Sie sind auf Seite 1von 35

Fatigue Analysis

in ASME B31.3 Piping


Nigel Marsh
Chief Pipe Stress Analysis Engineer
Worley Parsons Australia

Intergraph 2014

Fatigue Analysis in ASME B31.3 Piping

Content

ASME B31.3

Typical Fatigue Offshore Oil and Gas

Fatigue approach using pressure vessel code

Fatigue evaluation example

Intergraph 2014

ASME B31.3

Stresses Types

Sustained
Occasional
Displacement stress range

At fittings and discontinuities SIFs increase stresses for weld system

Intergraph 2014

ASME B31.3

Stress range factor corrects for cycles

ASME B31.3 now limits Sc, Sh to 138MPa

Intergraph 2014

Typical Fatigue Offshore Oil & Gas

Conductors and Risers

Wave and current move conductor relative to the platform


Conductor guide gaps limit relative movement
Wave motion causes high cycle fatigue loading in piping
Wellhead vertical growth low cycle fatigue loading in piping

Intergraph 2014

Typical Fatigue Offshore Oil & Gas

Bridge piping

Platforms can move relative to each other


Bridge pinned one end, sliding other
Piping must absorb relative movement
Variable amplitude high cycle fatigue
Thermal expansion low cycle fatigue

Intergraph 2014

Typical Fatigue Offshore Oil & Gas

FPSOs

Ship hull motion and acceleration causes high cycle fatigue loading in
piping
Many permutations of the different motions and accelerations
Variable amplitude high cycle fatigue
Thermal expansion low cycle fatigue

Intergraph 2014

Fatigue approach using pressure


vessel code

This discussion is limited to static analysis only, not dynamic


analysis
Identify fatigue loadings on piping.

Thermal
Pressure
Wave loading
Movements
Accelerations
FPSO cargo loading/unloading
Operational / Transport

Identify cycles for each load.


Wave induced loading may be defined for a design condition with
the majority of cycles at a significantly less load

Intergraph 2014

Fatigue approach using pressure


vessel code

Build CAESAR II model including fatigue loadings


Build load cases in CAESAR II to reflect loads
Decide which pressure vessel code to use to evaluate fatigue
Select fatigue curve for welded system
Design Fatigue Factor

Factor of safety for uncertainties in fatigue analysis


Some operating companies specify
EN13445 requires inspection at 20% of fatigue life, DFF 5.0
DNV offshore structural code has requirements that are sometimes
used

Intergraph 2014

Pressure vessel codes

EN13445 Unfired pressure vessels - Part 3: Design


EN13445 uses equivalent stress range ( 2 x shear stress )
Load cases in CAESAR II must be the stress range

Intergraph 2014

CAESAR II fatigue load case

Fatigue load (FAT) cases in CAESAR II calculate the Stress


Intensity
CAESAR II Config file, SIFs and Stresses

Max 3D Shear Tresca


VonMises Maximum distortion energy theory

Removes corrosion allowance to calculate stresses


Refer to CAESAR II users guide stress formulation.

Intergraph 2014

CAESAR II fatigue load case

Refer to CAESAR II users guide stress formulation.

Intergraph 2014

EN13445

18.10.1.2 Classification of weld details to be assessed using


equivalent stress range - Table 18-4.

Intergraph 2014

EN13445

Classification of weld
details for supports

Intergraph 2014

EN13445

Intergraph 2014

EN13445

Intergraph 2014

EN13445

Correction factors

Deviations from design shape (Ovality, weld misalignment)


Material thickness (typically > 25 mm)
Temperature
Corrosion
NDT
Elastic / plastic behaviour

Intergraph 2014

EN13445

Simplified counting method

Intergraph 2014

EN13445

Simplified counting method

Intergraph 2014

EN13445

Simplified counting method

Intergraph 2014

Cumulative Fatigue Damage

ASME B31.3 and vessel codes evaluate cumulative damage in the


same way
Each Di = ni/Ni is the damage from a fatigue load
Where; n = number of applied cycles
N = allowed cycles at a given stress

Intergraph 2014

Fatigue Evaluation Example


Example typical bridge piping connecting two offshore platforms
Identify loads
Build CAESAR II model
Build load cases to calculate fatigue stress ranges
Constant amplitude Thermal, Pressure
Variable amplitude platform movements due to waves.

Use relationship between stress and loading


Assume to be linear in this example.
Consider nonlinear affects in CAESAR II model

Elastic - plastic check


Cumulative fatigue damage

Intergraph 2014

Bridge Piping Example

Loadings

Thermal expansion; -10 to 100C, 1560 cycles


Relative platform movement; 100 year return period storm, movements
in various directions

Wave induced loading simplified in this example


Pressure vessel code ; EN13445
Design Fatigue Factor 3.0 as the piping is difficult to inspect

Intergraph 2014

Bridge Piping Example


CAESAR II model
Temperature T3 -10, T2 100C
Displacements D1 North/South 350mm, D2 East/West 700mm
Apply displacements to support CNodes
Consider nonlinear aspects of model, include friction, exclude
guide gaps

Intergraph 2014

Bridge Piping Example


CAESAR II model

s
ide
s
p
)
To
e en d
g
d
i
Br iding
l
(S

North
Fixed point
in model
Intergraph 2014

Bridge Piping Example

CAESAR II fatigue allowable stress


Fatigue data to include correct factors

Intergraph 2014

Bridge Piping Example


CAESAR II load cases
Load case for full fatigue stress range
D1 & D2 are half the displacement stress range from movements
1 (OPE) W+T1+P1
2 (OPE) W+T2+P1
3 (OPE) W+T3

- Operating temp
- Max design temp
- Min design temp

4 (OPE) W+D1+T1+P1
5 (OPE) W-D1+T1+P1
6 (OPE) W+D2+T1+P1
7 (OPE) W-D2+T1+P1
8 (SUS) W+P1
9 (EXP) L9=L2-L3
10 (FAT) L10=L2-L3 (1560 cycles)
11 (FAT) L11=L4-L5 (3.28E7 cycles)
12 (FAT) L12=L6-L7 (1.12E8 cycles)
Intergraph 2014

CAESAR II output reports

Single fatigue load case

Intergraph 2014

CAESAR II output reports

Cumulative damage report

Intergraph 2014

Bridge Piping Example

Fatigue assessment including wave height distribution


Start with assumption that max stress in all fatigue load cases are at
same location for all fatigue loads.

The following example is simplified

Intergraph 2014

Bridge Piping Example


CAESAR II results

Intergraph 2014

Intergraph 2014

Bridge Piping Example

Elastic - Plastic check

ASME B31.3 displacement stress range check


EN13445

Intergraph 2014

Summary

ASME B31.3 has limitations for high cycle fatigue analysis


Define fatigue loadings and associated cycles
Select fatigue approach / code
Select fatigue curve for piping butt weld
Apply fatigue curve correction factors
Use CAESAR II to calculate stresses required
Evaluate cumulative damage
Document, method, assumptions and results

Intergraph 2014

Fatigue Analysis in ASME B31.3 Piping

Thank You

Nigel Marsh
Chief Pipe Stress Analysis Engineer
Worley Parsons Australia

Intergraph 2014