 17.55 kip-in.
TB = 2 2 p 2 =
(12 ft)(12 in./ft)
L2
(b) Maximum Shear Stress after Temporary Torque is Removed: After TB is removed, the 2 angle
of twist now applies to the total pipe length, i.e., 20 ft. The internal torque magnitude in the pipe due to
the 2 misfit is thus:
GI
= 10.5320 kip-in.
Tinitial = misfit p =
( L1 + L2 )
(20 ft)(12 in./ft)
and the maximum shear stress magnitude in the pipe due to this internal torque is:
T R (10.5320 kip-in.)(3.50 in./ 2)
Ans.
initial = initial =
= 3.05 ksi
6.034313 in.4
Ip

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After Bolts Installed: After the bolts are installed, the pipe is analyzed as a statically indeterminate
torsion structure.
Equilibrium:
M x = T1 + T2 + TB = 0
(a)
Note: By inspection, the internal torque T2 will end up having
a negative value.
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2

(b)

Geometry of Deformation Relationship: The two shafts are securely attached to fixed supports at A
and C; however, in this instance, the sum of the angles of twist in the two members must equal the misfit
angle. Note: If the rotation angle at A is a positive 2 (as can be inferred from the problem sketch), then
the pipe must twist in a negative sense to reach a zero rotation angle at C.
1 + 2 = 0.034907 rad
(c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eqs. (b)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (c)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
T1 L1
TL
+ 2 2 = 0.034907 rad
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2

(d)

Solve the Equations: Since the problem is expressed in terms of allowable stresses, it is convenient to
rewrite Eq. (d) in terms of stresses. In general, the elastic torsion formula can be rearranged as:
TR
T
=
=
Ip
Ip R
which allows Eq. (d) to be rewritten as:
1 L1
L
(e)
G1 R1
G2 R2
Solve Eq. (e) for 1:
GR
L G R
1 = (0.034907 rad) 1 1 2 2 1 1
L1
L1 G2 R2
(12, 000 ksi)(3.50 in./2)
12 ft
2

(8 ft)(12 in./ft)
8 ft
= 7.635906 ksi 1.5 2

(f)

Assume the shaft (2) controls: By inspection of the FBD, the internal torque T2 should have a negative
value. Therefore, we can assume that the maximum shear stress in shaft (2) will be 12 ksi. If the shear
stress in shaft (2) reaches this value, then the shear stress in shaft (1) will be:
1 = 7.635906 ksi 1.5(12 ksi) = 10.3641 ksi 12 ksi
O.K.
This calculation demonstrates that the shear stress magnitude in shaft (2) must control.

Now that the maximum shear stress magnitudes in the two shafts are known, the torque magnitudes in
each component can be computed:
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T1 =
T2 =

1 I p1
R1

2 I p2
R2

## (10.3641 ksi)(6.034313 in.4 )

=
= 35.7373 kip-in.
( 3.50 in./2 )
=

## (12 ksi)(6.034313 in.4 )

= 41.3781 kip-in.
( 3.50 in./2 )

(c) Maximum Allowable Torque: From Eq. (a), the total torque acting at B must not exceed:
TB ,max = T1 T2 = 35.7373 kip-in. (41.3781 kip-in.) = 77.1154 kip-in.= 77.1 kip-in.

Ans.

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6.93 The steel [G = 12,000 ksi] pipe shown in Fig. P6.93 is fixed to the wall support at C. The bolt holes
in the flange at A were supposed to align with mating holes in the wall support; however, an angular
misalignment of 2 was found to exist. To connect the pipe to its supports, a temporary installation
torque TB must be applied at B to align flange A with the mating holes in the wall support. The outside
diameter of the pipe is 2.875 in. and its wall thickness is 0.203 in.
(a) Determine the temporary installation torque
TB that must be applied at B to align the bolt
holes at A.
(b) Determine the maximum shear stress initial
in the pipe after the bolts are connected and the
temporary installation torque at B is removed.
(c) Determine the magnitude of the maximum
shear stress in segments (1) and (2) if an
external torque of TB = 80 kip-in. is applied at B
after the bolts are connected.

Fig. P6.93

Solution
Section Properties: The polar moment of inertia for the pipe is:

I p1 = I p 2 =

## (2.875 in.) 4 (2.469 in.) 4 = 3.059108 in.4

32

(a) Temporary Installation Torque TB: The shaft, which is fixed to the support at C, must be rotated
2 so that the connection at A can be completed. Consequently, segment (2) must be twisted 2 (or
0.034907 rad) by the temporary torque TB. From the torque-twist relationship for shaft (2)
TL
2 = 2 2
G2 I p 2
the temporary torque TB is:
GI
Ans.
= 8.90 kip-in.
TB = 2 2 p 2 =
(12 ft)(12 in./ft)
L2
(b) Maximum Shear Stress after Temporary Torque is Removed: After TB is removed, the 2 angle
of twist now applies to the total pipe length, i.e., 20 ft. The internal torque magnitude in the pipe due to
the 2 misfit is thus:
GI
= 5.3392 kip-in.
Tinitial = misfit p =
( L1 + L2 )
(20 ft)(12 in./ft)
and the maximum shear stress magnitude in the pipe due to this internal torque is:
T R (5.3392 kip-in.)(2.875 in./ 2)
Ans.
initial = initial =
= 2.51 ksi
3.059108 in.4
Ip

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to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that
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After Bolts Installed: After the bolts are installed, the pipe is analyzed as a statically indeterminate
torsion structure.
Equilibrium:
M x = T1 + T2 + TB = 0
(a)
Note: By inspection, the internal torque T2 will end up having
a negative value.
Torque-Twist Relationships:
TL
TL
1 = 1 1
2 = 2 2
G1 I p1
G2 I p 2

(b)

Geometry of Deformation Relationship: The two shafts are securely attached to fixed supports at A
and C; however, in this instance, the sum of the angles of twist in the two members must equal the misfit
angle. Note: If the rotation angle at A is a positive 2 (as can be inferred from the problem sketch), then
the pipe must twist in a negative sense to reach a zero rotation angle at C.
1 + 2 = 0.034907 rad
(c)
Compatibility Equation: Substitute the torque-twist relationships [Eqs. (b)] into the geometry of
deformation relationship [Eq. (c)] to obtain the compatibility equation:
T1 L1
TL
+ 2 2 = 0.034907 rad
G1 I p1 G2 I p 2

(d)

## Solve the Equations: Solve Eq. (d) for T1:

G1 I p1
L G I p1
T2 2 1
L1
L1 G2 I p 2
(12, 000 ksi)(3.059108 in.4 )
12 ft
T2

(8 ft)(12 in./ft)
8 ft
= 13.348035 kip-in. 1.5 T2
and substitute this result into Eq. (a) to compute the torque T2:
T1 + T2 = ( 13.348035 kip-in. 1.5 T2 ) + T2 = 13.348035 kip-in. + 2.5 T2 = 80 kip-in.

93.348035 kip-in.
= 37.3392 kip-in.
2.5
The torque in member (1) is therefore:
T1 = T2 + 80 kip-in. = 37.3392 kip-in. + 80 kip-in. = 42.6608 kip-in.
T2 =

(a) Maximum Shear Stress: The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (1) is:
T R (42.6608 kip-in.)(2.875 in./ 2)
1 = 1 1 =
= 20.0 ksi
I p1
3.059108 in.4
The maximum shear stress magnitude in member (2) is:
TR
(37.3392 kip-in.)(2.875 in./ 2)
2 = 2 2 =
= 17.55 ksi
I p2
3.059108 in.4

Ans.

Ans.

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