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LTE Features

Atoll 3.3.0

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Slide 1

Training Programme

1.

LTE Concepts

2.

LTE Planning Overview

3.

Modelling a LTE Network

4.

LTE Predictions

5.

Neighbours Allocation

6.

Automatic Resource Allocation

7.

MIMO Features

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Slide 2

1. LTE Concepts

Overview
OFDM Definition
Advanced OFDM: OFDMA
Benefits of OFDM/OFDMA
Multiple Access Techniques and Duplexing Methods

LTE Radio Interface

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Slide 3

What is 4G?

Evolution of 3GPP standards


Release 99:

UMTS FDD (3G)

Release 4:

UMTS TDD + FDD repeaters (3G)

Release 5:

HSDPA (3.5G)

Release 6:

HSUPA (enhanced uplink) + MBMS (3.5G)

Release 7:

HSPA+ (2x2 MIMO, higher order modulations, etc.) (3.75G)

Release 8:

LTE FDD and TDD (3.9G) + HSPA+ multi-carrier

Release 10:

LTE advanced (4G)

WCDMA

HSDPA/HSUPA

HSPA+

LTE

LTE Adv.

384 kbps downlink


128 kbps uplink

14 Mbps peak downlink


5.7 Mbps peak uplink

42,2 Mbps peak downlink


11 Mbps peak uplink

100 Mbps peak downlink


50 Mbps peak uplink

100 Mbps to 1Gbps


peak downlink

3GPP
Release
5/6

3GPP
Release
7/8

LTE 3GPP
Release 8

LTE Adv.
3GPP
Release 10

OFDMA
SC-FDMA
MIMO

+ Carrier aggregation (DL/UL)


+ HetNets
+ enhanced MIMO (8*8)

3GPP Release 99/4

Technologies
WCDMA

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WCDMA
+ Enhanced architecture
+ Higher order modulations

WCDMA
+ MIMO
+ Dual-carrier

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Slide 4

OFDM Frequency and Time Domains

What is OFDM ?
OFDM = Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

Frequency domain organization


Advanced form of Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
Principle:
Wideband channel split into multiple
narrowband radio carriers (subcarriers)

orthogonal

Subcarriers are spaced in a manner that the centre of each


subcarrier corresponds to a zero crossing point of the
neighbouring subcarriers
Good spectral efficiency compared to FDM systems

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Slide 5

OFDM Frequency and Time Domains

Time domain organization


Adjustable guard period referred to as cyclic prefix
Used to fight against multipath effects (delay spread)

Two configurations depending on the environment


Normal cyclic prefix: 4.7 us
Extended cyclic prefix: 16.7 us

Typical values of delay spread:


Open environment: 0.2 us
Suburban: 0.5 us
Urban: 3 us
Hilly area: 3-10 us
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Slide 6

Advanced OFDM: OFDMA

OFDM : Orthogonal Frequency


Division Multiplexing
OFDM allocates users in time domain only

OFDMA allocates users in time and frequency


domains
Several users served at once

Resource Blocks

The entire channel bandwidth is allocated to


one user

OFDMA : Orthogonal Frequency


Division Multiple Access

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Slide 7

Benefits of OFDM/OFDMA

OFDM(A) summary:

Narrowband orthogonal subcarriers


Negligible inter-carrier interference (ICI)
No frequency selective fading

Long symbol durations + cyclic prefix


Negligible inter-symbol interference (ISI)
No ICI and ISI:
No intra-cell interference in theory
Possibility to support less robust modulations like 16QAM, 64QAM for higher throughput !

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Slide 8

Multiple Access Techniques and Duplexing Methods

OFDMA in DL
Each subcarrier carries one specific
data symbol (QPSK, 16QAM...)

SC-FDMA in UL (OFDMA variant)


Single-Carrier Frequency
Multiple Access

Division

Each subcarrier carries information of


all data symbols
Technique well suited to LTE UL
requirements
Lower PAPR*
Power consumption limited

LTE can be deployed in FDD and TDD

*PAPR: Peak to Average Power Ratio


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Slide 9

LTE Radio Interface

LTE channel structure


A channel is composed of more than 1 frequency block (FB)
Fixed width = 180 kHz (LTE system level constant)
1 frequency block over 1 slot = 1 resource block (RB)
Each FB is composed of many subcarriers

Two subcarrier widths possible: 15 kHz, 7.5 kHz (specified for MBMS/SFN services)
1 FB = 12 SCa of 15 kHz

OR

24 SCa of 7.5 kHz

1 subcarrier over 1 SD (symbol duration) = 1 resource element (RE)

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Slide 10

LTE Channel Structure

LTE PHY layer supports a wide range of bandwidths


Spectrum flexibility

Channel
bandwidth

Subcarrier
spacing

Number
of FBs

Number of
subcarriers

Sampling
frequency

FFT size

72

1.92 MHz
(1/2 x 3.84)

128

15

180

3.84 MHz
(1 x 3.84)

256

25

300

7.68 MHz
(2 x 3.84)

512

50

600

15.36 MHz
(4 x 3.84)

1024

15 MHz

75

900

23.04 MHz
(6 x 3.84)

1536

20 MHz

100

1200

30.72 MHz
(8 x 3.84)

2048

1.4 MHz

3 MHz

15 kHz

5 MHz
10 MHz

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(7.5 kHz for


MBMS)

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Slide 11

LTE Frame Structure

Time domain structure (for both UL and DL)


Specific frame structures for TDD and FDD
1 frame

= 10 ms

= 2 half-frames (TDD)

= 10 sub-frames or TTI (each 1 ms)


= 20 slots (each 0.5 ms)

1 slot (0.5 ms) = 6 or 7 symbol durations (depending on the cyclic prefix duration)

1 FB over 1 sub-frame (1ms) = smallest unit that can be allocated by the scheduler (scheduling block)
Control channels transmitted on sub-frames 0 and 5 (always DL)
10 ms

LTE Frame
1 ms

SF 0

SF 1

..

SF 9

..

Slot 18 Slot 19

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OFDM
Symbol 4

OFDM
Symbol 5

CP

OFDM
Symbol 3

CP

OFDM
Symbol 2

CP

OFDM
Symbol 1

CP

OFDM
Symbol 0

CP

CP

Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 3

CP

0.5 ms

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OFDM
Symbol 6

Slide 12

Physical Channels

HARQ feedback,
CQI reporting,
UL scheduling request,
CQI reporting for MIMO
related feedback

Random access
Traffic

Pilot (channel
estimation),
slot/frame
synchronization and
cell identification
Traffic, MBMS,
system information,
paging

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eNode-B

HARQ feedback,
transport format,
UL scheduling grants,
DL resource allocation
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Slide 13

OFDMA LTE Frame (DL)

Structure of a resource block


Frame structure of type I (FDD), 1 antenna port, F = 15 kHz
Standard frequency block:

Any frequency block within the centre 6 frequency blocks:

Legend:
Downlink reference signals
PBCH (Physical Broadcast Channel)
PSS (Primary Synchronisation Signal)
SSS (Secondary Synchronisation Signal)
PDCCH / PHICH / PCFICH (Physical - Downlink Control / HARQ Indicator / Control Format Indicator - Channels)
PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Data Channel)

RBs allocated to mobiles are not necessarily adjacent interference coordination

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Slide 14

OFDMA LTE Frame (DL)

OFDM
symbol 5

CP

OFDM
symbol 4

CP

OFDM
symbol 3

CP

CP

OFDM
symbol 2

OFDM
symbol 6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Centre 6 RBs

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

OFDM
symbol 1

CP

OFDM
symbol 0

CP

CP

7 OFDM symbols at normal CP per slot (0.5 ms)

1 subframe = 2 slots (1 ms)

Legend:
Downlink reference signals
PBCH
PSS
SSS
PDCCH / PHICH / PCFICH
PDSCH

180 kHz

Channel bandwidth

SF 0

SF 1

SF 2

SF 3

SF 4

SF 5

SF 6

SF 7

SF 8

SF 9

1 frame (10 ms)


= 10 subframes (1 ms)
= 20 slots (0.5 ms)

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Slide 15

SC-FDMA LTE Frame (UL)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

OFDM
symbol 5

CP

OFDM
symbol 4

CP

OFDM
symbol 3

CP

OFDM
symbol 2

CP

OFDM
symbol 1

CP

OFDM
symbol 0

CP

CP

7 OFDM symbols at normal CP per slot (0.5 ms)


OFDM
symbol 6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 subframe = 2 slots (1 ms)

Legend:
UL DRS (Uplink Demodulation Reference Signal)
UL SRS (Uplink Sounding Reference Signal)
PUCCH (Physical Uplink Control Channel) (incl. HARQ feedback
and CQI reporting)

Demodulation Reference Signal for PUCCH


PUSCH (Physical Uplink Shared Channel)
180 kHz

Channel bandwidth

SF 0

SF 1

SF 2

SF 3

SF 4

SF 5

SF 6

SF 7

SF 8

SF 9

1 frame (10 ms)


= 10 subframes (1 ms)
= 20 slots (0.5 ms)

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Slide 16

Training Programme

1.

LTE Concepts

2.

LTE Planning Overview

3.

Modelling a LTE Network

4.

LTE Predictions

5.

Neighbours Allocation

6.

Automatic Resource Allocation

7.

MIMO Features

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Slide 17

2. LTE Planning Overview

LTE Features Supported in Atoll


LTE Planning Workflow in Atoll

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Slide 18

LTE Features Supported in Atoll

Atoll fully supports LTE/LTE-A networks


Various E-UTRA frequency bands
Scalable channel bandwidths (from 1,4 MHz to 20 MHz)

Support of TDD and FDD frame structures


Normal and extended cyclic prefixes
Downlink and uplink control channels and overheads
Downlink and uplink reference signals, PSS, SSS, PBCH, PDCCH, PUCCH, etc.

Physical Cell IDs implementation


Network capacity analysis using Monte-Carlo simulations
RSRP, RSSI and RSRQ support in predictions and simulations

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Slide 19

LTE Features Supported in Atoll

Atoll fully supports LTE/LTE-A networks


Inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC) support
Hard FFR (Fractional Frequency Reuse),
Time-switched FFR,
Soft FFR,

Partial soft FFR


eICIC (enhanced ICIC)

Support of fractional power control (UL)

Modelling of multi-layer heterogeneous networks (HetNets)


Small Cells, Relay nodes
Layers and eICIC features

Services can be mapped to QoS Class Identifiers (QCI)


Beamforming modelling (smart antennas)
Possibility of fixed subscriber database for fixed applications
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Slide 20

LTE Features Supported in Atoll

Atoll fully supports LTE/LTE-A networks


Carrier Aggregation up to 5 carriers of 20 MHz
Dynamic Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems
Transmit and receive diversity

Single-user MIMO or spatial multiplexing


Dynamic MIMO switching
Modelling of Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO)
AAS (Active Antenna Systems) with beamforming

Tools for automatic resource allocation


Automatic allocation of neighbours
Automatic allocation of Physical Cell IDs (PCI)
Automatic allocation of frequencies

Specific module (AFP)

PRACH RSI (root sequence indexes)

Network verification using drive test data

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Slide 21

LTE Planning Workflow in Atoll

Open an existing project or


create a new one
Network configuration
- Add network elements
- Change parameters

ACP

Basic predictions
(Best server, signal level)
Automatic or manual neighbour allocation
Automatic or manual frequency planning

Automatic or manual Physical Cell ID and PRACH Root Sequence Index planning
Traffic maps
Monte-Carlo
simulations

And/or

Subscriber lists

Frequency plan
analysis

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User-defined
values
Cell load
conditions
Signal quality and throughput
predictions

Prediction study
reports

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Slide 22

Training Programme

1.

LTE Concepts

2.

LTE Planning Overview

3.

Modelling a LTE Network

4.

LTE Predictions

5.

Neighbours Allocation

6.

Automatic Resource Allocation

7.

MIMO Features

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Slide 23

3. Modelling a LTE Network

Global Settings
Frequency bands and channels definition
Global LTE frame definition

Radio Parameters
Sites
Transmitters
Cells

Multi-layer Networks (HetNets)


HetNets Configuration
eICIC
Relay links

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Slide 24

Global Settings (1/2)

Frequency bands and channels definition


Atoll can model multi-band networks within the same document
2 duplexing methods available: FDD and TDD

Bandwidths from 1,4 MHz to 20 MHz supported

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Slide 25

Global Settings (2/2)

Global LTE frame definition

Normal (default) or extended cyclic prefix


at 15 kHz, 7 SD/slot (normal), or 6 SD/slot (extended)

Number of SD for PDCCH


(from 0 to 4) carrying DL
and UL resource allocation
information

Average number of
resource blocks for
PUCCH

TDD option only:


Special subframe
selection

System-level constants (hard-coded)


Width of a resource block (180 kHz)
Frame duration (10 ms)
Other control channel overheads defined by 3GPP
Reference signals, PSS, SSS, PBCH, etc.
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Slide 26

Advanced Settings (1/2)

Downlink Cell-specific Reference Signals


One antenna port

R0

Reference Signal Power Boost


With more than one antenna port

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

Each antenna uses different resource


elements to transmit reference signals
Two antenna ports

R0

Resource elements of one antenna


port that correspond to reference
signal transmission on another
antenna port are not used (DTX)

Four antenna ports

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R1

R0

R0

even-numbered slots

l6

odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 0

l0

even-numbered slots

l0

R1
l6 l0

R3

R2

R3

R2
l6

l0

l6

R3

R2

odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 1

R1

R1
l6

R2

R1
l6 l0

R1

R1

R0
l6 l0

R1

R1

l6 l0

R0

l6

R1

R1

R1

R0

R1

l6 l0

R0

R1

R1

R0

l0

R1

R0

R0

l0

R0

R0

l0

R3
l6 l0

even-numbered slots

l6

odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 2

l0

l6 l0

even-numbered slots

l6

odd-numbered slots

Antenna port 3

Different LTE equipment and vendors may support different methods for reusing the energy
corresponding to the unused resource elements
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Slide 27

Advanced Settings (2/2)

Downlink Transmit power calculation


0-Max Power defined manually in the cell table. The energy of the unused resource elements is
distributed on the downlink channels.
1-RS EPRE defined manually. The Max Power will automatically be calculated
2-Max Power defined manually in the cell table. The energy of the unused resource elements is allotted
to reference signal resource elements only (RS Power Boost = 3dB for 2 antennas and 6dB for 4 antennas)
3-Max Power defined manually in the cell table. The energy of the unused resource elements is lost
4-Max power and RS EPRE defined manually in the cell table.

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Slide 28

Radio Parameters Overview

Sites
Characterized by their X (longitude) and Y (latitude) coordinates

Transmitters
Presented in the
General Features course

Activity
Antenna configuration (model, height, azimuth, mechanical/electrical tilts...)
UL and DL losses / UL noise figure
Propagation (model, radius and resolution)

Cells
Frequency band & channel
Layer
Cell Type
Physical Cell ID

Power definition of DL channels

Specific parameters for


LTE technology

Min. RSRP
DL and UL traffic loads
Diversity support (MIMO)
Neighbours
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Slide 29

Transmitter Parameters

Transmitter parameters

Antenna configuration and losses


parameters

Propagation settings

DL and UL
total losses,
UL noise figure

Antenna
configuration

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Slide 30

Cell Parameters

Main parameters
Cell activity
Only active cells are considered in predictions

Frequency band and channel number


Physical Cell ID
PSS/SSS ID automatically computed

Powers and energy offsets


Computed from RS EPRE*

Min. RSRP
Used as a cell coverage limit

Load conditions
DL traffic load (%)
UL noise rise due to surrounding mobiles (dB)
*RS EPRE: Reference Signal Energy Per Resource Element
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Slide 31

Cell Parameters

Main parameters
Automatic resource allocation parameters
Allocation status
Channels
Physical Cell ID

PRACH RSI

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Slide 32

Cell Parameters

Main parameters
Layer
Similar to HCS layers in 2G networks and layers
in 3G
Used to model HetNets*

Frame configuration (optional)


See next slide

MIMO configuration
Diversity support DL/UL:
Transmit diversity
SU-MIMO
AAS: Advanced Antenna Systems
MU-MIMO

Neighbours-related parameters

*HetNets: Heterogeneous Networks


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Slide 33

Cell Parameters

Specific frame configurations


Each cell can be assigned a specific frame configuration (optional)
PDCCH/PUCCH overheads and cyclic prefix can be set for each frame
Override values defined in global parameters

PRACH preamble format


Defines a max. distance limiting the best server coverage (see 3GPP specs.)

Specific parameters used in case of interference coordination support (ICIC)


Group 0/1/2 frequency blocks, ICIC mode, cell-edge power boost (DL)

TDD parameter: Special Subframe Configuration

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Slide 34

Multi-layer Networks (HetNets)

What is HetNets?
HetNets, or Heterogeneous Networks, are comprised of traditional large macrocells and smaller cells like:
Microcells (< 5W)
Picocells (< 1W)
Femtocells (~ 200mW)

HetNets provide two basic benefits to operators:


Increase capacity in hotspots as traffic is not uniformly distributed
Improve coverage in places where macro coverage is not adequate

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Slide 35

Multi-layer Networks (HetNets)

Heterogeneous network deployment


Atoll LTE fully supports multi-layer networks
Different layers with different priorities
Taken into account to determine the best serving cell ( they are not used in simulation)
The definition of layers can be based on the operating frequencies

Each cell has to be mapped to a layer


You can also assign supported layers to different services and terminals

Layers management
You can define network layers with corresponding:
Priorities
Supported mobile speeds

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Slide 36

Multi-layer Networks (HetNets)

Layers management
Principle of the cell selection margins
Due to the wide difference of power levels between macro and pico/femtocells, most of the UEs will get
associated to the macrocells resulting in a load imbalance throughout the network
To counterbalance this effect, and thus enhance the system performance, an offset is to be added to the
actual RSRP value from the pico/femtocells (range expansion) during the cell selection process
Cell range expansion concept modelled by cell selection margins in Atoll

Area where the picocell is


received with a higher power
than the macrocell

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Slide 37

Multi-layer Networks (HetNets)

Can be defined in the transmitter properties dialogue


Cell Layer parameter [Cells tab]

Cell Selection Threshold (CST) is used to adjust


the Min RSRP threshold of cells belonging to
different priority layers

The CIO is used in order to rank the potential


servers for best serving cell selection in
connected mode

The Handover Margin is used for selecting the


best server and for avoiding the ping-pong
effect* between cells.

Handover ping-pong*: base stations bounce the link with the mobile back and forth between cells.
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Slide 38

Multi-layer Networks (HetNets)

Compatibility between services, terminals and network layers


Managed in the services and terminals properties

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Slide 39

Best Server Identification

Best Server determination


(1) Filter the potentials serving cells based on
Cell, service and terminal compatibility with the selected layer
Layers maximum speed Mobility Types speed (Layers table and Mobility Type table)
UECell distance PRACH maximum cell range

RSRP > min RSRP (Cell table)

(2) Identify the initial serving cell


On each pixel, Atoll selects the serving cells corresponding to the highest priority layer
Atoll verifies if these servers respect a RSRP level > min RSRP + Cell Selection threshold

If they do, the server with the maximum RSRP level will be considered as initial serving cell

(3) Atoll calculates the best server criterion (BSc) for the initial serving cell and the other potential serving
cells
Initial serving cell: BSc = RSRP + Handover Margin + CIO

Other serving cells: BSc = RSRP + CIO

(4) The server with the highest best server criterion (BSc) will be considered as best server (for all potential
serving cells from all layers)

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Slide 40

Best Server Identification

Use case : 1 Macro site 800 MHz + 2 Micro sites 1800 MHz + 6 Small Cells 2600 MHz

Cell Table

Mobility Types
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Slide 41

Best Server Identification

Step 1 : Atoll filters potential serving cells


Use case inputs:
In Cells Table, minimum RSRP = -120 dBm
For Pedestrian Mobility Type, average speed 3 km/h
High Speed Internet Service: All layers allowed

MIMO Terminal: All layers allowed


Default configuration for frame configuration => PRACH format 0 (max distance 14521 m)

Cell Type
Small 3
Macro 2
Micro 2_3
Micro 2_2
Small 4
Micro 2_1

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RSRP Level
(dBm)
-114
-106
-108
-110
-118,5
-122

Distance (m)

Layer

88
1860
744
744
118
744

Small Cell 2600


Macro 800
Micro 1800
Micro 1800
Small Cell 2600
Micro 1800

Layer Max
Speed
50
120
50
50
50
50

Potential serving cells


respecting conditions

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Slide 42

Best Server Identification

Step 2 : Identify the initial serving cell


Atoll selects the serving cells corresponding to the highest priority layer from the potential serving cells
and verifies if these servers respect a RSRP level > min RSRP + Cell Selection threshold
If the servers respect this minimum condition, Atoll selects the server with the highest RSRP level and
consider it as the initial serving cell

The Small Cell 3 is the initial serving cell in this use case

Cell Type
Small 3
Macro 2
Micro 2_3
Micro 2_2
Small 4

RSRP Level
(dBm)
-114
-106
-108
-110
-118,5

Cell Selection
Minimum
Threshold level targeted
2
-118
0
-120
0
-120
0
-120
2
-118

Layer Priority
(Lowest 0)
Small Cell 2600
2
Macro 800
0
Micro 1800
1
Micro 1800
1
Small Cell 2600
2
Layer

Highest priority layer selection

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Slide 43

Best Server Identification

Step 3 : Atoll calculates the best server criterion (BSC) for the initial serving cell and the other
potential serving cells
Best serving cell candidate: BSC = RSRP + Handover Margin + CIO
Other serving cells: BSC = RSRP + CIO

Cell Type
Small 3
Macro 2
Micro 2_3
Micro 2_2
Small 4

RSRP Level
(dBm)
-114
-106
-108
-110
-118,5

Handover Margin applied for the


cell candidate only

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Handover
Margin (dB)
4
0
2
2
4

Cell Individual
offset (dB)
4
0
1
1
4

BSc
(dB)
-106
-106
-107
-109
-114,5
CIO applied for all serving
cells.

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Slide 44

Best Server Identification

Step 4: Atoll considers the cell with the highest BSc as the best server: Small Cell 3

MACRO 900

MICRO 2100

MACRO 900

The serving cell with the highest RSRP level is not necessarily
the best server. The selection is based on the BSc calculation.
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Small cell range expansion: The Small


cell maintains connection with the UE
outside its best server area.
The expansion is impacted by the CIO
and the Handover Margin.

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Slide 45

Best Server Identification

Range expansion analysis: LTE specific predictions are impacted by the new best server algorithm
Impact on a Effective Signal Analysis displaying the RSRP level per best server area

RSRP level without considering layers

RSRP level considering layers

The handover margin and the CIO impact the RSRP level shown per pixel. The best server area is changed
so the RSRP level is automatically changed

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Slide 46

Best Server Identification

Best server selection new algorithm

Potential serving
cells based on
Service/Terminal
compatibility
Minimum RSRP level
Mobility type vs layer
max speed
PRACH max cell
range

Rank the
different servers
based on
Layers priority
Maximum level
considering CST*

Atoll analyses
the Cell
Individual Offset
and Handover
Margin

Best Server
identified

CTS*: Cell Selection Threshold


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Slide 47

Carrier Aggregation (LTE-A)

Definition
Carrier Aggregation (CA) increases the
channel bandwidth by combining
multiple RF carriers
Each individual RF carrier is known as
a Component Carrier (CC)
All CCs belong to the same eNodeB

5 CCs may be aggregated to reach a


maximum of 100 MHz
However, initial LTE-A deployments
will likely be limited to 2 CCs

Carrier Aggregation is applicable to both


DL and UL, and both FDD and TDD

3 general types of Carrier Aggregation


scenario have been defined by 3GPP
Intra-band contiguous
Intra-band non-contiguous
Inter-band
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Slide 48

Carrier Aggregation (LTE-A)

Carrier Aggregation categorises cells as:


Primary Cell
The cell upon which the UE performs initial connection establishment
Each connection has a single primary cell
The primary cell can be changed during the handover procedure

Used to generate inputs during security procedures


Used to define NAS mobility information (e.g. Tracking Area Identity)

Secondary Cell
A cell which has been configured to provide additional radio resources after connection establishment

Each connection can have multiple secondary cells

Serving Cell
Both primary and secondary cells
are categorised as serving cells
There is one HARQ entity per
serving cell at the UE
The different serving cells may
have different coverage

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Slide 49

Carrier Aggregation (LTE-A)

Primary and Secondary cells are modelled in


Atoll via the parameter Cell Type
Defines whether the cell supports LTE (3GPP
Rel-8/9) and/or LTEA (3GPP Rel-10 and later)
A cell can be configured to be a LTE cell, a
LTEA P-Cell (Primary Cell), and a LTEA S-Cell
(Secondary Cell)
If the cell type is left empty, Atoll considers it
as LTEonly

Both LTE and LTEA users can connect to


LTEonly cells without the possibility to
perform Carrier Aggregation
Cells that only support LTEA, and not LTE, can
only serve LTEA users
The process of only allowing LTEA users to
connect to a cell and excluding all LTE users
is called Cell Barring

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Slide 50

Carrier Aggregation (LTE-A)

UE Categories in Atoll

LTE-A to LTE Downgrade Category:


Used to define the UE category to
consider when a LTE-A mobile is
connected to a LTE Rel-8/9 cell

Specific UE
Categories

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Slide 51

Carrier Aggregation (LTE-A)

LTE-A terminals in Atoll


Carrier Aggregation support is
defined at the terminal level
You have to define the
maximum number of Secondary
Cells supported in DL and UL
The number of UL Secondary
Cells must be less than or equal
to the number of DL Secondary
Cells
Setting the maximum number
of Secondary Cells to 0 means
that the terminal does not
support Carrier Aggregation

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Slide 52

Carrier Aggregation (LTE-A)

Services in Atoll
Define whether a service can
manage carrier aggregation or not

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Slide 53

Carrier Aggregation (LTE-A)

Improvements in predictions for Carrier Aggregation


You can carry out coverage predictions for different serving cells
Main (P-Cell or LTE Rel-8/9 cells)
Nth S-Cell

You can also perform aggregated throughput predictions including all serving cells, or even some of them

Throughput prediction

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Coverage prediction

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Slide 54

Carrier Aggregation (LTE-A)

Example: Coverage by throughput


Intra-band contiguous Carrier Aggregation
Co-located cells with similar coverage
Channel width = 20 + 20 MHz
MIMO 2 X 2 (TX DIV+SU-MIMO)

With a LTE Rel-8/9 terminal

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With a LTE-A terminal

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Slide 55

Carrier Aggregation (LTE-A)

Improvements in the Point Analysis Tool for Carrier Aggregation

Serving Cells (P-Cell and S-Cell)

Aggregated throughput

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Slide 56

Training Programme

1.

LTE Concepts

2.

LTE Planning Overview

3.

Modelling a LTE Network

4.

LTE Predictions

5.

Neighbours Allocation

6.

Automatic Resource Allocation

7.

MIMO Features

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Slide 57

4. LTE Predictions

Introduction
Parameters used in Predictions
Prediction Settings
Fast Link Adaptation Modelling
Coverage Prediction Examples

Point Analysis Studies

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Slide 58

Introduction

Coverage predictions
RSRP level: Receive Signal Receive Power calculated for one RE
RS level: Reference Signal level calculated on the whole bandwidth

Quality predictions
RSRQ: Reference Signal receive Quality
PDSCH C/I+N: Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio based on the PDSCH
channel
RS C/I+N: Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio based on the Reference Signal
channel

Throughput predictions
Based on the RLC or Application layers
Peak, Effective or Average throughput
Carried out for one or several users

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Slide 59

Introduction

Principle of LTE studies based on traffic


Study calculated for:

UL
noise
rise

Given load conditions:


UL noise rise (dB)
DL traffic load (%)
A non-interfering user with:
A service

DL
traffic
load

Terminal

VoIP,

LTE
prediction

Web browsing,

FTP download...
A mobility
Fixed,
Pedestrian,

50 Km/h...

Mobility

Service

A terminal type
Smartphone,
Rooftop terminal...
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Slide 60

Load Conditions

Load conditions, defined in the cells properties


Traffic load (DL) (%)
UL noise rise (dB)

Values taken into consideration in


predictions for each cell

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Slide 61

Service Properties

Service: parameters used in predictions


Highest/lowest bearers in UL and DL
Body loss
Application throughput parameters

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Slide 62

Mobility Properties

Mobility: parameters used in predictions


Mapping between mobility and thresholds in bearer and quality indicator determination (as radio
conditions depend on user speed)

Mapping

Reception equipment properties


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Slide 63

Terminal Properties

Terminal: parameters used in predictions

Min/max terminal power + noise figure + losses

Min/max terminal power


Gain and losses
Noise figure
Antenna settings (incl. MIMO support)

Carrier aggregation settings

Carrier aggregation parameters

Support of
MIMO

Number of antenna ports in UL and DL in case of MIMO support


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Slide 64

Fast Link Adaptation Modelling

Atoll determines, on each pixel, the highest bearer that each user can obtain
After the layer determination, connection to the best server in terms of RS level or RSRP
Bearer chosen according to the radio conditions (PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels)

Process: prediction done via look-up tables

RS level (C) or
RSRP evaluation

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Best server area


determination
(limited by min.
RSRP)

Radio conditions
estimation

(PDSCH and
PUSCH CINR
calculation)

Bearer selection

Throughput &
quality indicator
predictions (BER
and BLER)

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Slide 65

Interference Estimation

Atoll calculates PDSCH and PUSCH CINR according to:


The victim traffic (PUSCH or PDSCH) power [C]
The sum of interfering signals [I], affected by:
The interfering signals EIRP (power + gains - losses) weighted by traffic loads (in DL)
The path loss from the interferers to the victim
The shadowing effect and the indoor losses (optional)
The interference reduction factor applied to interfering base stations transmitting on adjacent channels
(adjacent channel suppression factor)
The interference reduction due to static ICIC (optional)

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Slide 66

Prediction Examples (General Studies)

Cell dominance (overlapping zones)


(based on RSRP levels)

Coverage by transmitter
(based on RSRP levels)

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Slide 67

Prediction Examples (Dedicated Studies)

Coverage by RSRP level


(with power boost)

Coverage by RSRP level

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Slide 68

Prediction Examples (Dedicated Studies)

Application Channel
Throughput (UL)

Coverage by PUSCH CINR

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Slide 69

Point Analysis Tool: Reception

Radio reception diagnosis at a given point


Selection of the value to be
displayed (RS, SS, PDSCH, RSRP)

Choice of UL/DL load conditions:


if (cells table) is selected analysis based on DL load and UL
noise rise from cells table

Definition of the user (layer


or channel, terminal, service,
mobility)

Reference
signals,
PDSCH and
PUSCH
availability
(or not)
Cell bar graphs (best server on top)

Analysis details on
reference signals,
PDSCH and PUSCH
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Slide 70

Point Analysis Tool: Interference

Radio interference diagnosis at a given point

Choice of UL/DL load conditions:


if (cells table) is selected analysis based on DL load and UL
noise rise from cells table

Selection of the value to be displayed


(RS, SS, PDSCH, RSRP)

Serving cell
(C)

Total level of
interference
(I + N)
Definition of the user (layer or
channel, terminal, service,
mobility)

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List of interfering cells

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Slide 71

Training Programme

1.

LTE Concepts

2.

LTE Planning Overview

3.

Modelling a LTE Network

4.

LTE Predictions

5.

Neighbours Allocation

6.

Automatic Resource Allocation

7.

MIMO Features

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Slide 72

5. Neighbour Allocation

Detailed information about neighbours allocation is available in Atoll_3.3.0_Neighbours.pdf

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Slide 73

Training Programme

1.

LTE Concepts

2.

LTE Planning Overview

3.

Modelling a LTE Network

4.

LTE Predictions

5.

Neighbours Allocation

6.

Automatic Resource Allocation

7.

MIMO Features

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Slide 74

6. Automatic Resource Allocation

Automatic Physical Cell ID planning


AFP overview
Automatic resource allocation process
Interference matrix calculation
Physical Cell ID overview

PCI allocation process


Running the automatic resource allocation
PCI allocation examples

Automatic frequency planning


Running the automatic resource allocation
Frequency allocation examples

Automatic PRACH Root Sequences


PRACH channel
PRACH RSI Planning Theory
Automatic PRACH RSI Planning

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Slide 75

AFP Overview (1/2)

Prerequisite: AFP license


Goal: Optimize resource allocation (channels, PCI or PRACH RSIs) following the user-defined
constraints
To minimize interference (channels)

To avoid collisions (PCI)


To avoid PRACH root sequence index collisions (PRACH RSIs)

Tool based on an iterative cost-based algorithm


The algorithm starts with the current frequency plan (used as initial state)
Different frequency plans are then evaluated and a cost is calculated for each of them
The best frequency allocation plan is the one with the lowest global cost

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Slide 76

AFP Overview (2/2)

The cost is calculated thanks to:


Interference matrices
Probabilities of interference in co- and adjacent channel cases
A probability is calculated for each case and for each interfered-interfering cell pair

Distance relation
Avoid frequency reuse between cells for which the inter-site distance is lower than a min. reuse distance
Taking into account distance and cells azimuth

Neighbours
Taking into account neighbours importance (can be calculated by Atoll)

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Slide 77

Automatic Resource Allocation Process

Define radio parameters at cells level


Frequency band allocation
Allocation status: not allocated or locked
Minimum reuse distance (optional)

Import / calculate a neighbour plan

Import / calculate an interference matrix

Run the automatic resource allocation tool

Commit and analyse results

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Slide 78

Interference Matrix Calculation (1/2)

Interference matrix definition


For each cell pair, interference probability for co and adjacent channel cases
Probabilities of interference are stated as the ratio between:
The interfered area within the best server area of the victim

Best server area of the victim


Serving Area
TX_B
TX_A

Interfering
Transmitter

Victim Transmitter

Area where TX_B is interfering TX_A

Interference probability = 50%


In other words, 50% of TX_As serving area is interfered by TX_B

Co-channel interference occurs when:

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C
C
Min Reference Signal
I MQ N
N

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Slide 79

Interference Matrix Calculation (2/2)

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Slide 80

Physical Cell ID Overview

Physical Cell ID definition


Cell search and identification is based on Physical Cell IDs
Optimised allocation needed to avoid unnecessary problems
in cell recognition and selection

504 Physical Cell IDs defined by 3GPP


Physical Cell ID grouped into:

(Cell search procedure)

168 unique Cell ID groups (SSS IDs in Atoll, from 0 to 167)


Each group containing 3 unique identities (PSS IDs in Atoll, from 0 to 2)

Each cells reference signal transmits a pseudo random sequence corresponding to the Physical Cell ID of
the cell
When Physical Cell ID + pseudo-random sequence is known, cell is recognized by mobile based on the
received reference signal
Channel estimation performed on reference signals

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Slide 81

Physical Cell ID Allocation Process

PCI allocation to cells


Main requirement
Avoid PCI collision and confusion
Not allocate the same PCI to nearby cells
To avoid problems in cell search and selection
PCI A

PCI A

PCI B

PCI A
PCI B

PCI collision

PCI confusion

Secondary requirements
Different PSS ID at nearby cells
Avoid RS-RS collisions
Preferably the same SSS ID at co-site cells (especially in the case of 3-sector sites)
May facilitate neighbour cell identification
May help in measurements and handover procedures
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Slide 82

Running the Automatic Resource Allocation (1/6)

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Slide 83

Running the Automatic Resource Allocation (2/6)

Automatic resource allocation process


Possibility to allocate channels or Physical Cell IDs

Allocation constraints

Run the calculation

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Slide 84

Running the Automatic Resource Allocation (3/6)

Automatic resource allocation process


Possibility to allocate channels or Physical Cell IDs

Allocation constraints

Run the calculation

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Slide 85

Running the Automatic Resource Allocation (4/6)

During the optimisation, you can monitor the reduction of the total cost

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Slide 86

Running the Automatic Resource Allocation (5/6)

You can compare the distribution histograms of the initial and current allocation plans

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Slide 87

Running the Automatic Resource Allocation (6/6)

Once Atoll has finished allocating Physical Cell IDs, the proposed allocation plan is available on
the Results tab
The proposed PCI plan can be assigned automatically to the cells of the network if you click Commit

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Slide 88

Physical Cell ID Allocation Results (1/2)

Automatic Physical Cell ID allocation in Atoll (example)


Same PCI all over - RS coverage C/(I+N) with DL traffic load = 0%

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Slide 89

Physical Cell ID Allocation Results (2/2)

Automatic Physical Cell ID allocation in Atoll (example)


Automatic PCI allocation with AFP - RS coverage C/(I+N) with DL traffic load = 0%

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Slide 90

Automatic Frequency Planning (1/2)

Philosophy of the channels automatic allocation is really similar to PCI allocation


Automatic channels allocation prerequisites
Define radio parameters at cells level
Frequency band
Channel allocation status
Minimum reuse distance

Neighbour plan
Interference matrix (as explained previously)

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Slide 91

Automatic Frequency Planning (2/2)

Philosophy of the channels automatic allocation is really similar to PCI allocation

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Slide 92

Frequency Allocation Examples (1/2)

Basic frequency allocation (Single Frequency Network)


Same channel all over (15 MHz) - RS coverage C/(I+N):

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Slide 93

Frequency Allocation Examples (2/2)

Optimised frequency allocation with AFP


3 channels (5 MHz) - RS coverage C/(I+N):

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Slide 94

Find on Map Tool Overview

You can visualise channels and PSS ID reuse on the map


Possibility to find cells which are assigned a given:
Frequency band + channel
Physical Cell ID
PSS ID

SSS ID

Way to use this tool


Create and calculate a coverage by transmitter with a colour
display by transmitter
Open the Find on map tool available in the tools menu
or use [Ctrl+F],
or directly in the toolbar

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Slide 95

Channel Search

Channel reuse on the map

Colours given to transmitters:


Red: co-channel transmitters
Yellow: multi-adjacent channel (-1 and +1) transmitters
Green: adjacent channel (-1) transmitters
Blue: adjacent channel (+1) transmitters
Grey thin line: other transmitters
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Slide 96

Physical Cell ID Search

Physical Cell ID, PSS ID or SSS ID reuse on the map

Colours given to transmitters:


Red or grey thin line: if the transmitters carries or not the
specified resource value (Physical Cell ID, PSS ID or SSS ID)

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Slide 97

PCI Allocation Audit (1/2)

You can check if your constraints are satisfied by the current allocation by performing an audit
Respect of a minimum reuse distance
Respect of neighbourhood constraints (two neighbour cells must have a different PCI)
Respect of PSS/SSS ID allocation strategy

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Slide 98

PCI Allocation Audit (2/2)

Audit results

The exclamation mark icon ( ) means that the collision may or may not be a problem depending on your
network design rules and selected strategies.
On the other hand, the cross icon ( ) implies an error.
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Slide 99

Automatic PRACH RSI

PRACH channel
PRACH RSI Planning Theory
Automatic PRACH RSI Planning

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Slide 100

PRACH Channel

The Physical Random Access CHannel (PRACH) is used to transmit the random access preamble
used to initiate the random access procedure. This channel allows UEs to achieve uplink time
synchronisation
Duration depends on the preamble format

839 subcarriers for preamble format 0 to 3 => 6 RB


139 subcarriers for preamble format 4

CYCLIC
PREFIX

SEQUENCE

GUARD
TIME

1.25 kHz wide Subcarriers for formats 0 to 3


7.5 KHz wide Subcarriers for format 4

PRACH resources are multiplexed with PUSCH and PUCCH

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Contention-free random Access Procedure

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Slide 101

PRACH Channel

Different sections of the network can be planned with different preamble formats if the cell
range varies from one area to another
The format 0 is the default format as it generates a small overhead and allows reaching a maximum cell
range of 15 km which the most common situation

Preamble
Format
0
1
2
3
4

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Duplex Cyclic Prefix Sequence Guard


Total Typical Max.
Mode
Duration Duration
Time Length Cell Range
FDD/TDD 103,13 us
800 us 96,88 us 1 ms
14,5 km
FDD/TDD 648,38 us
800 us 515,63 us 2 ms
77,3 km
FDD/TDD 203,13 us
800 us 196,88 us 2 ms
29,5 km
FDD/TDD 684,38 us
800 us 715,63 us 3 ms
100,2 km
TDD
14,58 us
133 us
9,38 us 0,16 ms
1,4 km

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Slide 102

PRACH RSI Planning Theory

Purpose: Determine different preamble sequences to allow multiple UE using the same
frequency and time domain resources to simultaneously connect to an eNB. Each sequence is
generated by cyclic shifting one or several root sequence index (RSI).
Preamble sequences are CAZAC* codes generated using the Zadoff-Chu method
Each cell has 64 preamble sequences (16 were available for UMTS/HSPA)

838 RSI are available for FDD (format 0 to 3) and 138 for TDD (format 4).
Depending on the PRACH format (or cell size), a different quantity of RSI is required per cell.

15 km
RSI 10-19

4 km
RSI 0-2

Suburban-Rural Cell
10 RSI required per cell

Urban Cell
3 RSI required per cell

* CAZAC: Constant Amplitude Zero Autocorrelation


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Slide 103

PRACH RSI Planning Theory

The root sequence index values allocated to each cell should ensure that neighbouring cells have
different sets of root sequences
A maximum RSI re-use can be implemented when a minimum number of RSI is used
For the urban case, 3 RSI are necessary per cell. 838 different RSI are available, so 838/3 279 cells can
be allocated before reuse
For the rural case, 10 RSI are used per cell 838/10 83 cells can be allocated before reuse

Suburban-Rural Cell
10 RSI required per cell

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Urban Cell
3 RSI required per cell

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Slide 104

PRACH RSI Planning Theory

Atoll will allow the user to directly enter the number of required root sequence per cell.
This approach provides the most flexibility in case of different equipment and propagation environments
imply additional delays and margins which impact the calculation of the quantity of required root
sequence per cell.
The mapping tables show values calculated for ideal conditions, i.e., no delay spread and perfect
equipment. There are shown for information only .

3GPP parameters used for the PRACH RSI allocation are described in the following table

Parameter

Range

PRACH Configuration Index

0 to 63

Determines the preamble format, version and density

0 to 15

Determines the size of the cyclic shift and the number


of preamble sequence that can be generated from each
root sequence

Zero Correlation Zone


High Speed Flag

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Description

True/False Reduce Doppler effect at very high speed (> 200 km/h)

Root Sequence Index

0 to 837

PRACH Frequency Offset

0 to 94

Preamble sequence generated form root sequence


index
Determines the PRACH preambles position in the
frequency domain

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Slide 105

Automatic PRACH RSI Planning (2/8)

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Slide 106

Automatic PRACH RSI Planning (3/8)

Automatic resource allocation process


Resource selection

Initial cost calculation before planning

Cell parameters

Allocation constraints

Run the calculation

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Slide 107

Automatic PRACH RSI Planning (4/8)

Automatic resource allocation process


Specify PRACH RSI resources to be used for the allocation

Allocation constraints

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Slide 108

Automatic PRACH RSI Planning (5/8)

Once Atoll has finished allocating PRACH RSIs, the proposed allocation plan is available on the
Results tab
The proposed PRACH RSI plan can be assigned automatically to the cells of the network if you click Commit

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Slide 109

Automatic PRACH RSI Planning (6/8)

A quantity of 10 PRACH RSIs has been automatically allocated per cell because of the cell table
configuration

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Slide 110

Automatic PRACH RSI Planning (7/8)

The LTE prediction, Cell Identifier collision zones, allows verifying if any collisions occur between
cells with one or several identical PRACH RSIs

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Slide 111

Automatic PRACH RSI Planning (8/8)

You can check if your constraints are satisfied by the current allocation by performing an audit
Respect of a minimum reuse distance
Respect of neighbourhood constraints (two neighbour cells must have different PRACH RSIs)
Interference matrix consideration

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Slide 112

Training Programme

1.

LTE Concepts

2.

LTE Planning Overview

3.

Modelling a LTE Network

4.

LTE Predictions

5.

Neighbours Allocation

6.

Automatic Resource Allocation

7.

MIMO Features

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Slide 113

8. MIMO Features

Introduction
MIMO Techniques Overview
MIMO Settings in Atoll
Dynamic MIMO Switching
Diversity and Throughput Gains

Calculation Details
Use Case: 4x2 MIMO (TX DIV+SU-MIMO)

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Slide 114

Introduction (1/2)

Shannons formula
Theoretical limit to transmit without error: = . 2 (1 + SNR) , (bits/s)

How to increase the channel capacity ?


Increase the bandwidth (W )
Improve the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR )
Limitation of SISO* systems to reach very high data rates

Why MIMO ?
The usage of multiple antennas improves dramatically the channel capacity without additional bandwidth
or transmit power
Expected benefits with MIMO
Higher throughput
Better coverage

*SISO: Single Input Single Output


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Slide 115

Introduction (2/2)

General concept of MIMO


Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) configurations benefit from multiple antenna elements at the
transmitter and multiple antenna elements at the receiver

Terminology
Similar terminology is used for Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO), Multiple Input Single Output (MISO),
and Single Input Single Output (SISO)
4x2 MIMO

Propagation
channel

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1x4 SIMO

Propagation
channel

4x1 MISO

SISO

Propagation
channel

Propagation
channel

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Slide 116

MIMO Techniques Overview

Four different MIMO techniques can be listed


Transmit diversity
Aims to improve the signal quality by sending several times the same data stream
Usually used in areas with bad CINR conditions

Single-User MIMO (or SU-MIMO, also referred to as Spatial Multiplexing)


Aims to improve the signal throughput by transmitting simultaneously (i.e. using the same
set of time/frequency resources) multiple data streams to a single user
Usually used in areas with good CINR conditions

Beamforming
Aims to improve both signal quality and throughput by focusing the signal energy towards
the receiver

Multi-User MIMO (or MU-MIMO)


Aims to improve the system capacity by sending simultaneously different data streams to
different users

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Slide 117

Transmitters Settings

You have to set the appropriate number of antenna ports at the Transmitters level
In this example, 4 ports are defined for the
transmission (used for DL calculations), and
2 ports for the reception (used for UL
calculations)
4x? MIMO (DL)

Propagation
channel

Depends on the number of reception


antenna ports defined in the terminal
properties (see slide 49)
?x2 MIMO (UL)

Propagation
channel

Depends on the number of transmission


antenna ports defined in the terminal
properties (see slide 49)
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Slide 118

Cells Settings

MIMO techniques support


You can define the MIMO techniques
supported by your equipment in UL/DL in
the Cells properties
AAS = Active Array System (beamforming)
For more information see the training
course LTE Features Advanced

MU-MIMO
For more information see the training
course LTE Features Advanced

Tx/Rx
diversity

SU-MIMO

AAS

MU-MIMO

UL/DL

DL only

UL/DL

UL/DL

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Slide 119

Terminal Settings

You have to configure a terminal that supports MIMO

LTE equipment defining SU-MIMO


and diversity gains

MIMO
support

Number of antenna ports in UL and DL in case of MIMO support


(1Tx/2Rx is the most common configuration at the moment)
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Slide 120

Dynamic MIMO mode (1/3)

Definition
Atoll can dynamically switch between different MIMO techniques depending on the radio condition
Different option can be implemented:
TX DIV SU-MIMO, TX DIV MU-MIMO, TX DIV MU-MIMO SU-MIMO

Good radio conditions


-> Use of SU-MIMO
-> Better throughput

Bad radio conditions


-> Use of Tx/Rx diversity
-> Better CINR

Transition area between SU-MIMO and Tx/Rx diversity


-> Determined by the SU-MIMO threshold (see next slide)

In this example, Atoll can automatically switch from SU-MIMO to Tx/Rx diversity as the radio conditions
deteriorate

Advantages
Improves the throughput for users situated near the transmitter
Increases the signal quality for cell edge users
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Slide 121

Dynamic MIMO mode (2/3)

The SU-MIMO threshold is the parameter used to switch from SU-MIMO to Tx/Rx diversity
It can be defined in the reception equipment properties
Default Cell Equipment (for UL calculations)
Default UE Equipment (for DL calculations)

It is expressed in dB and refers to the Reference Signal or the PDSCH/PUSCH quality

The SU-MIMO threshold depends on the user


mobility

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Slide 122

Dynamic MIMO mode(3/3)

You can choose the criterion the SU-MIMO threshold will be based upon in the LTE global
settings
Reference Signal C/N or C/(I+N)
PDSCH or PUSCH C/(I+N)

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Diversity and Throughput Gains (1/2)

Diversity and/or throughput gains can be applied when using certain MIMO techniques
They depend on the MIMO configuration used (2x1 MIMO, 2x2 MIMO, 4x4 MIMO)
Besides PDSCH and PUSCH, PBCH and PDCCH can also benefit from diversity gains
All values set here should be in line with your vendor specific equipment

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Diversity and Throughput Gains (2/2)

Additional diversity and throughput gains are defined in the clutter classes properties
Diversity and throughput gains can be tuned according to the environment

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Calculation Details (1/2)

CINR improvement with the transmit diversity technique


Lets consider for instance the CINRPDSCH

CINRPDSCH (With MIMO) = CINRPDSCH (Without MIMO) + Diversity Gain + Additional Diversity Gain (DL)

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Slide 126

Calculation Details (2/2)

Throughput improvement with the SU-MIMO technique


Lets consider for instance the DL peak RLC channel throughput

Peak Th. (With MIMO) = Peak Th. (Without MIMO) x [ 1 + (Max MIMO Gain 1) x LTE SU-MIMO Gain Factor ]

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Slide 127

Use Case: 4x2 MIMO DL (TX DIV+SU-MIMO) (1/5)

Atoll configuration
4 transmission antenna ports
Transmitters properties

2 reception antenna ports


Terminal properties

Diversity support (DL)


TX DIV + SU-MIMO

Note: Traffic load (DL) = 75%


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Use Case: 4x2 MIMO DL (TX DIV+SU-MIMO) (2/5)

Peak RLC Channel Throughput Analysis (DL)


Conditions:
Traffic load (DL) = 75%
Channel width = 10 MHz
Normal CP, PDCCH overhead = 2

SU-MIMO threshold = 12 dB (RS CINR)


Service = High Speed Internet
Mobility = Pedestrian

Without MIMO
SU-MIMO

SU-MIMO
threshold

Tx/Rx
diversity

4x2 MIMO (TX DIV+SU-MIMO)


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Slide 129

Use Case: 4x2 MIMO DL (TX DIV+SU-MIMO) (3/5)

Peak RLC Channel Throughput Analysis (DL) near the transmitter


Results based on pixels where the SU-MIMO technique is used (RS CINR > 12 dB)

100
90
80
70
60
50

Without MIMO

40

AMS 4x2

30
20
10
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

Peak RLC Throughput (Mbps)


* AMS: Adaptive MIMO Switching between TX Div and SU-MIMO
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Use Case: 4x2 MIMO DL (TX DIV+SU-MIMO) (4/5)

Quality analysis - PDSCH C/(I+N)


Conditions:
Traffic load (DL) = 75%
Channel width = 10 MHz
Normal CP, PDCCH overhead = 2

SU-MIMO threshold = 12 dB (RS CINR)


Service = High Speed Internet
Mobility = Pedestrian

No service

Tx/Rx
diversity

Without MIMO

SU-MIMO

SU-MIMO threshold

4x2 MIMO (TX DIV+SU-MIMO)


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Slide 131

Use Case: 4x2 MIMO DL (TX DIV+SU-MIMO) (5/5)

Quality analysis - PDSCH C/(I+N)


The overall quality (near transmitter and at cell edge) is considered on the chart below
100
90
80
70
60
50

Without MIMO

40

AMS 4x2

30
20
10
0
-20

-15

-10

-5

10

15

20

25

30

PDSCH C/(I+N) (dB)


* AMS: Adaptive MIMO Switching between TX Div and SU-MIMO
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Slide 132

Appendix

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LTE throughput formulas

Downlink Peak RLC channel Throughput


=

Number of Ressource Elements available for PDSCH


Bearer Efficiency : Number of bits per symbol * Coding rate
Frame duration : 10 ms

Downlink Effective RLC channel throughput


= ( )
BLER: Downlink block error rate read from the graphs available in LTE Network Settings / Reception
Equipment

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LTE throughput formulas

Downlink Application channel throughput


=

Throughput scaling factor defined in the properties of the service used by the pixel (Traffic parameters /
Services)
Throughput offset defined in the properties of the service used by the pixel (Traffic parameters / Services)

Downlink peak RLC cell capacity


= . .
T.L.: Maximum Downlink Traffic Load

Downlink effective RLC cell capacity


= ( )
BLER: Downlink block error rate read from the graphs available in LTE Network Settings / Reception
Equipment
Peak Cell Capacity: Downlink Peak RLC Cell capacity (kbps)

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LTE throughput formulas

Downlink Application cell capacity


() = ( )/
Throughput scaling factor defined in the properties of the service used by the pixel (Traffic parameters /
Services)
Throughput offset defined in the properties of the service used by the pixel (Traffic parameters / Services)

Downlink peak RLC throughput per user


=

N DL users: Number of users connected to the cell in downlink

Downlink effective RLC throughput per user


=

N DL users: Number of users connected to the cell in downlink

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LTE throughput formulas

Downlink application throughput per user


=

NDL users: Number of users connected to the cell in downlink

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Slide 137

RSRQ formula

RSRQ is the ratio over the entire channel bandwidth of the wanted RS signal / All signal
=

RSRP: Received Signal Received Power: Received Power at the UE per Reference signal channel resource
element from its serving cell
RSSI: Received Signal Strength Indicator: Total power received at the UE from its serving and adjacent cells
NRB : Number of resource blocks over which the RSSI is measured

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Slide 138

Thank you

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Slide 139