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TheSongoftheEarth

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StudiesinContinentalThought
JohnSallis,generaleditor
ConsultingEditors
RobertBernasconi
RudolfBernet
JohnD.Caputo
DavidCarr
EdwardS.Casey
HubertL.Dreyfus
DonIhde
DavidFarrellKrell
LenoreLangsdorf
AlphonsoLingis
WilliamL.McBride
J.N.Mohanty
MaryRawlinson
TomRockmore
CalvinO.Schrag
ReinerSchurmann
CharlesE.Scott
ThomasSheehan
RobertSokolowski
BruceW.Wilshire
DavidWood

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TheSongoftheEarth
HeideggerandtheGroundsoftheHistoryofBeing
MichelHaar
Translatedby
ReginaldLilly
ForewordbyJohnSallis
INDIANAUNIVERSITYPRESS
BloomingtonandIndianapolis

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PreparationofthetranslationwasassistedbyagrantfromtheFrench
MinistryofCulture
PublishedinFrenchasLeChantdelaterre:Heideggeretlesassises
del'Histoiredel'tre1987byditionsdel'Herne,Paris
1993byIndianaUniversityPress
Allfightsreserved
Nopartofthisbookmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orbyany
informationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisher.TheAssociationofAmericanUniversityPresses'ResolutiononPermissions
constitutestheonlyexceptiontothisprohibition.ThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetstheminimumrequirementsofAmericanNationalStandardforInformation
SciencesPermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials,ANSIZ39.481984.

ManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica
LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationData
Haar,Michel.
[Chantdelaterre.English]
Thesongoftheearth:Heideggerandthegroundsofthehistory
ofbeing/MichelHaar:translatedbyReginaldLilly:forewordby
JohnSallis.
p.cm.(StudiesinContinentalthought)
Translationof:LeChantdelaterre.
Includesindex.
ISBN025332694X(hard)
1.Heidegger,Martin,18891976.2.OntologyHistory20th
century.I.Title.II.Series
B3279.H49H2213
1993
193dc20
9221043
123459796959493

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ForKinloch

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Wehaveearsbecausewecanlistenattentively,andthankstothiswemayhearthesongoftheEarth,itstremblingandquiveringthatremainsundisturbedbythehugetumultthat
manhas,forthetimebeing,organizedonitsexhaustedsurface.
GA55:Heraklit,p.247
IfwelosetheEarth,surelywewillalsoloseourfooting[dasBodenstndige].
US,p.205

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CONTENTS
ForewordbyJohnSallis

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Translator'sPreface

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AbbreviationsforFrequentlyCitedWorks

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1

PrefaceTheLimitsandGroundsofHistory:TheNonhistorical
PartOneBeingandEarth

I."Nature"asaCategoryofBeingsEncounteredintheWorld
ThePrimacyofEquipmentalityover"NaturalSubsistentBeings"
ElementsofanInternalCritiqueoftheHeideggerianThesis
Death,Clocks,andtheExclusionof"NaturalTime"

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II.DaseinandAnimality
ThePhenomenologyoftheAnimal"World"
Heidegger'sCritiqueoftheOpeninRilke

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III.ThePrimacyofStimmungoverDasein'sBodiliness
TheFacticityoftheHumanBodyandAttunement
StimmungandSubjectivityofFeeling
StimmungandtheHistoryofBeing:AnxietyandWonder

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IV.PhysisandEarth
TheOntologicalInterpretationofPhysisinHeraclitus
NatureaccordingtoHlderlinandthe"Constancy"ofPhysis
TheFourSensesofEarth
PartTwoTheLimitsofHistory

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V.TheHistoryofBeingandItsHegelianModel
ThePrimacyofthePastasGewesen
IsThereaHeideggerianSystemofHistory?
"Eschatology,"ortheLogicofCompletion

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VI.TheEssenceofTechnology
PhenomenologyofTechnologyandtheHistoryofBeing
The"Preparation"forCompletionandtheInterpretationofNietzsche
Danger,"Salvation,"Ereignis
PartThreeArtandEarth

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VII.EarthintheWorkofArtandinthePoem
TheRefusalofAestheticsandtheTranshistoricalTruthofArt
EarthasNonhistoricalPossibility
TheDiscreteAppearanceofPoetry:Rilke'sWall
TheTemptationofNietzscheanAesthetics
EarthandtheDionysian
EarthinthePoem

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VIII.RilkeandtheInteriorityofEarth
SubjectiveInteriorityand"theDistantHeart"
"TheInteriorSpaceoftheWorld"(Weltinnenraum)ortheHeartbeyond
Subjectivity
The"Invisible"orInapparentHarmonyoftheEarth

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IX.EcstaticDwelling:HlderlinandSaintJohnPerse
TheImpossibleReturntoNativeEarth
ExilewithoutNostalgia

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Notes

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Index

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FOREWORD
JohnSallis
TheSongoftheEarthisunlikeallothers.
ThistextbyMichelHaarisnotsimplyabook.Evenifitscontoursstillresemblethoseclassicallinesthatwouldhaveservedthustodelimitit,thereismovementatits
edges,vibrationsthatblurthosecontours,asifthetextwereresonatingwiththesongthatgivesititstitle.
NeitherisitsimplyatextaboutHeidegger,aboutstillanotherdiscursiveorientationforgedinHeidegger'sthinking.NomorethanisJacquesDerrida'sOfSpirit.But
whereasDerrida'stextpiecestogetheraHeideggeriandiscourseonspiritthat,primarilybecauseitisalwaysalsoadiscourseagainstspirit,hadhardlybeensuspected
ofexercisingsuchforceinHeidegger'sthought,Haar'stexttakesupadiscoursethathasreceivedconstantattentioneversinceHeideggercreatedaphilosophical
sensationbyintroducingitinhislecture"TheOriginoftheWorkofArt,"firstpresentedinFreiburginNovember1935and,initsdefinitiveform,asthreelecturesin
FrankfurtinNovemberandDecember1936.AtleastthisishowGadamerdescribesitsreception,notingthatwhatreallymadethelecturesensationalwas
Heidegger'sintroductionofthesurprisinglynewconceptualityofworldandearth.AgainstthebackgroundofBeingandTime,thequestionwasnodoubtstriking:
HowcanDaseininitsunderstandingofitsownbeing,showninBeingandTimetoconstitutetheradicallynewpointofdepartureforall"transcendental"
questioningenterintoanontologicalrelationwithsomethingliketheearth.1
Andyet,assurprisingasitmayhaveseemedagainstthebackgroundofBeingandTimeandinviewespeciallyofthesubordinaterankaccordednatureinthe
analysesofDasein,Heidegger'sturntotheearthonlyresumedamovethathadkeptrecurringthroughoutthetimeofwhatHeideggerfinallycametocalltheendof
philosophy,thetimeofphilosophy'scompletioninHegelandHusserl,thatofitsinversionandifonlyattheenditsdisplacementinNietzsche.
OnemightindeedfindHegel'sturntotheearthconsiderablymoresurprisingthanHeidegger's.Inthemidstoftheextendeddialecticofobservingreason
(beobachtendeVernunft)presentedbythePhenomenologyofSpiritthatis,onthewaytoabsoluteknowingtheearthsuddenlyappearsasanalmostmonstrous
contradiction:itistheuniversalindividual,whichasuniversalnegativitypreservesthedifferencesthatitbearswithinitself,thusdoingviolencetotheformsoforganic
lifeintheir(different)differentiation.2
Inaveryremarkablemanuscript,writteninfactonlyacoupleofyearsbeforeHeidegger'slecture,Husserlreferstotheearthinawaythatrecalls

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3

(unintentionallynodoubt)Hegel'sdeterminationofitastheuniversalindividual:''Foralltheearthisthesameearth." ThissamenessHusserlthinkssoradicallythathe
comestosayoftheearth,againstGalileo,atleastasaquestion:itdoesnotmove.Theearthisthebasis,anark:"Theearthisthearkwhichmakespossibleinthefirst
placethesenseofallmotionandallrestasmodeofmotion.Butitsrestisnotamodeofmotion."4Theearthsobasicallythesamethatitmustbesaidnottomove.
Theearthatrestinamodeofrestsodifferent,soother,thatitescapestheforceoftheconceptualoppositionbetweenrestandmotion.
Yet,bythemid1930sNietzschewasmuchnearerthecenterofHeidegger'sattentionthanwasHusserl(howeverfamiliarornotHeideggermayhavebeenwithshifts
inHusserl'stextsduringthistime).IntheverysemesterinwhichHeideggerpresented"TheOriginoftheWorkofArt"initsdefinitiveform,hewaspresentingalsothe
lecturecourseonNietzscheentitled"TheWilltoPowerasArt."Onecannotbuthear,therefore,inHeidegger'sdiscourseontheearthstrongechoesofwhatwas
spokenbyZarathustra:thattheovermanistobethemeaningoftheearth.Evenif,asHaarsuggests,theeffectivenessofNietzsche'sturntotheearthislimitedbythat
entanglementinamereinversionofPlatonismthatHeideggerhastracedinallbuttheverylasttexts,stillthereresoundsinHeidegger'sdiscoursesomethingofthat
Nietzscheanimperative:"Ibeseechyou,mybrothers,remainfaithful[treu]totheearth,anddonotbelievethosewhospeaktoyouofotherworldly
[berirdischen]hopes!5Tosaynothingofwhatissung.OnlytoaskwhethereachandeveryoneofthesongsinThusSpokeZarathustracouldnotbecalledasong
oftheearth.
ButwhatoftheearthinHeidegger'sdiscourse?Whatdoesearthmean?IsthisapossiblequestionwithinHeidegger'sdiscourse,thequestionofmeaning?Nodoubt
onecanelaboratecertainmeanings,certainsenses,ofearthasitfunctionsinsuchtextsas"TheOriginoftheWorkofArt."MichelHaarhasdonesowithcareand
precision,delimitinganddiscussingfourdistinctsensesofearth.First,earthbelongstothedimensionofwithdrawal,oftheconcealmentthatholdsswayin
unconcealment,ofthelethethatbelongstoaletheia.Second,itislinkedtowhathasbeencallednatureand,intheGreekbeginning,physis.Third,itconstitutesthe
materialintheworkofarthereHaardrawstheimportantcorollarythattheearthymaterialiswhatremainsoftheworkofartwhenitsworldhasdisappeared,thatthis
elementiswhatallowsoneinanotherepochtoencountertheforceandbeautyofanartworkofthepast,thatitiswhattociteHaar'sbeautifulexampleallowsthe
hieraticflashofthemosaicsinRavennatotouchuswithagracethathenceforthescapestheirworld.Fourth,earthisthenativesoil(heimatlicherGrund),notasthe
groundofabiologicalorvitalrootedness,notasone'sfactualplaceofbirth,butastheHeimatthatisbothgivenandyetchosen,thehomelandwhereonehaslearned
tocomeintoone'sown.OnecanevenasHaaralsodoesseektounifythesesensesinthesingularthoughtofanonfoundationalfoundation.Andyet,every

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suchdiscourseonthemeaningoftheearthwillremainquestionable,willremainexposedtotherecoilofwhatissaidbackupontheverysaying.For,withinthe
Heideggeriandiscourse,meaningisdeterminedbyreferencetoahorizonor,moreprecisely,aworlditisfromtheworldthatallthingswithintheworldreceivetheir
meanings.Buttheearthisnotsomethingwithintheworlditisnotathingatall.Itisratherwhat,inoriginarystrifewiththeworld,remainsalwaysalsowithdrawnfrom
theworldandthemeasureprovidedbytheworld.Toundertaketosaywhattheearthmeansistorisksubmittingittothatmeasure,totheruleoftheworld,violating,
asitwere,itsnonsense.Unless,perhaps,onealsosaysthattheearthmeansnothing,interruptingthuseverydelimitationofsensebyopeningitontoanabyss.Little
wonderthatHaarletsthequestionobtrude:Onwhatbasiscanwesaytheearth?AnditisatthatverymomentthathealludestothePlatonicchoraandtothe
"bastardreasoning"thatseemstheonlyrecourseforonewho,likeTimaeus,wouldspeakofwhatwithdrawsfromspeech.
Butwhatofthistext?WhatofTheSongoftheEarth?Canthesewordsberewrittenwithouttheitalicsthatmakethemfunctionasatitle?Isthistextasongofthe
earth?Ordoesitatleastbecomeatcertainmomentsasongoftheearth?Notofcoursethesong,forthereareothers,notonlyNietzsche'sandMahler's,butalso
veryancientonessuchastheHomericHymn"ToEarththeMotherofAll,"whichbegins:"Iwillsingofwellfoundedearth,motherofall,eldestofall."6IfHaar'stext
isasongoftheearth,isitalso,liketheHomericHymn,asongtotheearth?Onewouldliketoaskbuthardlycanwhatitcouldmeantodaytosingtotheearth.
Ortocomposeasongtotheearth,oftheearth.Inasongoftheearthwillonesingthetruthabouttheearth?Whatwouldsuchtruthfulnessremainingfaithful(treu)
totheearthnowrequire?Nowthattheverywithdrawalwithintruth,itsmonstrosity,hasbeenthoughtmostforcefullyasearth.Orwouldasongoftheearthnotalso
resoundfromtheearth,doublingtheof,evenrecastingthesongonewouldsing,recastingitasaresponsetoanunheardsongoftheearth?Thenonewouldhave
recognizedthatasongoftheearthalwayscontains,whenonesings,acertainearthofthesong,thecorporeityofitssoundingfromone'svoice.Theearthiness(das
Erdige)ofthesong.
Onemustlisten.Perhapsalmostasonelistenstothevoiceofthefriendthat,saysHeidegger,everyDaseincarrieswithit.7Onemustlistentowordssuchasthosein
TheSongoftheEarththatfollowadiscussionoftheearlyHeidegger'sviewthatalltimebelongsessentiallytoDasein,thatthereisnonaturaltime,adiscussion
suggestingthathereHeideggerstepsbeyondthelimitofhisdescriptionbyexcludingthepossibilityofatimeofnature,adiscussionthatgoesontovoiceanother
description,thatofanencounterwiththeplayoflightandshadowscastbythesun,anencounterinwhichonemightwellhavenocareforwhattimeitisandno
concernwithanyworktobedone,anencounterinwhichonemightsimplyattendtotheplayofshadowsthattellsperhapsonlyofleclimatdel'heure.Asifsinging
ofatimeoftheearth.

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TRANSLATOR'SPREFACE
TheSongoftheEarthisatranslationofMichelHaar'sLechantdelaterre(L'Herne:Paris,1987).IhaveworkedcloselywithMichelHaarwhiletranslatingthis
texthehastakenadvantageoftheopportunitypresentedbythesecircumstancestoaugmentandchangesomeformulations.Thereforethepresenttextissomething
morethanthetranslationofLechantdelaterre.Haarhasreadtheentiretranslationandmadehelpfulsuggestions,manyofwhichIhaveincorporatedintothe
translation.Ofcourse,Ibearresponsibilityforanyandallshortcomings.IhavetranslatedtheGermantextsfromtheoriginalwheneverpossible.
Inhismostrecentbook,Heideggeretl'essencedel'homme(Millon:Grenoble,1990),Haarincludesanoteconcerningthecapitalizationofthreewords:"Being,"
"History,"and''Earth."Sinceitisrelevanttothepresentwork,Iincludeatranslationofthatnoteasfollows:

Beingandbeing
Accordingtoconvention,IwriteBeingwithacapitalletterwhenitreferstobeingsintheirtotality,orthebeingofbeings,orthebeingnessofbeings,thatis,when
itisamatterofBeingastraditionallyconceivedasthefirstoressentialorfundamentalBeing[Etant],suchasIdea,Substance,Subject,Will,etc.Thusthecapital
referstothegreatmetaphysicalnamesoftheHistoryofBeinginitssuccessiveepochs.
Iwritebeingwithalowercaselettertoindicatebeingintheactivesenseoftheunfoldingofwhatiswithinthehorizonoftime.Inthissensebeingmustbeunderstood
asaverbandnotasasubstantiveoranabstractconcept.Thoughinseparablefrombeingsitneverthelessdiffersfromeverybeing.
InGermanthenonsubstantialityofbeingcannotbesoeasilyinscribed.Finally,aninferiorityofGerman!HeideggerwroteSeynorSeininanattempttoavoid,
throughasimplegrammaticaleffect,positingbeingasasubjecthypostatizedandseparatedfromman,whoseessenceitistobeopenedtobeingbybeingitself.
Anambiguityremainsconcerningtherelationbetweenbeinginthemetaphysicalsenseandbeinginthephenomenologicalsense,atleastinsuchformulationsas"The
HistoryofBeingisbeingitselfandnothingbutit"(NietzscheII,p.489).IndeedthereisatplayinthedifferencebetweenBeingandbeingthepossibilityoftheoblivion
ofbeing.

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Historyandhistory
History(Geschichte)astheseriesofepochswherebeingisgivenandsuspended("epoch"meanssuspense)isdistinguishedfromhistoricalenquiry(Historie).The
adjectivehistoricalreferstotheHistoryofBeing.

Earthandearth
Aswitheverything,theearthissomeparticularearththeearthofapeople,theearthofaworkofartanditthereforeseemsthatthelowercaseisrequired.
Nevertheless,wehavehadrecoursetoacapitallettertoemphasizethenonfactual,nongeographic,nonplanetarycharacteroftheEarthastheplaceofrootedness
capableofproffering,givenanepochandworld,anonhistoricalpossibility.Writtenwithalowercaseletter,"earth"simplydesignatestheearthasaplanet.

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ABBREVIATIONSFORFREQUENTLYCITEDWORKS

Heidegger'sWorks
EHD=ErluterungenzuHlderlinsDichtung(Frankfurt:Klostermann,1951).
EM=EinfhrungindieMetaphysik(Tbingen:Niemeyer,1953).
GA=Gesamtausgabe(Frankfurta.M:Klostermann,1975):
GA13:AusderErfahrungdesDenkens,ed.F.W.vonHerrmann,hereafterGA13:AED.
GA20:ProlegomenazurGeschichtedesZeitbegriffs,ed.PetraJaeger,hereafterGA20:PGZ.
GA24:GrundproblemederPhnomenologie,ed.F.W.vonHerrmann,hereafterGA24:GP.
GA29/30:GrundbegriffederMetaphysik,ed.F.W.vonHerrmann,hereafterGA29/30:GM.
GA39:Hlderlins"Germanien"und"DerRhein,"ed.S.Ziegler,hereafterGA39:HGR.
GA45:GrundfragenderPhilosophie,ed.F.W.vonHerrmann,hereafterGA45:GFP.
GA54:Parmenides,ed.F.W.vonHerrmann.
GA55:Heraklit,ed.ManfredFrings.
HW=Holzwege,5thed.(Frankfurt:Klostermann,1979).
ID=IdentittundDifferenz,5thed.(Pfullingen:Neske,1976).
KPM=KantunddasProblemderMetaphysik,4thed.(Frankfurt:Klostermann,1973).
NI&II=Nietzsche(Pfullingen:Neske,1961).
SvG=DerSatzvomGrund(Pfullingen:Neske,1956).
SZ=SeinundZeit,14thed.(Tbingen:Niemeyer,1977).
TK=DieTechnikunddieKehre(Pfullingen:Neske,1962).
US=UnterwegszurSprache,6thed.(Pfullingen:Neske,1979).
VA=VortrgeundAufstze,3rd.ed.(Pfullingen:Neske,1967).
WHD=WasHeisstDenken?(Tbingen:Niemeyer,1954).
WM=Wegmarken,2nded.(Frankfurt:Klostermann,1978).
ZSD=ZurSachedesDenkens(Tbingen:Niemeyer,1969).

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HIderlin'sWorks
HSW=SmtlicheWerke,ed.FriedrichBeissner(Stuttgart:J.G.Cottasche,1946).

Rilke'sWorks
RSW=SmtlicheWerkeIIII,ed.RilkeArchiv,withErnstZinn(Frankfurt:InselVerlag,1962).

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PREFACE
THELIMITSANDGROUNDSOFHISTORYTHENONHISTORICAL
Becausethegreatmomentsoftruthpasswithoutdisappearingandlinktogethertobuildupthetotallyencompassingrealityofthepresent,Hegelperpetuallyseemsto
bejustified.FromThalesorArchimedesuptocyberneticspassingbywayoftheLeibnizianstatementoftheprincipleofreasonitiscertainthatthetechnological
rationalitydominanttodaywasbuiltupstepbystepaccordingtoarigorouslycumulativeprocess.ByshowingthatmodernTechnologyactuallyaccomplishesin
practicethemostradicalandmostancientmetaphysicalproject,namelydisclosinganimmutablepresencelackingnothingandrevealingthefirstandultimatecauses,
HeideggeralsoseemstoaffirmthatuniversalHistory,havingarrivedatitsend,nolongerholdsinreserveanyessentialprinciple.Indeed,ifthestockpilingofvast
reservesofdisposableandeverdistributableenergyanswerstotheageoldquestforconstantpresenceiftheprincipleofreasonis"realized"inthemultiple
technologicalproceduresofcontrol,offeedback,ofoptimization,ofproductivity,metaphysicswouldbeatoncefulfilledandabolished,andthequestionofthe
essenceoffullpresencewouldbeinfactresolved.IstheHistoryofBeingthatcommenceswiththeGreeksandculminatesintheepochofplanetaryTechnology
fulfilledatthepointwhereitnolongerawaitssomethingbeyonditself?
HavingbeendeterminedbytheprinciplesdirectingTechnology,everyfutureeventpettyorgrandseemsnecessarilytobedefinedfromthebeginningasa
"consequence"oftheseprinciples:accordingly,scienceisnolongerdisinterestedbutisindissociablefromdominationorwehavemassiveStatePlanning."Nothing
new,"then,inthisfinalepochifnottheindefiniteperfectibilityofacquiredprinciples.IfintheendthegreatestrevelationsofpastontologyIdea,Energeia,
Actualitas,Subjectivity,Objectivity,WilltoKnowledge,WilltoPowerarenowfoundedandtransmutedintothe"WilltoWill''supportingtheWorldOrder
(Gestell),onecanhardlydoubtthattheHistoryofBeingamountstoaformidableoperationoftotalizationcombiningandsubjugatingalltheepochsoftruth.Isbeing1
thusreducibletoitsHistory?AnddoesHeideggerdonothingmorethangiveanewvision,onlydevoidofallabsolutelogicalnecessity,ofaHegeliansys

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temofworldhistorywithhisconceptof"completedmetaphysics"asfoundinTechnology?
Quitetothecontrary.Indeed,theverydevelopmentoftheHistoryofBeingfromtheGreeklogostomodernTechnologydoesnotexclude,butimplies,areserve,an
opacity,areversesidewhichcanneverbeexhibited.Itisthiswithdrawing,nonmanifestdimensionthatmakesHistorydestinyandnotthelogicalunfoldingthat,
accordingtoHegel,isgovernedbyaneternalnecessity.FinaltotalizationdoesnotmeanthatHistoryisatotalunveiling.WhatcouldthetermGeschickmeanifnot
thatbeinggivesitself,"sendsitself"(schicken),gathersitselfateachmomentintoadomainofunity(Ge)?Thisunityisthatofanepoch.Buteachepochiscompletely
closedandblindtowhatdoesnotenterintoit.Thereisaradicalfinitudetoanepochandtoallepochs.EveryepochofHistoryisepoch,whichmeansa"holding
itselfback,""selfsuspension,"or"withdrawal''ofbeing,whichgoeshandinhandwithitsmanifestation.Theepochalorhistorical2assuchisdeployedonthebasisof
afreeemergenceclosedinitself.ThestructuregoverningHistoryisnothingotherthantheverystructureofbeing:disclosureandcovetingover.Whatisaccessible,
thinkable,anddoablewhichmeans"true"or"uncovered"inanepochorinagivenworldexcludes,asinaccessible,unthinkable,impractical,everyothersortof
disclosure.Whatistherebyexcludedisnotsomedeterminatefigure.Whatis"coveredover"belongstodestiny.Itisrareanddifficultformantobecomeconsciousof
suchanuncircumventabledimension,sincebyitsessenceitdoesnotappearintheepochitself.Epochalpresencelacksnothing.Itisfullandapparentlyunlimited.And
yeteveryepochhasitslimitswhichnecessarilyescapeit.Howarewetoimaginethatwhatgivesitselfexcludesfromourviewcompletelydifferentpossibilities?The
reverseofbeingisunimaginable.Inaworldwherenymphsandmuses,heroesandgodslivedalongsidemansuchpeoplecouldnotsuspectaworldwhereangels
anddemons,saintsandwitchescommonlyintermingledinhisexistence.
Inanepochthatveneratesthenarcissisticidolsofsport,song,orthecinema,whathasbecomeofthecallofthemuses,thesmileoftheangels,thewordsofthe
saints?DestinyhaswithdrawnthemfromtheOpen.Butthemostradicalwithdrawalisnotbytheonethathasceasedtohaveeffects,ortheonewhoseappearanceis
foreseeableratheritistheonewhich,inaccessible,isunimaginablyabsentand"unlivable."Nevercompensated,thiswithdrawalistheonewhich,atonceprimordial
andcontinual,makesHistorydestiny.Thedestinalorepochalsendingwithdrawsitalwaysremains"behind"allthatitmanifests.Whatitwithdrawsthusremains
impenetrableandinaccessibleandyetthisnonhistoricalisnotsomepurenonbeing.Rather,inpreservingtheoriginalandconservingthefuture,itiswhatsavesusas
muchfromfatalismasfrometernallogicalnecessity.Weareunawareofwhetherthefuturepromisesmankindanythingmorethantheindefiniteperpetuationand
mushroomingoftechnologicalcivilization,or

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whether,evenbeyondtheWest,itpreparesanothercommencement,"amoreinaugurallydestinedfutureHistory." Beingisthecommencementitselfwhichdoesnot
ceasehappening.Astheinaugural,beingcanneitherpassawaynorbecomeameremomentofHistory.Ifonedayitrecommencesinacompletelydifferentway,itis
becauseitismoreoriginarythantheseriesofepochstowhichithasgivenbirth.ThediscoveryofthislimitwheretheHistoryofBeingflowsback,asitwere,into
itself,whereitfoldsbackupontheradicalsimplicityofthebelongingtogetherofmanandbeingthisiswhatHeideggercallsEreignis:the"eventofappropriation."It
isaneventinwhichallthathappensisthenoncoincidenceofHistorywithitselfallthathappensistheplayofbeingandman.Orrather,thecoincidenceofcompleted
metaphysicswithtechnologyleavesaremainder,anunthinkableinverse,namelyamoreradicalandancientrelationofbeingtomanwhichgovernsallphasesof
History.Ereignis,thelastwordofthoughtandwhichisinaugurallike"Tao,''referstotheotherside[face],thenonhistoricalsideofthe"historical"reignof
Technology.Ereignis,whichdoesnotbelongtotheHistoryofBeing,bringsaboutwiththeabruptnessoflightningthesimplethought"outsideanyepoch":namely,if
theessenceoftechnologysummarizestwentyfivecenturiesofWesternhistory,beingistherebyassembledintoanultimateandintensecongealingoftruthinwhichthe
forgetfulnessofitsdestinybothincreasesandcanreverseitself.Iftheelementaryinsightthatmanisthepropertyofbeingandbeingthepropertyofmanbelongstoa
brieftime,toaninstant,toaninstantaneousglimpse(BlitzBlick),itisahistoricalanddoesnotbelongtoanyepoch.HeideggerofteninsistsonthefactthatEreignis
isnotanewnameforbeing,whichmeansitisnottheprincipleofanewepoch.The"event"(ofthought)bywhichwearereappropriatedbybeinganddisabusedof
metaphysicsisnotitselfhistorical.Becauseitraisestheveilovertheessenceofbeing,overitswithdrawalanditsforgottennesswhichistherebypotentially
overcomeEreignisiscalled"nonhistorical"and"beyonddestiny":"WhataddressesusasEreignisisitselfnonhistorical(ungeschichtlich),orbetter,beyond
destiny."4OnlytheperspectiveofEreignisseemstoallowforaplaceoutsidetheHistoryofBeingand,intheend,forgraspingitasacompletedensembleand
recollectingitwithoutaimingforatotalizationoftheHegeliantype.Inanycase,onlyEreignisallowsthinkingtoavoidthepossiblenihilismofadeconstruction
necessarilydedicatedtotheindefinitetraversalof"theclosure"ofmetaphysicsortoexploringitsambiguousedgesandpolysemicmargins.Ereignisistheconditionof
enteringintothisnonmetaphysicalexperienceoftheworldthatHeideggersometimesdescribesaslettingbe,orasthenonobjectivizedproximityofthings,orasthe
completelynonanthropomorphicdeploymentofthefourregions(earth/sky,mortals/gods)thatreflectintoeachother.
ThisexperienceoftheworldisnotanostalgicinvocationoftheGreeksorofHlderliniteventakesplacetodayinparallel,asitwere,tothetechnologicalOrder,
paralleltotheHistorywhichfollowsonitsownmomentum.

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Thenonmetaphysicalrequiresthattherebeanonhistoricaldimension.Thenonhistoricalpresumesthatbeingisnotcaughtintheclosureofmetaphysics.
Butwhatsustainsandinvigoratesthisparallelworld?IfEreignisistherevelationasmuchofthefinitudeofhistoryasofthereignofthenonhistorical,thisdiscovery
mightcorrespondtoasimplenostalgia,toaromanticdesiretofleetheepoch.Whatgivesaground[assise]tothenonhistorical?WhatmakesthefinitudeofHistory
openupintoadimensionotherthanthemullingoverofitsownlimits?Whatdisclosesitselfonthemarginsofthetechnologicalorder,attheheartofthisnonworldly
world,arethingsthingstakenintheordinaryandsimplesenseoftheterm,likethejugthatpoursadrink.Whythings?Undoubtedlybecauseinopeningupaworld
thingsparticipateintheobscureburgeoningoftheearthinwhichthehistoricalmeetsitslimit.5
Beforeproceedingweoncemoreask:whyarethingsortheearththegroundinsteadofindividuals?Isn'ttheindividualessentiallyonthemarginofHistory?Isn'tthe
thoughtofthelaterHeideggerstrangelysilentabouttheplaceassignedtotheindividualatthecoreofHistory?Selfhoodand"mineness,"soradicalinBeingand
Timedotheynolongermakesense?CannotoneimagineatthelimitoftheepochacrumblingoradecayoftheOrderunderthepressureofamultiplicityof
individual,marginalexperiences?Indeed,sucha"principleofanarchy,"moreNietzscheanthanHeideggerian,couldnotsustainitselfwithoutthesupportoftheepoch,
thusofTechnology,andevenlesscoulditshakeit.6ItseemsthatforthelaterHeideggertheindividualistotallysubjugatedtodominantprinciples,7orevensplit,torn,
caughtupinatension(whichrecallsthetensionbetweenauthenticityandinauthenticity)betweenahealthydistancevisvistechnology,whichmeansmeditative
thought,andaservilebutadequateresponsetotheexigenciesoftheepoch,whichmeanscalculativethinking.Heideggerdoesnotthinkindividualexistencecanserve
asalimitforHistory.Privatelifeisnotthenonhistorical.Nordoeshethinktheindividualcanfindhishappinessinforgetfulness,muchlessintheoblivionofHistory,as
Nietzschewouldhaveit.8IfEreignistouchesupontheahistorical,ifitpermitsthinkingto"leavemetaphysicstoitself,"9thisisonlyafterhavingtraversedthefull
breadthofitsHistory.
ThusEreignismakesthelimitsandgroundsoftheWorldOrder,thoughtaccordingtoitshistoricalprovenance,appearaspurelymetaphysicalfoundations.Are
thesescientificandtechnologicalfoundations,derivedinavagueandcomplexfashionfromthe"firstprinciples"ofphilosophy,thesoiluponwhichmanwalks,on
whichhestands?Ofcoursenot.Evenifmanbeginstodistancehimselffromtheplanetintermsofcosmologicalspace,theearthhestillinhabitshardlyhasthe
significationofone"planet"amongotherplanets("planet"means,etymologically,''errantheavenlybody,""Irrstern").10Eventhough,inthefinalphaseoftheHistoryof
Being,Earthhasalreadybecome"planetary,"itneverthelessgivestoman

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theoriginaryexperienceofplace.Ifthereisaheightandadepth,anabode,acenterofgravity,a"soilformybody"asHusserlalreadysaid,itisbecausethereisa
Urheimat,a"primordialhome,"anearth.11Forwedon'tliveintheabstractspaceanddistendedtime(aretheyhabitable?)thattheunhappy"voyagers''inspaceships
experience.Yetaplanetarytechnoculturegovernedbyinformationsciences,themedia,andstandardizedconsumptionhasalreadyprojectedourrepresentationsinto
aneutralandindifferentspace.Thisiswhyanabyssishollowedoutbetweentheimageoftheworldthatproducessuchacultureandtheexperienceofthe"earth"or
"naturalnature.""Naturetechnologicallymasterablebyscienceandthenaturalnatureofthehumanabode,whichareequallydeterminedinahistoricalfashion,diverge
fromeachotheratamaddeningpaceastwostrangeanddistantdomains."12Whatisthis"naturalnature"andwhatisitsrelationtobeing?Doesithaveasubsistence,a
true"reign"outsideofthe"greenspaces"andprotectedparks?"TheEarthremainsshelteredintheinapparentlawofthatpossibilitywhichitisitself."13Butwhatisthe
Earth?IsitmerelyanewnamefortheahistoricalimmutabilityofNature?InwhichsenseistheEarth"sheltered,"sparedbyHistory?Itdoesnotseemasthoughit
couldbepurelynonhistorical,forontheonehanditonlyshowsitselfthroughadeterminateepoch,throughitsconceptions,itsworks,etc.,andontheotherhanditis
situatedinthetraditionthatisalsodeterminedbywhatthefirstGreekscalledPhysis,thisblooming,holdingwithinitselfasecretreserve,ofwhichweperceivebuta
faintecho.MustwenotunderstandtheEarthasamixtureofHistoryandnonHistory?
ButwhydoestechnologythreatentheEarth?Howcanitshakethe"ground"ofourabodeinGerman,theBodenstndigkeit,thecapacityofdrawingsupportfrom
andstandinguponthesoil?HowisitthatTechnologycanproduceauniversalcrisisofdwelling?"Theabsenceofdwelling(orhomelessness:Heimatlosigkeit)
becomesaworlddestiny."14Thissortofrootlessnessismoreprofoundthananypurelysociologicalorpoliticalphenomenon.Whentheworldisreducedtoanetwork
ofinterchangeableconnections,therearetrulynomoresubjectswhofaceobjectsbutonlygiganticcirculationsofenergy,products,information,andconsumption.
Evermoreremoved,everlessinsertedinasituationoradeterminatesite,technologicalmanmoreandmorefindshimselfdecontextualized,simultaneouslyintegrated
anddispersed.Thesenseofthenearandthedistantbecomesblurred.TheoblivionoftheEarthistheoblivionoftheoriginallylocalandregionalcharacterof
thinkingandaction.
EarthisolderthanAdam,olderthanHistory.AndyetEarthisnot"pureNature."Thoughappearingintheepochandclearingofbeingasdoeseverybeing,itisnot
reducedtoabeingnoreventotheepochal,butitholdsitselfback,likebeing,thuspreservinganextraepochaldimension.Historicalandyetnonhistorical,itappears
asthemostelementarygroundoftheworld,asitsbody,towhichourbodyisnecessarilyconnected.

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Beingthehiddensubstructureoftheworld,theEarthemergesinitasessentiallyopaqueandwithdrawnintoitself.Insofarasitisobviouslyselfenclosed,itpresentsto
theOpenitsgreatestopposition,"itsstrongestresistanceandthuspreciselytheplaceofitsmostconstantstability."15Yetthisundergirdingstabilityisrevealedand
achievedonlywithintheopeningofbeing.Inotherwords,theEarthdoesnothaveathand"byitself"thepowerofgivingagrounditfirstneedsaninstitutingoftruthto
discloseitselfandnotablyinaworkofartsothattheEarthlybasiscanrevealitselfthroughit.ThisthoughtisinoppositiontoaromanticconceptionofNature
whichseesinitanultimateandautonomoussourceofcreation.TheEarthissourceandresource,butonlytotheextentthatitiswroughtandentersintoaworld.
Heideggerdoesnotrecognizenatureashavingpoweroverbeing.Natureisinbeing,andnotbeinginnature.Thusthefacticityofthehumanbodyasphysiologicalis
alwaystakenupandtranscendedinanunderstandingofbeingandanattunementwhichinsomemannerenvelopthebody.
ItisfundamentalthattheconceptofEarthabsentfromBeingandTimewherenatureisreducedtoa"subsistentbeing"andwhere"ecstatic"temporalityfulfillsthe
destructionofrootscarriedoutbytranscendentalphilosophyiselucidatedforthefirsttimeinconnectionwiththeinterpretationoftheworkofart.Stemmingfroman
unabatingstrifebetweenanepochalworldandEarth,thework,beyonditsconfigurationthatbelongstotheworld,makesmanifestan"Earth"thatbeforehandwasnot
visible.ThisconceptofEarthdoesnotsimplyfusetogetherthetraditionallydistinctsignificationsof''material"and"nature"butmakesthemcommunicate.Thusthe
Greektempledescribedin"TheOriginoftheWorkofArt"doesnotsimplyrefertoaculturalworld,anditdoesnotsimplydrawattentiontosomestone,butitalso,
bycontrast,occasionstheappearanceofnatureasawhole."Theglimmerandthelightofthestone,whichapparentlyisonlythankstothesun,maketheclarityofthe
day,theimmensityofthesky,thegloominessofnightstandout."16Thisnatureisindeednatureasawholeplantsandanimalsincluded,asthetextpointsoutalittle
lateronbutnotnatureinitselforingeneral,foritisalsoalwayshistoricallydeterminedasPhysis,ifitisaquestionoftheGreeks,orasthenativesoilofsuch
andsuchapeople.
Thepoeticorartisticworklightsupourabodeinexpresslyfoundingthegroundwhichalwaysalreadybearsusup.

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PARTONE
BEINGANDEARTH

Page8
Intruth,physismeans,outsideofallspecificconnotationsofmountains,sea,oranimals,thepurebloominginthepowerofwhichallthatappearsappearsandthus"is."
GA55:Heraklit,p.102
Andthus,justasitremainsquestionabletospeakofanorganismasahistorical[geschichtlich]orevenhistoriologicalbeing,itisquestionablewhetherdeathformananddeath
forananimalarethesame,eventhoughphysiochemical,physiologicalcorrelationscanbeascertained.
GA29/30:GBM,p.388
EarthcannotdowithouttheOpenoftheworldifitisitselftoappearasEarthinthefreethrustofitsselfconcealing.Ontheotherhand,theworldcannotsoarabovetheEarthif,as
theprevailingbreadthandcourseofallthathastheessentialcharacteroftheGeschick,itistobegroundedonsomethingdecisive.
HW,p.38

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Theideaofthedependenceofhumanexistenceonorganic,animalnaturerestsonintuitiveevidencethatforitspartdrawssupportfrommetaphysicalevidence.
Intuitively,inanonscientificandnonphilosophicalmanner,wecontendthatwehaveabodylikethoseofanimals,abody.which,liketheirs,nourishesitself,whichlives
fromexchangeswiththeenvironmentbothlivinganddead,whichcanbewounded,cansuffer,heal,decay,apparentlyjustliketheirs.Inotherrespectsweare,like
organicnatureingeneral,subjectedtothealternationsofthemultiplecosmiccycles,andfirstofalltothatofdayandnight.
Thisevidence,bothvagueandpowerfulandwithwhichourcommonsenseissatisfied,isconfirmedbytheteachingofatraditionvirtuallyunbrokenfromtheGreeks
uptoNietzsche.Itclaimshumansarefundamentallyandfirstofalllivingbeings,animalswhichinadditionpossessthefacultyoflanguage,andhencethefacultyof
reason.Forthemetaphysicaltradition,organicnatureoffersitselfasthebasis,thefoundationthe"fundamentallowerlyingstratum,"asHusserl1andScheler2said
inwhichtheproperlyhumanactivitiesarerooted(averybiologicalimage),thatis,theactivitiesoftechnicityandknowhow[savoir],politicalactivitiesaswellas
privaterelationsthatareatthecoreofasociety.
Inshowingtheprimacyofperceptioninrelationtoallotheractsofconsciousness,phenomenologicaldoctrinesimplyoncemoretookupandconsolidatedtheordinary
andmetaphysicalevidence,accordingtowhichmanistheextensionofanimalnature.Inwhatway?Totheextentthattheelementarystructuresofbodilysensibility
(aesthesis,accordingtoHusserl,orperceptualformsinMerleauPonty)mostradicallyconstitutethepreobjective,whichmeansthepreliminaryformorfirstdegree
ofallhigherconsciousness,whichisobjective.
TheHeideggeriandescriptionofbeingintheworld,whichgiveslittleattentiontothenotionofthebodyproperandrejectsanyideaofanoriginalinsertionofDasein
innature,shakestheancientmetaphysicalcertaintiesrehabilitatedbyphenomenology.Forthebeingintheworldthatweare,nonaturalfoundationcanbeimported
fromtheoutsideassomething

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objectiveandexistinginitself,somethingbeyondtheworldstructure,whichmeansbeyond"worldliness."Allthatwewilleverbeabletosay,think,orexperienceof
supposedly"natural"phenomenaisnecessarilysituatedwithintheworld.Onemustnotunderstand"world"asanobjective,ontictotalityofphenomenaaccessibleto
scientificobservationbutasthefabricofpossiblenonobjectiverelationswiththingsthatareatone'sdisposal,incurrentusage,whichsurroundus.Theworldisthe
horizonofunderstandingnotathematicortheoreticalunderstandingbutapracticaleverydayunderstandingofbeingsavailableforsomeuse.Itrevealsitselfasa
networkofsigns,ofsignificationsandreferenceswhichfoundthesenseof"reality."
OntheonehandHeidegger'spositionhereisverystrong,virtuallyunassailable,andextremelylimited.Itisquitestrong,fornotonlymusteverysenseinscribeitselfin
thehorizonofaworld,butalsoeverybeing,whateveritmaybe,mustinscribe,asitwere,theweightofitsnaturality.Thusthe"drives"ascribedtousby
psychoanalysis(libido,selfpreservation)canbringaboutaneffect,canfindtheir"object"theobjectmaybetheIonlybypursuingthepossibilities,theconcrete
avenuesthattheworldproffers.Wewillneverknowwhatthesepossibilitiescouldpossiblybeorwhatcouldpossiblybetheireffectinahypothetical"stateofnature."
HeideggerwillshowinBeingandTimethateverynatural"tendency"isamodeofcare,orofatemporalrelationtotheworld.Andyetthisinterpretationimmediately
runsupagainstalimit:evenifthetotalityofsocallednaturalphenomenamustbetranslatedintothetermsoftheworld(eithertheworldoftheeverydayexperienceof
theworldoraworldderivedfromthisfirstworld,onewhichisnota''world"exceptinananalogicalsensetheworldofscience,suchasphysiology,forexample),is
itnotnecessarytoadmitthattheessenceandgenuineoriginofthisnaturecannot,bydefinition,besituated"intheworld"?Inotherwords,althougheverybeingof
naturethatmanencountersincludinghisownsupposednaturalityisnecessarilyintraworldly,"intraworldlinessdoesnotbelongtothebeing[ofnature]."3Justas
theKantianphenomenonleavestheresidueofthethinginitself,thephenomenologicaltransparencyoftheworldleavesaresidue:thebeingofnature.Whatisthis
nature,mysteriouslyinaccessibletotheworld?
Firmlyattachedtotheanalysisofthebeingofintraworldlybeings,theearlyHeideggerreduces"nature"toavarietyofequipmentalbeing:theforestisastorehouseof
wood,aplaceforawalk.Theclaimtoanautonomouslifeonthepartofnaturalbeingsseemstohimtoimplytheclaimofaprimacyofasubsistentbeinginitself.
Now,itispreciselyaquestionofshowingthatsuchabeing,whichisthebasisoftraditionalontology,isderivedfrombeingsasfirstencountered,namely,as
equipmentalbeings,utensils.Everymetaphysicsofnatureasprimordialsubstanceappearsasanoblivionofthebeingoftheworldandofbeingintheworld.4
Nevertheless,beginningwiththeTurnofthe1930s,bothinIntroduction

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toMetaphysicsandtheessay"TheOriginoftheWorkofArt,"anewthoughtofelementarynatureemergesunderthenamesof"Physis"and"Earth."ThisNature,set
apartfromthemetaphysicaldeterminationsofsubstantialityand"internalforce"inheritedfromDescartesandLeibniz,turnsouttobeveryclosetobeingitself.
ThisrapprochementbetweenPhysisandAletheia,betweenthenativearisingofthingsandtheirdisclosedness[nonvoilement],isextensivelydiscussedinthe
coursesonHlderlin5and,lateron,inthecoursesonHeraclitus6andParmenides.7ItwouldnotbeanexaggerationtosaythatalargepartofHeidegger'slater
thoughtrevolvesaroundthisimplicitquestion:Whatis"natural"inbeinggrantedthatitproffersitselffirstandfundamentallyastime,world,andhistory?Letusrecall
afewwellknowntexts:"Physisisbeingitself."8"ThisappearingandarisingitselfandonthewholewasearlyoncalledphysisbytheGreeks.Inasinglestrokethis
nameclarifiesthatuponwhichandinwhichmangroundshisabode.WenameitEarth."9"Truthbelongs,asselfdisclosure,tobeingitself:physisisaletheia,
disclosure...."10"Theinauguralarisingofwhatispresentinallbeing,butalsofallsaskew,evenfallsintooblivion:Nature(physis)''11..."beingasphysis,aspure
emerging(alsreinesAufgehen)."12
Howisonetounderstandthisunidentifiablebeingofnatureunidentifiableforthesamereasonasthethinginitselfdefinednegativelyasnotcomingfrom
worldlinessasnowbecomingaccessibleandtakingonthesenseoftheveryshowingoftruth,ofdisclosure?Forphysisisidenticaltobeingandnotonly
analogicaltobeingtotheextentthat,likebeing,itshowsitselfpreciselyinslippingaway,inproceedingintothelightofdaywhilekeepingitselfshelteredandin
abeyance.Howfarcanonegowiththisidentification?DoesHeideggernotinclineustothinkthatitissimplyamatterofananalogypertainingtoageneralstructure
thatwouldsomehowencompassnature,astructurewhichwouldbethatofthephenomenalityoftruth?Infact,herepeatedlymentionsthecommonoriginbetween
therootphu,fromwhichwederivetheverb"phuein,""togrow,push,"andtherootpha,fromwhichweget"phainesthai,""toappear,tobecomemanifest."It
shouldbementionedinpassingthatthiscommonoriginisnottobetakenassomephilological"proof,"foronecouldnot"scientifically"establishsuchacommonality
simplybybeginningwiththeconsonantphbelongingtobothroots.Whateveritmaybe,philosophicallyspeaking,theanalogy,indeedtheidentitybetweenphysis
("Whatdoes'physis'mean?Itmeansthatwhicharisesonitsown")13andphenomena,orbeings,regardingtheirprimaryemergence("thatwhichshowsitselffrom
itself")14raisesquestions.
Forifthereisanidentity,therewouldalsohavetobedifference!Butwhatdistinguishesthe"onitsown"or"fromitself"ofnature,thenaturalspontesua,fromthe
apparent"spontaneity"ofphenomenaingeneral?Isnatureitselfjustaparticularinstanceoftheappearingorselfrevealingofeverybeing?Mustits"spontaneity"lie
onlyinrevealing?Whatisthees

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senceofthisspontaneity?Woulditnotbeparadoxicaltohold,contrarytoAristotle,thatnatureislessspontaneousthanbeingsassuch,orthanthebeingofeven
nonnaturalbeings?Whatisthesignificanceoftherelationofsubordination,suchasitisarticulatedin"TheOriginoftheWorkofArt,"betweenbeingasaletheiaand
physisorEarth?Itisnotatallarelationofderivation.ItmeansthatiftheEarthappears,manifestsitselfintheworld,itmustenterintobeing.Butitdoesnotstemfrom
beingitdoesnotidentifywithbeing.IftheEarthisneithertheappearanceofbeingnor,asHeideggerwillmakeclear,thenameofitswithdrawal,thendoesnotits
proper,autonomouspowerremainunthought?
FortheHeideggerofBeingandTimethereisnodoubtthatwehavenoterrestrialrootsorsubsoilwhichoriginallysustainouremergenceintothelightofday.Nature
(aboveallaselucidatedbyphysiology,forexample)doesnothelpusunderstandanythingfundamentalaboutourpresenceintheworld.Physiologydoesnotteachus
thesenseofanxiety."Natureisitselfabeingwhichisencounteredwithintheworld."15Ourunderstandingoftheanimalitywefindaroundusandinusisradically
limitedtothehorizonopenedbytheunderstandingoftheonlyworldtowhichwehaverelations.The"animalworld,"asHeideggerpatientlyshowedinacoursein
192930,willnecessarilybeforustheworldofhumanDaseinwithfewersignsandreferences,aworldnotmore,butless,open,aworldwithout"play,''an
impoverishedworld.16Theabyssseparatingusfromanimalityisperhapsdeeperthantheoneseparatingusfromthedivine,17andthehumanbodyhasnothingin
commonwiththeorganicbody,18asthelaterHeideggerwillclaiminaccordancewithhisinitialphenomenologicalposition.
ThismakestheequivalenceproposedbyHeideggerbetweenphysisandaletheiaallthemoreenigmatic.Thestructurecommontoeachofthesedisclosureand
withdrawalinfactshedsnolightonthespecificityofbeingsorthemanifestationsofthe"natural"order.Arewesupposedtopresumethatitisthesame"principle"of
temporality,namelybeingelsewheredeterminedasentirelyhistorical19whichmakesnaturalbeingspassfromnonpresencetopresenceandfromthistoabsence?
Itwouldbeimplausibletoassumethatnatureisthoroughlyhistorical,apartfromthescientificviewofthegeologicalorgeographicevolutionoftheplanet.For
example,eveniftheworldinwhichnatureisperceivedchangesfromstemtosternbetweentheGreeksandus,arewenotobligedtoadmitthatthebeingofthis
nature,ortheEarth,isnotsubjectedtothishistoricalchange?"Earthremainsshelteredintheinapparentlawofthepossiblewhichitisitself."20
Doesnotpurely"physical"arisingrequireaforce,whatevermaybethemetaphysicalresonancesandforerunnersofthisconcept?Doesitnotimplyaparticulartype
ofspontaneity,orifoneprefers,aparticulartypeofrepetitive,cyclical,rhythmicproduction?Doesnotwhatconcealsitselfinphysisandwithdrawsfromappearing
possessanopacityandmassthatin

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deedmustbecalledmaterial?Howcanweclaimthatphysisis"beingitself"if,inregardtobeing,itisdifferentinatleasttwoways:arepetitiveproductionanda
"substantial"densityofthatwhichwithdraws?Inshort,mustwenotrecognizeinphysisanelementirreducibletoallhistoricality,adimensionforevernonepochal?
InfollowingsuchacourseofreflectiondowenotrisksimplyresuscitatinganeoLeibnizianorneoSchellingeanmetaphysicsofGrund,ofthenaturalground?Infact,
assoonasweaccordtonaturethestatusofa"materialendowedwithforce,"weonceagainsetfootonsuchmetaphysicalsoil.ButthisisnotwhattheHeideggerian
conceptofphysisorEarthmeans.ThelatterdoesnotbreakwiththeantiromanticphenomenologicaleffortthataimstoestablishfirmlytheirreducibilityofDaseinto
theorganic.InthethemeoftheEarththereisnoreturntothemetaphysicsofananimalsubstrate,fortheEarthsimplycannotgovern,determine,orgroundbeing.
Nevertheless,ifEarthremainsshelteredfromthehistoricaltransmutationsoftruthwhichmoldbeing,towhatlanguagecanwehaverecoursewhenitcomestoits
specificdeterminations?Ifinallphenomenologicalrigoritisimpossibletospeakoutsideofbeing,onwhatbasiscanwesaytheEarth,i.e.,shedthelightofbeingon
thisobscureregion?CouldHeideggerhavebeenforcedtodealwithNatureasPlatodidhyl,pure"material,"orplace(chra)onaccountofa"bastardreason"?
21Forheseemstobecompelledtohavetheforevernocturnalandnonmanifestfoundationoftheworldmanifestitselfintheclarityoftruth.Throughtheconceptof
Earthagapissketchedinbeingthatbeingcannotrecoup,afissure,a"chaos"inthesenseofachasm[bance]thatopensitselfinaquiteundiurnalmanner.Forin
everythingthatonecandiscover,ineverythingthatopensandunfoldsitself,theEarthiswhatreturnsandclosesinonitself.Thesecretofthepebblesorflowers
cannotbeexposedevenifandespeciallyifinpulverizingthemwecanspreadthemoutbeforeusdowntotheirlastatom.
Ifthereisa"bastardreason,"itisinthesenseofanecessarydetourrequiringthenonmanifestitselftobecomemanifest.FortheEarthishardlythesubstantialization
orhypostatizationofthedimensionofwithdrawalorreserveofbeing.Rather,if"logic"permitssuchaproposition,itwouldbeprimarilytheconcreteappearanceof
physisinsofarasitwithdraws."TheEarthisthattowhichthearisingofallthatariseswithdrawsassuchanarising.Inallthatarises,theEarthcomestobeasthat
whichkeepsitselfinreserve."22Howdoesthispresenceofthe''resource"similarlyappearbothinnaturalthingsandinthe"material"ofworksofart?Howisitthatthe
sphereoftheworld,whichinitiallyisthemostencompassing,canbemixedandalloyedsomehowwiththeEarthbymeansofa"strife"whereneitherisvanquisheror
vanquished?"TheworldisfoundedontheEarthandtheEarththrustsupintheworld."23
WhatsortofcontinuityistherebetweentheinitialaffirmationoftheprimacyoftheworldandtherediscoveryoftheEarthbothasthegroundof

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theworkofart(whichisnever,Heideggersays,asimplematerial)andasthepossibleabodeandrerootingofman?Atfirstsightthecontinuityisjustthis:theconcept
ofEarthbreaks,evenmoreprofoundlythandoesthepreliminaryconceptofnatureasintraworldlysubsistentbeing,withthemetaphysicalobviousnessofnatureasa
baseorfoundation,asasubstrateeverywherevisibleandaccessible.Evenmoreforeigntotheobjectifiednatureofsciencethanitistonatureasreducedtoitsintra
worldlystatus,theEarthwhichfoundsartandsustainshabitationlosesitstangibleandpurelymaterialornaturalobviousness.Communicatingwiththewithdrawalof
being,itopensaspacewhich,escapinghistoricalmutations,abidesunscathed.TheEarthisnotbyitselfsalutary.Beingitselfdoesnotoffersalvation."Onlyagodcan
saveus."24Butasanunmasterablereserve,asaresourceintacteveninthefaceoftechnologicalviolence,itmaywellbeabletoprovideforthepassagebeyondthe
epochsofthepresentHistoryofBeing.
TherediscoveryoftheEarthalsosignifiesareintegrationofthe"sensible"andthebodyinHeidegger'smeditation.Thebody"proper"orthesenseswhicharequasi
absent,orpresentinaratherobliqueormarginalmannerinBeingandTime,appearinanumberofinterpretationsofthehand,vision,andhearinginthecourseon
Heraclitus(G.A.55),inThePrincipleofReason,andinWhatIsCalledThinking?asbelongingtoadimensionthatisneithersensibleinoppositiontothe
intelligiblenorsimply''natural,"but"terrestrial."ButwhatprincipallydistinguishesthisterrestrialdimensionfromthephenomenologicalspaceofMerleauPonty's
"bodyproper"aswellasfromthePlatonicsensibleisthatinordertoberevealedandtohavesenseitdependsonaStimmung,onanaffectiveattunementwhich
alwaysenvelopsit.Stimmung,aswewillsee,leadsbacktoanalreadythere,toapastwhichwasneverpresentandwhichhastodowithwhatthetraditioncalls
nature.Butasisshownintheanalysisofanxiety,whichrevealstheworldinitstotality,Stimmungalsoparticipatesintranscendence,inthepossibilityforDaseinto
projectitselfbeyondandoutsidethespacewhereitisinfact.

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I
"Nature"AsACategoryOfBeingsEncounteredintheWorld
ThePrimacyofEquipmentalityover"NaturalSubsistentBeings"
Contrarytoallphilosophiesofnatureandlife,andinparticularthoseofBergsonandDilthey,thephenomenologyofDaseinchallengestheobviousnessofman's
descentfromorprimordialfusionwith"livingsubstance."Butonthebasisofwhichprinciple?Natureaswellaslifeareaccessibleonlywithinaworld,thatofDasein.1
AsHeideggersaysinBeingandTime,"Lifeisaparticularmodeofbeing,butitisessentiallyonlyaccessibleinDasein."2Whatthe''particularbeing"oflifeis,wedo
notknowandwecanonlyhypotheticallydetermineitbyemployingasubtractivemethodbeginningwithbeingintheworld.Wehavenointuitionoflifeexceptwithin
theworld.HowcanwefoundDaseinonanontologicallyindeterminable"livingreality"?
OnefindsthispositionfirmlyentrenchedfromthecoursesbeforeBeingandTimeandcontinuinguptillthelastseminars,notablythosewithEugenFink(196667),as
wellasthe"LetteronHumanism"withitscritiqueoftheanimalrationale."Thehumanbodyissomethingessentiallydifferentfromananimalorganism."3Tomakeof
manaspiritualstageaddedontopofafundamentallybiologicalrealityistofalleitherintobiologism,whichmeansintoaformofscientisticdeterminism,orintoa
"vagueexperienceoflife."Itisalsotoforgetthatthereisno"natural"realityformanthatdoesnotpresentitselfasanobjectofsomesortofinvolvement(Besorgen),
whichmeans,ofa"care"(Sorge)linkedtothetemporalityoftheworld.Everyunderstandingofbeingisanunderstandingoftime.Theexperienceofnatureandthe
bodyisnecessarilyinscribedinthistemporal,finiteopeningmarkedbydeath,alimittowardwhichtheanimalcannotprojectitself.ToFink,whoinvokedanobscure
vitalbasis,a"cosmicbasis"whichweunderstandbecauseofasimple"onticproximity,"Heideggerrespondedthatsuchaproximitycouldneverhaveapurelyspatial
andfactualsensebutthesenseofapossibility,ofan"opening,"beitadiminished,deficientone.4

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BeingandTimestrivesatlengthtoshowthattheconceptofnaturalbeingsisnotoriginary.Farfromfoundingtheworld,itderivesindirectlyfromtheexperienceof
thepracticalavailabilityofthethingsconstitutingtheprimordialstructureoftheworld."Natureisitselfabeingencounteredwithintheworld":5onecomesacrossthis
formulainanumberofforms."Nature...isalimitcaseofthebeingofbeingspossiblewithintheworld."6Oragain"...thephenomenonof'nature'inthesenseofthe
Romanticconceptofnaturecanbegraspedontologicallyonlyintermsoftheconceptoftheworld."7Theconceptoftheworldisnotyettakenhere,asitwillbelater,
inthesenseofthehistoricalconfigurationofanepoch.Itdoesnotmean,asitdidforKant,thetotalityoftheobjectsofpossibleexperience.Theworldletus
emphasizethisisalwaysinspiteofitsontologicalmeaninganonticallydeterminedworld(aparticular''culture,"onemightsay)whichoffersitselftoDaseinasa
complexofpracticaleverydaypossibilities.Worldintheexistentialsensesignifiesthenetworkof"destinations,"ofthe"forthesakeof..."thatlinkstogetherandrefers
objectsofcurrentusagetoeachotherforaparticularDasein.Inthissensetheworldisalwaysunthematized."Worldhood"istheontologicoexistentialstructureof
theseonticnetworks.
Theanalysisgoesontoshowthattheconceptofa"purenature"somehowindependentlypresentasabeingpresentathand(Vorhandenheit)isderivedthrougha
diminutionofthemoreoriginaryunderstandingofbeingreadytohand(Zuhandenheit),namely,thebeingofinstruments,tools,oreverydayobjectsofuse.Every
conceptofnatureasautonomousinitselfinphysics,chemistry,biologyaswellasinmetaphysics,forexamplethatofextendedsubstanceeveryconceptofthis
sortpresupposesa"demundanization"oftheworld.8Thesupposedlyimmediatepresenceofnatureisinfacttheresultofanabstraction.Inadditiontotheconceptof
nature,thiscriticalHeideggerianreversalisconcernedwiththeideaofsubsistentpresencefromtheGreeksuptomodemscience.
Theimmediateand"natural"relationinfacthappenstobetherelationtoequipmentalbeings,totheWerkwelt,astheProlegomenaof1925says,whichmeanstothe
"workworld"(understoodas:worktobedone),oreventoeveryday"utensils,"suchascloths,thepen,theglassandplate,butalsothewatch,theroad.Natural
beings,forexample,thewoodandmetalofthehammer,arefirstdiscoveredsimplyastools."'Nature'isalsodisclosedintheusedtoolthroughitsuse,'nature'inthe
senseof'native.'"9Letusnotethequotationmarksdonotmeanthatnatureisillusorybutthatitissomethingmediate,somethinginferredonthebasisofamore
originalhere,culturalexperienceofequipment"cultural"eventhoughinBeingandTimeitdoesnotexplicitlyconcernadeterminateepochofbeing.Infact,as
HubertDreyfushasseenclearly,10thisexperiencebelongstoaprecisehistoricalperiodoftransitionbetweentheworldoftheartisanandtheindustrialworld,hence,
tothebeginningofthenineteenthcentury.

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Atthisfirstlevelofdiscoverywhere"thehammer,thepincers,thenailreferinthemselvestosteel,iron,tominerals,towood," natureseemsasthoughitpermeates
utensilsasprimematter,astheusableandusedmaterialofapreindustrial,nonartisticlabor."Thewood(whichistosay:primarilyforDaseinorientedtowardthe
work)isatimberforest,themountainarockquarry,theriverahydraulicforce,thewind'inthesails.'Whenthe'environment'isdisclosed,the'nature'thusdisclosedis
encounteredtoo."12So,theprimarynotionofnatureneithersubsistentnoratourdisposalleadsbacktothesupportortheconstituentelementofapieceof
equipmentinthebroadestsenseandisnotseparablefromit.Itisasifequipmentweretheforminrespecttowhichnaturewouldbethenotyetinformedmaterial.
Natureisimmediatelyinstrumentalized.
Natureaspuresubsistenceisconstitutedinasecondmoment"whenonedisregardsitsmodeofbeingasreadytohand."13Onlyinathirdmomentisnatureposedas
apowerorautonomousforce"whichstirsandthrives,"14whichanticipateswhatlaterwillbedescribedastheoriginalexperienceofphysis.Shouldnotthisnature,
"whichoverwhelmsusandenthrallsusaslandscape,''15beunderstoodnotassomeremotederivativebutasanewtypeofbeingirreducibletoZuhandenheitaswell
asVorhandenheit?Indeed,Heideggersaysthisnature"remainshidden"fromthesetwomodesofbeing,thusfromtheveryworldhoodofDasein.Doesthismeanthat
worldlinessimpliesanecessaryblindnesswithregardtophysis?Thetextisellipticalonthisscore.Ifnaturecanbemoving,itmusttouchtheaffectivityofDasein.Isit
hiddenbecauseitbelongstoastrictlyprivateworldandbecausethe"workworld"isessentiallypublic?
Whateverthecasemaybe,"nature"isinitiallygraspedaswhatbenefitsorisanobstacletothecustomaryutilizationoftheworldasaninstrumentalnetwork.Inthis
worldsurroundingusanenvironingnature(Umweltnatur)revealsitselfasdesignatingnotanautonomousnaturalframeworkbutacultural"system"encounteredin
relationtoeverydaypractices."Intheroads,streets,bridges,andbuildings,concerndiscoversnatureashavingadefiniteorientation."16Buildingsinthemselves
obliquelyrefertoanaturalpresence:thesun,inclemenciesofweather.Roofs,chimneys,publiclightingmakereferencetoanaturemoreorless"readytohand."
Daseindependsonitbutdoesnotrecognizeitsautonomy,muchlessitsmajesty.Rain,cold,oroppressiveheat,ordarknessonlymakethejourneyorthelaborsmore
difficult.
Yetthereadytohandbeingofthethingsoftheworldshouldnotbeconsideredasasortofsecondaryqualityora"subjectivecoloration"addedontoabeing
primitivelyexistinginitself,to"arawmaterialoftheworldwhichisfirstpresentinitself."17Ifonecanspeakofaninitself,itisbeingreadytohand18itselfasthe
originaldeterminationofbothworldandbeings.Theonlywaysciencearrivesata"pure"conceptofsubsistentbeingsisthroughsettingasidetheeveryday
understandingofequipmentality.Thissettingasideisprefiguredatthepreobjectivelevelofeverydayuseby

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aphenomenonthatHeideggerdescribesasthe"rupture"orthe"disturbance"ofreferentialrelations.Atoolcansuddenlyprovetobeunusable.Thusitbecomesanin
itself,abrutematerial.Similarly,whenmandeviatesfromadirectpreoccupationwiththosethingswithinhisreach,naturelikewiserevealsitselfasapureobjectof
knowledge.Butisthisnotinordertogainaninfinitelygreatergraspandcapacityformanipulation?Heideggerdoesnotyetsuspectthemassivereversionof
technologyattheveryheartofwhathestillinterpretsatthattimeasthescientific"disinterestedness"towardtheworld.
ElementsofanInternalCritiqueoftheHeideggerianThesis
Wewillpauseforamomentwiththisutilitarian,operative,andquiteprosaicdefinitionofworldhood,andconsequentlywiththefactthatfortheearlyHeidegger
"nature"hasonlyaderivativesense.
Surroundedbyitsutensils,alwayspreoccupiedandcircumspect,Daseinconstantlyfindsitselfreferredfromoneutensiltoanother:"thewritingdesk,thepen,theink,
thepaper,theblotter,thetable,thewindows,thedoors,theroom."19AsHeideggerexplains,thesethingsdonotshowthemselvesasthemselves,butbywayofa
continualreferenceofonetotheotherwhoseessenceevidentlyistheactivityofwritinginone'sstudy.Thesamegoesforthecraftsmaninhisshop,byfarthemost
frequent"example"inBeingandTime.Butcannotindeedmustnotthesepeopleoccasionallystop,theonefromblackeningthepages,theotherfromhammering
thefootwearthatherepairs?Andnotonlyinordertoeat,sleep,orbringastoptothemosthumblyproductiveactivities,ofwhichtheanalyticofDaseinbreathesnot
aword,butquitesimply,forexample,inordertoponderabouquetofflowers(thatthewifeofthephenomenologistperhapshasplacedonthetablewheretherewill
withoutdoubtbe,besidesmanypapersandpens,somebooksperhapstheCritiqueofPureReasonandtheFragmentsofthePresocraticsandthatthe
descriptionof"householdequipment"forgetstomention).WhatdoesthisassimilationofDaseintoindustrymean,nottotheworker,buttothecraftsman?When,in
ceasingtowork,thewriterbeholdstheflowersortheedgeoftheforestattheendofhisgardenwhen,idle,hedreams,whathappenstothefundamentalformsof
equipmentality,andthusofworldhood?Heideggerwillexplainthat"simpleperception,"justlikenature,isadeficientmodeoftheequipmentalrelation.Hewritesthat
whenIdonothingbutperceive,whenIgraspsomethingbya''simpleperceptionofthething,""theworldprovestobenolongeraccessibleinitsfullworldliness,inits
fullsignificance,aswhenwemeetupwithitinpreoccupation.Rather,inthepureperceptionofthingstheworldshowsitselfasdeprivedofsignificance."20
Alwaysatitspost,Daseinmustworkinordertoexistfully.Idle,ill,handicapped,unemployed,dreamer,itplummetstowardpurelife,toward

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facticity,towardanimality!EveryattenuationofCare,andnotablytheabandonmentto"naturaltendencies"whichareallmodesderivedfromCare, constitutesa
situationofdeclineandinauthenticity.Inthisway,theinvocationofnaturalexigenciesgetsinterpretedasanobfuscationofCareandtemporality.
Doesthisabsoluteprimacyofequipmentalitynotawakensuspicionswhenoneconsidersitsintimatetiewiththeconceptoflaborwhich,beginningwithHegeland
Marx,determinesthemetaphysicalessenceofmaninhisrelationtonatureandpromoteshismanipulativeactivities?Didn'tE.Jngerdefinethe"Worker"asthetype
ofplanetaryhumanitythatappearsduringaspecificphaseofthetwentiethcentury(aftertheFirstWorldWar)andoutstripsstandardoppositionslikebourgeois
proletarian,civilmilitary?ThatDaseinmustworkinordertoexistinthefullsenseisthisnotatraithehasacquiredfromtheessenceoftechnology?
Butletusreturnto"nature."Whenwalkinginthecountrysideandwhenapprehendingitapartfromeverypracticalprojectandeverycognitiveinterestcanwenot
ormustwenotinterpretnatureasanindeterminablepresencethatwecouldcallneithermetaphysicalsubstancenorobjectiveforce,northesometimesconsoling
universalMotherofthepoets?Whenthe"beautyofnature"strikesusinashaftofsunlight,inthesurprisingdiversityofformsandcolorswhenweseeananimal
playingwhenwestandinameadowinspringtimewhenweheartheceaselessrumbleofthewaves,noequipmentalrelationispresentwhichmightsubsequentlybe
broken.Ouraccessisdirect,evenif,asHeideggersaysmuchlater,wemustadmitthatitisalwayssunornight,springorwinter,meadow,forest,orseawhich
presentthemselvesasbeingsbutNatureneverdoes!Ifitwerethelastwordofthephilosopher,theanalysisofBeingandTime,withitsantiRomanticdryness,
couldleadtothesuffocatingvisionofaworldtotallycutofffromlife,partitionedlikeagiganticworkshop,completelycentereduponitsownspaceand...blindtothe
Earth.Itseems,however,thatitispreciselyareversalofthisinterpretationoftherelationbetweenworldandEarththattheTurnmostclearlyeffects.
TheprosaicdescriptionsofnaturalphenomenainBeingandTimeinfactofferastrikingcontrast(andretrospectivelyseemevenstrangeandforced)if,when
consideringasimilar"meteorological"phenomenon,oneapproachesitfromthereadingthatisgiveninalatertext,likethecommentaryonapoemofHlderlin.For
instance,thewind!Inthefirsttext"thesouthwind"doesnothaveanyparticularnatureitoriginallydisclosesitselfonlyintheforesight(Vorsicht,thecircumspect
view)ofthepeasant.Thebeingofthesouthwindfirstofallconsistsinpresentingitselfasasignportendingrain.22Itcanbecomeapuremeteorologicaleventonly
secondarilythroughthisdemundanizationeffectedbysciencewhichextractsitfromtheworldofthepeasant.Asifthewindnolongerhassensewhenthepeasant
doesn'tcountonitorisn't"preoccupied"inconsultingthemeteorologicalforecastsforhisharvest!InthepoemRemembrance,Hlderlincel

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ebratesthewindfavorableto"daringnavigators":"Thenortheastwindblows/OfallitistheoneIlove."Thisevocationcertainlyoughtnotbetakentobea
"'poetic'depictionof'nature.'"23Itisn'taquestionofasubsistentpresenceofnature,becauseforHlderlinthenaturalityofthehomelandistobewon,andthisby
wayofahistory,oneofexile,ofavoyagetoforeignlands.24Thewindinthepoemisnotthe"merereportofwhattheweatherislike,"butitisacall,thebiddingofa
seavoyageenriching,butdifficult,forthepoetnavigator.Intheend"nature''withitsothernames:thesource,birthplace,"fatherland,"aboderevealsitselfas
somethingquiteotherthanasubsistentbeing:thesecretgrounding,indeedthematrixoftheworld.
Death,Clocks,andtheExclusionof"NaturalTime"
Thephenomenologyofdeathcoulddemonstrateitbyitself:theanalysisoftemporalityaimstowrenchDaseinfromtheprejudiceithasaboutitsobviousinclusionin
biologicalandnaturaltime,aswellasfromitsinclusioninsubsistentbeingingeneral.Thisprejudiceissharedbycommonsense(thethey),scienceandmetaphysics:
forthem,deathisafactofnaturetowhichmanissubmitted.Allthreehaveaninterestinconsigningdeathtotheabstractionofauniversalandneutralphenomenon.In
thiswaytheyremovetheanxietylinkedtofindingoutthatdeathisindissociablefromtheveryunderstandingofbeing.Infact,deathplacesusinrelationtosomething
"nonrelative"(unbezglich),25forindeathourownmostpotentialitytobe,ourbeingthere(andnotoursubsistentpresence),essentiallyrelatesitselftoanabsenceof
everyrelation,toanolongerbeingthere.Myauthenticpresenceisgivenonlyonthebasisofitsownabsence.Deathisthepotentialitytobethatcomesintoreliefon
thebasisofnolongerbeingabletobe,andidentifieswithit.Thethoughtofmortality,oftheradicalfinitudeofbeing,revealstheabysmalequationofbeingand
nothing.Beingabletodieandbeingabletobetherearethesame.Shelteringthenothing,theabolitionofeverybeing,butalsowhatdiffersfromeverythinginthe
world"deathistheshelterofbeing,"26asHeideggerwillsaylater.
ThereforeBeingandTimeinsistsonthefundamentalnonnaturalityofdeath.ForDasein,thepossibilityofdeaththepresentpossibilityandnotsomemerefuture
eventualityhasnothingincommonwithanysortofbiologicalmaturation,withthebecomingripeoffruit.Deathisnotinusasthis"secretandalreadyquiteformed
infant"27itisnot,asitisforRilke,thefruitthateverypersoncarriesinhimselforherself"aroundwhicheverythinggravitates"andwhichonemustbringintothelightof
day,intothe"austeremotherhoodofBeing."28"Withmaturity,thefruitcomestofruition."29Onthecontrary,theempiricalendofexistencedoesnotnecessarily
coincidewithafruitionoracomingtoperfectionbutmoreproba

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blywithadecline,fatigue,wearingaway.Asanontologicalstructure,beingtowarddeathisperpetual.Demise,disappearanceasabiologicalfact,isapointintime.
Livingbeingsingeneraldisappear,perish.Onlymaniscapableofdeathaspotentialityforbeing."Daseinnevercomestoanend.Butitcanexpireonlysolongasit
dies."30Beingabletodiecanhaveafoundationonlyinbeing,notinnature.Thepossibilityofrelatingtoitsownendandresolutelyanticipatingthemortaltotalitythat
"I"maybeisnotlearnedbywayoftheobjective"fact"ofdeath.ThisbeingabletodiethatDaseincantakeoverorneglectisn'tsubordinatedtothefactthat
biologicallyitisperishable.Onthecontrary,deathasanexistentialpossibilityontologicallyprecedesthequestionofthemeaningofdeaththatbiology,medicine,or
psychologycanpose.Itis"preordained.''31Infact,thescientificinterpretationofexpirationasapurelynaturaleventarisesfromaninvoluntarychoiceorientedtoward
thethey,ortowardaninauthenticunderstandingofbeing.Butbiologicalknowledgeitselfdependsonaspecificunderstandingofnaturaltimeasastreamofnow
points,onalineartime.Whatthisconceptsuppresses,insuppressingbeingabletodie,istemporalityastheecstaticjunctionofthepresentandthefuture.
Itseemsthequestionofthefoundationofthisnaturaltimecanbeapproacheddirectlyintermsofthestatusofclocks.Daseinmaintainsaspecificrelationwiththe
instrumentsforreadingtimeformerlyitwasthehourglass,thesundial,andtodayitisthewatch,clocks,chronometers.Howarealltheseinstrumentsrelatedbothto
thenatural,objectivetimetowhichtheyreferandtotheproperlyecstatictimeofDasein?Istherenotadirectmodeofaccesstonaturaltimethatjustifiestheclock?
Whenallissaidanddone,whatisthefoundationoftheclock:isittheflow"initself"ofminutes(thesuccessivefractionsofcosmologicalduration)orisitthetemporal
relationofDaseintoitsworld?
AtfirstitseemsdifficultnottorelatetheeverydayexperienceofwatchestowhatHeideggerhimselfcalls"thenaturalclock."32Thisclockisnotpartofobjectivenature
butoftheeveryday,immediate,yetalsoprimordialgraspoftherhythmoflightlinkedtotherisingandsettingofthesun."Man,"Heideggerwrites,"hasalways
possessedthenaturalclockofthealternationofdayandnight....""Humanexistenceprocuredthisclockbeforeallpocketwatchesandsundials."Oragain:"Daseinis
therewiththewatchbeitonlytheclosestandmosteverydaywatch,namelythewatchofdayandnight."33Butisitpossiblethatthetimemostpropertomanis
engenderedbythisnaturalclock?Heidegger'sresponseisreminiscentofHegel's:naturaltimeisalwayssuspendedinthepresent.Thereisnoclockthatcanindicate
byitselfpastandfuturetime.Ifhumantimeisconstitutedbynaturaltimeandisoriginallydependentuponit,thenmancouldhave,atbest,onlythenotionofaneternal
present.Whatisaclockifnotaminiaturephysicalsystemstrictlycircularandenclosedinaneternallyactualnow?Thisisthepointofdepartureforthecritiqueinthe
1924lecture,"TheConceptofTime"(theoldestversionofBeingandTime),of

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ourexcessivedependenceonclocks.WhatdoesDaseindowhenitlooksataclock?Itlosesitstime!Forallthatitcandiscoveronitswatchisaneutraltime,the
calculabletimeofthetheyandofscience."Daseincalculateswithclocks,andthisiswhyitneverhasanauthenticrelationwithtimethroughclocks."34Conclusion:
disencumberyourselvesofyourwatchesinordertorecapturegenuinetime.Donotaskwhattimeitis,but:AmImytime?Thisantinaturalist,antiobjectivistposition
closetoanexistentialism(butwearein1924)willremainunchanged,despiteallthecontributionsofBeingandTime,uptotheTurnofthe1930s.
Infact,itseemsthereisin80ofBeingandTime,whichisentitled"TheTimewithWhichWeConcernOurselves35andWithintimeness,"anattempttobring
forwardacertaindependenceofDaseinonnaturaltime.Daseindoesnotgiveitselfthedaylightthatgivesrhythmtoitsactivities.Thustheseactivitiesaresubmittedin
somemannertocosmologicaltime.Thedayhasalwaysmeasuredthetimeoflabor.Isdating,calendartime,notfoundedonthecyclesoftheeartharoundthesun?To
saythiswouldreallybeamisunderstandingoftheradicalprofundityofDasein'stemporality.ItisthroughthetemporaldimensionofitsbeingthrownthatDaseinis
originallysubjectedtothealternationofdayandnight,andtotheothernaturalcycles...:"Dasein'sthrownnessisthereasonwhy'thereis'publictime."36Or
again:"Withthefactualdisclosingofitsworld,natureisdiscoveredforDasein."37Thankstoourownpropertemporalityweunderstandthesolarrhythmsasan
elementofourfacticity.NaturetakespartinasortofpriorpastofDasein,butapastwhichisforDaseinnothingexteriorrather,itistakenupinDasein'sprojects.
Thereforeitwouldbeamistaketobelievethat,intheend,thesuniswhatmeasuresthetimeofeverydayactivities.Onthecontrary,itiswithaviewtoitsworkthat
Daseinitselfgearsthebeginningofitslaborstotherisingofthesun,thusmakinguseoflightandsolarwarmthasreadytohandbeings."So,whenthesunrises,itis
timeto...."38timetotakeinhandthetoolswhosenetworkofcorrelationsconstitutestheworld,amongwhichisthisnonfabricated"tool":thesun.Dating,the
calendar,theclockderivefromthefactthatDaseinknowshowto"takeintoaccount"the"places"andapparentmovementsofthesun.The"natural''clockofdayand
nightisinscribedbeforehandinthetemporalityofpreoccupiedbeingintheworld."Temporalityisthefoundationoftheclock."Andinthisregardasundialisnot
more"natural"thanaclock.Forhowdoestimeaccruetoit?"Whydowefindinthepositionoccupiedbytheshadowonthesundialsomethingliketime?Neitherthe
shadownorthedivisiblesweep,muchlesstheirspacialrelationtoeachother,aretimeitself."39
Whatisitthentoreadthetimeonasolarclockorawatch?Itisnottoobserveaninstrumentisolatedandinitself.Itistoposeeitherexpresslyornotanow,butnot
asanactofabstractpresentification.Thismeans:now,IstillhaveenoughtimetodothisorthatoritisnowalreadyanhoursinceIdidthisorthat.Timefor...,time
until...,andtimesince....Butthe

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sinceonlyleadsbacktoanewuntil,totheprimacyofthefuture.Aprimacyalsoofpracticalinvolvements.Timeisalreadygiventousbeforeusingthewatch.There
isneveratemporalgapprojectedaheadwhenIhaveaviewofsomeprojectedactivitythisgapcouldneveremergefromthesimplepositionofthehandonthe
sundial,norfromanybeingintheworld.Thistimeoforiginaltemporalitystretchedfromtheanticipatedfuturebacktothenowandretainingthepastissituated
outsideofallnature.Toreadaclockdoesnotmeantoinvoluntarilycollaborateinthetimeofnaturebuttoprojectthetimeoftheworldwithoutobjectively
constructingit,whichmeansitisnotthetimeofthe"public,"publishedtimeexpressedasobjectivelycoordinatedinvolvements.Thisobjectifiedtimederivesfrom"the
timeoftheworld"whichoriginallybelongstothetemporalityofDasein,atemporalitywhoseecstaticunityisneitherthatofatranscendentalsubjectivitynorof
universalobjectivity:"thetimeoftheworld...'is''prior'toallsubjectivityandobjectivity...."40Timeastheindefinite,numbered,andirreversibleseriesofnowpoints
timeaccordingtoAristotle(thefirsttoconceptualizenatural,objectivetime)isnotthemostoriginaltimebutthemostderivative,themostfallentime.Indeed,this
timecalled"naturaltime"isthriceremovedfromoriginaltimewhichismarkedbytheactofpresentificationandprojectionintothefutureandaboveallbythegap
betweenthetwo,namely,thetimeoftheworlddirectedtowardthevariouslengthsofinvolvementsandinstrumentalrelation.
Thenistherestilla"natural"time?Strictlyspeaking,no,ifoneunderstandsby"natural"thatwhichproducesitselffromoutofitself.Isnotsocallednaturaltimeinfact
producedorratherconstructedbyDasein,whichlendstotimeallitsspontaneityandwhichfallspreytotheillusionthattimeisindependentofit?Suchindeedisthe
positionoftheearlyHeidegger,whointheBasicProblemsreachesthisextremeconclusion:"Thereisnonaturaltimeinsofarasalltimeessentiallybelongsto
Dasein.Thereis,however,aworldtime."41Theaffirmationthatthereisnotemporality,notevenanytimeingeneraloutsideofDaseinthoughitrestsonarigorous
phenomenologicaldeconstructionofthepseudoobjectivityoftimeisanaffirmationthatremainsmetaphysicalinasmuchasitconcernsthetotalityofparticular
beingsbothintheworldandoutsideoftheworld.DoesnotHeideggergobeyondthelimitsofphenomenologicaldescriptionbyexcludingthepossibilityofanatural
timesubsisting"initself"?
Ofcoursebiorhythms,lightyears,geologicalandpaleontologicalepochs,eventheseasonsemergefromascientificorempiricalconceptualitywhich,becauseitisitself
inscribedintheworld,"proves"nothingabouttheinternaltruthofthebeingofnature.Yet,evenifthesechronologiesareintelligibleonlyintermsofourtemporality,
theyhardlyseemabletobedefinedasconstructionsexclusivelyderivedfromthetimeoftheworld,especiallyinsofarasthetimeof"theworld"dependson"being
readytohand."Whatcouldthereadytohandbeingofgalaxies,of"blackholes,"be?

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Isitabsurdtodescribeasignificantencounterwiththeplayoflightsandshadows,withthesun,whichwouldbeindependentofanycareforwhattimeitis,oratleast
ifsuchacarewerenecessarilyimpliedintheexperienceoftemporality,whichwouldhavenorelationtoworkthatmustbedone,tosomeconcern,apparentlyan
obsessioninalltheseanalyses?Aretherenotshadesinthelightingthatindicateandmakeknownapartfromanymeasure,expectation,orprojecttheclimateof
thehour?
Allofushavecomeacrossanoldtrunkofafelledtree.Theconcentriccircles,recognizablebythevariouscolorsofthewood,leftbysuccessiveseasonsarethey
notcompletelyforeigntoourtemporalityanddotheynotshowneverthelessastratification,adensityoftime,simultaneouslyvisibleandunfathomable,aquiteancient
progress,slowandirresistiblelikegrowth,likephysis?

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II
DaseinandAnimality
Theessenceoflifeisobscure.Themodeofbeingpropertoit,whichis"other"thanbeingintheworld,retainsadomainofinaccessibility.Life,likenature,indeedis
notimmediatelyaccessible,norisitaccessibletointuitionexceptbywayofan(intellectual)operationofsubtractionappliedtotheworld.NotonlyisDaseinnot
"substantively"lifewithsomethingelseaddedon,butlifeis,hypotheticallyspeaking,Daseinwithsomethingsubtractedfromit.Whatistobesubtractedistheworld.
Theanimalis"worldpoor."Whenitcomestoanimals,whatbiologyandphenomenologicalobservationunambiguouslyshowisalimitation,anarrowness,amuch
greaterclosureofthe"world."Thepossibilitythatlifemayhaveamodeofopeningquitedifferentthanworldlinessisnotexcluded,butwecanneitherhaveaccesstoit
norevendecideifsuchawhollyunknown"opening''existsornot.Farfromwantingtodepreciatelife,Heideggeraccordsitthepossibilityofanunfathomabledepth
thatisclosedtoman:"...theessenceoflifeisaccessibleonlybywayofadeconstructivemethod"(bythathemeansademonstrationwhich,beginningwiththe
world,showstheworldofanimalsasdeprivedofcertainofitstraits),"whichdoesnotmeanthatlifeisoflessvalueorofaninferiordegreecomparedtohuman
existence.Rather,lifeisadomainwhichpossessesarichopenness(Offensein)thelikesofwhichthehumanworldperhapsknowsnothing."1
YetHeideggerhasnoRomanticorRilkean2nostalgiaforthispossibilityofopenness.Onthecontrary,theopennessweseeherecannotinanymannerbeidentifiedor
evencomparedwiththedisclosedness(Erschlossenheit)associatedwiththeunderstandingofbeing,orwiththeOpeninthesenseoftheaccesstothedisclosureof
beings."Animalsassuchdonotstandintheovertness(Offenbarkeit)ofbeings."3Why?Becausetheydonotgrasp,aswewillsee,beingsasbeings.Thebeedoes
notseethesunasthesun,northeflowerastheflower:itisreferredtothemonlyasnonisolableelementsofitsenvironment.Onlymanseesbeingsinthelightof
being.DoesHeideggermeanthatforusphysisisnotdistinguishedfromaletheia,fromtruthas"unconcealment"?

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ThePhenomenologyoftheAnimal"World"
Thepatientandpowerfuldescriptionofanimality4takesup,criticizes,andreshapesthegeneralconcepts(whichforthemostpartarenaive)oflivingbeingsfrom
whichthebiologicalsciences5drawsupportandinwhichcommonsenseindulges.Ifitmustbeinscribedinworldliness,thediscourseaboutanimalsnevertheless
shouldnotsimplybecarriedoverintoananthropologism.TowhatextentcanDasein"putitselfintheplace"ofanimals?Daseinismuchtooinclinedtodothis,
especiallywhenitcomestodomesticanimals.Wemuchtooquicklyshiftanimalsintoagenuineworld,forgettingthatananimallivesinthelimitedspaceofan
environment.AbovealltherearetwofundamentalconceptsofthelivingbeingthatHeideggerwillcriticize,orratherreinscribe,namelytheconceptsoforganismand
animalbehavior.
Alivingbeingis,aswesay,anorganism.Itsunityisnotthatofamachine.Wethinkofanorganismasacomplexgroupoforgansworkingtogethertopromotelife.
Butwhatisan"organ"?InGreekthewordmeanstool,instrument.Wethinkofanorganasatoolthatservestocarryoutcertainfunctions:respiration,digestion,
reproduction,etc.Butatruetool,aninstrumentofwork,makessenseonlyinahumanworld.Forbyitselfatoolhasnocapacity,nofaculty.Mypenisautensil,itis
alwaysreadyforwriting.Butobviouslyitisincapableofwritingbyitself.Myeyesseebythemselves,orrather,becausetheyhavetheabilitytosee.Anorganisinthe
serviceofafaculty,whichiswithoutdoubtwherethefalseimageofautensilcomesfrom.Contrarytotheutensil,theorganhasatitsdisposalitsownimpetusthat
resultsfromthisfaculty.Itisalsonecessarytoaskseriouslyifthefacultyisnot"prior"totheorgan.''Cantheanimal,"Heideggerasks,"seebecauseithaseyes,or
doesithaveeyesbecauseitcansee?"Theanswerisclear:"Theabilitytoseeiswhatfirstallowsforthepossessionofeyes"6andnotthereverse."Wecannotsay:the
organhasfaculties,butfacultieshaveorgans."7Facultiesareendowedwithorgansthustheyaremoreoriginalthanthe"organic."
So,intheessenceoflifefacultiesrelatetoorgansthisrelationsketchesafieldof"property"whichcharacterizeseverylivingbeing.Animalshaveafeedbackrelation
tothemselvestheyeat,defendthemselves,reproduceinarelationtothemselvesthatisindependentofthequestionofthepossessionornonpossessionofaself
consciousness.Thisrelationtoselfisnotoneofipseity,butitalsoisnotabsolutelydifferent."Everyipseity...isproprietary(eigentmlich),butnoteveryproperty
hasthecharacterofipseityandselfhood."8Thereisnolifewithoutthisselfreferentialunityof"belongingtoitsown":eventhemostelementarylivingbeings,like
amoebas,sponges,protozoa,have"property"thatwhichisitsown.Thusthecharacterofanorganismreferstoamoreoriginalstructureofanimality.Property
suchas(Eigentum,Eigentmlichkeit),or

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thecapacityofselfpossession,is,intheessenceoflife,moreoriginalthantheorganism,foritisnotonequalityamongothersbuta"modeofbeing.""Thepropertyof
animalsmeans:theanimal,andfirstofallitsspecificcapacityfor...,ispropertoit.Itdoesn'tloseitself,whereasanimpulsivedrivetowardsomethingleavesitself
behinditselforrather,itmaintainsitselfpreciselyintheimpulseand,aswesay,isitselfinthisimpulseanddrive."9Drivesarecharacterizedlessbyanorientation
towardtheir"object"(forexample,nourishment)thanbythisselfreserveandthisreturntoselfwhichisobviouslynotreflective.OnthisscoreHeideggerwillinsistthat
adrivecanneverseizeordirectitselftowardabeingassuch.Life'smodeofbeingremainsdefinedbyprivation,whichmeansitremainsopaquetous.Howarethe
specificcapacitiesthatdefineliferegulatedaccordingtothisselfadherence?Thisisthequestionofwhatwecallanimal"behavior."
"Behavior,"whichisthefactofhavingabearingtowardoneself,ofmaintaining,retaining,andcontainingone'sdrives,derivesfrom"property":itsupposesasortof
blindnessandclosureoftheanimaltowhatisotherthanitself."Behavior"(Benehmen)isopposedtothemannerofbeingthatbelongstoman,thatis,toconduct
(Verhalten)whichimpliestherelationto...,thatis,openness."Behavior(Benehmen)asamodeofbeingingeneralisonlypossibleonthebasisoftheanimalbeing
absorbed(Eigenommenheir)initself.Thebeingneartoselfspecifictoanimalshasnoneoftheipseityofhumanbeingswhoconductthemselvesasapersonthis
absorptionoftheanimalinitselfattheinteriorofwhichonlydirectedmovementispossiblewecallcompulsion(Benommenheit)."10Compulsioncharacterizesnotonly
apassingstatebuttheverypossibilityofanimalbehavior.Animalscanbehaveonlytotheextentthattheyareintheiressencetotally''carriedaway"(absorbed,dazed,
ravished).Compulsionemphasizesthepassivecomponentofbehavior:animalsareattracted/repelledby,ledtowardthisorthatbeingwhichneverthelesstheycannot
apprehendassuch.ForHeidegger,compulsionontologicallysignifiesthedissimulationofbeingsassuch,ablindnesstothebeingofbeings.Animalsareexcluded
fromthemanifestexperience[patence]ofbeings.
TheinvestigationsofJ.vonUexkllandRade,whichHeideggeruseshereabundantly,showthatthebehaviorofbeesisnotdeterminedbythesubsistentpresenceor
absenceofflowersandhoney,orbyanawareness,butbytheplaypurelyinternaltotheinsectofaninhibiteddriveor,onthecontrary,ofareleaseddrivefollowing
the"messages"thatarereceived(colors,odors).Thesameholdswhenitcomestotherelationtothesun,whichexplainswhybeescanfindtheirwaybacktothe
beehiveafterhavingbeenseparatedfromitevenbyseveralkilometers.Experimentshaveproventhatthebee"knowshow"tomeasuretheangleoftheheightofthe
sunanditsvariations,andtoproceedonthebasisofthisangle.Butthisdoesnotmeanthatitgraspsthesunassuch.Thebeeiscompletelycapturedandabsorbedby
thesun,fixedbyandabandonedtoittothepointthatit

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isdeprivedoftherelationtothesunasabeing.Thefreedeploymentofitsdriverequiresthatitnotsee thesun!
Infact,beingsareneitherrevealedtonorconcealedfromanimals.Theirbehaviorplacesanimalsaltogetheroutsideofanopennessto..."Neithertheirsocalled
environmentnortheirselfaremanifestasbeings."12"Itiscertainthatanimals...nevertrulyenterintorelationwithathingassuch."13Ananimalis,inaway,
surroundedbythecircleofitsdrives,andnotbythings.Thisiswhyitcanneither"letbeingsbe''nornot"letbeingsbe."Behaviorstrictlypredetermineswhatthe
animalcan"encounter"andwhatcanstimulateorinhibititsdrives.
Whatis,finally,themodeofopennessoftheanimal?TheguidingideaofHeidegger'slecturecourseisthis:"Theanimalisworldpoor."Poverty,deficiency,butnotan
absenceofworld.Theanimalbothhasanddoesnothaveaworld.Ithasanenvironingworld(Umgebung),amilieuinwhichithasacertain"accesstobeings,"the
birdtoitsnest,thecattothemousebutitdoesnothaveaworldbecauseitdoesnothaveaccesstobeingsassuch,totheopen,butonlytoitsownnoninhibition.
Theessenceoftheanimalisnottheselfenclosedunityofanorganism,aclosed,physiologicalunityofforcesrather,itistheclosedanddeterminedcircleofits
characteristicdrives,theunityofthepossibledrivesuninhibitedinandbytheenvironment.ThusHeideggercorrectstheformulaofBuytendijk,whosays,"Thusitis
apparentthatinthewholeanimalworldtherelationoftheanimalwithitsenvironmentisalmostasintimateastheunityofthebody"14whenhepointsoutthatthe
"unityofabsorption,"whichmeansbeingenvelopedinthespaceofuninhibitednessthatmakesaccesstotheenvironmentpossible,ismoreprofoundthantheunityof
theanimalbody.Theunityofthelivingbodyisfoundedontheunityofitsselfabsorption,ofitsabsorbedenvelopmentinits"property."Thusabsorptionhasbotha
senseofclosuretherevelationofbeingsassuchintheworldisremovedfromtheanimalandofopenness:itissurroundedbyahorizonofdriveswithwhichit
strugglesinordertosurvive(whatDarwinismcallsthestruggleforsurvival)andwhich,withoutmakingitloseitsproperty,transportsitintowhatisessentiallyother
visvisitself.Thisotherness,eventhoughitmayneverbemanifesttoitassuch,neverthelessexposestheanimaltoan"essentialshock"15whichremainsmysterious
forus.
PreciselyinmaintainingtheideaofthelackandpovertyofanimalsHeideggerrejectstheRomanticideaofsufferingorsadnessinhabitingnotonlytheanimalkingdom
assuchbuteventhewholeofnature.16
TheRomanticideaofamelancholyattachedtonatureassuch,asisthecasewiththeSchopenhauerianideaofasufferinginherentinthewilltolife,supposesan
intuitionpenetratingintotheinitselfoftheliving.Thisdirectintuitionisimpossibleforustotheextentthatwecanonlyunderstandanimalsintermsoftheworldwhich
isours.Yet,allstatementsaboutanimalityingeneralarenotproscribedtous.Itisevenpossible,outsideofanypessimism,todiscuss"worldimpoverishmentasthe
internalproblem

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17

ofanimalityitself." Ananimaldoesnotsufferfromnothavingaworld.Indeed,itmusthaveitsownworldofsatisfactionsinceitgivesfreereigntoitsdrives.Butifit
istruethatitsbehavioropensituptoencounteringotherthingsthanitself,absorptionpreventsitfromevergraspingbeingsasbeingsassuch,aswellasnonbeings.
Thisabsorptionalsoiswhytheanimalneverencountersdeathassuch."Evenifphysiochemicalandphysiologicalconnectionscanbeestablished,"deathforananimal
andhumandeatharenotidentical.Thereisalackandapovertyonthesideoftheanimalbecauseitknowsnothingofbeingabletodie,ofdeathasitbelongstoour
possibilityofbeing.Asfortheessenceofnaturaldeath,itremains,despiteallbiologicaldiscoveries,enigmatic.
ForHeidegger,themutenessofanimalsistheother,evenmoreconclusive,indexthatatteststothefactthatlivingbeingsareradicallyexcludedfromthesphereofthe
disclosureofbeings.Animalslackspeechbecausetheyhavenoaccesstotheworldasadimensionofthestrugglebetweenrevealingandconcealing.18Theydonot
speakbecausetheyhavenounderstandingofbeingnorofnonbeing.Animalsdonotknownothingness:the"presence"oftheenvironmentonlyappearstothemasa
pressurewithoutreleasethatabsorbsthem.Therelationtheysustainwiththeobjectsoftheirdrivesdoesnotseparateoffanyfreespace,anyappearanceor
withdrawal,anyplayoftimeandspace,andthisiswhytheyhavenothingtosay....
Theabsenceofspeechinanimalsismoreradicalthantheabsenceoftheworld.Itisnotaquestionofanimpoverishedlanguagebutofanabsoluteprivationof
speech.Onthispointthebreakbetweenhumanbeingsandanimalsseemsthemostunbridgeable."Theleapfromlivinganimalstohumansthatspeakisaslargeifnot
largerthanthatfromthelifelessstonetolivingbeing."19
Despitethisabsenceofarticulatedlanguage,onecouldobjectthatHeidegger'sphenomenologyhastakenintoaccountneitherthecries,moaning,northegrimaces,
mimicry,gestures,andpostureswhichareirrefutablymodesofexpressionamong,forexample,mammals.
Finally,thephenomenologyofanimalityteachesusmoreaboutmanthanaboutanimals!Onthewholetheaimseemstobeanexorcism,ademystificationofthe"link"
withnature.HeideggerwantstoshowtheimpossibilityofanoriginalandfundamentalimplicationorentanglementofhumanDaseininlivingbeings,todestroytheidea
ofananimallineage,toexcludethemythofnaturalperfectionasemphasizedfromRousseautoBergson.Notonlyisinstinctnotsuperiortointelligence,butitisfar
inferiortothesimpleunderstandingofbeing.
Yet,attheendoftheseanalyses,themysteryofnatureremains.Heideggerdoesnottherebyenvisagethequestionoftheoriginofnaturalgrowth,ofdrive.Hedoes
notgobacktophysis,whichwouldbethedrivennessofdrives.Willthereciprocitythathelaterestablishedbetweenaletheiaandphysisbetterclarifytheenigmaof
life?Doesphysisnotbecomesimply

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oneparticularcaseofdisclosure?Howarewetounderstandthe"leap"betweenanimalsandhumanbeingsifthereisareciprocityandhenceanapparentcontinuity
betweenaletheiaandphysis?
Heidegger'sCritiqueoftheOpeninRilke
Thisbalancedpovertybringsintoreliefthetrueharshness,orsometimesthesimpleannoyance,withwhichHeideggerrejectstheaffirmationofasuperiorrichnessand
depthofanimalitywhichisfoundintheRilkeanideaoftheOpen.20AstoldbythefirstversesoftheEighthDuinoElegy
Withalleyesthecreaturesees
theOpen.Onlyoureyesare
backwards....21

ForRilke,manisexcludedfromtheplenitudeofthe"seen"orevenfromwhathecallsthe"whole"or"pureperception."Thisconnectsanimals,andonlyanimals,
directlywith''nature,"butforHeideggerthismeansthatitconnectsanimalsindistinctlywithallbeings.Indeed,forhimthisisthetruedefinitionoftheRilkeanOpen:an
opaque,confusedonticmass,anonopening.
Weknowwhatisoutsideonlythroughthefaceoftheanimal.22

Onlyanimalshavefreeaccesstowhatis(andisfreelyitself)becausetheyseewithoutlooking,whichmeanswithoutobjectifyingthings.Theyare,thinksRilke,
becausetheycoincidewiththisdispossessionoftheselfthatprojectsittotallyoutside.AsRogerMuniersaysemphaticallyinhispenetratingcommentary:"Creatures
havefullbeingbecausetheyarefundamentallydispossessed,removedfromthemselves....Theynolongerparticipate,andpreciselyinthiswaytheycontinuetobe
linked,joinedbutfluid,engagedintheflux."23Heideggerconsidersthis"being"throughfusionorabsorptionthatRilkecallstheOpenabysmallydistantfromtheOpen
inthesenseofaletheia.Toabideinaletheiaistobeabletoletbeingsbepresentassuch.Thisisaccomplishedneitherbymakingbeingstherepresentationofa
subjectnorlosingoneselfinbeings.Theideathatonlyanimalityisfreeandthatmanhasavisionofthefullnessofnatureonlyasmediatedbyitderivesfrom
SchopenhauerandNietzsche.ForHeideggerthisisnothingbutthe"popularmetaphysics"ofthebeginningofthetwentiethcenturythecommonplace,takenupby
psychoanalysis,oftheprimacyoftheunconscious,andthisunderstoodasavitalandanimaldrive."Consideredfromthepurelymetaphysicalpointofview...Rilke's
domainoffundamentalpoeticexperienceisnodifferentthanthefundamentalpositionofNietzsche'sthought.Bothareasfarremovedfromthe

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24

25

essenceoftruth,fromaletheia,aspossible." Oragain:"...Rilke'spoetryremainsovershadowedbyaslightlytemperedNietzscheanmetaphysics."

WhetherRilke'spoeticalthinkingcanbemeasuredbyitsproximitytometaphysicsandreducedtothisratherschematicNietzscheanpositioniswhatwewillexamine
inanotherchapter.
Whateverthecasemaybe,thelecturecourseof194243clarifiesthesignificanceofRilke'sOpenanddoessowithacausticprovocativenessevengreaterthanone
findsinthetextfromHolzwege.Thetoneisthatofirritation,ofapolemic,andsometimesevenofbitterirony.ItisasifRilke'sOpenthreatenedtousurpaletheia.Itis
obviousHeideggerwantstodistinguishhimselffromallirrationalismandtoshowtheabyssbetweenaphilosophyoflifeandthethoughtofbeing.Heideggerdefines
thisbogusOpenas"anincessantcirculationofbeings,"26astheforsakingofalllimitsitisundifferentiated,indeterminate,"yetthought"notaslackbutasthe
"originaltotalityofthereal."27ThisconceptionoftheOpenconstitutesoneofthefinalconsequencesoftheoblivionofbeing,thereignofpurespatiality.Thecontrast
betweenitandaletheiaissogreat''thatnoformulafortheoppositionsufficestogiveanideaofthechasmofthisdifference."28ThetwomodesoftheOpenhave
nothing"incommonbutthesoundoftwohomophonicwords."29ThedangerofRilke'sconception(adangerthatHeideggeralsoperceivesinthephilosophyof
Nietzsche)seemstoliepreciselyin"theanimalizationofhumanity.""ForRilke,humanconsciousness,reason,logosareexactlythoselimitsthatdiminishthe
capabilitiesofmanascomparedtothoseoftheanimal.Shouldwethenbecome'creatures'?"30exclaimsHeidegger.OneseemstoheartheresponseofVoltaireto
Rousseau:mustwethen(inordertorecovernature)setourselvestogoingonallfours?HeideggersaysRilkeaccomplishesareversalofthe"hierarchyofmanand
animal"butremainstotallyimprisonedintheunthoughttraditionofthereasonablemananimal.Heconfoundstheindeterminationoflivingbeingsand"liberty"inour
relationtobeing.Itcomesdowntothefactthatheisthoughtlessandnaive.Commentingontheverse:
We,weneverhave,notevenforasingleday
Thepurespacebeforeuswhereflowersbloom[aufgehen]withoutend.

Heideggerwrites:"'bloom'heredoesnotsignifyphueinasthoughtintheGreeksense,butthatarisingthroughwhichwhatblooms[dasAufgehende]dissolves,likea
cubeofsugardissipatinginwater,andvanishesintheatmosphereasifintocosmicrelations."31Furthermore,forHeideggertheequivalentofRilke'sOpenwouldbe
theundefined,theunlimited,"wherelivingbeingsbecomewindedanddissolve,releasedintotheendlessnetworkofcausalrelationsinnaturesoastofloatinthis
absenceoflimits."32
Andyet,bothinthelecturecourseof194243andintheessayfrom

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Holzwege(writtenin1946),Heideggeraffirmsthat,contrarytoitsmetaphysicalconnotations,Rilke'sOpenrevealsarelationtothedistantandinitialsenseofGreek
physis,andevenanintimatebelongingtothisphysis.33TheOpeninRilke'ssenseandtheOpeninthesenseofaletheiaare"asfarremovedasthecommencementof
WesternthinkingandthefulfillmentofWesternmetaphysicsandyet,preciselythroughtheirbelonging[tothishistory],theyaretheSame."34TheyaretheSamein
beinghistoricalstagesoftheuniqueHistoryofBeing.
DoesthisambivalencetheextremeoppositionbetweenthecommencementandthecontinuityoftheSameallowonetoexplainwithcertaintywhy,without
knowingit,Rilke(asopposedtoNietzsche)doesnotanticipatetheessenceoftechnologywhyhedoesnotacquiescetoitsdominationbutresistsitalready
beforehand?Despitetheunderlyingpresenceofthewillasthebeingofbeings,whichwouldrevealitselfespeciallyintheideaofa"risk"characterizinglivingbeingsas
such("natureabandonsbeingstotheriskoftheirobscuredesire"),Rilkeannaturedoesnotannouncethetechnologicalwilltowill.Itiswiserthanman,whoseparates
himselffrom"pureperception."ItremainsforeigntotheprojectofunlimitedexploitationitremainsonthissideofhumanandtechnologicalvoluntarismintheOpen.
Thereisan"infinitedifference"betweentheobscuredesireofplantsandanimalsandthehumanwillofunconditionedobjectivization.
YetRilkethinkstheemergenceofmanoutsidenatureinanincreaseofwillisaradicalmenaceweighingonourveryessence.Hegraspsthefragilityofman,the
subjectandobjectofwill,themasterandvictimoftheprojectofuniversaldomination.Manrisksmoreandismoreatriskthannature("weriskmorethanlifeitself").
DoesnotthisapprehensionofthedangerofsuchawillbearingdownontheessenceofmanimplythatRilkeisinfinitelylessvoluntaristicthanNietzsche?Howcan
Heideggermaintainthatthesetwothoughtsaremetaphysicallyidentical?RilkesawthedangerasdidHlderlin.Didhealsothinkthesavingpower?Itwould
seemthat"security,"theintact"sacred"sanctuary,resides"overthere"intheOpen:"Thuswehave,outsideofshelter/asecurity,overtherewheregravitybears/pure
forces....''InordertoescapethedangermanmustindeedturntowardtheOpen:"whatfinallysavesus/isbeingwithoutshelterandtohave/returnedthatbeingto
theOpen,seeingitthreatened."But,forHeidegger,this"turnintheOpen"isbroughtaboutcompletelymetaphysicallyandlogicallyastheinversionofobjectification,
whichmeansasasubjectification,anunlimitedinteriorization.Tostruggleagainsttheexteriorproliferationofobjectsitisnecessarytoturntowardthe"inside,"toward
theintimacyandinvisibilityofthe"heart."Withthis,thepoetryofRilke"remainsrelativetotherepresentationofconsciousness,"35andmetaphysicallyitmakesno
differencewhetherittakestheformofcalculativedominationorthatofthereversalintointeriorityandintothe"logicoftheheart."

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YetthequestionremainswhetherHeideggerdoesnotsubmittheRilkeantermsofthe"Open,"ofthe"interiorspaceoftheworld"(Weltinnenraum)andofthe"heart,"
toanoverlyreductivegridbyinterpretingtheinteriorityoftheworldastheinteriorityofthesubject.Perhapsitisnotaquestionoftheheartofthepoet,norofthe
humanheart,butratheroftheheartofthings,an"unheardcenter,"anunnameablecenter,''apurespaceforspace":
Youlearnthis:thatnamesforitare
endlesslywasted:foritisthecenter.36

CantheheartofthingsthatRilkesometimescallsthe"heartoftime"37beidentifiedwithsubjectivity?Andevenifthiswerethecase,howcouldthespaceof
representation,thetotalityofthenonobjective,alsobeidentifiablebyHeideggerwiththe"enclosure,"the"nonclearing,"38sincesuchan"interiorspace"impliesat
leasttheopeningandthusthefreedomofthesubject?
HeideggerbasestheessentialsofhisreadingonapoemofRilkenotpublishedduringhislife:
AsNatureabandonbeings....

But,theword"Nature"isrelativelyrareinRilke.Theword"earth"ismuchmorefrequent:
Earth,isitnotwhatyouwant:tothrustupinvisibleinUS?39

Butearthdoesnotseemreducibletotheinteriorityofsubjectiverepresentation,evenifitcommunicateswithit.Isn'ttheearthherethe"subject"whichcommandsus?
IsRilkestillavoluntarist?Whatisthe"inside"forhim?"Whatistheinside?/Ifnotaskymoreintense/traversedbybirdsanddeep/withthewindsofreturn."40Isit
truethattheearthandtheskyofRilkearesubjectedtothesole"logicoftheheart?"41

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III
ThePrimacyofStemmingOverDasein'sBodiliness
TheFacticityoftheHumanBodyandAttunement
WhattheHusserlianphenomenologyofIdeasIIandtheearlyMerleauPontyafterhimpainstakinglydescribedastheoriginalsiteofthetruthwithsuchnamesasLeib,
Leiblichkeit,bodyproper,flesh,bodiliness,isnotbroughtupinanythematicanalysisinBeingandTime.Canonephenomenologicallyandontologicallyjustify
placingthebodyinasecondarypositionintheexistentialanalytic?Indeed,therearebarelyafewallusions,withouteveranyreallyexplicitreferences,tothehandthat
handlestools.1Thus,inreferenceto"theinstrumentforwalking,"thestreet,Heideggerwrites:"Whenwewalk,thestreetistouchedwitheverystepitis,itseems,the
closestandthemostrealofallthingsreadytohanditslidesalong,asitwere,onparticularpartsofthebody,thesolesofthefeet."2Butintruth,whatisclosestfor
Daseinisnotonlythisspatialproximitywithrespecttoequipmentalbeings3butitspreoccupationwiththeproximityanddistanceofthisorthatinstrumentthatitcan
manipulate,orthisorthatotherDasein,andinparticularthefriend4thatDaseincanmeet.Tobeintheworldistobeinhabitedbydistance,byanessential
remotenesswhichcauseswhatisclosesttoustobenotwhatspatiallytouchesourbodybutthattowardwhichwearefreetomove.Inversely,thecapacitytoreduce
orovercomedistances(bymeansofmoderncommunication)isnotwhattrulyteachesustosituateourselvesinproximitytothings.5Byitselfbodilypresencedoesnot
meanproximityto...norevenpresenceto...,oropennessto....Thespatialityofthebodyisinhabitedbyatranscendence,bytheincessantprojectswithout
whichtherewouldbeneitherdistancenorcomingtogether,projectswithoutwhichthebodywouldbeapureobject.NotonlyisDaseinnotan"Ithingfittedoutwith
abody,''6butitisnotenclosedwithinabitofspaceinthewaywethinkofthingsbeingsoenclosed."Daseintakesintheliteralsenseofthewordplace.Inno
mannerisitsimplypresentathandinabitofspacethatthebodyfillsup."7Thespatialityofthebodyextendsbeyonditsboundaries,asisshownbythemeregrasp,
orbyone'sorientationthatkeepstrackofwhatishereand

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thenoverthere.ButwhynotthenaccordtothebodythestatusofapossibilityaltogetherfundamentaltoDasein?But,asweknow,thebodyisnotan"existential."
Why?
Preciselybecausetranscendence(inotherwords,understanding)liketheotherexistentialssuchasattunement(Stemming)and"thrownness"(Geworfenheit)both
permeatedwithtranscendencearestructuresmoreoriginalthanthebody.Theunderstandingoftheworldimmediatelyhappenstothebody.The"proof"ofthisis
givenbythefactthatsensation,sensedata,isnotinitiallyregisteredinarawstateandthenrelatedtoexternalobjects."Asessentialunderstanding,Daseinisinthe
midstofwhatitunderstands.''8Thereareno"pure"sensations,butanoise,forexample,isdirectlyrelatedtoaworldlybeing.Wealwaysunderstandthenoiseof
something:acarthatgoesby,adoorthatslams,therainthatfalls,andveryrarelya"puresound.""Thatinthefirstplacewehearmotorcyclesorcarsisthe
phenomenalproofthatDaseinquabeingintheworldineachcaseisinthemidstofwhatisreadytohandwithintheworld,andnotfirstinthemidstof'sensations'
whosejumblemustfirstbeshapedinordertoprovidethespringboardfromwhichthesubjectmightleapinorderfinallytogainaworld."9Inotherwords,thebody
cannotbeconsideredanautonomousandindependentbasisoftheworlditdoesnotfacetheworldasthephilosophyofsubjectivitywouldliketothink.Thecapacity
ofrelatingsensedatadirectlytoexteriorobjectsthatthephenomenologyofthebodyattributesonlytothebodyinrealitydependsonbeingintheworld.Itdepends
notonlyonthebodybutonthemodesofopenness,whichareunderstanding,attunement,andthrownness."Acousticperceptionisfoundedonhearing(Hren)...
Daseinhearsbecauseitunderstands."10Withoutfacultiesthereisnoperceptionwithoutunderstandingtherearenofaculties.WhenDaseindoesnotunderstand,for
instancewhensomeonespeaksaforeignlanguage,onedoesnotintendpureimpressionsofsound,but"firstofallunintelligiblewords."11Onedoesnotneedto
formulateajudgmentabouttheseauditorysensationstodothis,asDescartesandKantbelieved.ItisenoughforDaseinto"understand"notintellectuallythatit
isdealingwithanotherpersonwhospeaks.
Likewise,itisbecauseDaseinisalwaysalready"overthere,"12"outside,"relatedtotheworld,thatitseesandunderstands"atadistance."The"bearing"ofthesenses
isnota"natural"bearing,itisthebearingofagraspwhich"distances."Visionandhearingtraversedistancesonlythroughanunderstandingofdistance.ForHeidegger,
thisunderstanding,asallunderstanding,returnstothebodybutdoesnotemanatefromit.Asforunderstandingitself,itisalwayslinkedtoapracticalconcern,toa
circumspection(Umsicht).Itarisesfromthepreoccupationconcerningspaceandtimethathavetobepassedthrougheverydayintheinstrumentalworldwhose
"measure"isneitherobjectivenorsubjective.Everyperceptionisbasedonunderstandingasapracticalpossibilityofrelatingtobeings,ofactingintheeverydayworld.

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TheHeideggeriananalysisshowsthatourbodilysensibilitydoesnotexistpurely"physically,"thatithasnoneedofbeinginformedbyconceptualformsrather,itis
permeatedwithunderstandingandattunement.Thesensesinformusonlyaboutwhat,inacertainsense,wehavealreadyunderstood.Butsuchaformulationseemsto
meanthatthesensescanbeseparatedfromunderstanding.Yet,whatis"proper"tothesensesistoimmediatelyunderstandandalwaystobetraversedby
attunements:"...ourhumanmortalhearingandseeingdonothavetheirgenuineelementinmeresensereception..."13Inotherwords,significanceisnotaddedto
the"sensible,''butitisimmanentinitfromthebeginning.IftheGreeks,saysHeidegger,wereabletoseeApollointhestatueofayoungman,itisbecausetheyhadan
understandingofthegodwhichprecededthevisualimpression.Healsosaysthattounderstandistohaveatone'sdisposala"vision"that"doesnotdesignatea
perceptionbymeansofbodilyeyes."14Andbythesametokenitisnecessarytobewareofthinkingthatthisunderstandingbelongstoanintelligiblespherewhichcould
bedetachedfromthesenses.Thisprimordialsightaswellasthrownnessandaffectivity(Befindlichkeit)constitutetheopennessoftheworldinwhichthebodyis
situatedandmakessense.Theunderstandingofthebeingofintraworldlybeingsismoreoriginalthanpuresensationorvisualperception.15Thusthebodyisalways
insertedintheattunedactivityprojectedbyDasein.
Thebodyisnotonlyabsorbedandbornalongoutsideofitselfbytranscendenceandthediverseprojectsoftheworlditalsorevealsitselfasanactualpossibilityin
whichweareblindly"thrust."Everyprojectisitself"thrown."The"senseforthesituation"(Befindlichkeit)callsusbackateverymomenttothissubjection.Heretoo
thebodymerges,asitwere,intothemoreelementaryandlargerstructuresofbeingintheworld.Thebodyisnothingbutonemanifestationamongothersoffacticity
orGeworfenheit,"thrownness."Facticitydoesnotmeanbeingsubjectedtothenecessityofbrutefacts,butinthefirstplaceitcorrespondstothefactofbeingin
general,regardlessofhowunobjectiveitmaybe.Thrownnessmeansbeingalwaysalreadyengagedinthe"there"thatmustbeconceivedasanetworkofdeterminate
possibilities.InGeworfenheit"itisdisclosedthatDaseinisalwaysalreadymineandissoinadeterminateworldandbesideadeterminatesphereofdeterminateintra
worldlybeings."16ThrownnessiscorrelativetotheonticdeterminationofDaseinasdestinedbothtoadeterminatehistoricalworld,thatofanepoch,andtoa
particular"nature,"orcharacter."Havingbeenthrown"17literallyencompassesevery"past"ofDasein,includingthatpastwhichisentirelyprior(whichhasneverbeen
present)of"natural"beingstowhichitismingled.Birth,asafact(atsomedate,insomesocialstanding)andbeingabletodiebothasanactualandapurepossibility,
belongstoGeworfenheit."SinceDaseinexists,itisbythisfactalreadythrownintothispossibility"18(ofbeingtowarddeath).Thus,facticitycoversanimmense
domainthatencompassesandgoesbeyondthebodyproper,inextricablylinkingtogetherthehistoricalanduniversalpos

Page37

sibilities(ofculture),thelimitedandlocalpossibilities,andalltheotheractualdeterminationswhicharehardlypossibilitiesandwhichneverthelessaretobetakenover.
ForDaseiniscompelledtotakeoverits"indebtedness"regardingthewholeofitspossibilities,whichmeansitmusttakeoveritsbasis,itsGrundwhichoriginallyisnot
itsownGrund(becauseithasnotgivenittoitself).Yet,contrarytoSartreanfreedom,thefacticityofthis"indebtedness"alsoimpliesthatnofullselfappropriationof
itispossible.Although"thrownasaself,"Daseinis''nevermaster"19ofitsownfacticity.
Stemmingfundamentallyrevealsfacticity,thrownness,thealreadythereofthethere.Inattunements,insadnessorjoy,Dasein"findsitself"inthefaceofitsalready
there,thealreadythereoftheworldandofitself.Allunderstandingisimbuedwithadispositionwhichsituatesit,anchorsit,ormakesitrememberitsanchorage.
"Understandingisneverfreefloating,butisalwaysattuned."20So,atthebeginningof29,HeideggercanalsowritethatinStemmingbeingintheworldsometimes
showsitselfasa"weight,"a"burden."Iffacticitywerelimitedtothebody,suchadeclarationwouldendupbysituatingStemmingonthesideofautoaffection,of
"cenesthesis,"indeedofSartrean"nausea."Daseinwouldfeelnothingbutitsownweightorrelieffromthissubjectiveload.Butitisnothingofthesort.Stemmingis,
aswewillsee,bothapropertyandnotaproperty,bothrelativetotheIandrelativetotheworld.Butfirstofallitisrelativetotheworld.
Stemmingdoesnotfirstprovideaccesstoasubjectiveinteriority,nortoaselfenclosedbodilystate.Itisanattunementthatwedonotfirstperceiveinus.Dowenot
say"Iaminsuchandsuchmood,"not"suchandsuchamoodisinme"?Moreexactly,itiswhatweoccupyourselveswith,whatwereadorwatchthatinterestsus,
stimulatesus,boresusinshort,thatalwaysproducestheseoftenchangingdispositions.Phenomenologicallyspeaking,Stemming,theatmosphere,emanatesfrom
thethingsthemselvesandnotfromoursubjectivityorfromourbodiliness.InStemmingtheworldpresentsitselfaswhattouchesus,concernsus,affectsus.Ifwe
werenotthusaccosted,struck,surprisedbythings,wecouldneverexperiencefeelingsofsecurityordread,norevendiscoverthedifferencesamongbeings."The
pureintuitionofasomethingpresentathand...couldneverdiscoversomethingasmenacing."21ForHeidegger,withouttheStemmingthatimplicatesusintheworld
therewouldbenoknowledge,becausetherewouldbenodesiretoknow.Inordertowanttoknowitisnecessarytohavebeenaffected,touched.
WithoutStemmingourunderstandingoftheworldwouldbelikeaspectaclethatwouldalwaysremain"exterior"tous.YetStemmingisnotsomehowtheobscure
faceorcompanionofunderstanding:itisjustasoriginaryasunderstanding.Tounderstandbeingistoexperiencethe"there"ofasituation.Itisoneandthesamething
tosaythateveryprojectisthrownandthateveryunderstandingorpossibilityis"disposed,"affectedbyaStemming.Stemmingopenstheworldinaradicalmanner,
foronecannot

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traceitbacktoasimpleatmospherethatsurroundsthings.Ittraversesandthusmanifeststhetotalityofbeings.Inasinglestrokeitmodifiestheoveralllookofthe
world.AfterBeingandTimeHeideggerwillalsoabandonthetermBefindlichkeit,whichstillreferstoomuchtothefactofDasein"findingitself"(sichbefinden)ina
subjectiveway,andhespeaksmoreandmoreofGrundstimmung,theattunementoftheground.ItisintermsofthegroundofStemmingthatDaseingrasps"its"
possibilities:"Inthemodeofattunement(Gestimmtheit)Dasein'sees'thepossibilitiesinvirtueofwhichitis.''22Stemmingrevealswhatisimpliedbythefactofbeing
inbeing.Thisiswhyitrevealsasortofneutraluniversalitywithoutorigin,disquietinglyirreducibletosubjectivity.InStemmingDaseincancoincideneitherwithitsI
norwiththeworld:"attunementbringsDaseinbeforethe'That'(Dab )ofitsThereaswhatstandsoutoveragainstDaseinasaninexorableenigma."23Therefore,
DaseintrenchantlyfleesorseekstoavoidwhatStimmungreveals:thestrangeconnectionoffacticityandtotality.But,Heideggersays,onecannotfreeoneselffroma
"mood"exceptbyacontrarymoodthatiswhatweusuallymeanbya"badmood,"i.e.,adenialoftheaffectivesituation.OnlyAngstexposesustoitwithoutdefense.
Stemmingmaintainsaprivilegedrelationwiththebody.Attunementsareaccompaniedbyphysiologicalmodifications.ButStemmingisnotdeterminedbythese.The
breadthofStemming,itsconnectionwithfacticityandtotality,makesitinhabitand,atthesametime,"surround"thebodylikeantennaethisconnectionmakes
Stemminganimateandcomprehendthebody.BodilysensibilityisinawaysubsumedinStemming.Thismeansthatpleasureandpain,forexample,arenotsimple
effectsofstimulionthebodyorinthebody,butineachcasetheyqualitativelydependonthewholesituationinwhichtheyoccur.Amanwhois"preoccupied,"
"distraught,"uneasy,attentive,"relaxed,"willineachinstancefeeltheagreeableordisagreeabledifferently,perhapshewillnotfeelanything,orwillfeelitmoreacutely.
Andwearealways"situated"inadeterminatemodeofpreoccupation.Weareneverjustrighthere,butovertherewhereweareaimingatinourprojects.Thusone
couldsaythatStemmingislikethespiritthatenvelopsthebody."Stemming,"writesHeidegger,"canenclosemaninhisbodilinesslikeaprison.Butthrough
bodilinessasoneofitspathsandwaysofexpression[Ausschwingungsbahnen)Stemmingcanalsotransporthim."24Inotherwords,wecanbeprisonersofour
sensualityor,onthecontrary,forgetfulofourbodyinjoyorenthusiasm,onlybecausefirstofallweareopentothisorthatdispositionthatthebodytranslates
symbolicallyoranalogically.
StimmungandSubjectivityofFeeling
HeideggeroftenemphasizestheexistentialcharacterofStemming,whichmeansitsontologicalandnonphysiologicalcharacter.25Hisanalysisisnot

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directedtowardenrichingpsychologyorerectingananthropologybuttowarddescribingtheprimordialstructuresofbeingintheworld.InBeingandTime,Dasein's
experiencingthethrownnessofitsprojectdependsonitsbeingdisposedassuch(whateverthecontentofthisdispositionmaybe).Stemmingistheanchorageand
ballastoftheworld.
Nevertheless,concretelyoronticallyStemmingisnotreducedtoauniversaltranscendentalcondition.Wealwaysexperiencethingsthroughawelldefined
disposition,beitpoignantlyasinAngstorjoy,beitvaguelikeindifferenceorurgentandfocusedlikefearordisgust.Nevertheless,suchadispositioncanbeneither
identifiedwithafeelingorapurelyinterioremotionnordevoidofallrelationswiththem.HowisonetodistinguishStemmingandfeeling?Stemmingisnotsomething
completelyotherthanfeelingrather,itconsistsofanonintentionalfeeling,onenotyetexplicitlyrelatedtotheegoorthattheindividualsubjectcannotyetclaimasits
own.Nevertheless,thereisnothingunconscioushere!Thingsshowthemselvesinadifferentlightaccordingtoourdisposition.Wedonottakethisphenomenontobe
amarkofsubjectivedistortion."Objectivity"appearsatthesametimeassubjectivity.Objectivityisderivative:itis"theconsiderationofallthingsminusfeeling."26Itis
athirdmoment.Thefirstdisclosureoftheworldhappensbywayofthethousandsofnuancesofanonsubjectivefeeling.Withoutitourunderstandingwouldbefree
floating,unsituated.Itisinasecondmomentthatwesay,"But,afterall,itisIwhothusseesandsensesthings."ThenStemmingbecomesErlebnis,"lived
experience,''Gefhl,subjective,privatefeeling.
Itsnonreferencetothesubjectgivesfeelinganimpersonality,aquasiuniversality,aneutralityclosetoobjectivity.Thereisjoyitisnotmyjoy.Familiarthings,other
people,suddenlylightupwithaflashandacompletelynovelcharm.LikewiseorratherinverselyinAngst,thecustomarycontoursandsignificationsofthe
worldbecomeblurred,bizarremyownbeingescapesme.Allthisoccursbeforebeingabletodiscovermyselfasanguished.Moreover,asHeideggershows,mostof
thosewhohavegonethisrouteconclude"Butthatwasnothing!"Stemmingisnotnecessarilyinteriorized.
InanastonishingpagefromhisbookPassages,HenriMichauxhasgivenanabsolutelypenetratingdescriptionofStemminganditsmutability.Joysurprisesus.When
itfadesawayintomelancholy,thelatterisnotrelatedtotheI("Whose?"),butitisexperiencedasanimmensehorizonwhere"everythingdistresses."TheIremainsin
thebackground:ittakespartinStemminganditsmysteriouschangesofqualityandintensity,aswellasintheeventsoftheworldeventsthatStemming
immediatelyfillsupandtransformsasifbymagic.Hereisthispage:27
Onecatchesitintheact,thestreamingchangeofmoods.Suddenlyjoyisthere,revealedbeforeoursensingit.Onehasbuttorecognizeit.Butafewminuteslater,withouta
break,itslowsdownandcomestoastandstillin

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somemuddlewhereitfindsastrongtetherandwhichitcannotundo,prowlingaroundwithoutgain.Yetthereisanendtothedifficultythereitsoarsawayagain,insouciance,
joy.Butwhatisthishere?Sadness?Whose?Why?Aboutwhatthings,suddenlysonumerous,enclosingthehorizon?
Slowly,amelancholytraversesmelancholy,meetingfurtheronamelancholywhichmeltsanddrawsitselfoutintoanewmelancholy.Thechariotsarestuck.Everythingdistresses.
Everything"repels."Melancholyisalwaysrobust.

ThusStemmingisthegroundoffeeling,itsanteriordimension.Throughitwealways"know,"althoughinanonreflectivemanner,"where"weare"at."Thisrevelation
ofthesituationiswellexpressedbythelocutioncreatedbythefirstFrenchtranslatorsofSeinundZeit:"thefeelingofthesituation''(Befindlichkeit).Yetbythiswe
donotprimarilymeanthegraspbytheIofaparticularsituation(andthroughitofthesituationingeneral,namelyofbeingthrownintheworld),butthefeelingwhose
"theme"isthesituationitself.Stemmingmakesthe"there"comeintothelightofdaybeforetheSelf[Soi].Ontheotherhand,whenitbecomessubjective,whenitis
interiorized,feelingalienatesitselffromthesituation.
ThisdifferencebetweenStemmingandfeelingcouldbeillustrated,thoughimperfectly,bythedifferencebetweenthepriordispositiontoloveandloveasafeeling
towardsomeone.28KierkegaarddefinesitbrilliantlyindescribingthestateofCherubininMozart's"TheMarriageofFigaro."29Thepageboyflirtswithallwomen.In
reality,hedoesn'tloveanyoneinparticular,butthefemininityinall.Heisnothingbutdesire.Itisonlythelowerlevelintheintensityofhisdesirethatseparateshim
fromDonJuan.Hisdesireis"still"indeterminate.Itis"still"withoutanobject.Hisdesireis"still"apresentiment.Itneedsanobjecttobeawakened.Kierkegaard
followsaHegelianlineofreasoning:the"stillnot"ofCherubinisthenotyetofimmediacy,closetonature,toinfancy,ofthelackofdistinctionbetweenthesexes.The
sadnessofCherubincomesfromthefactthathecannotattainthehigherlevelofdistinguishingthesexes,ofseparatingdesirefromitsobject.Ifonecandisregardits
Hegelianism,whichreducesCherubintonaturaluniversalityanddiscoversinitanunresolvedcontradiction,Kierkegaard'sdescriptioncorrespondstowhatevery
Stemmingreveals:aunitythatprecedesthesubjectobjectdivisionanonverbaldimensionforwhichmusicisamorefaithfulanalogythanislanguage.Kierkegaard
hasdescribedStemminginaHegelianmanner,butasthemusicalityofthesense,ofthebody,"inspiredsensuality,"a"stage"inferiortodiscourse.Heideggerthinks
Stemmingasamusiccompletebyitself,asattunement,theaccordthatdefinestheprofoundcoherenceofbeingintheworld:"AStemmingisanair...inthe
senseofamelodywhichdoesnotfloatovertheactual,allegedlygenuinepresenceofmanbutsetsthetoneforthisbeing,thatis,harmonizes(stimmt)anddetermines
(bestimmt)itsstyleanditsmannerofbeing."30

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Byitsattunements,basicaffectivityopensmorebroadlytotheworldthandoesanyperceptionandanyconcept.Indeed,intelligenceorrationalitynevercouldhave
allowedustoadequatelyconceivetheopenedtotalitythatispresentandabsentandinwhichwearesituated."Intheendthereremainsanessentialdifference
betweengrasping(Erfassen)thetotalityofbeingsinitselfandfindingoneself(Sichbefinden)inthemidstofbeingsintheirtotality.Thefirstisfundamentally
impossible.ThesecondconstantlyoccursinourDasein."31Also,eventhoughitdoesnotfunctionlikeapsychology,theanalysisofStemmingrequiresaredefinition
oftherelationbetweenfeelingandreasonand,finally,amodificationoftheveryideaofhumanbeing.
Onemustconcedethatfeeling,likeStemming,hasanevengreaterandmoreradicalsignificancethandoesrationality.Thetraditionhassubordinatedfeeling
alwaysconfused,vague,contradictorytoreasonclear,logical,univocalasithasthebodytothemind.Butreasoncanonlyputinordertheworldrevealed
andopenedupbypresubjectiveaffectivity.However,Heideggerneverintendstoreversethetraditionalpreeminenceofrationalthinkingoverfeelinginthewayof
Romanticism(forNovalis,"thinkingisonlyadreamoffeeling...")32orofNietzsche,forwhomthoughtsareonlytheshadowsoffeeling33orapalereverberationof
drives.Nietzscheproposestheprimacyofthebody.Intheend,HeideggerdoesnotproposetheprimacyofStemmingbutofthemanifestationofbeingthroughit.
StemmingappearsasimpersonalonlybecauseitbelongstotheworldortowhatthelaterHeideggercallsanepochofbeingpriortoitsrelationtoabodyortoa
subject.Hencethequestion:doesthetruthofStemmingbelongonlytotheorderofthe"universal"andhistorical?DoesitnotalsorefertotheEarth?Whateverthe
answermaybe,afeelingnotrelatedtotheIisvagueorobscureonlyfromthepointofviewofreason.Ithasitsownintelligencewherethewholeprecedesthepart,
wherebeingprecedesbeings.
TheanalysisofStemmingalsoimpliesarupturethatisdifficulttoaccomplisharupturewiththetraditionalprimacyofinteriorityandconsciousness.Thisisnotin
ordertoeffectareversalwhichwouldaimtoaffirmtheprimacyofexteriorityandtheunconscious.Stemmingsketchesinadifferentway,outsideoftheindividual
appropriationthroughfeelings,amodeof"affective"presenceofthingsandofbeingswhichallowsthemtobethemselves.To"listento"Stemming,itisnecessarynot
onlytoeschewthedefinitionsgivenbytherationalfacultyofunderstandingbuttotakeone'sdistancefromtheegocentricinteriorityoffeelinganditsintentionality.
Ourepochiswithoutdoubttoothoroughlymoldedbythereignofsubjectivitytoopenitselftosuchaphenomenon,foreignasitistothesensationalismof"lived
experience"which,bywayofmemoirs,confessions,andromanticizedbiographies,predominatesinthepressandinpopularliterature.

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StimmungandtheHistoryofBeing:AnxietyandWonder
NoteveryStemmingestranges.Mostofthetimeoriginalaffectivityrevealsthefamiliarityofbeings,ofplaces,ofthings.Afundamentalattunement,a
Grundstimmung,israreandmanifestsitselfasasuddenestrangementofthefamiliar.Anxietywrenchesusfromthereassuringfactsofeverydaynessandinsomeway
makesustouchthetextureandlimitsofbeingintheworldassuch.Doesanxietyalonepossessthisprivilegeofauthenticity?Isitthe"foundation"ofalltheother
Stimmungen?Whyisn'titwonder,whichisthemostancientfeelingattestedtointhephilosophicaltradition?
Butfirst,whatdoes"limitsoftheworld"mean?IntryingtodefinetheattunementofH1derlin'spoetryHeideggershowsthata"fundamental"Stemmingnotonly
makesmanifesttheunityofaworldbuttransportsustothelimitsofbeings,34whichspecificallymeans:itputsusinrelationwiththenocturnalgroundoftheworld,the
Earthitputsusinrelationwiththesacredandthegods,inrelationwithBeingasGeschick,destiny,History.ThusaGrundstimmungrevealsnotonlyoursituationin
theworldbutthesituationoftheworldwithregardtoearth,thedivine,andhistory.
AlreadyintheearlyHeideggeroneseesthatDaseindiscoversthe"natural"aspectofitsthrownnessbywayofStemming."NatureisoriginallymanifestinDaseinby
thefactthatitexistsasdispositionallyattuned[befindlichgestimmtes]inthemidstofbeings."35Nevertheless,beinginaccordordiscordwithnaturalbeingsdidn't
haveanygreatsignificanceforDasein,fornaturewasstillpureandsimplefacticity.When,onthecontrary,Stemmingrejoinsmannottoanaturalsubsistentbeingbut
totheearthortothehomeland(Heimat),aswithH1derlin,thenwehaveatruereversalofthepointofviewofBeingandTime,fortheearthquaHeimatcontains
ahistoricaldimension,andhistorymanifestsitselfbywayofandinthisearth.H1derlin'sGrundstimmungevokesahistoricaleventasitsingstheelements:it
celebratesthe"sacredmourning,"theexperiencebothoftheremotenessofthegodsandthedistressingdistancefromthehomeland.ThereforethisGrundstimmung
doesnotdevelopa"feelingfornature"stemmingfromthesingularmelancholyofasubject.Stemmingconveystheintricationofthehomelandandahistoryinwhichit
isnotcertainthatHistoryisthedeterminant.IsnotStemming''fundamental"becauseitgatherstogetherthenaturalandhistoricalintoacommon"destiny"?
ThehistoricalityofStemmingisadiscoverythatcomesaftertheTurn.InBeingandTimeitseemsthatanxietyshouldbeexperiencedbyallDaseinsineveryepoch.
Inreality,thequestionoftheepochaldestinyofStimmungenhasnotyetbeenposed.AftertheTurnthatis,inthelightoftheHistoryofBeingwillanxiety
retrospectivelyappearasavesperal,twilightattunement,linkedonlytotheepochoftheendofmetaphysics?TheGreekscertainlydidnotexperienceanxietyany
morethantheythoughtintermsof

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reflexivityandselfconsciousness.Couldanxietyhavesenseonlythroughandforsubjectivity?Couldanxietybe,intheepochoftechnology,nothingbutaholdover
fromtheepochofsubjectivity?
Infact,Heideggeropposeswonder(inGreek,thaumazein)whichhadbeentheStemmingofthinkingatitscommencement,toanxietyorrather,dread
which,inthelastepoch(whichisours),perhapsannounces"anothercommencement,"whichmeansthetransitiontowardan"otherHistory."
"Inwonder[tonnement](Erstaunen),whichisthefundamentalattunementofthefirstcommencement,beingsforthefirsttimecometostandintheirshape.In
dread(Erschrecken),whichisthefundamentalattunementoftheothercommencement,thesomberemptinessoftheabsenceofagoalandtheflightinthefaceofthe
firstandultimatedecisionsarerevealedbehindeveryprogressivismandeverysortofdominationoverbeings."36
Struckbythemarvelofbeing,"surprised,"whichmeansseized,arrested(asHeideggerputsit)by"theuncustomaryinthehabitual,"theGreekswerethefirsttosee
andnametheeidos,theGestalt,beingsassuch.Thatbeingscouldbeintheconstancyandnondissimulationoftheirformsdazzledthemandthrustthemuponthe
pathofmetaphysics.Thisinitialwonderhasbecomeforeigntouseventhoughithasalwaysdeterminedus,forthroughdevelopingaknowledgeofbeingsintheir
being,theexactitudeandcertitudeofformsoressencesinmetaphysicsandsubsequentlysciencehavebecomesecondnaturetous.Greekwonderturnedinto
Cartesian,thentechnological,evidence.Formhasbecomethehistoricaltous.Weknowandmastertheessenceofthingsfartoomuchtobeabletosensetheir
enigmaticupsurge.So,wearesurprisedneitherbywhatismostenigmaticanddistantnorbywhatissimplestandnearest:being.
Butwhyarewesusceptibletodreadastheprevailingattunementofourepoch?Dreadisthehistoricalnameforanxiety.Justas,ontheonehand,anxietyappearsnot
asaninterioreventbutasthecollapseoftheworldrelationsavailableuptillthen,soontheotherhanddreadaccompaniesthecollapseofmetaphysicaltruthsthat
havereigneduptillthen,namely,ontotheologicaltruth.Dreadresultsfromareturntotheabysmalandindeterminablecharacterofbeing.Beingoncemorebecomes
entirelyenigmatic.Beingsappeardeprivedofmeaning.
Yetthisdreadisneithernecessarilynoruniversallyfathomed[ressenti]bytheepochitself.Thedistressinthemidstofwhichwefindourselvesmaybeincapableof
makingitselfknownasafundamentalattunement.Certainlythereisalwaysavagueattunement,butnothinkingcanemergefromsuchaStemming.Indeed,itisthe
inverseofthedreadthatreignsundertheguiseofsecurity:itisthe"distressoftheabsenceofdistress,"thefalsecertitudethatone"hasaholdon"thereal,thatallinall
thereisnonoteworthydisquietudetobestirredup.37HenceitseemsthataGrundstimmungbothsignifiesaStemmingthatsummonsthoughtand''makesanepoch,"
orfoundsHistory.FarfromthisStemmingbeingableonlytorespondtoanepochal

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situation,itallowstheretobeanepochinthefirstplaceitisthebackgroundofepochality."Itiscalled'fundamentalattunement'[Grundstimmung]becausethis
attunementtransportshumansthatitattunesintothatuponwhichandinwhichwords,works,anddeedsaregroundedasthingsthathappenandwherehistorycan
commence."38SuchaStemmingisthetemporalizationoftime,thesourceofHistoryingeneral.StemmingisnotsimplycaughtinHistoryorfloatingaboveitlikea
"spiritofthetime,"butitisamatrixinwhichbeingoccursasHistory.Assuch,itisbothinsideandoutsideofHistory.Aswewillsee,itsharesthisambivalencewith
Earth.
EveryGrundstimmungdisclosestheGrund,theabysmalgroundofbeing.ThusprofoundboredommakesDaseinfacepure,"ecstatic"temporality.Surelythisisalso
thecasewithjoy,hope,enthusiasm,andserenityeventhoughHeideggerdoesnotexpresslysayso.Nevertheless,doesnotanxietyhaveaprivilege?Itisno
accidentthatapartfromhislectures39Heideggerdedicatedthreemajorpiecestoit,namely40ofBeingandTime(1927),theessay"WhatIs
Metaphysics?"(1929),andthe''Afterword"tothisessay(1943).IsnotanxietytheonlyoneamongalltheStimmungenthatmakesDaseinfaceNothing,or
Nothingness,whichmeanstheveryessenceofbeingaswhatdiffers[diffrant]fromallbeings?Without.anxietythedifferencebetweenauthenticityandinauthenticity
wouldnotberevealed.AndacommentatorlikeBollnowwasabletowrite,"TheentirephilosophicaledificeofHeideggerrestsonthenarrowbaseofasingle
attunement."40ThereisnodoubtthatthisformulationisexcessiveandincorrectinsofarasanxietyisnotitselfaGrund,abasis.Butitistruethatinonefellswoopit
accomplishesthetranscendentalreduction,theleapfromtheontictotheontologicalwithoutwhichitwouldbenecessary,aswithHusserl,toresorttoa
methodologicalprocedure.Anxietydispenseswithlongdiscoursesforitdispenseswithlanguage:itseversspeech.Ittakestheinitiative,italwaysastonishes.Itis,as
JeanFranoisCourtinecorrectlynotes,"theupsurgeofdifference."41EversinceBeingandTimeitmanifeststheprimacyofbeingandworldoverDasein.
Infact,anxietyhasa"transepochal"privilege,andinseveralrespects.Evenifasdread(beforetheabyssofbeing)itistheattunementofourepoch,itiswithoutdoubt
theonlyStemmingwhichcanbeexperiencedinotherepochs,atleastinthosesincethereignofthemetaphysicsofsubjectivity.Certainlyitishardlythinkablein
Greekphilosophy,butunderthenamesof"dread"and"ennui"itisfoundatthecenterofPascal'sthinkingandthatofKierkegaard.Thisdoesnotmeanthat
HeideggeriananxietyisreducibletothesubjectiveexperienceofanindividualinthefaceofGodorofaconsciousnessinthefaceofitself,likeSartreananxiety."We
say'Inanxietyitisuncannytous.'Whatdothe'it'andthe'us'signify?Allthingsandevenourselvessinkintoanindifference....Inanxiety'wearesuspended....'
Thisiswhyatbottomthereisneithera'you'nora'me'forwhomitisuncanny,butan'us.'Allthatisstillthereintheshockofthissuspense,withinwhichonecanhold
ontonothing,ispurebeingthere."42

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The"us"translatestheGerman"einem":"someone.''Anxietymakesthesubjectnolongerknowwhoitis.Ittakespartinitsown"wild"deconstruction,ifonecanput
itthisway.This"one"isnolongerasubjectbutanindeterminatepresencewhichfeelsinvadedbyafeelingofuncanniness.Thisindeterminationonthesideofthe
"subject"corresponds,onthesideofthe"object,"toacollapseofthefinitetotalityofequipmentalrelationsconstitutingtheworld.Thetextsaysthisindetermination
spreads"afascinatedpause"43thatisnotatallafascinationbyemptiness:itmeansthatDaseinrecoupsitsessentialpossibilities,itreturnsfromthe"decline"into
routinediscourseandeverydaypreoccupationstoitsmereabilitytobetemporal,mortal,andtoasortofnewand,initially,simplifiedidentity.
FromthepointofviewoftheHistoryofBeing,anxietyastheupsurgeofdifferencedoesnotreinstitutetheselfsecurityofsubjectivity.Itisneitherareflexiveself
apprehensionofconsciousnessnoradissolutionofsubjectivityintotheworld.Anxietymanifestsmanasdispossessedofhistranscendentalfaculties,itmarksthetime
ofapauseinthemetaphysicalracetowardtheperpetualreinforcementofthepowersofthehumansubject.Thisexperienceofradicalfragilityandimpotenceforever
leaveshumanpresenceexposedtothebreathoftheabyss.Noassuranceby"logic"andsciencecanguarditagainstthisdispossessionthatmakes"themostprofound
finitudeescapeourliberty."44ThethoughtofStemmingmarkstheendofthephilosophyofthewillandopenstheeraoftheawaitingawaitingnonmeasurable
events,anawaitingsituated,ifnotalreadyoutsideofHistory,atleastatitslimit:"OriginalanxietycanawakeninDaseinatanymoment.Itdoesnotneedanyunusual
eventtoawakenit.Thetriflingcharacterofitspossiblepretextcorrespondstotheprofundityofitsreign."45
EvenifthetwoStimmungenbearsomesimilarities,thiscouldbeonlybecausebothinitiallyleaveonespeechless,withoutwordsanxietycouldbeseenastheinverse
experienceofwonder(whichistheamazementinthefaceofthegiftofbeing)namely,thewithdrawalofbeing.Beingsshowthemselves,butascompletelyslipping
awayfromourfamiliarinstrumentalgrasp.AnxietypresentsitselfastheonlyStemmingthatbringsaboutthefundamentalexperienceofnothingness."Intheclearnight
ofthenothingnessofanxietyitisonlytherethattheoriginalopennessofbeingsassucharises....Onlyonthebasisoftheoriginalmanifestationofnothingnesscan
theDaseinofmanapproachbeings...Inthebeingofbeingscomesthenothingofnothingness."46Onlyanxietycantearopentheveilofbeingsandmakeoneface
whatisotherthanallbeings."Anxietybestowsanexperienceofbeingaswhatisotherthanallbeings,assumingthatthrough'anxiety'inthefaceofanxiety,which
meansinthemereanxiousnessoffear,wedonotavoidthesilentvoicewhichdisposesustodreadtheabyss."47EveryStemmingisanexperienceandevery
experienceisaStemming,whichmeansamannerofsilentlybeingdisposedbybeing.Butanxietyisthisexperienceparexcellencebywhichallspeechistakenaway.
Does

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thisabsolutewithdrawalofspeechnotplaceHistoryitselfinparentheses?DoesnotanxietymakeusregresstothissideofHistoryortopassbeyondit?Anxietyis
"metaphysical"inthatitenablesonetoglimpsetheSelfaswellasthetotalityoftheepoch,ofallepochsandsituations,assuspendedpossibilities.
IntheenditseemsthatanxietyistheonlyStemmingsecretlyand,withoutdoubt,partiallypresentatthegroundofeveryotherStemming.Isitnotevenpartially
presentinjoy:thisheartwhichbeatsmorerapidly,thissuddenlyincreasedandaccelerateddensityoftime?"Anxietycannotbeopposedtojoyortothehappy
agreementofapeacefulstriving.Itmaintainsitselfonthissideofsuchoppositionsinasecretalliancewithserenityandthesweetnessofcreativeaspiration."48
Farfrombeingcontrarytoserenity,andthusfarfrombeinglinkedtosubjectivisticvoluntarism,anxietymaintainsanaffinitywithGelassenheit,withserenity.Revealing
whatmetaphysicshasforgottenNothingness,thetotallyotherthanbeingsitsetsoneonthepathofapostmetaphysical,henceposthistorical,relationwith
being.Forthisreasonanxietyshouldbecalledeschatological49becausebeyondtheultimateenditportendsanewdawn.

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IV
PhysisandEarth
Standingthere,thebuildingstandsontherockyground.Thisreposeoftheworkdrawsforthfromtherocktheobscurityofthatrock'sbulkyyetspontaneoussupport.Standing
there,thebuildingwithstandstheragingstormandthusfirstrevealsthestormitselfinitsviolence.Theglimmerandshiningofthestones,thoughapparentlyonlybygraceofthe
sun,indeedfirstbringthelightoftheday,thebreadthofthesky,thedimnessofnighttoshineforth.Thesecuretoweringofthetemplemakestheinvisiblespaceoftheairvisible.
Thesteadfastnessoftheworkstandsoveragainsttheundulatingofthetideand,fromoutofitscalmness,allowsitsstormingtoappear.Thetreeandthegrass,theeagleandthe
bull,thesnakeandthecricketfirstenterintotheirdistinctiveshapesandsocometoshineforthaswhattheyare.Thiscomingforthandarisingitselfandinallthingswascalled,
earlyonbytheGreeks,"physis."Itlightsandclearsthatwhereuponandwhereinmangroundshisdwelling.Wenameittheearth.Whatthiswordsaysheremustbekeptseparate
fromboththenotionofafinishedclumpofmaterialaswellasthemerelyastronomicalnotion"planet."Theearthisthatwhereinthearisingbringsbackandshelters[zurckbirgt]
allthatarisesandindeedassuchanarising.Inwhatarisestheearthcomestobeasthatwhichharbors[dasBergende].1

Farfromdisavowinghisfirstphenomenologicalinterpretationofnature,whichdefineditasaparticulartypeofbeingencounteredintheworld,Heideggerhereseems
toreinforceitbyshowingthat"naturalphenomena"sunandnight,airandsea,plantsandanimals,andeventheplaceswheremandwellsdonotmanifest
themselvesintheirbeingexceptincontrasttothebuiltwork,namely,theGreektemple.Inresistingtheelementsthetemplerevealsthem,makestheirpresenceand
eventheirveryidentitysensible.Yetthetempleisnotapieceofequipmentalbeinglikethecoveredplatformofatrainstationthatservestoprotectusfrom
inclemencies.Asitissaidinthesameessay,"TheOriginoftheWorkofArt,"thisedificewhich''isnottheimageofanything"andwhichdoesnotalludetoanyworldly
realityneverthelessintroducesthedifferencebetweennatureandworld.Thetemplegathersarounditselfaworld(cult,laws,customs)solelywithinwhich"natural"
thingscanfirst,initially(erstisrepeatedseveraltimes),appearassuch.Butatthesametimeitrevealsanothermodeofpresencethanthatofdiversenaturalkinds,
namelytheformlessandob

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scurepresenceoftheEarth,asupportatoncevisibleandinvisiblewhichholdsandundergirdsallthingsandwhichisneverthelessceaselesslyneglected,passedbyin
silence,forgotten,"reducedtonothing."
AtthedawnofthoughttheGreekshadgraspedunderthenamePhysisboththeinitialappearingofthings(butisittruly"initial"sinceitdependsonthepresenceofa
thingandoftheworld,ofawork?)aswellasthebasisofallthings,theuniversalsupportwhichremainsinreservethroughoutandbeneaththevarietyofforms.Only
muchlaterwillPhysisdesignatetheNatureofthingsconceivedastheirseparatePrinciple,oragaintheforminitself,essence,substance.AndlaterstillNaturewillbe
restrictedtothekingdomofindividuallivingbeingswhichhaveinthemselvestheprincipleoftheirmovementincontradistinctiontoartorhistoryortothesupernatural.
Yet,accordingtothePresocratics,toHeraclitus,Physisdoesnotencompassordelimitaparticularregionofbeings:itdesignatesthetotalityofbeings,whichmeans
"livingbeingsandthegods."Thoughtasthemostgeneraltraitwhichembracesandpenetratesallreality,Physisisthefirstmetaphysicalnameofthebeingofbeingsit
isthefirststeptowardan"ontotheology"thatwillseektodefinetheimmutablenatureofthingsasaseparateforce,anisolablesubstance,acauseofallparticular
things.
Strictlyspeaking,withoutestablishinganequivalencebetweenPhysisandEarth,Heideggerclearlyrelatesthembyemphasizingthatone"illuminates"theother,which
isthefoundationofman'sabodePhysis,hesays,"lightsupthatuponwhichandinwhichmanfoundshisdwelling.WenamethistheEarth."Butthiscomingtogether,
thoughindirect,issurprisingandraisesaquestion:mightPhysisbetheilluminatedpartoftheEarth,thedisclosureofatotalityofwhichtheEarthwouldbethe
nocturnalaspect?Suchanontotalizable"totality"couldhavesenseonlyasindicatingthefullessenceoftruth.FortheEarthitselfcanhardlyrefertoatotality.But
doesnottheEarthcoincide,aswewillsee,withthedimensionofwithdrawal,obscurity,withtheletheintheessenceofaletheia?Whateverthecasemaybe,
contrarytoPhysis,whichalreadycontainsingermthemetaphysicalideaofthetotalityofbeings,theEarthonlyappearsasacomplementtotheworld.TheEarth
concealsitself,certainlyasPhysis,butitdoesnotilluminateitselfonitsown.Itconcealsitselfmorethanitrevealsitself,andyetitrevealsitselfasthatwhichsteals
awaysinceitis"thatwhichcomesforthasshelteringitself''(dasHervorkommendBergend).Butitdoesnotshowitselfonitsown,forinordertoappearitmust
showitselfinaworld,bymeansofaworld.Itissimultaneouslyavailableandinaccessible,disclosedandconcealedinthethinglinessofthingsandinthe"materiality"of
worksofart.Nevertheless,Earthisnot"metaphysical"becauseitdoesnotconveythenameornamesforthebeingofbeingsintheirtotality.
TheconceptoftheEarthseemstorefertotheHistoryofbeingonlysoastobetterplaceitselfbeyondorpriortoit.WhattheGreeksgraspedonlyastheclearing
ourabodeitselfwenamethe"Earth":we,attheotherex

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tremityofhistory,inechoingthecommencementandknowingallthemutationsofPhysisintonature,essence,substance,principleofmovement,uptomodern
objectivity.
Canwesaythenthat"Earth"isthenonmetaphysicalequivalentofPhysis?Inordertoanswerthisquestion,itisadvisabletoclarifytherelationshipthatthetwo
termsmaintain,notwith"nature"asitisconceivedbythemetaphysicaltradition,butwithunconcealing,orwiththeessenceoftruthasdisclosedness
(Unverborgenheit),aletheia.2IfGreekPhysisprimarilycorrespondstotheclearingofbeing,toLichtung,Earthrefersprimarilytotheessentialconcealing
(Verborgenheit,Bergung)whichbelongstoeveryunconcealingandaboutwhichunconcealmentremainsunaware.Nevertheless,Earth,becauseitissubmittedto
thelawoftheworld,cannotbereducedtoconcealment.
Thus,farfromnature,farfromplantsandanimals,alimitseemstoarisewhichonemustcallnonhistorical.DoesnotEarthinitswithdrawalremainshelteredfrom
epochalmutations?Thissteadiness,thisimpassibilityofthenonapparent,seemstocautiouslypointnottowardanew"philosophyofnature"butrathertowardakind
ofimpasse,alimitorreversesidealwaysalreadypastorfutureofHistory.
TheOntologicalInterpretationofPhysisinHeraclitus
InidentifyingHeraclitus'physiswithaletheia,inretranslatingthefamousFragment123,physiskryptesthaiphilei("naturelovestohideitself"),andininterpreting
physisas"whatarisesfavorsselfconcealing,"3Heideggerdoesnotintendtorestorethetrue,timelessthoughtofHeraclitus,buthis"unthought."Whatisthe
unthought?Itisathoughtwhichonlybelatedlysurfacesinagreatworkofthepastwhereithasnotbeenexpresslyformulated.Itisnottherevelationofsome
negligenceorinsufficiencyofthetradition.Rather,theunthoughtisthediscoverybyusofthelatentandunspokenrichnessofathinkingalreadythoughtwhichsolicits
usaseithermisunderstoodoryettobethought.HeideggersayswhenHeraclitusthinksphysishethinksaletheia''withoutnamingit."Aletheia,thecomingto
uncoverednesstowhichacoveringoverbelongs,constitutestheunthoughtessenceofphysis.Amongotherthings,thismeansthesetwotermsarenotequivalentor
reversible.Physisisbeing,butbeingisnotsimply"physical."Physisannouncesoranticipatesthethoughtofbeing,butitissubordinatedtoit.Inotherwords,asthe
essenceofphysis,aletheiaishigherormoreradicalthanphysis.ThelatteristhefundamentalGreeknameforbeing,andtheformerisforustheessenceoftruth.
HeraclitusdidnotseektograspthesubstantialfoundationoftheworldinanaturalelementlikefireanymorethandidtheotherPresocratics,nortodeterminethe
universalbeingofthingsasnatureinthesenseofthenaturalbeingsofphysicsorbiology.Heraclitusoccupiesanambiguousposi

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tionatthedawnofmetaphysics.Hebelongstothelatterinasmuchashedeterminesphysisasthebeingofbeingsintheirtotality.
Yetheescapesmetaphysicsinatleastatwofoldmanner:physisdoesnotnameanyindividualbeingrather,itnamesbeingthebasicwordsofHeraclitus"the
everlivingfire,""theOne,""harmoniaaphans,""invisibleharmony"articulatenothingbutthetraitsofphysisandspeakjustasstronglyofbeing.Formetaphysics,
theunivocityofthenamewhichdesignatesthebeingofbeingswillappearasnecessaryandevident:beingwillbeousia,energeia,substance,subject,willtopower
"andbeyondthis,nothing.''OpposedtothisexclusionofNothingnessisinHeraclitustheinclusionofconcealmentorofwithdrawalintheoriginalunityofallthings,as
wellastheinclusionofcontrariesintheOne."Godisdayandnight,winterandsummer,warandpeace,surfeitorabundance."4"Naturalphenomena"andhuman
eventsbelongonstrictlyequalfootingwiththeunityofphysis,whichiscalleddivine.
NodoubtthereisamoreempiricalcosmologyinHeraclitusnodoubtthewordphysismoreintuitivelydesignatestheimageofvegetalgrowth(theflowerthatblooms,
ortheplantthatemergesfromtheearth)ortherisingofthesun."This'rising'isimmediatelyperceptibletousinthesproutingoftheseedsownintheearth,inthe
burstingforthofdrives,inthebloomingofflowers.Andfurther,thesightoftherisingsunpointstotheessenceofblooming."5Butthepurebloomingofphysisdoes
notneedtheseonticmodelsandimages.Itisanteriortothemastheconditionoftheirappearance."Intruth,otherthanthespecificconnotationofmountains,sea,and
animals,physissignifiesthepurearising(desreineAufgehen)inthepowerofwhichallthatappearsappearsandthus'is.'"6ByjustnamingphysisHeraclitusdoesnot
makethe"giganticgeneralization"thatNietzscheattributedtoThaleswhothereforewas,accordingtohim,thefirstphilosopherageneralizationconsistingin
transferringtothetotalityofbeingsatraitthatbelongstoaspecificnumberofthem.Purearisingisnotfirstascertainedinthedomainofwhatwecallnatureandthen
appliedtothetotalityoftheworld(fromstonesandplants,passingbywayofanimalsuptoman,andeventogods).Rather,the"world"("cosmos")isthoughtas
"fire,"whichmeansaspureemergence,as"light"whichfromtheoutsetintimatelypenetrates,likelightningorflame,everybeingwithoutencompassingitlikea
container."Nature"isalreadygraspedas"world"inthephenomenologicalsense.Wewillcomebacktothispoint.
InhisfamousreadingofFragment123Heideggerbringsintoreliefakindofinteriorlife,orelementarypulsation,ofphysis.Ontheonehandphysisoccursaccording
toacorrelationorsimultaneityofshowingitselfandselfwithdrawal.Thiswithdrawalisnotsimplyahiddendimension,asimpleclosure,akindofcryptseparated
fromthebroaddaylight,butatruereservethat"feeds,"sotospeak,emergence.Onemustunderstandthatthewithdrawalcontains"theessentialpossibilityof
emergence,"7whichmeanspreservesit,protectsit,maintainsit.Thereisno"nature"without

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8

potentiality,withoutreserve,butHeideggerneverspeaksofareserveofforce."Itisthecoveringoverthatvouchsafestodisclosureitsunfolding." Thesecondand
themostimportantinternaltraitofphysiscomestolightinthewordthattranslatesphileiinfact,twowords:"dispensefavor"(Gunst).Bloomingfavorswithdrawal.
WhatisGunst,''favor"?Favoristhefreestgiftthatoccursasamomentofgrace.Gunstcomesfromgnnen,"tograntagift."Asthegiftparexcellence,favoristhe
essenceofphysisandnotaneventoraparticularattributeofanevent."Favorgovernsphysis,"9writesHeidegger.
Thoughtastheessenceofphysis,favordoesnotsignifyanybeingorthingthatmightexistoutsideofphyeinandkryptesthai,butrathertheveryplayofarisingand
withdrawal.Thatthedisclosurebearswithinitselfafecund,"positive"covetingover,suchis"favor."Thatocclusionisfavoredbywithdrawal,harmonizedwithitand
initthatitemergesonlyfromareturnintoitselfandfromasaving,fromthedeepshelterwherewhatdoesnotspringforthcollectsitselfsuchisthemarvelaswell
astheenigmaofthe"thereis."Thedifferencebetween,ontheonehand,beingsuchasitbestowsitselfandconcealsitselfinahistoryorgivesandwithdrawsitselfin
anepochand,ontheotherhand,"physical"beingcomestolightthroughthesimplefavor.Hereitisnotaquestion,asReinerSchrmannsupposes,ofthedifference
betweenbeingasepochaland"apostmetaphysicaldetermination"10ofbeing.HowcouldHeraclitusbepostmetaphysicalsinceheisbarelypremetaphysical?Favor
isthenonhistoricalaspectofaletheia.Likethedifferencebetweenthingsandtheworld,itmarksadifferencethatisnotsituatedinanydeterminateepochofthe
HistoryofBeingandthatneverthelesscannotbeelsewherethan"inbeing.""Favor"doesnotindicatethepossibleappearingof"aspaceofpresencedeprivedofthe
epochalprinciple,"11nordoesitmeanthat"thesending,wherepresenceonlygrantsitselfwhilewithdrawing,canreachitsend."12Physisholdsitselfinreserveonlyby
showingitselfandwillalwaysdosobefore,during,andaftertheHistoryofbeing,ifthereisanafter.Itcannotovercomethislawofallmanifestation.Favoris
immemorial.ItisthenonepochalequivalentofGeschickorthesendingofbeingwhichgovernsthe"suspense"ofitsepochs,whichsurelyisapoorerequivalent
becauseitiswithoutmemoryandthuswithoutforgetting.
Heidegger'sreadingofHeraclitusisslowandpainstaking,patientandpersuasive.Heknowshowtopersuadeusofthederivative,belatedcharacterofthedistinctions
inforcetoday,suchasthatbetweenthe"biological"andthe"psychological,"the"natural"andthe"historical."HeshowsinadecisivemannerthattheGreekreflection
onphysisdirectlyovercomesallthesepartitioningsaswellaseverynaive"physics"andpointstowardbeingsassuchasawhole.Nevertheless,confirmingthat
HeraclitusdoesnotdealwithnatureinthestrictsensebutspeaksofbeingparadoxicallyleadsHeidegger,whenspeakingof"favor,"notonlytosketchanontologyof
nature"initself,"whichissupposedtoescapethehistoryofthenames

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forbeing,butalsotothinknatureinthestrictsenseaccordingtothetraitsofbeing.Insum,byextractingphysisfromphysics,heontologizesnature.Ifthetradition
hasforgottenbeingasitisdiscoveredinphysis,doesn'tthethoughtofbeinginitsownwayobscurethebeingofnaturalbeings?Forthereisnodoubtthatthis
interpretationmakesoflifeakindofappearing.TheGreekverbZen,"tolive,"means"toemergeintothelight."13Preciousfewproofsandnogenuine"philological"
evidencecanbegivenofit.ItisnotenoughtorecallthatforHomer"tolive"and"toseethelightofthesun''areoneandthesameexpression,thatiftheGreeksname
theirgods"livingbeings"theydonotunderstandbythis"animals,"thatthe"alwaysliving"fireofHeraclitussignifiedthe"everappearing"fire.TheassimilationofZo,
physis,andLichtungpresupposes,butdoesnotdemonstrate,thatlightistheessenceofnature."Theessentiallinkbetweenphysis,Zoandlightbecomesapparent
inthattheGreekwordfor'light'hasthesamerootasphysis,namelyphaos,phs."14Besidesthishardlyconvincingphilological"proof"("theroots'phu'and'pha,'"
Heideggersays,"namethesame"15yettheserootshaveonlyacommonconsonant"ph"!),theHeideggeriandemonstrationrestsuponphenomenologicalevidence.
"Nature"isemergence,comingintodaylightthus,essentiallylight:Physisisthe"flame"thatburstsintothenonlighted,andthat"separatestheclearfromthe
obscure."16Butisn'tthisobscurityitselfthesamethingasthe"physical?"Canonereducethe"physical"tothe"phantic?"
When,referringtonatureinH1derlin,HeideggerdefinesanewGreekphysiswithwhichthisnatureisinasecretrelation,heinsistentlyemphasizesthatphysisas
blooming,astheopeningwhichgivestoeverybeingitsform,itsaspect,isthe"sourceoftheclearing.""Physisisthearising,thesourceoftheclearingorlightingand
thusthehearthandtheplaceoflight.Theradianceofthe'light'belongstofire,itisfire....Fire...istheOpenwhichevercomestopresence."17Whatof
obscurityand,aboveall,whatisthereofEarthinthisluminousphysis?
EarthseemstobeforgotteninthewholeinterpretationofHeraclitus.Whataboutphysisasnotjusttheburstingintolightbutasthelatentthrust,theunderground
growth,themute,concealed,nocturnaldensity?
NatureaccordingtoH1derlinandthe"Constancy"ofPhysis
Ifphysisasthefirstnameforbeinggiveswaytoitsepochalmetamorphosesandthusisforgotten,itindeedseemsthatsomethingofitsoriginalessenceremains
constant,unalteredthroughouttheepochs.Otherwise,howisonetounderstandtheresurgenceofauthenticHeracliteantraitsintheH1derlineanthoughtofNature?
IsnotthepresenceoftheGreekcommencementpreserveduntiltheRomanticepochdespitetheforgetfulnessandmutationsthatcoveritover?Doesits"permanence"
dependupon

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someotherpowerthanHistory?Certainlytheoriginalsenseofthewordphysishaswitheredaway,butthethoughtofthe"AllOne"inHlderlindoesnotstemfroma
nostalgicmythorasentimentalidentificationwiththeGreeks.ItisamatterofunderstandingtheGreekopeningitselfbeyondanyepochaldistance:itisintermsofthe
withheldtruthoftheoriginalword,itispreciselyintermsofaletheiaanditsdoubledimensionofbloomingandwithdrawal,thatH1derlindiscoversNature.This
eclipseofHistoryisthetrueH1derlinean"miracle"whichisonlypossibleifphysis,orperhapsmoreprofoundly,Earthitself,keepsaholdandapoweroverHistory.
"AllH1derlin'sthinkingandhisunderstandingofbeinginhisbeinginstitutingpoetryareheldunderthespellofHeraclitus.''18
ThatNatureisaharmoniousunitythatgathersandtraversesthetotalityofbeings,fashioningtheirdifferencesthatNatureisfire("Comenow,ohfire!")19these
arenotsimply"Heracliteanthemes"buttheexpressionofthetransepochalpermanenceofphysis.
Theomnipresentraisesinitssoftembrace
Thepowerful,thedivinelybeautiful,Nature.20

Marvelofomnipresence,presenceeverywhereopenandeverywhereconcealed,givenwitheverythingandneverexhaustingitselfinany,H1derlineanNaturesurely
"retrieves"being,foritdoesnotrestrictitselftoadistinct"natural"domain."Itneverletsitselfbeencounteredsomewherewithinthesphereoftherealassomeisolated
realthing."21Ittraversesandunifiesthecosmos,plants,animals,andeventheconstellationsandgods.OlderthanhistoryH1derlinsays"olderthantime"which
meansolderthantheepochsbecauseitisoriginallytimeitself,"itmeetsouttheessentialorderofthefuturehistoryofthegodsandman."22Heideggerinterprets
Natureasthesourceoftimeandhistory,whichisnotfoundinhumantemporalitybutintheveryopeningofbeing."Natureisolderthananyparticulartime."23The
originalsourceofallpresence,"ithasalwaysalreadyallottedtheclearingtoeveryrealthingintheopensolelywithinwhichallthatisrealcanappear."Naturedraws
itspowerfromaGewesen,anoriginal,prehistoricgathering.Ifthereisa"softness"toNature,ifitholdseverything"initssoftembrace,"itisbecauseitisnotchained
totheheavinessofanonticreality.Itsunifying,embracing"power"thatinitselfis"soft,"distinctfromalllocalizableforce,flowsfromthesingularomnipresenceofits
appearing.Allitssplendor,allitsbeauty,likethatoftheHeraclitean"cosmos,"evenallitsdivinityconsistsinitsgivingtoeveryisolatedappearance,butaboveallto
the"contraries,"thetensionoftheirbelongingtogether.Thispowerofharmonyandbeauty(HeideggersaysNature"keepsthemostextremeoppositesapart")24is
celebratedwithafervorandardorthatisalmostmysticalintheamazingpraiseandfinalbenedictionofHyperion:

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Thedissonancesoftheworldarelikelovers'quarrels.
Reconciliationinheresindispute,andallwhichhasbeenseparatedcomestogether.
Thearterieswhichleavetheheartcomebacktoit:allisbutonelife,burning,eternal.25

OncemoreonethinksofHeraclitus:"aninapparentharmonysurpassestheapparentharmony,"butthemetaphorofthe"heart"seemstobethemarkofan
unbroachableepochaldistance.Yet,"Allesistinnig,""everythingisintimatelyrelated."Whatstandsinoppositionstandsinoppositiontoitself,initself,onthebasisof
aunityofcontrarieseverywheresecretlyatwork.HeideggershowswhatH1derlincalls"Spirit''isnotHegelianreasonbutsimplytheharmoniousintimacyofNature.
Beautyallowstheoppositetobepresentinitsopposition....
Beautyistheallpresent.26

Thisinsistenceonpurepresence,onappearing,onlight,ontheopening,onprimordialemergence,seemstoneglectthedimensionofobscurityandwithdrawal,the
earthlypoleofphysis.Thepossibilityofconcealmentisbarelyevoked,andObscurity,theNightwhichhidesNaturebeforethedawn,isassociatedbythepoetwith
mourning.Yetnaturedoesnotdispenseitselfasshadelesspresence,asfullpresenceequaltoitself,peacefullyopen.H1derlindirectlyidentifiesNaturewiththeHoly
(dasHeilige)."TheHolyisthebeingofNature,"Heideggeremphasizes.ButtheHolyappearsnotonly"calmly"asbeneficentbutintumultandterror,undertheguise
ofChaosandtheabyss:
Butnowdaybreaks!Ihopedandsawitcoming,
AndwhatIsaw,theSacred,mywordshallconvey!
......................................
Naturenowisawakenedamidclashingweapons,
AndfromhighintheEtherdownintotheabyssbelow
Accordingtoastrictlaw,asformerly,bornfromthesacredChaos.27

ItwouldbefalsetoconcludehastilyfromthisthatthedoublecharacterofphysiscanagainbefoundinthecomplementarityoftheluminousOpenandtheabysmal
Holy.ForasHeideggershowsinagreementwithR.Otto,whohasmadeittheessentialthemeofacelebratedstudy28thisdoubleaspectofdiurnaland
nocturnal,appeasingandrepelling,salutaryanddisquieting,belongstotheSacreditself.AlltheambivalenceofHeracliteanphysispeaceandwar,famineand
plenty,fullnessandreserveseemscontainedintheconceptoftheSacred.Indeed,whenH1derlinspeaksofNatureassacred,hesaysthatitisbothnearand
unapproachable,immediateandmediate.Itisdifficulttothinkthisbecauseitisamat

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terofanondialecticimmediacy.ThedualityofexpansionandreturntoselfwhichistheessenceoftheimmediateisindeednomoredialecticalinHlderlinthanitwas
inHeraclitus,fortheoppositedeterminationsarenotsuccessiveandsyntheticbutsimultaneousanddisjunctive.ButwhatistheSacred,andwhatisitsconnectionwith
thedualityofimmediateandmediate?
TheH1derlinianSacredechoesanewHeracliteanthought:"TheOneconsentsanddoesnotconsenttobenamedZeus."TheSacredisneitheranemanationof
divinitynoraqualityofahumanordivinepersonlikeholiness.Heidegger'spositionherecanneitherbeseparatednorevendistinguishedfromthatofH1derlin.As
thespaceoftheappearanceofthedivine,theSacredisanteriortothegodsandtothedivineitself.29Itistheoriginallyunscathed,theuntouched,theprimordialgiftof
presencewhichassuchisunapproachable.Thatfromwhicheverygiftproceedsclosesinonitselfwhatclearsandopenseveryproximityisparadoxically
unapproachable.HencethedoubleStemmingoftheSacred:familiarity,intimacy,penetratingtendernessandatthesametimeestrangement,anxietyatthelossof
everyfamiliarground.TheSacred"immediately"lavishesinambivalence:itencompassesandexpels.TheimmediacyoftheSacredissosurprising,soprepossessing,
thatitisincomprehensiblewithoutmediation.ThismediationbelongstoLogos,whichtransfigurestheimmediate.AccordingtoH1derlin,thepoetfunctionsasa
mediator:itisthepoetwhochanges"theterroroftheimmediate...intothetendernessofmediateandmediatingspeech."30ThepoemmakestheSacred
approachable"withoutrisk":
thesonsoftheEarthnowdrinkthecelestialfirewithoutrisk31

AswithHeraclitus(whodifferentiatedLogosfromphysisanditscharacteristicexpressions),itisherenecessarytodistinguishtwoLogoi,onebeingthe"immediate"
logosoftheSacreditself,theotherthemediatelogosofpoeticspeech,ofthehymnorsong.HeideggercallstheSacred"thepoemanteriortoall
utterance"(unvordichtbar,literallywithoutanutterableprecedent).ThefirstLogosisthesilencepriortoallspeech,nottheineffable,butthecollected,theunity
whichprecedesallutterance.Theunutterable,theSacred,expressesitselfinpoeticspeechattheriskoflosingitself.Indeed,theagitation,thedread,theanxietythat
resideintheimmediacyoftheSacredareabated,mediated.Itisnecessaryforthemodestyofthepoettoknowhowtoconnectwiththisabysmaldimension.This
modestymustknowhowtobesilentsoastorespondtothesilenceoftheSacred.Toseek"thehighest"meanstokeephushaboutit.
Inanycase,thisdangerofbetrayingtheSacredisfinallyavoidedwhenmanceasesconsideringtheSacredasanobjecttobereached,tobedescribedadequately
fromtheoutside.TheSacredisnothing"initself"itis

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borninthepoem,itiswhat"inspires"thepoet."LettheSacredbemyspeech!""TheSacredbestowsspeechanditselfarrivesinthisspeech....Thepoemisdictated
bywhatbyitselfarrives...."32
OnceagaintheechoofthecelebratedsentenceofHeraclitusonLogosseemstoresoundthoughthepoetryofH1derlinasHeideggerinterpretsit:ItisnottheIofthe
poetthatseizesuponthesacredbutthelogosoftheSacredthatspeaksthroughthepoet.Doesthisdecentering,whichishardly"Romantic,"ofpoeticsubjectivity
neverthelessletallthe"permanence"ofGreekphysiswithinmodernNatureappear?Whatistheessenceofthis"persistence"33thatmakesNatureforeverremain"the
comingofthecommencement"?34IsitthereforethepersistenceoftheAnfangorthegreatGreekcommencement,thepersistenceofahistoricaldebut?Butisthis
persistencenotnecessarilyinterrupted?Ifthecommencementremainscompletelyunperturbable,mustitnotsomehowresideoutsideevenofeveryepochas
somethingnonhistoricalorprehistorical?ItseemsthatphysisreappearsinH1derlin'sSacredonlybecauseinitsoriginalcommencementitneverentersintohistory.
Ifnot,howcouldthissacredfound''anothercommencement,""anotherHistory"?35Couldithaveinauguratedhistory("AtthecommencementtheSacreddecidesin
advanceconcerningmanandgods")36ifitwerecaughtinsideit?TheenigmaticanteriorityoftheSacredfoundsHistory,is"olderthantimeandabovethegods,"and
makesanambiguousallusiontoanonhistoricalprinciple.AttimesitseemsthattheHeideggerianinterpretationmeetsupwiththemostdistant,themostrecondite,and
certainlytheleastpersonalofallthefiguresofGod:concerningtheOnewhomH1derlincallsthe"Father,"the"eternalheart,""thepurefireoftheFather,"Heidegger
indeedsays(speakinginamanneroddlysimilartoSaintAnselm's"nothinggreatercanbethought")that"nothingmoreoriginalcanbethought,"37"nothingcanbe
thoughtofasbeingearlier"!AttimesitinsteadseemsthatHeidegger,thecommentator,ratheremphasizesthisstrangelyrebelprinciplewhich,intheveryopeningof
being,cannotbebentbackonepochalitynordrawnintothelight.
Yet,shouldthisH1derlinean"chaos,"thiswild,barbarous,obscure,abysmalprinciplethatpersists"under"History,beidentifiedwithwhatHeideggerdescribes
elsewhereasEarth?Notatall:forHeideggertheEarthishardly"wild"aswewillsee,ithasitsownorder,asobscureasitmaybe,anditsstrictlimits!Itisneither
God,norchaos,northeunityofthetwo.That"purenature"ischaosisathoughtthatH1derlinapparentlyshareswithNietzsche,atleastfromasuperficialpointof
view,andnotwiththeGreeks.AsforHeidegger,heradicallyrejectsanyideaofNatureasoriginallyundifferentiated.Also,fromtheoutsethegreatlydiminishesthe
connotationof"panic"thatthetermhasinH1derlinbyinterpretingitas"gaping,"whichmeans"opening.38Indoingso,hehaswithoutdoubtminimizedthenon
GreekelementsinH1derlin:theAsiatic,theChristian.Butthatisanotherquestion!

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TheFourSensesofEarth
Wecalltheobscuregroundofourabodeunmistakablyobscurethe"Earth."ThefirstsenseoftheconceptofEarthindeedislinkedtotheessenceofphysis
unthoughtbytheGreeks,thatis,toaletheia.Moreprecisely,Earthbelongstothedimensionofwithdrawal,ofconcealing(lethe)whichholdsswayinun
concealment,inaletheia.Butitisnotidenticalwithit.Itisnotsimplewithdrawalorpureobscurity."Earthisnotthesealedoffthatcorrespondstoconcealment"39it
isnotselfenclosedtothepointofbeingtotallyremovedfromwhatappears.OpacityinEarthispowerful,butitmustmanifestitself.Thustheweightofthestoneorthe
particularradianceofcolorsarerevealedasmodesofwhatisobviouslypresentbutunexplorable.Indeedwhenonebreaksastoneintoathousandpieceswhenone
calculatesitsexactweightoritsmolecularstructurewhenonebreaksdownitscolorinspectralfrequenciesnoneoftheseanalyticalmeasurescanpenetratethe
interiorofthisheavymassorthisluminosity."Itonlyshowsitselfifitdoesnotremainundisclosedandinexplicit.ThusEarthbrakeseveryattemptatpenetratingit.It
makeseverycalculativeindiscretionveertowarddestruction.''40Earthpossessesasecretgroundthatresistseveryelucidationandthatdoesnotyieldtotheviolenceof
anexplicationorexposition.Onemustacquiescetoitsunopenabledimensionifonedoesnotwanttodestroyit.Itmustshowitselfaswhatholdsitselfin
reserve.
Thus,EarthindeedappearsintheOpen,intheclearingofbeing,butitappearsasimpenetrable.Itisopenlylatent,manifestlyhidden.Heidegger.repeatedlyinsiststhat
itsmodeofmanifestationisgovernedbyaparadoxicalduality:itisdasHervorkommendBergende,whichmeans"thatwhichsheltersincomingforth,"41thatwhichin
emerging'keepsitsowndepthhidden.Beingessentiallythismovementofagaintakingupandgoingbackintoitself,itmakesthiscoveringriseupandvisiblyappearin
theverymidstoftheworld."Earthisthespontaneousarisingofwhatiscontinuallyselfsecluding."42Astheworldisthedomainparexcellenceoffreeappearing,
Earthwillprovetobeengagedinanambiguousandconflictualrelationwiththeworld,itscontrary.Thusitisnecessarilycompelledtoreachanagreement,soto
speak,withitsinimicalprinciple."EarthcannotrenouncetheOpenoftheworldifitisitselftoappearasEarth."43
Butwhatistheworld?AndhowarewetotaketheconflictofEarthworld?In"TheOriginoftheWorkofArt"thedefinitionoftheconceptofworldisconsiderably
enlargedinrelationtothatofBeingandTime.Certainlytheworldisstilldefinedasanetworkofpossibilitiesandnotasasubsistentbeing,aninitself,oratotalityof
objects.Butquitebeyondthepracticaleverydayactionsontheequipmentallevel,thisnetworkofpossibilitiesprincipallyconcernsmoralandpoliticalchoice,the
"courses(Bah

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nen)ofdecision"andactionthatanepochofHistoryoffers."Theworldistheselfopeningopennessofthebreadthofthesimpleandessentialcoursesofdecisionin
thedestinyofahistoricalpeople."44Theconceptofworldisintrinsicallylinkedtothenotionofepoch,somuchsothatitseemstobeconfoundedwithit."Whenever
beingwithholdsitselfinitsdestiny(whichmeanswithholditselfina"suspense,"inGreekepoch,asitdispensesitself),aworldsuddenlyandunforeseeablyoccurs
(ereignetsich)."45Anepochisaworldconsiderednotfromthepointofviewofthemorelimiteddestinyofapeople(forexampletheGermansandtheFrench)but
accordingtotheHistoryofbeing.Onthataccounttherearedoubtlesslyconsiderablymoreworldsthanepochs.Ingeneral,worldsaredeterminedbythelarger
configurationofepochs,exceptfortheGreekepoch,whichistheonlyoneamongthefourgreatepochsofbeing(Greek,Christianmedieval,Modern,Planetary)
whereapeoplecould''startanepoch."Theepochsexpressthefundamentalfiguresofthedestinyofbeing.
Comparedtotheworldasasumofdeterminateoperationspracticalandtheoretical,culturalandsocial,publicandprivate,etc.duringagivenepoch(perhaps
thoughtandartalwaysrelyontheworldonlyinordertosituateitmoreradicallyintheepochandinbeing),Earthappearsasanonhistoricalgroundwhichneedsthe
worldinordertobedrawnupintothelightofdayandtoassumeanepochalstyle.Yet,thisdoesnotmean,asthesecondsenseoftheconceptofEarthwillshow,
thattheEartharisesfromanindeterminateinitself.Indeed,theEarthcannotbereducedtothepurepassivityofa"primematter"thatistobeinformed.Itpossessesits
owntendencynotonlytorepelthehistoricalbut,followingacertainbent,toattractitfromitsside.Likethe"landofapeople"whichtheEarthalwaysisit
seemsmoreinclinedtoreceivecertainforms,certainstylesofexistenceratherthanothers,withoutbeingabletobeconceivedasareservoirofpreexistingforms.The
worldandtheEarthnevercombineinadialecticalsynthesis("anemptyunityofopposites,"Heideggersays)inordertoformathird,definitiveterm.Theyare
contrariesinapermanentstrife(Streit).Thisstruggleneverappearsinitself,butonlyinactionsandworks.So,theessenceofthisstrifeamountstothis:allfacts,
beings,things,andeventsbelongtoHistory,whichmeanstotheGeschick,tothesendingorthedestiningofbeing.Beingdoesnot"give"itselfwhichmeansamong
otherthingsthatitisnotunderstandableoutsideofitsepochs.Nevertheless,somethingofthenonhistoricalmustcontinuallyenterintothisHistory,conformtoit,be
informedbyit,butalsowithdrawfromit.
Thuswhenabeingof"natural"originbecomesatoolinthebroadsense,itbecomescompletelyhistoricized,mundanized,butitkeepssomethingofitsinitialEarthly
origin.IngeneralthisEarthishiddeninthetool:asSeinundZeitshows,itisonlywhenthehammerbreaksthatwecometodealwithwoodandmetal.Butthese
materialsscarcelyhaveanymeaning.It

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seemsasthoughtheEarthlyistotallyforgottenandlostthere.Nevertheless,can'ttheEarthappearinapositivesensebywayofequipmentality?
Asequipmentalizedastheyare,constructionmaterialssharesomecharacteristicswiththeblocksofstoneof"nature"intheprescientificsenseofasubsistentpresence
thatcanbeindifferent,reassuring,ormenacing.NaturallytheplanetEarthisusedasabasepoint,asabody,asthesubstanceforbuildings,sustainingandinspiringthe
linesofthevariousarchitecturalstyles.Butinaddition,throughtheEarththeedifices,thetemples,andthehousesareinvestedwithamodeof"naturalpresence"
sometimesneutral,sometimesprotective,sometimesdisquieting.IntermsotherthanthoseofHeidegger,ahousewillstrikeusaswelcomingorseverenotonly
becauseofitsstylebutbecauseofitsmass,aheavinessorlightnessthatiscertainlyindissociablefromitsepoch,amassthatneverthelessseemstoinhabitspace
somehowoutsideoftime.
Thesetwodimensionscannotexistseparately:"TheworldisfoundedontheEarth,theEarththrustsupthroughtheworld."46Bothareaspectsandregionsof
disclosure,notofbeings.Thereisastrifebecausethereisareciprocalmenaceofabsorption,sinceeachofthetwoadversariestendtoencroachuponthedomainof
theother,andmoreprofoundly,becauseeachofthetwoneedstheotherandisinclinedtocapturetheother.Thereisastrifebecausethecaesurabetweendisclosure
andwithdrawaldoesnotoccurasasimpleoppositionbetweenworldandEarthbutgoestotheveryheartofeachofthem.Theirconflictdependsonthemoreoriginal
conflict(Urstreit)traversingbothofthemequally,whichistheconflictbetweenclearingandconcealment.Theworldtendstoannulthe"ground,"whereastheEarth
tendstodehistoricize,todecontextualizethe''decisions"oftheworld.The"decisions"whichgotomakeuptheworldwhichmeans,forexample,thedistinctions
betweenwhatisjustandunjustsometimesimplythatwhichisundecidedand"unmastered,"47a"ground"or"basis"ofnonhistoricalpresencethatcannotbe
decided.Ontheotherside,theEarthrevealsforalltoseeapluralityofbeingsthathavenamesandindeedrolesintheworld,andthatneverthelessare,asareanimals,
radicallyexcludedfromtheopennessthatbelongstotheworld.
IfinasecondsenseEarthindeedcorrespondstowhatisusuallycalled"nature,"itissointermsofanessentialdifference.Naturalbeingssun,night,trees,herbs,
snakes,cicadaswhichHeideggernames,amongothersdonothaveanysubsistenceoftheirown.Theyoccuronlyinaworldandinrelationtoahumanwork,
incontrastwithit.Ifitisunderstandablethatareciprocityestablishesitselfbetweenthemassbelongingtotherockandtheconsistencyofthebuildingbuiltuponit,the
relationbetweenplantsoranimalsontheonesideandhumanworksontheotheris,foritspart,notclear.Moreover,Heideggerneverpointsoutthatlanguageor
culture,whichareotherwaysofdesignatingtheworld,canbringtheirdeterminationstoanaturethatisinitselfvoidofdeterminations.Nodoubt

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thisorthatplant,thevine,theolivetree,theoak,thefirreceivesuchandsuchasymbolicsenseaccordingtoagivenepochandworld.ButnowheredoesHeidegger
considerthattheverybeingofnaturalbeingsisexclusivelyderivedfromtheworld.Fromthispointofviewheisa"realist."Hesaysallnaturalbeingsarelinkedbya
"unison,"a"harmony"(Einklang)thatsupportstheirrelations.Completelyignorantofthemselves,eachisheldinafluxora"surge''thatcomprisesa"currentof
delimitation"ofparticularnaturalidentities.Itisclearthatthisharmony,thissurge,thiscapacityfordelimitationdefineEarthinitselfinitsphenomenalunfolding
outsideallhypothesesastoitsfinalityortheultimatesenseofnaturalbeings."ThisselfconcealmentofEarthisnotsomesortofuniformandrigidclosure:quitetothe
contrary,itunfoldsinaninexhaustibleandsimpleplenitudeofformsandmodalities."48Thisinexhaustiblerichnessseemstobeforgottenbytheworld:"TheEarthisthe
tirelessandinexhaustibleflowingreducedtonothing."49Yetmanfoundshisdwelling,hisabode,uponit.
AthirdandnewsenseoftheconceptofEarthappearsinthedescriptionoftheworkofart,nolongeroutsideofitbutwithinit.Itisapparentlyamatterofwhatone
callsthe"material"ofthework,ofwhatitis"madeof":stone,wood,sound,language.ButHeideggerradicallyrethinkstheverynotionof"material."Theworkisnot
originally"drawn"[puise](Schpfen,"tocreate,"literallymeans"todraw")fromtheformsoftheworldbutfromEarth.Theformsarenotimposedonabrute,prime
matterbutarebornfromthe"strife"throughwhichEarthandworldareunitedandheldapart.Inrealitythisstrifedoesnotexist"initself"butisfirstbroughtaboutin
thecreativeprocess:incomingtobe,theworkofartis"theinstigatorofthisstrife,"whichmeansitcarriesoutforthefirsttime"thestrugglingofthestrife"(die
BestreitungdesStreites).50Thework,whichprovidesthefirstsettinginplaceofaworldandsimultaneouslythedrawingintoappearanceofanEarth,doesnotfirst
dependuponasubjectivegestureonthepartoftheartistbutontheessenceoftruth"settingitselftowork.""SincetheworkinstitutesaworldandsetsforththeEarth,
itisaninstigationofthisstrife."51Noticeinthispassagethedeterminationandrestrictionoftheworld(aworld),whereastheEarthismarkednotbyindetermination
butbywhatcouldbestbecalledatransepochaldetermination.TheEarthlyandnonhistoricalthinglinessoftheworkissituated,itseems,bothwithinitsworldand
beyondit.Indeed,weknowthatthe"greatworks"ofthepastasHeideggersays,theGreektemple,theGothiccathedralaregiventousoutsideoftheirepoch
andoutsideoftheworldwhichwastheirs:"Theworldofwhichtheseworkswereaparthaswitheredaway."52Howcantheyremainaccessibletous?Whenthework
isnolonger"initselement,"nolongerperformingitsprimaryfunctionofopeningtheworldandhasdepartedfromitsage,isitnotthankstowhatresidesinitasEarth
thatwecanstillencounterforceandbeautyinit?Ormustoneinsteadsayallappreciationishistorical,asthenineteenthcenturybelieved?Indeed,whatremainsforus
ofworkswhoseworldhasdisappearedandis,other

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thanthroughtheworks,completelyunfamiliartous?IsitnotastrangekindofbelongingtotheEarthwhich,throughstrictlyepochalforms,emergesbeyondoronthis
sideofHistory?EvenifweignoreallByzantinetheologyorHindureligion,thehieraticlusterofthemosaicsinRavennaorthemysterioussmileoftheBodhisattvaof
Gandharatouchuswithagracethathenceforthescapestheirworld.
ButwhatisthisEarthlythingliness?"Theworksetsitselfbackintothemassanddensityofthestone,inthefirmnessandflexibilityofwood,intothedurabilityand
lusterofmetal,intothelightandobscurityofcolor,intothetimbreofsoundandintothepowerofspeechtoname."53Isthisnotobviousbyitself?Yet,tograspthe
specificityoftheartistictreatmentof"material"itsufficestocomparetheworkofartandthetoolormanufacturedproduct.Thematerialinthetooliscompletely
subsumedunderauseitiscapturedbyutility.Thetoolconcealsitsthingcharacterbehindits"function"thehammerisnotmadeinordertoletthewoodandthe
metalbeseenassuch.Thework,ontheotherhand,makesthe''material"emergeassomethingfundamentallyunutilizablewhichbelongstoEarthanditswithdrawal.
Onlytheworkcanmakethiswithdrawaland,thereby,itsbeauty,explicitlyappear.And,itdoesnotrevealasimplematerialstrippedofsensewhichformalonecould
makeinteresting:itmakesmanifestthedimensionoftheconcealmentoftruth.Allbeautyistruthemphasized.The"material"makesthenonhistoricalgroundofthe
worldsensible.Thisisthereasonwhyininstitutingaquasinaturalitytheworkofartfirstopensthecontrastingdomainofnaturalbeings."Butthenagain,initsself
sufficientpresencetheworkofartresemblesthemerethingthatnaturallyspringsupandiswornawaytonothing."54Butwhenitcomestotheworkthisresemblance
onlyemergesafterthefact.EarthasNatureisneverthelessnotproducedbytheworkbutonlydrawnintothedaylight,renderedmanifestbyEarthas"material."The
workissituatedinasortofmedianbetweenEarthandworld.Itisdoubly"foundational"for,whichmeansrevelatoryof,thepresenceabsenceofboththesecret
consistencyoftheEarthandthecoherenceororderingpropertotheworld.
TheessayontheworkofartevokesafourthsenseoftheconceptofEarthwithoutexplicatingit:the"terrestrial"(heimatlicherGrund).Thechoiceoftheword
Grund,thesameasthemetaphysicaltermdesignatingthefoundationandreasonforbeing,issignificant:incontradistinctiontotheseconcepts,Grunddesignatesthe
Earthinthesenseofarootedness,thebasisorthegroundcontainingareserve,thenourishingsoil,thisforgotten"element"fromwhichtherootsofthemetaphysical
treedrawtheirsapandvitality.55Theideaofthenativesoilseemsmorehistoricalthan"Earthly"foritisindeedamatterofthesoilofapeopleandnotofanindividual,
thusofanEarthless"free"inrelationtoagivenworldthantheEarthoftheworkofart.InitselfEarthshouldnotbetakenasaspontaneousworkofart,foritisless
originalthantheworkwhichopenstheworldasobscureasitmaybe,itfollowsfromaworld,atradition.

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Indeed,"thenativeground"ismorecloselyassociatedwiththeungraspablenearnessandsimplicityofthefamiliarabodethanwiththenotionofbirth.TheGerman
wordheimatlichdoesnotimmediatelyrefertosomenativesecret,toaconcealmentofthematernalwomb.The"native"Earthisnotnecessarilythatwithwhichwe
experienceanaturalattachment.Heidegger'stremendousefforttoshowthatDaseinisnotanaturalbeingpleadsagainstthisinterpretation.Heimatisderivedfrom
Heim,"home,''theplaceofhabitation.Therearetwoattributesof"native"equallyderivedfromHeimtheyaretheadjectivesheimisch,"familiar,""customary,"and
heimlich,"secret,""intimate."Whenweindiscriminatelytranslateheimatlichandheimischwith"native"notonlydoweobliteratethesenuancesbutweforgetthe
initialsense,whichis"toinhabit."ThethreeconceptsmarkingthewithdrawalofHeimUnheimlichkeit,uncanniness,Heimatlosigkeit,beingawayfromone's
homeland,andUnheimischkeit,homelessness,theabsenceoffamiliarplacesclearlyshowthesemanticdistancebetweenthethreewords.Butnoneofthem
actuallyindicatethenativeground.Eachofthemhassomebearingonhabitation.
Therefore,thenativeEarthinthesenseoftherootHeimdoesnotimplyanyprimaryrelationtotheGeburtsort,theplaceofbirth.Thecharminthesenseofa
captivatingandpurely"natural"spellbindingpoweraplacehasisaRomanticconceptthatHeideggerdoesnottakeonashisown.Whenhecommentsonthe
fourthstropheofthehymn"TheRhine,"
Anenigmaisthepureburstingforth.Scarcely
Ifthesongdaresrevealit.For
Asyouhavebegun,sowillyouremain
Asstrongasthedistressmaybe
Andeducation,nothingismore
Powerfulthanbirth,
Andthebeamofdaylight
Thattouchesthenewborn,

heenvisionsthequestionofbirthonlyasthequestionoftheOrigin:"Birthheremeansprovenancefromthehiddendarknessofthewomb,'MotherEarth.'"56Tobe
sure,itisnotaquestionofthebirthofahumanin"TheRhine"butoftheburstingforthofariver.ButHeideggerneverseemstosuspectthattherecouldbeametaphor
hereforthebirthofhumanity,asthewords"distress,""education,"and"newborn"neverthelesssuggest.Hiscommentaryemphasizesthatthe"powersoftheOrigin"
aretwofold:theEarthandtheworld("therayofdaylight")towhichthedualityofdistressandeducationcorrespond.
"Thenative"encompassesagreatermeaningthantheEarthwhereweareinfactborn.ThenativesoilisnotaBoden,agroundofbiological,purelyvitalrootedness.
Heideggerformallyrejectsthismeaning:"beingisnotaBoden,"hesays,andhetherebyrejectstheracistideologiesof"Blutund

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Boden."ThenearnessoftheHeimatshouldnotbeunderstoodandallofH1derlin'spoeticexperiencetestifiestoitasoneofappropriationandanimmediate
joy.HeimatmeanstheEarthofthehouse,theEarthofdwelling,whichmeansincorporated,"preserved,"andnotjustequippedorexploited."Thebasictraitof
habitationispreservation."57
Also,thetrue"fatherland"ofeachmanisnottheEarthwhereheisempiricallybornbuttheEarthheunderstandsandpreserves,whichmeansheknowshowto
preservethesecretmixtureofnativespontaneityandrepetitionofthepast.The"native"ismadeofthismixturewhichisnot"natural"butchosen,learned.Heideggerian
dwellingisnotfoundedonamysticismoramagicofthefactuallynativeplace.Thenativeisneitherpatrioticnorpolitical,norpurelygeographicnorlinkedtothe
singularcharmofaplace:itisthe''home"which,thoughbeingcompletelyspontaneouslygiven,keepsaskingtobechosen,adopted.Everytruefatherlandisadopted
forthe"natural"qualityofthenativelandmustalsobelearned,whichmeansbornefromunderstandingandStemmingtoknowledge.Thismeaningofthenativealso
showsthatHeideggerdoesnotatallseetheEarthassomethinginitiallygivenonceandforallbutastheresultofanalliance,preciselythatof"nature"thatwhichis
givenbybirthandofHistory,bothchoiceanddestiny.InoneofthediscoursesinMesskirchhesaysthenative(dasHeimische)isvouchsafed"onlywherethe
forcesofsurroundingnatureandtheechoofahistoricaltraditionremainconjoined."58Also,itisnotsurprisingthattheBlackForest,whereHeideggerwasnotborn
butwherehelived,built,andthought,shouldbecomeforhimmore"native"thanhisnativetown,regardlessofhowcloseitiswhendistancesaremeasuredin
objectiveterms.
WhenZarathustraentreatshisdisciplestoremain"faithfultotheEarth,"beyondtherefusaloftheafterworlds,thisobviouslysignifiestheabsoluteaffirmationofthe
bodyandthesensible.Butthesekeeptheirtraditionalsenseofnonintelligiblesubstances.Indeed,metaphysicsfromPlatotoNietzschehasneverceasedto
substantializeandisolatetheEarth.Firstofall,itreducesitinaPlatonicAristotelianmannertothepurelysubsistentmaterialofferedtodemiurgicormorphologicalin
formationingeneral(whenTechnologyhasinformedandformalizedeverything,thisunderlyingstuffwillhavedisappeared,everythingwillhavebecomeareservoirof
availableenergy).59Inversely,attheend,inthenameofthereversalofPlatonism,metaphysicspositsEarthasthetrue"physiological"baseofeverythingspiritual,
whichisconceivedassimplesuperstructureand"languageencodedbydrives."IndissociatingtheconceptofEarthbothfromtheconceptofsubstanceandfromthe
sensibleassuch,andinextractingitfromthesymmetricalalternativesofdevaluationandexaltation,Heideggerprincipallyremovesfromiteveryfoundationalfunction.
Earthisneithermatternorisitnature.Theelementalisnotthefoundational.Thesubstructureisnotabase.Ifitistheseatorground[assise]oftheworld,ifitisina
certain

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respecttheoriginofhistoricalfigures,thenonhorizonal,nonhistoricalgroundcouldnotbesobygiving"causes"or"reasonsforbeing"tothem.EveryHeideggerian
deconstructionleadstotheGrundbeingextractedfromitsprincipled,foundationalinterpretationsoastoshowthatitsdepthwithdraws,thatitisanungraspable
reserveandresource.WhatunifiesthedifferentsensesoftheconceptofEarth,whatlinksthemtothebody,toStimmung,tothe"dwelling,"ortothehabitationas
wellastothe"thingliness''oftheworkofart,isthisuniquethoughtofanonfoundationalfoundation.Andconsequently,whattechnologymostpersistently
forgetsaboveallTechnologyinitsmostadvancedforms,cybernetics,computers,aswellas"thinkingmachines"ispreciselythiseverimplicit,nonoccurring,
nonformalizable,nonexteriorizable,nonavailabledimension,thisplaceandmediumofallproximitywhichispriortoallmanifestation,theEarthlygrounduponwhich
theworldlieswithoutbeingfoundedinit.

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PARTTWO
THELIMITSOFHISTORY

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AccordingtotheHistoryofbeing,theEarthisanerrantplanet.
VA,p.97
Theepochofcompletedmetaphysicsisabouttobegin....
Hereweunderstandthename"technology"inasensesoessentialthatitistantamounttothistitle:"completedmetaphysics."
VA,p.80
Theabsenceofdwellingbecomesaworlddestiny.
WM,p.336

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V
TheHistoryofBeingandItsHegelianModel
"AtfirstsightonehardlyknowshowtodenythatthereisastrikingproximityandsimilaritybetweenHeideggerandHegel"suchatleastisthewidelycirculated
impressioninFrancereportedbyJeanBeaufretinaremarkattheseminaronTimeandBeing!1Nevertheless,insteadofraisingthecorrelationsandanalogiesthathe
finds"evident"anddiscussingthem,Beaufrethastenstoinsistontheimpossibilityofanycomparison,animpossibilitywhich,accordingtohim,isduetothefactthat
thereisnosuchthingasa"Heideggerianphilosophy"!SincethepointsofdivergencewithHegelareobviousinasmuchasthereisneitherdialecticnortherationalityof
therealinthethoughtofbeing,itmaybeuseful,foronce,toaskifthecorrelationsbetweentheHistoryofbeingandtheHegelianHistoryofSpiritariseonlyfroma
vagueresemblanceorfromamoreprofoundcomplicity.NodoubttheHistoryofbeingdoesnotcorrespondtothelogicaldevelopmentofarationalIdea.Nodoubtit
isgovernedbyaprincipleofdiscontinuity(epochsarise"suddenly")andbyerrancy,whoseoriginisimpenetrabletoreason(sending,theGeschick,thedestinyof
being)andislinkedtothecomplementarityofdisclosureandwithdrawal.Neverthelessaninitial,apparentsimilaritybetweenthemseemstobesituatedatthelevelof
thethoughtofadestiny.Itisnotman,asgreatashemaybeitisnotthethinkerthatdecidesitisthe''matteritself,"Spiritorbeing,whichatthebaseofHistoryhas
alwaysalreadydecidedforhim.Asmetaphysicalandperfectlyblindtotheontologicaldifferenceasitmaybe,isnottheHegelianapproachtothepastofthought
recognized,incertainregards,asnecessaryandexemplary?
WhenHeideggerhailsHegel,"theonlythinkerintheWestwhohadathinkingexperienceofthehistoryofthought,"2suchpraise,whichisaccentuatedbytheextreme
valorizationoftheexpression"experienceofthought"intheHeideggeriancontext,sufficientlyindicatesthatthereismerit,ifnottoHegelianismingeneral,atleastto
Hegel'shistoryofphilosophy.ItisevenexplicitlystatedelsewherethatHegel"wasright":"WhenHegelthinksaboutthenatureofhisthoughthedoessothrougha
dialogue

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3

withthehistoryofpreviousthought.Hewasthefirstwhocouldandhadtothinkthus." ButwhywasHegelright?Howwashethefirstnottoseparatehisthinking
fromadialoguewiththehistoryofpreviousthought?Forinstance,neitherAristotlenorLeibnizdissociatedtheessenceoftheirthinkingfromsuchadialogue.Might
thenovelandoutstandingmeritofHegelstemfromthefactthatwhenconsideringthepreviousHistoryofthoughthemakesitappearasanorganictotalityandnot
simplyasthethoughtofsomeoneorothergreatpredecessor?DoeshenotalsoidentifyHistorywiththe"sublation"ofthePast?
WhatHeideggeradmiresaboveallinHegelisthediscoveryoftheconvertibilityofBeingandHistoryas"theessentialhavingbeen"(dasGewesenes),asthegathering
andrecollectionofahavingbeenthatcontinuestolast.ForHeidegger,whoabandonedtheprimacyofthefutureatthesametimeasheabandonedtheprimacyof
Dasein,Beingistheessentialpast:dasGewesene.Thephrase"TheHistoryofBeingisBeingitselfandnothingbutthis"4seemstotakeupagain,inreverse,thegreat
principleofHegel:Wesenistwasgewesenist.Whenhedistinguishesthehistoricalfromthehistoriographical(GeschichteandHistorie),towhatextentisHeidegger
takingupagaintheHegeliandistinctionbetweenHistory,whichconcernstheinnerandessentialprogressofSpirit,andpurelyexteriorandanecdotalhistory?Towhat
extentdoestheuseofthisdistinctionnotperpetuate,inthethoughtofbeing,themetaphysicaldifferencebetweenthetranscendentalnecessaryandtheempirical
contingent?DoesnotallHeidegger'sunderstandingofhistory,bydisparagingforgetfulnessandinsistingonthetaskofremembering,revealaperpetuationnotonlyof
HegelianismbutevenofPlatonism?
NeverthelesstheHegelianstructuremaybeevenmoreprofound:ifitistruethatforHeideggerReasonisnotwhatgovernsHistory,neitherisitchanceorblind
destiny.TheseriesoftheepochsofBeingobeysaninflexibleandcoherentnecessitywhich,hewrites,"islikealawandlogic."5Whatconstitutesthe"logic"ofHistory
inHeidegger?
Inshort,whatatfirsturgesbringingHegelandHeideggertogetheristhethoughtof"eschatology,"theideaofafinalgathering(perhapsofasortofsynthesis)ofthe
wholehistoricalprocessinafinalconfiguration.ForHeideggeritisaquestionofthinkingHistoryas"thedialogueoftheduskwiththedawn."6Butthenisnot
eschatologytheequivalentofabsoluteknowledgeinsofaraseachepochfinallyfindsitssensewithrespecttothetotalityoftheprocess?Yetthispointofgreatest
proximityisalso,paradoxicallyitseems,thepointofgreatestremoveinasmuchastheHeideggeriantotalityrestsontheabyssoftheungrounded,andinasmuchasthe
Greekdawnisnottheonlycommencementpossible.BesidestheGreekdawnthereisindeed"anewdawn''thatoffersthepossibilityofanendofHistorythatis
radicallydifferentfromthatofHegelinsofarasforHeideggeritisnotarecommencementbutatotallydifferent,unprecedented,absolutelynewcommencement.

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ThePrimacyofthePastasGewesen
Truehistoryisnottheephemeral,theanecdotal,theperishable,thefinished,butwhathasbeen,lastingtillthepresentandharboringthefuture."Whatishistorical
(historisches)whichmeans,thepastassuch(Vergangenesalssolches)isnomore,itisdead....IntheHistory(Geschichte)ofthought,whatisatissueis
thoughtitself....Everythingispreserved.TheHistory(Geschichte)ofphilosophybusiesitselfwiththepast,butequallywiththepresent."7ForHegel,thispast
whichispreservedistheeternityoftheshapesofSpirit.History,inadecidedlyPlatonicmanner,isnothingbutthepresentationintimeoftheshapesofSpiritsuchas
theyexistinthemselves.ThePlatonismofsuchanoppositionbetweentheimmutableandthechangingisdialecticallyovercome,whichmeanspreservednotablyin
theformofthedifferencebetweentheIdeainitselftheLogicanditsmanifestationintimethePhenomenology.Historypossessesatoneandthesametimea
preeminentvalueinthatitistheabsoluteitself,andasubordinatevalueinthatitisonlytheinstrumentofthemanifestationoftheeternalSpirit,whichhasalwaysexisted
initself."History,"Hegelwrites,"istherepresentation[Vorstellung]ofSpiritasitcomesintoitsown"8(emphasisadded).InasmuchasforHeideggertruthorbeing
doesnotpreexistitsappearance(forbeingisnotsomethinginitself),whatsortofnaturedoesthisessentialpasthavesuchthatitproducesHistoryas"thatwhich
abides''?Itgoeswithoutsayingthatifitisopposedtoapastthatsimplyslipsawayanddisappears(Vergangenes),itisaboveallbecauseitiscapableofafuture:"the
essentialhavingbeen(Gewesendes)abidesincoming."9Havingbeenassuchtranscendsthedimensionofthepurepast:itisneitherthepastthathasdisappeared,
slippedaway(astherootGanginVergangenheitindicates),northeisolatedpresentbyitself,norofcourseisitonlythefuture.Havingshownattheendofhisessay
onRilkeinHolzwegethatthespuriouseternityisVergnglichkeitraisedtoanuncstans,"totheemptinessofamomentwithoutduration,"Heideggersuggeststhat
thetrueeternityisdasGewesenes:thatwhich,havingbeen,hasnotceasedtobe.10Indeed,contrarytoHegel,dasGewesenesisnottheproductorresultofhistory
butanabsolutelyinauguralanteriority.WhatcontrolsallHistory,asHeideggeremphasizesinanumberoftextsparticularlyinErluterungenzuHlderlins
Dichtungwhatsummonsthefutureistheexigencyoftheinaugural,theAnfang:thefirstGewesenes,thefirstessentialhavingbeen,thefirstgraspofbeing,exertsa
destinylikeinfluenceoverthewholetraditionsuchistheforceoftheGreekaletheia."Theinauguralneverpassesaway,itisneversomethingpast."11Genuine
Historyisthefutureofanessentialandinauguralpast.InauguralGewesenesisinterpretedasthesourceofHistory.
ThedefinitionofHistoryasGeschick,destinyinthesenseofSchickung,destination,thesendingofbeing,issimplytherecognitionoftheomnip

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otenceofthisinauguralpast.Historyisnotonlywhatisalreadythere,butitiswhatisalreadyaccomplishedinthedestinyoftheCommencement.InPrinciplesof
Thought,HeideggeragaintakesupintohisaccountthewordsoftheBookofEcclesiastes,thetruthofwhichHegelhadalsoshown:"nothingnewunderthesun."
"Thereisnothingnew,"Heideggercomments,"exceptwhatisoldintheinexhaustiblepowerofmetamorphosisof
theinauguralthisphrasetouchesonthe
essenceofHistory.Historyistheadventofwhatdoesnotceasetobe.Namely,whathasalreadyunfoldeditsessence,andnothingbutthat,iswhatcomestous."12
TherealmofdestinalnecessityexertsitselfherewitharigormoreimplacablethanrationalnecessityinHegel,andinamorefrighteningwaybecauseitisblind,
unfathomable.AsinHegel,Historyiscompletednotonlyatitsendbutatitscommencement,inthatitgovernsallthatarisesfromititsdevelopment.Beingisthought
oflessasdifferencethanasidentitydeployingitself.Nothinghappensthathasn'talreadybeenoriginallygatheredintheessenceofBeing:''Whatisiswhatcomes
about.Whatcomesaboutalreadycameabout.Thatdoesn'tmeanfinished.WhatalreadycameaboutiswhatisuniquelygatheredintheessenceofBeingitisthe
essenceofhavingbeen(GeWesen)"13ThispreformationofHistoryintheinaugurationofBeingexplainstheenigmaticphraseattheendoftheAfterwordtoWasist
Metaphysik?:"EveryGeschickofbeingsisinaugurallyalreadyaccomplishedinbeing."14Geschick,thedestinyofBeing,"contains"inadvancethetotalityofHistory's
possibilities.Thisstrictselfclosureofhistory,whichexcludeseverythingoutsideofit,everythingotheristhisnotsomenewvarietyofHegelianism?
ItseemsasifHeideggerhadrevivedtheHlderlinianthemeoftheomnipotenceofthecommencementinordertoradicalizeitinaHegeliansense.Insteadof"Asyou
commenced,soshallyouremain"(hymn,TheRhine),Heidegger'sphrasewouldgo:"Asyoucommenced,soyouwilldevelopyourself"or"soyoudeveloped."The
commencementpersiststhroughouttheentireHistoryofBeing.IftheGreekshavesuchimportanceforus,itisbecausetheessenceofmodernTechnologyissimply
thedevelopmentoftheGreekquestionaboutthebeingofbeings.Ifthecommencementdidnotpreservewhathasbeen(dasGewesene),whichmeansthegathering
ofwhatcontinuestolast,thenthebeingofbeingswouldnotdominateourepochfromoutoftheessenceofmodernTechnology.Butinrealitythecommencement
doesnotdevelop.Onemustnotconfusecommencementandstartingpoint.Astartingpointdisappearsinwhatitproduces.Thecommencementabidesunalterable,
unchangedinallthesequencesarisingfromit.HerethereisasomewhatHegelianaspecttoHeidegger:thecommencementhasalwaysalreadyfallenintooblivion,has
alwaysalreadybeenleftbehindlikethepureindeterminatebeingofHegel'sLogic,butremainsshelteredwithintheentireprocess."Theinauguralneverdisappears."15
TheessentialpastasdasGewesenegovernsthefuture

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aswouldanimmutabledestiny,andnotsimplyaswouldafirstterminaseriesoftransformations.ItisclearthatthelaterHeideggerrenouncedmakingthefuturethe
fundamentaldimensionbothoftimeandhistory.ThusonecanreadinUnterwegszurSprache,"WhatweordinarilycallthefutureistheGewesenesthatcomesto
encounterus,"andinErluterungenzuHlderlinsDichtung,"EverythingtocomehasitsadventintheWhileoftheuniquenessofwhathasbeen,"inderWeileder
EinzigkeitdesGewesenen.16
TothisprivilegedpositionofdasGewesenetherecorresponds,inHeidegger,apersistentdefiningofthoughtas"recollectivethinking"(Andenken)orremembrance
(GedchtnisorErinnerung)which,despitethedistancebetweendialecticandthethoughtoftheontologicaldifference,callstomindanaffinityintheunderstanding
ofwhatonecouldcallthecommemorativeessenceofthought.Theessenceofthoughtisretrospection.Recollectivethinkingfromthefirstlooksback(thusonlythe
"stepback"iscapableofgraspingtheessenceofmetaphysics):thinkinggetsitslightfromthisinauguralandessentialpast."Presumingthatcommemorativethinking
[Andenken]thinksahead,thenthinkingbackcannotthinksomethingmerelybygone(Vergangenes),aboutwhichonecanonlysayitisirrevocable.Thinkingupon
(Denkenan)whatiscomingnecessarilyamountstothinkingwhathasbeen(dasGewesene),andwiththatexpression,incontradistinctiontothemerelybygone(das
Vergangene),wemeanthatwhichfromthenonessentiallyis."17ThefirstchaptersofthesecondpartofWhatIsCalledThinking?definethiscommemorative
essenceofthinkingbyshowingthatacknowledgment,thankfulness,andselfcollectionbelongtothinking:thinkinghasthecharacterofa"holdingback,''aremaining
nearto....Tothinkistopreservewhatonitsowngivesitselftothinkingtoberetrieved:"Wecallthegatheringofrecollectivethinkingaroundwhatoffersitselfto
thinking:Memory."18Butthismemorydoesnotdependonthehumanfacultyofremembering.Anonobliviousthinkingissimplyonethatrespondstowhatonitsown
hasalreadybeengathered,preservedinbeing.HerewecomeuponanotheranalogywithHegel.Erinnerung,callingtomindtheHistoryofbeing,isnottheresuitof
man'sefforts,butitisdonebybeing.Inthephrase"theErinnerungofbeing""being"playstheroleofagrammaticalsubjectwhichcommunicatesErinnerungto
thinking:"Erinnerunghelpsthinkingtoberemindedofthetruthofbeing."19JustasSpiritmakesuseofmaninordertorealizeitselfintimeandtoknowitself,sobeing
grantstomantheroleofawitnesssummonedtomakeanappearanceincourt.Theonlylibertythuslefttomanwouldbetherefusaltotestify,notsomuchoutof
revoltasoutofdistractionorblindness.Inanycase,manisnottheonethateffectsthereversalfromoutoftheoblivionofbeingintoacaringaboutarecollective
thinkingofitsHistory.Itisonlybythoughtthatmancanrecognizethenecessity,everywhereatwork,ofadestiny(Geschick)aboutwhichhecandonothing.

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IsThereaHeideggerianSystemofHistory?
TheHistoryofbeingpossessesasystematiccoherenceinitsdevelopment.Itpossessesunityandtotality:"TheunityoftheOneshowsitselfthroughouttheHistoryof
beinginconfigurationsthataresometimesdifferent,configurationswhosedifferenceproceedsfromthemutationoftheessenceofaletheia,oftheconcealing
disclosedness."20Itpossessesitsownnecessity21and,intheirresistibleandirreversiblecharacterofitsunfoldingthroughtoanend,ithasastrongteleological
structure.Indeed,justasinHegeltheprogressionisgovernedbytherealizationofAbsoluteSpirit,inHeideggeritisgovernedbytheteloswhichisconstitutedbythe
completionofMetaphysics.JustasinHegel'sPhenomenologyconsciousnessisdefinedateverymomentbythe"notyet"ofthemomentstocomeandofthefinal
stage,soitistheitinerarytotheperfectionofbeingasWill,thematurationofthe"willtowill,"thatorders,gathers,andcalls,sotospeak,thepreviousmomentsback
toitself.ThusHeideggerwritesregardingthedifferencebetweenHegelianmetaphysicsandthemetaphysicsoftheWilltoPower(stilltocome):"Thispossibilitywas
notyetpossible....Thewillhasnotyetappearedasthewilltowillintherealitywhichithasitselfprepared.Thisiswhymetaphysicshasnotyetbeencompletedinthe
metaphysicsofspirit."22The''motor"ofHistoryisthereforenotthisfinaltotalizationitself.ItistruethatMetaphysicstendstowardtheconstellationthatformsthe
essenceofTechnologyaconstellationinasmuchasitgathersandsetstoworkallthepastmetaphysicalprinciples(liketheprincipleofreasonwhichtransformsitself
intocybernetics)thatarepreservedandactualizedinthepresent.
ButwhatpropelsHistory,whatpermitstakingintoaccountthemutationsoftheessenceoftruth,istheincreasingoblivionofthecommencement,oftheinaugural
essenceoftruthasaletheia.ItisinthissensethatonecanagainspeakofaninversionofHegelianism:theHegelianbecomingoftruthbecomestheprogressive
establishmentofthereignoferrancy,thedevelopmentofnihilism.Thewithdrawalofbeinghidestothepointofleavingnothingeventhatofoblivioneffacesitself.
Historyisnottheprogressofconsciousnesstowardselftransparency,ortheabsolutemovement,butisthegraduallossofthesenseofpresenceasclearingand
withdrawal.The"eviltelos"thatorientsHistoryisthecompleteobscuringofthemeaningofbeing."TheHistoryofBeingisthehistoryoftheincreasingoblivionof
Being."23
AlthoughtheHistoryofBeingmaybedividedintoepochsascanWeltgeschichte,thereisnopossiblecomparisonbetweentheHegeliansenseofanepochasa
momentinanevolutionaryprocessconceivedonthemodelofabiologicalincrease(thustheGreeksaretheadolescentsoftheSpirit)andtheHeideggeriansense
ofanepochasepoch,whichmeanstheabey

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ance,theholdingback,thewithdrawalofBeing.ForHeideggerthereisnoglobalrationalityrulingthesuccessionofepochsthisiswhyhecansaythattheir
successionisa"freesuccession,"einefreieFolge.Itiswithoutdoubtfreeinregardtoadialecticalnecessitythatwouldpermitthedeductionoftheepochsonefrom
theother,butnotinregardtothedestinyoftheoblivionofBeing.EachepochechoesthesecretoftheDispensationthatiscomparedto"auniquesource(fromwhich)
arisediversestreamletswhichfeedintoariver."24Heideggerisalsoledtorecognizeanothernecessity,ortoputitmoreprecisely,"somethingwhichislikea
necessity,whichislikealawandalogic."25Thislaw,whichispreciselythatoftheincreasingoblivion,isarticulatedinthesamepassageoftheseminaronTimeand
Being:''Betweentheepochalmetamorphosesofbeingandthewithdrawalonecanperceivearelationwhichneverthelesshasnothingtodowitharelationofcausality.
OnecansaythatthefurtherawayoneisfromthedawnofWesternthinkingandfromaletheia,thegreateristheoblivionintowhichitfalls,thecleareristhemannerin
whichknowledgeandconsciousnessbreakintotheopen,andthemannerinwhichbeingthuswithdraws."26
Therulewhichpresidesoverthesuccessionofepochsandoverthelinkingofthemutationsoftheessenceoftruthis,suchasonecanextractitfromthislaw,
apparentlycompletelyvagueinitsgenerality:thewithdrawalofaletheiafrees(ormakespossible?)Beingasenergeiathewithdrawalofenergeiainitsturnfrees
actualitasthewithdrawalofactualitasfreestruthascertitudo,certitudecomesdowntoselfjustification,whichbecomesthewilltoselfjustification,etc.Thisrule
impliesthatthecommencement,thegrandPresocraticcommencement,isnot,astheHegeliancommencement,themostabstractandimpoverishedmomentbutrather
themomentwhichisrelativelythefullestandrichest.Yettheveryideathatthecommencementcouldhavebeenanabsoluteplenitudewithoutanylackorreserve
seemscontrarytoallofHeidegger'sthought.Butdoesthecommencementbelongtothatwhich"actually"tookplace?Asweknow,Heideggerdistinguishesthe
commencement,theinauguration(Anfang),fromthebeginningoroutset(Beginn):theCommencementitselfisnevergiven,itisobscuredintheoutset.27Butthenwhat
isthestatusofthecommencement?HeideggerhasvacillatedonthesubjectoftheoutsetoftheHistoryofMetaphysicswhichiseitherwithPlatoorAnaximander
thestatusofthecommencementisenigmatic.Indeed,eitherthePresocraticcommencement"placesitself"outsideofHistory,inwhichcaseitpresentsitselfasthe
manifestationoftheessenceofaletheiainallitspurity,andhenceasafullnessanteriortoHistoryandinacertainmannernonhistoricallyunderlyingtheentire
development...whichdangerouslyresemblesthe"initself"ofHegel'sSpirit!OrthecommencementiseclipsedattheverystartofWesternthought,insofarasthis
outsetistheoblivionofthecommencement,anoblivionwhich"happens"fromthecommencement

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onbutthenwouldnotthehiddenessenceofthesocalledinitialtruthbecomemythical,supratemporal,orasortofretrospectivecrepuscularfiction?
Whateveritmaybe,the"logic"oftheHistoryofBeingorientsitselfaccordingtoadoubleseriesofrelations:
Relationstothecommencement.Whichmeansallthemutationsoftheessenceoftruth(energeia,actualitas,certitudo,will)accordingtoagrowingoblivion.28
Relationstotheend.Amongthese,thenotionofpreparationworkstounifythehistoricaldevelopmentandtoexplainthepassagefromoneepochtoanother.
DescartespreparedthemetaphysicsoftheWilltoPower(healreadypositsit,butnurunwissentlich,onlyunconsciously).Leibnizpreparedthebasisforthe
completionoftheepochofModernity.29Completedmetaphysics(HegelandNietzsche)constitutesthepreparationforthereignofTechnology.Whatisthemeaning
ofthispreparation?Isitakindofconditionofpossibility?SometimesHeideggersuggeststhatsuchandsuchafigureoftruthmakespossibleasubsequenttruth.Oris
itonlyaprefigurationofit?Anotherlogicohistoricalnotionclosetopreparationisthatoftheincubation:theprincipleofreasonisinsomesenselyingdormantinthe
GreekandChristianepochsbutalreadyisactivebeforehavingthepowertobringitselfirresistiblytobearonceithasbeenstated.Anotherlogicalnecessity:the
tendencyintheHistoryofBeingtowardtheunificationofmetaphysicalpositionsthatmakecompletionpossible.30Thereisevenalogicoftransitions:justasthe
Hegelianbergangischaracterizedbythedecompositionofaprecedingworld,sotheplurivocityofthesensesofbeingattheendofanepochisthesymptomofa
transition."Theequivocalcharacteroftheessenceofreality(multiplesignification)isthesymptomofanauthentictransition."31Itisthecalltoadecision,nottheone
byDescartes,butbyBeingthroughDescartes.TheHistoryofbeing,saysHeidegger,hasnothingtodowiththepsychologyofphilosophers!
TherelationstothecommencementspreadthemselvesoutovertwoparallelplanesoftheHistoryofBeing:
(a)theplane,mostgenerally,oftheepochs,whichmeansthemajormodesofthewithdrawalofbeingHeideggerdistinguishesfourmajorepochsofBeing:Greek,
Christianmedieval,modernity,andplanetary32forHegelthereareinsteadfour"worlds":theoriental,theGreek,theRoman,theGerman
(b)themorespecificplaneofthemutationsoftheessenceoftruth:thustheGreekepochexperiencesnotonlythemutationofaletheiaintoousiapresencebut
alsothepassageofaletheiatohomoosis(adequation).Themutationsofenergeiaintoactualitas,ofousiaintosubstantia,ofhypokeimenonintosubjectum
simultaneouslyoccurwithintheChristianmedievalepochalongwiththeconceptofenscreatum.Ateachmomentitistheessenceoftruthwhichdeterminesthese
mutationsaccordingtowhatHeideggercalls"ahiddennecessityinitsorigin"33(thedestinyofoblivion).Butthelogicof

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theobscuringoftheinauguralGreekunderstandingisonaparwithanotherlogicwhichisnotcontradictory:acumulativelogicofmetaphysicalpropositions.Thusonce
beingbecameactualitas,Wirklichkeit,effectiveness,theefficacityofmakingasmanufacturing,beingremainsfixedthroughoutthemodernepochandtheplanetary
epoch,wherethissenseisreinforced.Actualitasisastructureofcompletion,whichmeans,oneoftheconstituentsoftheconstellationofthewilltowill.Heidegger
writes,"inasmuchasitisreality,beingisasubstructurewhichmakespossiblediversefundamentalpositions."
Thesemutationsoftheessenceoftruthremaininaccessibletometaphysics,justasitsownessence,whichequallyhasapowerofnecessity,remainsforeigntoit.
Example:incompletelyconformingtometaphysicsNietzsche"must"thinktheessentiaandexistentia:or"must"thinkthefoundation.34Itisinhiscumulativelogic(the
"concrescence''whichpreservesthepaststagesinthedepthofthepresent)thatHeideggerhereclearlycomesclosetoHegel,evenifhedistinguisheshimselffrom
Hegelwhenheassertsthatcompletionisnotatallaperfection,afinishingoff.Butthisdistinctionisjustawayofattributingtothecompletionavaluethatistheinverse
ofwhatHegelwouldhaverecognizeditashaving.
"Eschatology,"ortheLogicofCompletion
ItisintheconceptoftheeschatologyofBeing35thattheHeideggerianthoughtofHistoryismostinaccordwithAbsoluteknowledgeand,inanothersense,thatfrom
whichitismostdivergent.
TheveryideaofanendofHistoryisHegelian.Heideggerdoesnothidefromit:"WethinktheeschatologyofBeingisthesensethatcorrespondstotheoneinwhich
thePhenomenologyofSpiritmustbethoughtinordertorespondtotheHistoryofBeing."36AndheaddsthatthePhenomenologyconstitutesa"phase"ofthe
eschatologyofBeing.Phenomenologyisaneschatologynotthoughtthroughtotheend:"thehistoryofBeingisthetrueWeltgeschichte."37
Butwhatsortofendisit?Whateschatologymeanshereisthat"theHistoryofBeingterminates":38inthelastepoch,thatofTechnology,agathering(logos)ofthefinal
(eschaton)sendingofBeingtakesplace.ThepresentofTechnologytakesupagainandtotalizestheentiretyofwhatessentiallyhasbeen,allofdasGewesene.While
signifyingthislastrecollectingofBeing,eschatologyalsosignifiesthedepartureofBeing,theseparationfromBeingorthefarewelltoBeing(Abschied).Astheepoch
ofGestell[Dispositif],eschatologyhasadoubleface,"aJanushead."39OntheonehanditprolongstheHegelianprojectoftotalizationwhichisthatofMetaphysics
asawhole:thewilltoappropriate,topossess,isappliedheretoWesternHistory.TheoblivionofBeingisreversedintomemory.ForthethinkingofBeing,the"Turn"
consistsincomingbackintopossessionofitself.Butis

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notthememoryoftheHistoryofMetaphysicsanewmetaphysicspreciselytotheextentthattheprojectofovercomingmetaphysicsultimatelyrequiresitsacceptance
(Verwindung),itsappropriation(Aneignung),itsinteriorization(Erinnerung),anoperationofinterminabledigestion?Isitnotaquestion,asHeideggersays(and
preciselyinregardtoHegel),"ofspeakingofthesamematterinthesamemanner"?40
Butontheotherhand,HeideggercompletelyabandonstheHegelianmodelwhenhesaysthattheHistoryofBeinghasendedandthatitisnecessary"toleave
metaphysicstoitself."41Metaphysicsiswellandtrulydismissed.ItisnecessarytoleaveeventhethoughtofBeing,tocrossoutBeing(towriteitundererasure),
because"theHistoryofBeingistheHistoryofMetaphysics,andnothingelse."EreignisisnotanewnameforBeing.WiththeawakeningtoEreignis,Heidegger
says,theoblivionofBeing"overcomesitself":dieSeinsvergessenheit'hebt'sich'auf.''42ThisplacingofAufhebungbetweenquotationmarksisattheveryleast
surprising!AllthemoreasHeideggeradds:"Nowtheveilingdoesnotveilitselfanymoreonthecontraryitistothisveilingthattheattentionofthoughtappliesitself"!
Sinceveilingmakesupanintegralpartoftheessenceoftruth,oroblivionanintegralpartofthemanifestationofBeing,itisnecessarytoconclude(the"abandonment"
or"crossingout"ofBeingwouldconfirmit)thatthequestionofBeingisitselfwhatwouldturnouttobedismissed.
YetsuchaconclusioncontradictsthemajorityofthetextsofHeideggerwherebeingisdescribedasthemissedmark,thegoalnotyetreachedbythinking:"Beingis
theuniquegoalnotyetestablishedbyessentialthinkingprovidedthatsuchathinkingisinauguralandintheothercommencementitisnecessaryforittoprecede
evenpoetryinthesenseofpoeticimagination."43
Italsocontradictstherecurrentthemeoftheunthought:whatmaybethoughtistheunthoughtofMetaphysics.Whatistheuseofthinkingthenotyetthought,sincein
anycaseitisnotfromthenotyetthoughtthatthinkingcanwaitfortheupsurgeofthe"othercommencement"?IsitinordertorestoreanimprobabletotalityofBeing?
Despitetheseuncertainties,eschatologymakestheindeterminablepossibilityofan"othercommencement"appear:"themostdistantgoalofthinking(...)issituatedat
aninfinitedistancefromourepochitbelongstothehistoricaldistanceofanotherHistory."44Despitetheprecariousnessofthis"otherHistory,"onecannotmaintain
thatitentersintotheHegelianmodel.Onemightsaythatthepossibilitywhichisopenedbythethoughtofeschatologyisanemptypossibility,apurefiction,anon
sense.Onemightask:cantherebeathoughtwhichpreparesthisnothingwhichistotallyother?Whichwaitswithoutknowingwhatitiswaitingfor,whichhasinview
itsownimpossibility?Whynot,ifitistruethatDaseincananticipateitsowndeathasthepossibilityofimpossibility?Whycouldn'ttheWestanticipateitslimit?
Nevertheless,thetrueencumbrancethatpressesonthethoughtofthe"otherHistory"iswhatHeideggercalls"thedan

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ger."ThetruedangeristhatTechnology"insists"andpersistsquasiindefinitely.TheendoftheplanetaryepochcanhavetheslownessofwhatHeideggercallsa
Verendung,an"expirationthatlasts.""ThisexpirationlastslongerthanthehistoryaccomplishedbyMetaphysicsuptillnow."45Insimplertermsthismeansthatmore
thantwentyfivecenturiesofTechnologyawaitmankind!Butthesupremedangeristhattheremayneverbeanewcommencement:itisthe"threatofthepossibility
thattomanmayberefusedthereturntoamoreoriginaldisclosureandhencethepromiseoftheexperienceofamoreinauguraltruth."46Therealsoremainsthe
possibilitythatthis''otherthinking"mayexist,butstayunseen,unnoticed,perhapsunabletobreakthrough.Heideggercomparesthefateperhapsreservedforhis
thinkingtothatofthepoetryofHlderlin,whichduringmorethanacenturyremainedmisunderstoodandyetwaitedforatrueaudienceandunderstanding.
Heidegger'sthoughtofHistoryleads,likeHegel's,toajustificationnotonlyoftheHistoryofthoughtbutalsoofempiricalhistory.Hereagainwehaveaninversion:the
Hegeliansatisfactioninthefaceofrationalityturnsintoaquasifatalisticresignationinthefaceoftheprogressoferrancy.ForHeideggeritisuselesstobecome
indignantinthefaceoftheFhrersjustasitisuselesstofightthedestructionofearthwithtechnologicalmeans,forthebasicstructuresofrealityarenotdetermined
byhumanactionandcannotbechangedbyit.
Tothequestion"Whatshouldwedo,then?"Heideggergivesaclearbutsomewhatdeceivinganswer:wirsollennichtstun,sondernwarten,"weshoulddonothing,
butwait."47TheeventualovercomingofTechnologydoesnotdependonman'swill.Butitbelongsjustasmuchtomantobeattentivetothehiddenmetaphysical
essenceofTechnologyasitbelongstohimtoaccompanyitinsomewaythroughtoits"expiration."The"completionofmetaphysics,"saysHeidegger,"certainly
dependsonahistoricaldecision."48Whatdoesthismean?Notthatmanmaybecapableofdecidingthattheremayormaynotbeacompletion,butthathedecidesto
respondorcorrespondtothiscompletionbythinking.AsitissaidinHolzwege:"Arewethelateonesthatweare?"49ForDasein"Being"meanshavingtobe.We
havetoassumetheroleBeingprescribestous.Anditisinthisacceptancethatourpovertystrickenfreedomcanfindbothitsmeasureanditsstrength.

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VI
TheEssenceofTechnology
PhenomenologyofTechnologyandtheHistoryofBeing
Heidegger'sdistancefromphenomenologyneverwentsofarastoreachapointofrupture.Thathehadlongsinceabandonedthetermitselfdoesnotmean,ashe
indicatesinOntheWaytoLanguage,thathehadrejectedwhatphenomenologyhadachieved,notablyinBeingandTime."Thatwasnotthecase,asmanybelieve,
inordertorenouncetheimportanceofphenomenology,buttoleavemypathofthoughtnameless."1So,whenonthispaththerereappearsawordthatislinkedtothe
earlyHusserliancontext,thewordWesen[essence],itisnecessarytodotheutmosttograspthiswordinallitsimportwhenspeakingoftheessenceoftechnology.
WhyisWesen,absentfromBeinganalTime,2nowintroducedatthecostofriskingconfusionwiththeeideticreductionofHusserl,orevenwiththePlatoniceidos?
Foritis,afterall,aquestionoftheapparentlymetaphysicaldifferencebetweentechnologicalobjectsandtheirmodeofbeing.Moreover,itisaquestionofHeidegger
tryingtomarkacontinuityandyetadistancewithregardtothetraditionalwaysofposingthequestion"whatis...?"
AccordingtoHusserl,anessenceresultsfromtheeffortoftranscendentalconsciousnesstobringouttheinvariantmeanings.Moreimportantthan"thethings
themselves"istheintentionalitywhichisturnedtowardthem.Now,whatthephenomenologyofBeingandTime"makesvisible,"oncetheprimacyofconsciousnessis
abolished,isthatwhichshowsitself''fromitself."3Aphenomenonisnotwhatconsciousnessuncovers,butitiswhatshowsitselffromoutofthatmovementproperly
belongingtoit.Moreover,thebeingofphenomenaisatfirstessentiallyhidden,anditisdifficulttogetatit.
TheearlyHeideggerbelievedthatthishiddendimensionwasaccessible,aboveallthroughthetemporalityoftheindividual.Butlittlebylittlehediscoveredthatwhatis
moreessentiallyhiddenbelongstohistory.Lateronhewillsaythatbeingiswhatgives,sends,destines,schicktthatbeingisGeschick,Geschichte,destiny,
History.TheearlyHeideggerhadtakenupinhisownmannertheHusserlianprojectofa"pure"phenomenology.He

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hadbelieveditpossible,througha"destruction"oftraditionalontology,tostripclean,sotospeak,thesedimentationsofSelbstverstndliches("whatgoeswithout
saying"),toremovethissuperficiallayerofsensebecomebanalsoastoallowphenomenatoappearfromoutofthemselves.Forexample,whenanalyzing
equipmentalityinBeingandTimehedisregardedtheepochaswellasthestructurespassedonbyhistory.Yetitwillbecomeclearthatthesenseofthebeingof
phenomenaisindissociablefromtheirsituationinan"epochofbeing."Heideggersaysitisnecessarytounderstandtheword''epoch"intheGreeksenseofepoch,4
inthesenseoftheholdingback,ofthewithdrawalthatiscontemporaneousandcorrelativetoallmanifestation.
ThewholedistanceseparatingHeideggerandphenomenologynowhangsonthisnewepochthatrequiresthepriorinclusionoftheHistoryofBeinginevery
descriptionofphenomena.Thoughthepresenceofthethingsthemselvesorientsanalysis,theseanalysesleadoneastrayiftheyconsiderpresencetobecontainedin
thepresent.Themeaningofthepresentisconveyedtousbythetradition.OneofthemostbrilliantillustrationsofthenewHeideggerianmethodisfoundintheanalysis
ofthemutationsofthe"principleofreason"5fromtheGreeklogosuptotechnologicalrationality.
TheHistoryofBeingthusbecomestheguidingthreadandtheprimaryconditionforallphenomenology.TheworldinBeingandTimewasthehorizonsketchedby
thenetworkofreferenceseffectedbyequipmentalbeingsitwasahistorical.Fromthatpointontheworldis"historical"(geschichtlich)."There,wheretheessential
choicesofhistoryaredecided,...thereaworldsetsitselfup."6ItwouldnotbegoingtoofartosaythatHeideggerisreturningtoHegel7inordertoradicallyovercome
Husserl.
Intransposingthem,HeideggerthusoncemoretakesuptheHegelianideasofthecompletionofphilosophyandtheendofhistory.HejoinsHegelwhenheshows,
preciselyinregardtotechnology,thattheprinciplesattherootofthepresentepochstemfrompropositionsputforthattheverybeginningoftheWestoratthedawn
ofModernity.Withoutsubscribingtothedialectic,HeideggershareswithHegelthenotionofaconservationofprinciplesacquiredduringthecourseofhistory.The
doctrineoftheHistoryofBeingisthemostimmenseattemptatanamnesisandtotalizationsinceHegel.
Theinterpretationofthephenomenaofmoderntechnologyisonlypossiblebybringingtolightthemetaphysicalprinciplesthatgoverneditsecretlyandunbeknownstto
it.Tosaytechnologyisthe"willtowill"impliesthatpresentrealityprolongsandrealizeswhatmetaphysicshasalreadythoughtundertheconceptofwill.Theproject
ofobjectifyingnatureisrenderedtransparentifonegoesbacktoitshistoricalorigin,toits"preparation"inthehistoryofmetaphysics.Thusastraightforward
perspectiveonthepresentcannotsufficetograspwhatwecalltechnology.Essenceis

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8

whathasbeenandremainsdisclosed.Wesen,writesHeidegger,"isthesamewordaswhren." InordertograspWesenone'sperspectivemustbifurcate,or
transformitselfintoaperspectiveonthepastpresent.
Evenifitrevealsthedistantbasesoftheactualworld,thispertinenceofprovenanceneverthelessinformsallHeidegger'sinterpretationswithadistinctlyteleological
structure.ItisintermsoftheendofmetaphysicsthatHeideggerreadsthegreatphilosophersasunwittingprecursors(orprophets?)ofthiscompletion.Ishenot
assumingaskewedperspectiveintheseexegesesbybeingorientedtowardafinalcause,especiallywhenitcomestoNietzsche?Someratherstrangerelationsare
broughtforward:betweentheovermanandthe"functionary"oftechnology,betweentheeternalreturnandtheinternalcombustionengine!Doesthenotionofthe
"unthought"inmetaphysicspermithimtojustifythis?
WhenHeideggerspeculatesonthechancesofa"salvation"oronthepassingofthishistorywhichiscomingtoanendin"anothercommencement,"itreallyseemshe
hasabandonedeveryreferencetophenomenologicalvision.Perhapslessthanitseems,forthesolutiontothe"danger''thatthreatenstheveryessenceofmandoesnot
dependonanextrinsicinterventionofamysticalorder.Heideggerexplainsthat"tosave"means"retrieveintotheessence."9Salvationresides"inthegaze"turned
towardtheessenceofTechnology.Butdoesthismeanitdependssolelyonthegazeofman?Doesthisgazenothavetobeperceivedbeforehand,tobe"broughtinto
view"(erblickt)?10Whatdoesthepassivemeanhere?
Philosophyhasalwaysreversedappearances.HeideggerinhisturnshowsthatTechnologyisnotwhatitmostobviouslyoffersup,likemotorsorengines.Neitherisit
amereinstrumentplacedinthehandsofhumanity."TheessenceofTechnologyisnotatallsomethingtechnical."11
TheprojectatworkinTechnologyisametaphysicalprojectbecauseitconcernsalldomainsofrealityandnotonlymachines.Itmarksbeingsintheirtotality.
TechnologyhasthecharacterofBeing.Technologyleadsthemultiplicityofdispersedphenomenathatonecustomarilyviewssimplyassignsofa"crisisofcivilization"
backtounity.
Everyoneknowsthesesigns:theplanetaryhomogenizationofthemodesoflivingandthinkingtheconstantmobilizationofculturalandartisticactivitytheuprooting
andneutralizationofspaceandtimeacertaininsensibilitywithregardtoexcessivesuffering(onecouldaddherethefactthatwarsandcatastrophesbecometelevision
spectacles)thelossofthesenseofproximityaswellasthatofdistances,abolishedbymeansofrapidtransportationandcommunicationtherapidcirculationof
informationwithoutanyendotherthanitselftheconstitutionofimmensestocksofenergyaswellasofenormousmeansofdestructionalongwiththisthereis
acceleratedconsumptionwhosecostisthesquanderingofnaturalresourcespoliticsmerelysubservienttobureaucracyandplanning,etc.Heideggerdoesnotcontent
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ersdo,withaviewtosociologicalknowledgeorpoliticalcritique.Heevokesthesephenomenaonlyasmanifestationsoftheessencethatgovernsthem.
Twoofthemostobviousphenomenaoftheepoch:modernscienceandthetotalitarianState,whichseemtogovernit,areneverthelessonly"necessaryconsequences"
ofTechnology.Heideggerinvitesustoworkourwaybacktothetruecause.Sciencethatpursuesthemathematizationofnatureisnotanautonomousproject.It
reachesconclusionsbeforehandaboutwhattherealisitonlyadmitsoftheobjectifiableandcalculable.Itisintheserviceofthemoregeneralprojectoftechnological
enframing(Gestell)12andanswerstothenecessityofitsessence.ItisbecausetheessenceofmodernTechnologyresidesintheenframingthatTechnologymustuse
theexactnaturalsciences.ThusisbornthedeceptiveappearancethatmodernTechnologyis"appliednaturalscience."13Theoppositionofappearance/essencehereis
effectedinanalmostclassical,nearlyPlatonicmanner.SimilarlythetotalitarianStateor"politicaldirectivism''forexample,themanipulationofpublicopinionby
propagandaareonly"consequences"ofanecessityofessence.ThusitisvaintoaccusetheFhrerortheheadtechnocratsandtobecomeindignantoverthemfor
theyarenotthe"cause"except"apparently.""Intruth,theyrepresentthenecessaryconsequencesofthefactthatbeingshavepassedintothemodeoferrancy."14
Allparticulardomains(art,culture,politics)arepresently"equipped."So,"equipment"(Rstung)whichappearsalongwiththenecessityofentrustingeverydomain
toauniqueandcentralizeddirection,i.e.,toplanning,alsoconstitutesamanifestationoftheessenceofTechnology.
Butwhatdoes"essence"mean?Wesenhasadoublesense:ontheonehandthewordreferstobeingitself,notasasubstantivebutasaverb,to"beingasself
disclosing,"SeinalsEntbergen:ontheotherhandessencepreservesallthemetaphysicaltraitsaccumulatedduringtheHistoryofBeing,whichisthehistoryof
metaphysics.ThetwoaspectsrejoininGewesenorWhren:essenceiswhatmaintainsbeingintermsofapriordisclosure.AllesWesendewhrt."15
Heideggerwrites,"Allthatisessential...everywherekeepsitselfconcealed."16Whythisdissimulationofessence?Itisinkeepingwithalawofphenomena:the
essenceofaphenomenonisinaccessibleintermsoftheprocessespropertothedomaintowhichitbelongs.Nomathematicalformulacanexpresstheessenceof
mathematics.Theessenceofbiologyescapesbiologicalinvestigation.TheessenceofTechnologyisnothinginstrumentalormechanical,butmetaphysical.
ThehighestmetaphysicalprinciplesoftheprecedingepochsofhistoryaretheonesthatTechnologygathersinitsessenceandbringstotheirperfection.Thetrue
completionofmetaphysicsisproducedwhenwhatformerlywasarequirementofthoughtforexample,thateverythinghaveitsreasonbecomesevidentand
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ogyismorehiddenthananythingelsetotheextentthattheprinciplesconstitutingithavebecometherealityofthereal,whichmeanstheyhavebecomewhatis
selbstverstndlich("obvious").ForHeidegger,essenceisnotdifficulttoseebecauseitistooremote,exiledtosomecelestialtoposrather,becauseofitsextreme
proximityithasbeenexiledtotheoblivionofitshistoricality.
IncomingtofruitioninTechnology,metaphysicalprinciplesundergoatransmutationthatmakesthemdifficulttorecognize.Thewillbecomesthewilltowill
representation,Vorstellen,becomesGestelltheprincipleofreasonnolongerneedstobenamedforitisatworkeverywhereingeneralplanning,automatization,in
cyberneticization.Theseterms(willtowill,planetaryapparatus,realityrationalizedtothenthdegree)arecloselylinkedtothetransmutedwill.Technology"realizes,"
actualizes,themodernmetaphysicsforwhichtowillistopositbeingasanobjectandtheobjectasrational,hencecalculable.
IfthewillismetaphysicallydefinedasaHerstellen,aproducing,aproposing,theGestellcanbeconsideredastheabsoluteproductionofthetotalityofbeings
solelybythewill.Butthewilltowillisatthesametimeidenticaltothetraditionalessenceofthewill,andquantitativelydifferent.Forthereissimultaneouslya
continuityandaleapbetweenmetaphysicalprinciplesandtheir"completed"significanceinTechnology.WillezumWillen(willtowill)istantamounttoHerstellen
zumHerstellen(producingtoproduce).Technologymanufacturesinordertomanufacture,itexploitstheearthinordertoexploitit,stockpilesenergyinorderto
stockpileitandnotinordertorespondtoany"actual"need.Thedoublingbackofthewillontoitselfindicatesits"nihilism":itpursuesnoend,itdevelopsontoitselfto
thepointofthemostcompleteirreality.Theconstructionandstockpilingofthousandsofrocketswithnuclearwarheadsdoesnotcorrespondtoanypossibilityof
actualdestruction.Technologicalproductivityistakenupintoamovementwheregrowthisnecessaryforitinordertogrowandthesupposedgoalsthatare
attributedtoit,likeamelioratingthehumancondition,canonlybeillusoryjustifications.Technologyobeysonlyitsowninnerlogicandnotahumanwill.Moreoverthis
expressionshowsthecircularityinscribedinit:itproduceswhatitis,itwantswhatitproduces,itproduceswhatitwants,itiswhatitproduces.Beforelongitwillbe
impossibletodistinguishtheobjectfromthesubject.
TheGestell17continuesthefinalmetamorphosisandmaterializationofalltheactivitiesofobjectification.Whatiscrystallizedinanewformissimplywhatwaslatent
bothinVorstellenandHerstellen.Stellen,thesummons,theseizureofbeings,spreadsinanunlimitedmanner.Itisnolongerjustamatterofsettingup"infrontof
oneself"atotallyobjectiveworldlikeanimage,butofprovoking(Herausfrdern)nature,forcefullyextractingfrombeingswhatismostconstantlypresentand
transformable:energy.Inotherwords,Technologynolongerrequiresthemereobject,Gegenstand,butit

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needstoprovideitselfwithaBestand,a"reservoir,"whichmeansareserveofeveravailableforces,ofstrictlycalculatedproducts.Energyisthemostvalorized
productbecauseitisthemostmeasurable,themostinterchangeable.Inthegeneralizedensnaringofbeings,alldifferencesnotablythatbetweensubjectand
objectareeffaced,lostintheuniformlycalculablemassofthe"reservoir.""Whatisthere(steht)inthesenseofareservoir(Bestand)nolongerstandsoveragainst
usasanobject(Gegenstand)."18Paradoxically,absoluteobjectificationleadstotheobjectless.Thusanairplaneonatarmacisonlyanobjectinsofarasitis
bestellbarasameansoftransportation:itisrealonlyasinsertedintothenetworkofrelationswithinthe"reservoir."Whenthe"reservoir''extendstothepointof
encompassingthetotalitytherearenomoreobjects.Forhispart,manisnolongerasubject.ManistakenupintothecircuitofBestellen.Heisrequiredto"operate."
TechnologicalmanbecomestheBestellerdesBestandes,the"operatorofthereservoir."Provokedtoprovoke,manisbothsubjectandobjectofageneralized
provocation.ThustheGestellfinallyrevealsthecircularitythatbelongstotechnology:provocativeprovocationtheproduction/consumptioncycletheindefinite
circulationofenergy.
ThetransmutationoftheprincipleofreasonintheessenceofTechnologyoccursintheformofadiscreteandmultiformassimilation.Therationalityuponwhichthe
Gestellreliesispurelypragmatic,functional,whichmeansthattheexigencyofrationalitynolongerstemsfromtheprincipleitisonlyaninstrumentservingthe
efficacityoftheGestell:itisnecessaryatallcoststorationalize,organize,plan,automatethe"reservoir."Ontheotherhand,itisnecessarythatanaccountoftheentire
processor"event"(Heideggerdoubtssomethingreallyhappensinthisuniverse)begiven,nottoanyoneinparticular,buttothewilltowill.Informationforthesakeof
information,aboutanysubject,place,ormoment,isoneofthemodernavatarsoftheprincipleofsufficientreason.Butthemostperfectexpressionoftheprincipium
magnum,grandeetnobilissimum,asLeibnizcalledit,isrevealedincybernetics.Thescienceofselfregulation,cybernetics,isbasedontheinstrumentalizationof
informativemessagesandonthestrictlyoperationalcharacterofeveryprocess.Cyberneticsconstructsclosedsystemswithinwhichinformationmovesinaclosed
circleinaccordancewithperfectfeedback.Thegoaltowardwhichcyberneticsadvancesistheorganizationofthefieldsofobjectivitysoastobeabletodispense
witheveryontologicalrelation,everyreferencetoagrounding.Technologyhasanessentialneedforcyberneticssothatitcancompletelydetachthe
"reservoir"[fonds]fromanyrelationtotheground[fond],ortothefundamental.WithTechnology,themetaphysicalambiguityofGrund(ground/foundation)is
reabsorbedintothefunctionalclarityoftechnologicalrationality.
Thecompletionofmetaphysicsobviouslydoesnotmarkanendbuttheonsetofitsreign.Fortheprinciples,both"realized"andforgotteninasin

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glestroke,escapeallsupervisionandcanthriveinanirresistibleway.Nothingfundamentallynewhappensinthiscompletionwhathappensisalimitlessunfoldingof
theestablishedpossibilities.Heideggercallstheepochofthecompletionthe"deceasing"(Verendung)ofmetaphysics."Thisendinglastslongerthanthehistoryof
metaphysicsuptillnow."19Suchastatementcouldwellbedenouncedas"prophecy."Certainlyitisnolongerphenomenological.Buttobeinhistoryisnotjusttobe
relegatedtothemerepresentrather,itisalsotoneedtopredictandanticipate.Therewillbenonewcommencementbefore"beingaswillisshattered."Howcould
philosophybeforbiddentospeakofthefuture,especiallysincethefutureofTechnologyisinscribedintheessenceofthefuture?Indeeditiscertainthatnoforce
humanorotherwisecanhindertheperfectlyautonomousdevelopmentofthewilltowillandoftheEnframing.Isitnotdisturbingthatperhapsonlyselfdestruction
appearsasaninternallimitoftechnology?Doesmanstillhavearoletoplayinthefaceofthisnecessity?Beforeposing,alongwithHeidegger,thequestionofaway
outofTechnology,itisnecessarytooncemoregobacktotheproblemofitsorigin.
The"Preparation"forCompletionandtheInterpretationofNietzsche
TotheextentthatthehistoryofmetaphysicsfindsitsoutcomeinTechnology,allthegreatthinkers,beginningwiththeGreeks,"prepared"(announced?anticipated?)
thisend.ThisretrospectiveinterpretationgivesthehistoryofthoughtseenbyHeideggeramarkedlyteleologicalstructure.ItseemsthatWesternhistoryisnolonger
thehistoryofbeing,buttheprehistoryofTechnology:"Wemustfreeourselves,"hesaysinthe"LetteronHumanism,""ofthetechnologicalinterpretationofthought
whoseoriginsgobacktoPlatoandAristotle."20ByvirtueofthelogicthatleadstoTechnology,thegreatmetaphysicalpositionsmustnecessarilycomplementeach
other,succeedoneanotherinalinkageguidedbythefinalresult.Eachstageofmetaphysicsmustmarkaprogressionintheperfectionofwill,ofobjectivityand
rationality.Thusmetaphysicsisnot"yet''[encore]completedwithHegel'sabsoluteknowledge,norwithNietzsche'sreversal.Heideggersaysthere"still"[encore]
remainsastagetotraverse.Therepetitionofthis"still"[encore]21isHegelianintone,ifnotincontent.
Itisalsonecessarytolookintotheconceptofthe"preparation"ofTechnology,whichisnotwithoutambiguity.Thissortofpreparationpresupposesthatthereisa
maturationinHistory,yetthisHistoryismarkedbythediscontinuityofepochs.Metaphysicalthinkerscannot"prepare"Technologyfromtheirownpointofviewbut
onlyfromthepointofviewofaretrospectiveknowledgewhichisawareoftheresultsandpointsoutthepaththatleadstothem.Heideggeractuallyspeaksofa"wide
andessentialknowledge(weitenwesentlichenWissens)whichcanonlyhaveitsorigininathinkingofHistoryofBeing."22Weknowwhatsucharetrospective
knowl

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edgerisksresembling:Hegelianabsoluteknowing.Ontheotherhand,toprepareTechnologywouldhavetomeantoanticipatetheprincipleswhichwillbeatitsbasis.
YetwehaveseenthattheprinciplesofmetaphysicsarenotdirectlyatthebasisofTechnology.TheprincipleOfreasonasstatedbyLeibnizisdifferentfromwhatit
willeventuallybeonceitistransmutedintheessenceofTechnology.NeitherHegeliannegativitynorthewilltopowercanbefoundagainassuch,sincetheyhave
becomewilltowill.Moreover,HeideggermakesitclearthatmetaphysicsisnotthecauseofTechnology,noritspropheticprefiguration.Theprincipleofreasondoes
notproducecyberneticsbutmakesitpossible.Inotherwords,itisasthoughcyberneticswerethe"unthought"oftheprincipleofreason.However,iftheunthought
signifieswhathasnotbeenexplicitlythoughtbymetaphysics,butthankstoitbecomesthinkable,thenotionoftheunthoughtwillnotclarifyanymoreforuswhenwe
applyittoHegelinsteadofLeibniz.
Itisindeedhardtounderstandhowtheunthoughtofdialecticalreasoncan"prepare"notspeculativebut"potentialized"rationality,whichistherationalityof
Technology.23AndifitisnecessarytoadmitthatLeibniz'smetaphysicsratherthanHegel'smostaccuratelyanticipatesTechnology,whyisHegelconsideredan
essentialstageofitspreparation?Toputthisanotherway,whatisHegelianaboutTechnologyifnotsomeextremelygeneralstructureslikecircularity,systematicity,
andtheselfreflexivityofknowledge?Thenotionoftheunthoughtistoovaguetoshow,forexample,howitisthatthe''circleofcircles"ofHegel'sLogiccould
constitutetheessenceofTechnologicalcircularity.PerhapsHeideggerwantstoescapethekindofdetailsonefindsamongdeterminists.
YettheinterpretationofNietzschesuggestsasimilarcausalism."Whatistheessenceofthemodern'motor'ifnotanewformoftheeternalReturnoftheSame,"he
says.Ofcourse,itwouldbenecessarytoplacethissortofremarkbackinthecontextofalong24andcomplexargumentofwhichwecangivehereonlyaglimpse.
TheinterpretationofNietzscheisindeedtherichestandalsothemostproblematicchapterofthisprehistoryofTechnology.Inordertodemonstratethatthe
"metaphysicsofNietzsche"isthe"penultimatestage"25oftheprocessleadingtothewilltowill,itisnecessarytoestablishtheabsolutecontinuitybetweenthegreat
traditionofmetaphysicsandthepositionsofNietzsche.Onecandosojustby"reintegratingNietzsche'smetaphysicsintothesimplethoroughfaresofmodern
metaphysics"26indieeinfachenBahnenderneuzeitlichenMetaphysikzurckzudenken(!).Thefaintmodestyoftheexpressionhardlycoversovertheprejudiced
characteroftheinterpretation:zurckzudenken,tosealNietzscheupinthepast.
Nietzche'sthoughtisfirstreducedtothetraditionalessenceofmetaphysics.Thelatteralwaysinquiresintotheessenceofallbeings(thiswillbethewilltopower)it
thinksexistenceandincludesinthisthetotalityofbeings(thiswillbetheEternalReturn)itrespondstothequestionofthe

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essenceofman(thiswillbetheOverman),etc.ThenecessitybelongingtotheessenceofmetaphysicsenclosesNietzsche'sthoughtwithinverypreciseconstraints.
Becauseofthisinvolvement,"thewilltopowermust(muss)statewhatthefoundationis."27Thesamegoesfortheoppositionessence/existence:it"must"occuragain
inNietzsche.However,itmaybenecessarytoshowonthebasisofNietzsche'stextsthatitisimpossibletoreducethewilltopowertoaquiddity,evenifonly
becausethenotionofthewilltopoweraims,bywayofthethemeofinterpretation,torejectcentralization,thefocusingofsense,the"fictionofessence."Whatstands
outwhenonereadsNietzscheisthathisthoughtisloathtofollowthe''simplepaths"ofmetaphysics.Forinstance,howcouldweapplytheconceptofthe"totality"of
beingstoathinkerwhowrote:"ItseemsimportanttogetridoftheWhole,theUnity...itisnecessarytocrumbletheUniverse,toloserespectfortheWhole....There
isnowhole"?28HowisonetoconceiveoftheEternalReturnasafactualmodeofexistencewhenitisalwayspresentlikeasecretrevelation,indeedlikeanew
religion?Furthermore,HeideggerdoesnottakeaccountofNietzsche'scritiqueofmetaphysicalconceptualityandoftheoftenludicmannerinwhichNietzscheparries
theclassicalusageofphilosophicallanguage.
TheonlyfuturefamiliartothethoughtofNietzscheisthepreparationofTechnology.TheOvermanisinterpretedastheprototypeofa"humanitythoroughly
conformingtothefundamentalessenceofTechnology....
OnlytheOvermanconformstotheunconditionally'mechanisticeconomy.'"29ItishardtoreconcilethisimageoftheOverman,disguisedasatechnician,orasa
brutallyconqueringdominator,withthetextswhichpresenthimasgentle,austere,isolated,destituteofpoliticalpowerandmoreovernotbotheringhimselfwithit,
"similartoagodofEpicurus."Theonlyquestionwecouldposeis:whydoesHeideggerinflictonNietzschesuchaviolentdistortion,andatthecostofignoringthe
texts?Whyassumethat"values"inNietzsche(art,truth)are"paraphrasings"of"Technology"?30Whywantthethinkeroffictionandplay,theonewhoexaltedthe
labyrinthineandchaoticcharacterofexistence,tobetheonewho,perfectingHegeliansystematicityitself,bestanticipatestheworldofrobotsandcomputers?This
remainsatleastforusanenigma.
Danger,"Salvation,"Ereignis
ForHeidegger,thedangerconsistspreciselyinthisconvergenceofHistoryintotheOne:thattodayTechnologygovernsthebeingofallbeingsthatitgathersinto
itselfallthereal,soonafterthat,allthepossibleandallthetrue,andsoonafterthat,allthethinkable.Ifitisthethreatparexcellence,ifitplacesbeingitselfindanger,
itisbecauseitthreatenstherelationofmantobeinginsofarastheGestelltendstoimposeitselfas"thepresumeduniquemodeofdisclosure."31

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Manhasthevocationof"watchingovertheessenceoftruth,"whichmeanshemustrespond,mustcorrespondthroughspeech(entsprechen)totheopening,
indeterminableinadvance,ofthatwhichgivesitself.ThefixatingoftruthwithintheGestellandofthoughtascalculativethoughtwouldexilemanfromhisessence.
Therewouldbenomorerelationtotheopening,forthepossiblewouldbeidenticaltothereal.Ahumanbeingfullyadaptedtothetechnologicalworldwouldno
longerbehuman,forbeingwouldnolongerbeforhimworthyofquestioning(fragwrdig).Strictlyspeaking,therewouldbenomorethought,whichmeans
questioning,butonlycalculation.HeideggerdiscernsthesignsofthisdehumanizationofthehumaninthedisappearanceofanxietyandUnheimlichkeit(uncanniness),
intheincreasingabsenceofdistress.HumanityprogramedbyTechnologyneednotbeuneasy:itformspartofthesolidconsistencyofthereservoir,oftheBestand.
WhathappenswiththecompletionofmetaphysicsisnotonlythepossibilityofthedisappearanceofontologybutthepossibilityofwhatHeideggercalls"thedeathof
thehumanessence."Thisisnotthedeaththatwouldfollowfromasuperhydrogenbombortheaccidentalexplosionofseveralnuclearpowerplants,whichistobe
feared.Humanitywillbedeadwheneverymodeofthoughtotherthancalculativethoughthasbeenexpelledfromthinkingbythewilltowill.Thedangerconcernsthe
essenceandnotthephenomenon.HeideggerremainsfaithfultotheexperienceofSeinundZeit:theessenceofmanisnotgiventohimasanature.Hehasitbybeing.
Hecangainorloseit.Calculatingthoughtis,moreover,comparabletowhatearlierwascalledinauthenticityinthatneitheronecansimplybeputtothesideor
surmountedonceandforall.
Yetthedangerorthelossofessenceisnota"simple"lossaswas"theoblivionofbeing."Ratheritisamatterofwhat"OntheEssenceofTruth"named"thethreatof
errancy"(BedrngnisderIrre).Thedanger,likeerrancy,isadoublelosstheoblivionofoblivion,whichmeansitisthefactthatthedissimulationorthewithdrawal
ofbeingbecomesimperceptible,inaccessible.Technology"realizes''errancyinthatithindersaninterrogativeapproachtoitsownsense.Theabsenceofsufferingand
distressisjustasignoftheredoublingoftheoblivion,asignoftheabandonmentofbeingstothemselvesitisthesignofthevacuousnessofbeing.Likeall
Stimmungen("attunements"),sufferingandjoyarerelationstobeing.ButintheworldofabsolutevoluntarisminwhichTechnologyisimmersed,mannolongereven
experiences,oronlyverypassively,theexcessofpain.32InsensibilitytoStimmungenindicatestheremotenessoftheontologicaldifference,andthisischaracteristic
oferrancy.
Inthereignoftheabsenceofdistress,whichis"thesupremeandmosthiddendistress,"33itistheprivilegeofveryfewpeoplepoets,thinkers"toseetheabsence
ofsalvationthreatenastheabsenceofsalvation."34Onlythesepeoplecanhaveaninklingofthecommencementofapossiblesalvation.Thesalvationitselfwhichis
tobeconnectedwithdasHeile,"thesavingpower"wouldbethatbeingcouldappearanewinitssaving

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dimension,intact,whichmeansthatthewithdrawalcouldbeperceivedasawithdrawal.Thisisprecludedinourpresenthistory.Errancy,orthedoubledissimulation
oftruth,cannotbeovercomebutHeideggersaysin"OntheEssenceofTruth"thatman"doesnotsuccumbtoitifheisopentoexperiencingtheerrancyassuch,"
''indemerdieIrreselbsterfhrt."35Now,thereissomethingforustodointhismovement:toseetheabsenceofsalvationassuchmeanstoexperienceerrancyas
such.Butwhatdoesthis"assuch"designate?Itrefersbacktoessence.Toseetheessenceofthedanger,thedangerasdanger,istoenterintothesalvation."We
behold[blicken]thedangerandglimpse[erblicken]thegrowthofwhatsaves."36Andabitearlieroninthisessayhesaysitisnecessary"tofocusastillclearergaze
onthedanger,"37and,furtheron,thatitisaquestionofnot"lettingslipfromview"theextremedanger.
Thisinsistenceonthegazeseemstosituatethesalvationonthesideoftheoreticallucidity,prolongingthustheentirecontemplativetraditionofphilosophy,and
ultimatelyonthesideofthepossessionofaknowledge[savoir].Tobesaveditsufficesto"haveseen,"and,asHeideggerexplainsinconnectionwithGreekeidnai,
"tohaveseen"istoknow.ThisknowledgewouldbebasedontheHistoryofBeing.However,suchaninterpretationwouldbereductive,foressenceisnotthe
commongenus,thequiddity.Essenceistheveryunfoldingofbeingwithwhichthegazeistakenupasisallthatis."Tosave,"saysHeidegger,"istorelease
(something)untoitsownessence."38Essencecannotbedominatedbythegaze,foritisnotpositedbyit.
Withoutdoubtseeing(schauen)issuperiortodoing(tun).Anditwouldbeveryeasytogatherthetextswhichemphasizethepowerlessnessofhumanactiontoavoid
the"danger."Salvationdoesnotlieinaction:Humanactionasempiricalcanneverprovideatrueanswerto"thedanger"asontological."Actionalonecannotchange
thestateoftheworld."39Suchformulations,liketheapologyfor"waiting"onefindsinGelassenheit,40havemadeonethinkthereisaquietism,indeedafatalism,in
Heidegger.Nevertheless,hispositionmaybejustifiedonatleasttwocounts.First,itisnottheeffortstohumanizeor"pacify"thegoalsoftechnology,asMarcuse
said,thatcanavoidthethreatofdeathwhichweighsonthehumanessence.ForinordertoacteffectivelyitisnecessarytoenterintotheplayoftheGestell,toaccept
itsrules.ForactiontobeabletoprovidesalvationitwouldhavetobepossibleandnecessaryformantoexaminetheessenceofTechnologyandimposehiswillonit,
butthereverseisinfactwhatistrue.Hence,moreprofoundly,actioncannotchangebeing.Ascanbeseenfromthebeginningofthe"LetteronHumanism,"toactis
nottoproduceaneffectinavoidbut"toaccomplish,"tounfold,toeffectwhatisinadvancedestinedtobepossibleforus.Actiondependsonthepossible,andthe
possibledependsonbeing.Somanactsinthehighestsensewhenhethinks,whenheleadsthingsbacktotheirbeing.
Butitisnottheprocessofthoughtdiscoveringtheessencethatleadsto

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salvation.Salvationcanonlycomefrombeingitself,whichmeansfromTechnologynotfromTechnologyasaphenomenonnamely,aswhatprovidessolutionsto
problems(salvationcannotbefound,forexample,inecology,whichasatechnologicalresponsetoatechnologicalproblemremainsinsidethecircle)butasessence.
WhenonethinksTechnologybeyonditsappearances,namelybeyondinstrumentsandcalculations,onecanthenseeanewthedifferenceofbeingandbeingsand
man'sbelongingtobeing.ThusTechnologyisnotwhatsavesbecauseitismiraculouslytransformed,norisiteventhethoughtofitsessencethatsaveswhatsavesis
thefactthatthroughTechnologymanisappropriatedtobeing,reunitedwithauniqueandtotaldestiny.ThroughTechnologymanisreconnectedandoncemorelinked
withthewholeHistoryofbeingsincetheGreeks.
So,mandoesnotsavehimselfthroughcontemplation,asPlatoandAristotlebelieved,buthereceivessalvationwhen,inextremedisarray,heistouchedbybeing.Are
wedealingherewithathoughtofgrace,influencedbyChristianity?Onemaysometimesbetemptedtothinkso,allthemoresincetheHlderlinianthemeofsalvation
inextremedistress,athememoreChristianthanGreek,seemstoechothewordsofSaintPaul:"Therewheresinabounded,gracesuperabounded."41Butin
ChristianitygracedoesnotcomefromsinitselfitcomesfromGod.
SalvationinthedepthsoftheabyssislinkedtowhatHeideggercallsEreignis.Dangersketchesthebeginningofsalvation,justastheGestellisthe
"prelude"(Vorschein)ofEreignis.Asthethoughtofthelastdisclosuregatheringthewholehistoryofmetaphysics,HeideggersaysGestellletsthefundamentally
simplelinkofthebelongingtogetherofmanandbeingbeglimpsed"asinaflash":namely,thatmanistheproperty(eigen)ofbeingandbeingisthepropertyofman.
Suchalinkofreciprocalappropriation(thisishowwemightrisktranslating"ErEignis'')isnotdestroyedbutbothdissimulatedandfulfilledbytheGestell.Assuch
alinkitescapestheHistoryofmetaphysics.OutsidethereignofthisHistorythatisbothforgetfulandtotalizingitopensanonhistoricaldimensionwhereman
learnsanewtoletthingssimplybe,toopenuptotheplaythatconnectsearthandsky,mortalsandgods.ThecallofbeingappearingtomanthroughTechnologyisnot
an"event,"noranadvent,butoneexpressionofthissingularetantum,42theunique,reciprocalappropriation.Assuch,Ereignisisalreadyacure(Verwindung):the
"turning"oftheoblivionofbeingintomemory,intothewatchofbeing.
Butisn'tthethoughtofEreignisalsoanoverturningofeveryphilosophyofessence,oftheory,ofvision?HeideggerindeedconnectsEreignentoeragenwhich
ursprnglich(originally)meanserblicken,"tobringintoview,""tosummononeselftosee,""appropriate"(aneignen).43Ereignisalsomeansbeingseen.This
formulationisnotatallmystical.ItonlypushestheprincipleofHeideggerianphenomenologytoitsconclusion.Wecanonly"makevisible"[fairevoir]whatshows
itself"fromitself"ifbyitselfitturnsitselftowardus,engagesus,looksatus.Thephenomenologicalgazeisnot

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thebestowerofsense.Itreceivesallsensefromtheclearingofbeing,fromtheLichtung.Thepriorityofbeingregardedovereverysightisthatoftheclearingover
evidenceandvision."InthediscourseoftheGreeksthereisnotraceofanactofvisioninthesenseoftheLatinvidereitissimplyamatterofaglintingandgleaming.
Buttogleamisonlypossibleiftheopenisalreadythere."44ThefirstgazeisthefirstraythroughwhichEreignisclearsus,seesus.Thefirstgaze"doesnotnamethe
glancebywhichweinspectbeings,"45butthedazzleor"lightningflash"ofEreigniswhichtearsopenthenightofthetechnologicalworld.Howcouldweseethe
essenceifwewerenotseizedbyitslight?Firstofall,essenceisnotwhatwegrasp,butwhatgraspsus.Wemustnotonlythinkessenceaswhatgivesitselftoour
gaze,butasthegazeitself:ImBlickundalsBlicktrittdasWeseninseineigenesLeuchten.46"Inthegazeandasthegazeessenceentersintoitsproperlighting."
Oursightisguidedbythethingsthatlookatus.DieMenschensinddieimEinblickErblickten.47''Menarethoseglimpsedintheinsight."Wearetheregarded:die
Erblickten.ForoncethetranslationallowsustorenderinasinglewordthisabilityofEreignistoerblicken,andtobrauchen,rufen,wahren(to"use,"tocall,to
preserve)thebeingofhumanity:itwatchesover48us,whichmeansmaintainsus,keepsusvigilant.Technologyitselfis"stillgaze,"nochBlick.
Heideggerhasoftenbeenreproachedforhavingforgottenthe"ethical"dimension.Yetifthefirstmotivetomoveawayfromphenomenologyhasbeenthenecessityof
adeconstructioninordertoletthehistoricityoftruthbeseen,thesecondmotivewillhavebeen,confirmingthevanityoftheidealofrigorousscience,toinvestigatethe
conditionsofapossiblearsvivendi.Confrontedwithathreatasradicalasthatofthetechnicizationoftheworldandtheinstrumentalizationofthought,thepurewillto
knowledgeisnotonlysterile,butludicrous.Now,thissecondmotivewhichreallyonlybecomesfullyexplicitinthelatertextslikeGelassenheit("releasement")is
almostasoldintheHeideggerianitineraryasthefirstmotive.Since1929,attheendofKantandtheProblemofMetaphysics,49therelationtoTechnologywas
presentedastheexigencyofachoice,asanalternativemoreethicalthanontological:"Willtheproblemofbeingsucceedthroughallthesequestionsinfindingonce
moreitselementarypowerandscope?OrareweatthispointvictimsofthemadnessofTechnology,ofhustleandceleritysuchthatwecannolongerhaveany
friendshipforwhatisessential,simple,lasting?"(emphasisours).PhenomenologicalneutralityisquiteoutofplaceintheepochofTechnology.Thepositionofthe
"disinterestedspectator"becomesuntenablewhenitisaquestionnolongerofthemeaningofbeingbutthepossibilityoftheannihilationofthehumanessence.
ThereforedoesnotthequestioningofthelaterHeideggerbecomemoreexplicitlyethical?HowisonetolivewithTechnology?Itisnecessarytoshuneveryevasive
attitudethatconsistsincondemningTechnologyasa"workofthedevil."50Itisoutofthequestiontotakerefugeinsomeivory

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towerortoleadaschizophrenicexistenceinourworldasiftherewerenoradio,nortelevision,norcars.Wemustuseappliancesandmachines,butalwayskeepour
distancefromthem,neverforgettohaveregardforthem,alwaysremainopentotheir"secret,"whichmeanstothehiddenessenceofTechnology.Ingivingasortof
"word"ofwisdom,GelassenheitzudenDingenwhichinthestrongsensemeanslettingtheobjectsofTechnologybesothattheycanbereceivedintheirown
essence,notouressencedoesnotHeideggerhereshowthatontologyisindissociablefromanethicsobviouslysituatedbeyondeverynormativemorality?
Ethosmeans"dwellingplace.""Thisworddesignatestheopenregionwherehumansdwell."51Nevertheless,Heidegger'sethicsdoesnotconsistinunilaterally
preservingthebeingofthis"dwelling''whichtechnologytendstodestroy:habitation,things,earth,rootedness,poetry,thesacred,thoughtitself...andfriendship.Not
onlydoesitnotteachtherefusaloftheworldasitis:itwishesthathumanscouldwithan"equalstrength"livetherewithadoublelifeandthought:"...todayweare
erringinahouseoftheworldfromwhichtheFriendisabsent"writesHeideggerinhisessayontheGermanpoetHebel52"theonewhoisinclinedwithanequal
strengthtowardthetechnologicallyarrangeduniverseandtowardtheworldthoughtasthehouseofamoreoriginaldwelling."ButthisFriend"ismissing."53

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PARTTHREE
ARTANDEARTH

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Earthiswhatinitsessenceclosesinonitself.TobringforthEarthmeanstobringitintotheOpenaswhatclosesinonitself.TheworkaccomplishesthisbringingforthoftheEarth
inasmuchasititselfputsitselfbackintotheearth.
HW,p.36
Thetrulypoeticproject(wahrhaftdichtendeEntwurf)istheopening(Erffnung)ofthatwhereinhistorical(geschichtliches)Daseinisalreadythrown(schongeworfenist).Thatis
theEarth,andforahistoricalpeople,itsEarth,theselfclosing(sichverschliessende)ground(Grund)uponwhichitrestsalongwithallthat,stillconcealedinitself,alreadyis.
Thereforeallthatwithwhichmanhasbeenendowedintheproject(Entwurf)must,throughthisproject,bedrawnfromtheclosedgroundandexpresslysetuponit.Thusthis
groundfirstfindsitselfgroundedasthesupportingground.
HW,pp.6263
PoetryfirstplacesmanonEarth,bringshimtoit,thusbringshimtodwelling.
VA,p.192

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VII
EarthintheWorkofArtandinthePoem
TheHeideggerianinterpretationofart1themostradicaltransmutationof"aesthetics"notonlysinceKantbutsincetheGreeksinitiallycomesdowntoasimple
questionaboutthemodeofbeingofworks:whatkindofthingsarethey?Theanswer,precededbya"reiteration"ofthemetaphysicaldefinitionsoftheconceptof
thethingespeciallythethingascomposedofmatterandformhasartappearastheilluminationofan"Earth."Allgreatartworksplastic,musical,orpoetic
erectwithinthedensityofaspecificEarthaconfiguration(Gestalt)of"truth"ordisclosure.Artbringsaboutwithinbeingsanentirelypristinedisclosureofbeing.The
artisticGestaltisinterpretedasthetraceofastrife(Streit)betweenaworld,whichistosayahistoricdimension,andanEarth,whichistosayaprehistorical
ground.TheEarthisnomoretherawmaterialexistinginitselfthantheworldisanassemblyofclearlypreestablishedforms.TheGestaltdoesnotsoaraboveachaos
ortheindeterminatetowhichitmightgiveshape.Heideggersaysitsessenceistobringtolightthe"rendingstroke''("Riss"isawordwhichmeans"crack,""fissure,"
"crevice,"butalso"outline"or"tracing")whichconflictuallyunitesthehistoricalityoftheworldandtheahistoricalityoftheEarth.TheRissrestorestheEarthby
institutinginit,orbysettinguponit,theunceasingstrifeofworldandEarth.
AmongthefoursensesHeideggergivestotheconceptofEarth,2twoareparticularlyrelevanttotheworkofart.OntheonehandEarthmeansthenativesoilofa
people,theelementortheenvironmentinwhichthosepossibilitiesrealizedinarttakeroot,drawtheirmeaningandtakeformoutofanalwaysalreadygivenelement.
Earthisthat"inwhichhistoricalDaseinisalreadythrown(schongeworfen)."3Earthbelongstothe"commencement,"totheobscure"takinghold"[emprise],tothe
Anfangwherethepossibilitiesarenotyetexplicitlypresentbuthiddenandyetsomehowprefigured.Earthisthegroundthatthesepossibilities,onceconstituted,
revealasalwayshavinghadfromthebeginning.AstheGeworfenheitofapeople,Earthbelongstothefacticallimitsofitsbasic

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lot.Buttheselimitswillbevisibleonlywhentheworkofarthasmadethemmanifest:Aeschylus'OrestesorSophocles'Antigonemakesmanifestforthefirsttimeto
thefifthcenturyGreeksthelimitsalreadyexistingbetweenmenandthegods,therelationsbetweenhumananddivinejusticeattheheartofthecity.Thusitgoes
withoutsayingthatthisnativeelementdoesnotrefertothefacticityofanobjectivedetermination,anobjectivitysuchasthatpropertoa"physical"or"human"
geography.Earthbearsthelimitsandexternalconditionswhollyexteriortoaworld,buttheseelementsarenotpreestablishedmeaningsalreadysecretlypresentinthe
initself.Theseelementsonlyappearbywayoftheworksthatexpressthem.Nevertheless,theyalwaysretainanobscureandimponderabledimensioninsofarastheir
veryfinitudehasnotbeenestablishedordecidedbythehistoricalprojectbutissimply"thrown,"whichmeansisalwaysalreadypresentimplicitlyinthatprojectas
soonasitisexplicated.Ontheotherhand,Earthdesignateswhatistraditionallycalledmaterial(stone,wood,metal,color,musicalsound,language)whichisrelated
toanaturalreservoir.Indeedlanguagebelongsnotonlytothehistoricalworld,tobeing,butassonorityithas,inadditiontoadepositoflatentsense,anatural,
onticalfacticity,anincontrovertiblematerialdensityinwhichthepoeticworkisembeddedbuttowhichitmaynotbereduced.
ByvirtueofitsEarthdimension,theworkofartdoesnotbelongexclusivelytotheworldandthustoHistory.Theinitialstrifefromwhichitisbornedelvestotheroots
ofhistory."Artishistoryintheessentialsensethatitfoundshistory...."4Artonlycomesintohistoryafterhavinggivenbirthtohistory.Thisinitiativecharacter,the
capacityofarttomaketheunityofanentireepochappearallatonce,ofinauguratingHistory,isanonhistoricalcapacity:itbindsaworldtotheEarth,andfor
Heideggeronly"greatart"hasthischaracter.Itisnotgiventoeveryworkbutpreciselyto"greatart"notonlytobe"epochmaking"inapassivesensebut,likea
Greektempleoronemightadd,aGothiccathedraloraseventeenthcenturyDutchpaintingtogiveroottoaworldarounditself.Inotherwords,theseductiveness
ofallgreatworksconsistsnotonlyintheirrevealingthehistoricalessenceofanerabutintheirshowingthegroundsofaworldasifforthefirsttime,itsparticular
rootednessinanativesoil.ThatartisticbeautyappearsastheephemeralandeternaljointureorarticulationofHistoryandthenonhistoricalisnolongeramatterofa
historyofart,norofanaesthetics.
TheRefusalofAestheticsandtheTranshistoricalTruthofArt
"Aesthetics"inthenarrowsenseisofrecentmetaphysicalorigin:itdates

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fromKantandrestsonthe"sensation"ofthesubjectfeelingthepureanddisinterestedpleasureoftheplayofhisorherfaculties.Ithasnomeaningapartfromthe
subjective"pleasureofreflection."TheveryprincipleofthisaestheticsisdoublyquestionedbyHeidegger'sthoughtonart.WhenHeideggerrefocusesthereflectionon
theworkitself,hedoessoattheexpenseofsubjectivism,ofcourse,butperhapsalsoattheexpenseof"pleasure,"which,whateveritsmeaning,shouldbebutisnot
recognizedassuchbyhim.Indeedwhatisdislodgedisboththeprimacyofintellectualenjoymentofthesovereignsubjectspectatoraswellastheprimacyoftheartist
or"creator"andhisorhercreativestates,whichsubjectivismholdstobetheabsoluteoriginofart.Theveryoriginoftheartistcanbenothingotherthanart,ifartinits
essenceasHeideggerrepeatsinsistentlyisnothingotherthan"truthputtingitselftowork.''5Whatindeeddoestheartistdoasacreator(Schpfer)?Thecreator
mustdraw(Schpfen)uponthereserveofbeingwhichisopentohim.Theartistmakesmanifestthestilllatentstroke[trait]inthe"originalstruggle"(whichprecedes
eventhestrifeofworldearth),thatis,inthestrugglebetweentheclearingoftruthanditswithdrawal.InconnectionwiththisHeideggerquotesDrer,saying:"Intruth,
thereisartactuallyburieddeepinnature,andhewhocanwrestitwithasinglestroke(reissen)holdsitfast."6ButtheHeideggerianinterpretationwhichidentifies
Drer's"nature"withbeingdoesnotseektoknowhow,"concretely"orpractically,thiswrestingiseffected.Theworkisgiven.Theartist's"psychology"mattersas
littleastheempiricalbiographyofthinkers.YetitisclearthatthestrokeasaGestalt,figure,tracing,orrhythmdoesnotbyitselfinsinuateitselfbetweenworldand
Earth.Withoutdoubt,theworkofartalsocomesabout,comesintotheworld,bythehandoftheartist,behepainter,musician,orpoet.ButaccordingtoHeidegger,
whatallowsforthestrokeofbrushorpenistheveryopeningoftruthasthelargercircleofartwhichfirstofallincludesthework,theartist,andthosewhocarefor
thework:the"preservers"[gardiens],asthetranslationofdieBewahrendensomewhatawkwardlysuggests.DieBewahrendenarethosewho"answer,"orthose
who"guarantee,"thosewhoactivelyguarditssafetyinwatchingoverthemeaningofthework(theword"spectator"isavoideddeliberately).Theartistisnottheone
whotracesthislargercirclerather,itistruthdisclosingitself.Now,"itisnotwewhobringabouttruthastheuncoveredbeingofbeings..."7Artbringsforththe
essentiallineswherethetruthofaworldislodgedbydispatchingthemdeepdownintotheirgroundinEarth,andthusitfirstfoundsHistory.Truthorthe"original
struggle"givesrisetoartandtoitsepochs.
Thusthereisapparentlyestablishedanontologicalderivationbeginningwiththeessenceoftruth,whichpresidesovertheoriginofartthroughalltheepochsof
being.Itcanbepresentedinthefollowingdiagram:

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Thisderivationis,however,hardlyatranscendentaldeductionoftheworkfromtheessenceoftruth,foritcanonlyberead"from"theworkunderstoodasthebeing
wherethistripleconflict(UrStreit,Streit,Riss)firstdisclosesandunfoldsitself."Theremustalwaysbeintheopenabeinginwhichtheopeningcantakeitsstance
anditsconstancy."8Tosaytheworkitselfmaintainstheopeningoftruthmeansthatthistruthisnot''firstpresentinitselfsomewhereinthestars,"9thatitisnot
preexistent.YetiftheGestaltisnotprefiguredintherendingstroke,intheinvisibleRisswhichunitesEarthandworld,itisneverthelessatthebehestofthetruthitself
thattheartist"creates."So,inthewithdrawalofbeing,initshiddenconflictualcharacter,theremustbealatentsketchofartisticconfigurations.Thereis,asitwere,a
projectcommontotheartistwhoseeksandtothetruththatdriveshim.AsMerleauPontyadmirablysays,10apaintingisa"concentrationandcomingtoselfofthe
visible,"themanifestingofa"secretofpreexistence":itisneitherasubjectivecalculationofrepresentationnortherealizationofanearlierideabytheSpiritofthe
world.Heideggercallsthisinternalimpetusoftruthtowardthework,thispull(Zug)towardit,"thepoeticprojectoftruth,"orinoneword:Dichtung.Butwhatisthe
meaningofDichtung,this"poem"whichis"theessenceofart"?11Itisnotamatterofawrittenorspokenpoem,noranunformulatedpoem.Theideaofapoem
withoutwordswouldbeabsurd.Actuallythe"poem"designatesthatinitiallysecretconcentrationorcondensationoftruthtendingtowardthework.Rather,thepoem
istruthcondensingitself,predisclosingitselfwhilebeingprefiguredinthestroke(Riss)thatgivesrisetothefigure(Gestalt):"Whatthepoemasaclearingproject
(lichtenderEntwurf)unfoldsintounconcealmentandprojectsahead(vorauswirft)intothestroke(Riss)oftheGestaltistheOpen,whichitcausestocome
forward...."12
Dichtenmeans,etymologically,"tocondense,""tothicken,""togathertogether,"hence"tocompose."TheDichteristhecomposerinthebroadestsense.Buthecan
composeonlywhatofitselfgatherstogetherandcomposesitself.HeideggercitesaletterwrittenbyMozart:"Iseeknotesthatloveoneanother."Thenotesloveone
anotherontheirown.Thetruthgathersitselflikeastormpreparingtoburst.Butinartitiswithamelody,withasketch,withagroupofcolorsthatwecanbeginto
discernundertheGestalttheRiss,themostprofoundtracingoftheworldearthrelationthatitmakesmanifest.Everyvisibleoraudibleconfiguration,everything
tracedorresonant,isobscurelyprefiguredinthetracing,andthistracingisinthe

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silenceandinvisibility,beyondeverydistinctordefinitefigure.Inotherwords,withtheemergenceofartisticformsatruthwhichuptothatpointhadremained
imperceptibleimposesitselfasbeingantecedenttothem.Thistruth,thetruthoftheopeningofbeings,isforthefirsttimeexpresslyunderscored.Thisispreciselythe
definitionofaworkofartandwhatdistinguishesitfromatool:pointingoutthetruthassuch."Whereproductionexpresslybringsabouttheopeningofbeing
truthwhatisproducedisaworkofart."13Moredirectly,therewouldbenocreationasSchpfungiftherewerenotthisantecedentdimensionfromwhichtodraw.
EarthasNonhistoricalPossibility
BeingasLichtung,shining[claircie]orclearing[clairire]differentGermanorFrench14wordsforaletheiathislightwhichhidesitsproperreserveinitially
sketchesthefieldinwhichthe"sensible,"earthlyelementofnaturecanappear.Earthmustsubmittothelawofappearingitmustenterintothelightofbeingwithout
whichitwouldbeinaccessible.All"physical"elementssuchassolardayandnight,speechandsilence,therisinganddiminishingofsound,thelightnessorheaviness
ofmaterialsandtheirgreaterorlessersusceptibilitytobeingovershadowedmustenterintotheclearingoftruth.
Lichtungasadedensifying"makespossible"thevisibleandsensibleconfigurationofthelatentdensityofDichtung."TheLichtung...isfreenotonlyforlightand
darkbutalsoforthevoicewhichsoundsout(Hall)andgrowsfaint,forthetone(Tnen)thatresoundsanddiesaway."15Thisisnottodenytheweight,the
substantiality,theearthlycharacterofthevoicerather,itistoemphasizethatthis"earthliness"isradicallysubjectedtothewhollyanteriorphenomenologicalcondition
ofappearing.Yetthis"priority"doesnotimplyanyonticderivation,asiftheclearingphysicallyengenderedorproducedwhatitilluminates.The"darkoftheforest,''
itsdensity"whichlanguageotherwisecalls'Dickung,'"16saysHeidegger,referstoanobscurityresidingevenoutsideoftheplayoflightandshadowthatnecessarily
takesplaceintheclearing.17WouldthisunfathomableandunnameableobscuritynotbesomethingliketheoriginalpossibilityoftheEarth?Toputthisininappropriate
termsbecausetheyareKantian,mustwenotseeinHeideggeran"ideality"oftheLichtunginrelationtoa"reality"oftheEarth?Andyetiftheidealityoftheformeris
quasitranscendentalbecauseitmakespossible,therealityofthesecond,itsmaterialdensity,isnolongerempiricalforitisalsoequallywithdrawn,inapositionof
purepossibilityinrelationtophenomenality.ItisnecessarytosayLichtungisquasitranscendentalbecauseitsilluminationdoesnotcomefromthesubjectorfromits
transcendence,whichwouldbringwithittheconditionsforthepossibilityofappearingassuch.Yetthisclearingisaradicalmakingpossible:initswithdrawal,it
precedeseverylightofthoughtorreason,ev

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eryvision,everyevidence,andeveryintuition,whatevertheymaybe."TherayoflightisnotwhatfirstproducestheOpen,itonlytraversesitbymeasuringthe
clearing.Onlythelattercangivewhatistobereceived,whileprocuringforitselfthefreedimensionofitsdeployment...."18Similarly,thoughsubordinatedinorder
tobecomephenomenaltothepresenceoftheOpen,Earthpossesses,withoutbeingreducibletoanaturesubsistinginitselfortolifeconceivedasafoundational
substance,itsownessencewhich,inrelationtobeing,canbethoughtatleastnegativelyasthedimensionthatinitselfrebelsagainstphenomenality,namelyasthepre
historicalornonhistoricaldimension.Beyondthecritiqueofnaturesubstance,towhatextentisthisdimensionrelatedorakintowhatthetraditioncalls"nature"?To
alargeextent,nodoubt,butthetextsinwhichHeideggerdescribesthispossibilityopposedtobeingarerare.Oneofthemostbeautifulandmostenigmatictextsoften
returnstothesecretandthecharacteroftheEarthasamakingpossible:''TheinapparentlawoftheEarthpreservesitinthemoderationofthearisingandpassing
awayofallthingsintheallottedcircleofthepossible,towhicheveryoneconformsandwhichnooneknows.Thebirchtreeneveroverreachestheextentofits
possibility.Themembersofthehivelivewithintheirpossibility."19Furtheronitisemphasizedthattechnology"forcestheEarthoutofthecircleofitspossibilityand
pushesitintothatwhichisnolongerthepossible..."20Howarewetosituatethe"possible"ifnotastheextremeoppositeofLichtung,whichneverthelessisrelated
toit,forinasimilarbutinversemannerthis"possible"drawsa"circle,"anonluminousfieldofmakingpossible.
Actually,in"OriginoftheWorkofArt"EarthisdescribedasaGrundthatwillcarrytheilluminationofthepoeticprojectintothelightofday,agroundwhereno
definitepossibilityisprescribedbutwherethepossibilitiesrevealedbythe"poetic"projectarealreadyinscribedasifontheirownground.Nothingpreexists,except
forthe"alreadythere"ofaretrospectivenecessity.Therelationbetweenthetruthordisclosureofbeing,whoseunfoldingisentirelyhistorical,21andtheEarthpresents
astrikinganalogywiththerelationthatholdsinBeingandTimebetweentheproject(Entwurf),orunderstanding,andthrownness(Geworfenheit)orfacticity.22
However,theEarthisanonpassive,nonindividualbutpowerfullyenablingfacticity.IncontrasttoGeworfenheit,whichcertainlycanbe"reapprehended"inthe
projectbutcannevergroundtheproject(onlyecstatictemporalityisanequivalentofthe"rootedness"ofDasein),EarthintheUrsprungemergesthroughthework
ofartasaground[fond(s)]andfooting(orfoundationwithoutprinciple)forartitselfandforhistoryasanepoch.Letusreadtheessentialpassageonthispoint:
Thetrulypoeticproject(wahrhaftdichtendeEntwurf)istheopening(Erffnung)ofthatwhereinhistorical(geschichtliches)Daseinisalreadythrown(schongeworfenist).That
istheEarth,andforahistoricalpeople,itsEarth,theselfclosing(sichverschliessende)ground(Grund)uponwhichitrests

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alongwithallthat,stillconcealedinitself,alreadyis.Buttheworldiswhatreigns(waltet)intherelationofDaseintothedisclosureofbeing.Thereforeallthatwithwhichmanhas
beenendowed(Mitgegebene,literally:giventohimallatonce)intheproject(Entwurf)must,throughthisproject,bedrawnfromtheclosedgroundandexpresslysetuponit.
Thusthisgroundfirstfindsitselfgroundedasthesupportingground.23

Thispassage,whichwehavealreadycited,raisesaquestioninthatitindicates,withoutexplication,themakingpossiblebyEarth,anenigmaticmakingpossible.Of
courseitisclearallpoeticororiginalartisticprojects(butalso,allontichumanprojectsintheworld)arenotessentially"thrown"inbeinginscribedintheprojectof
truthnorbecausetheyarehistorical,norevenbecauseoftheirworldlysituation,butbecausetheyareanchored,previouslyoratleastsimultaneously,intheEarth.
Foundedimplicitlyontheearthlyground,theproject"founds,"orexpressly(eigens,properly)poses,theEarthasitsground.Inaway,thisrepetitionisofthesame
orderastheretrieval(Wiederholung)byDaseinofitsfacticity,whichthuswrenchesitselfawayfrom"falling"orfromitsidentificationwithsubsistentbeings.Buta
difficultyinheresintheenigmaticanteriorityoftheEarthasindeterminablyalreadytherebeforehand.WhatistheessenceofthisGrunduponwhichreststhefuture
(allthatapeoplelatentlyalreadyis,butwhichishiddenfromit)?Itmustbeamatterofpossibilitiesofanotherorderthanthedefinitepossibilitiesoftheworld.The
"potentiality"oftheEarthisnot,obviously,potentialbeinginthesenseofmatterinAristotle.Ithasahistoricalvocation,foritresembleswhatothertextscallthe
AnfangortheGewesenes,24theobscureconcretionanteriortoallthatwillsubsequentlyoccur.YetEarthisneitherarationalnorirrationalfoundation,noran
empiricalconditionlikeageographicalmatrix.Itisnotaterritorybuttheelementalterrainwhereallthatshinesinhistoryfindsnourishment:"thenourishingsoil''25that
Heideggerdescribesastheveiledfoundationinwhichthetreeofphilosophyisrooted.
OfcoursethisGrundentersintothetruthofbeingsinceitissayable,butperhapsitdoessopreciselyasthatwhichescapestheHistoryofBeing,namely,its
commencement(Anfang)whichplungesobscurelyintotheEarthoftheWest.TheHistoryofBeingdoesnotmakethisGrundmanifest.Butdoestheimpenetrable,
opaquedimensionofthedestinyofBeinghaveitssourceintheimmemorialpastofthisWesternEarth?HeideggersometimesaskswhethertheEarthofevening,"the
landofthesettingsun,"the"Hesperia,"hassimplyrunonephaseofitspossibleHistorywhilekeepinginstorearecommencementwhichwouldbelongto"anentirely
otherageoftheworld."26Whatunheardof"condition"canenabletheWesternLandtobecomeoneday"overandaboveOrientandOccident,throughEurope,the
siteofthemoreoriginallydestinedHistorythatiscoming."27Onlythemostradical"reserve"oftheEarthwithdrawingfromallhistoricalmanifestationcanallowthe
adventofanewseriesofepochswhich

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wouldbeacompletedeparturefrom,andotherthan,themerecontinuationofOccidentalHistorysincetheGreeks.Butwhatanunthinkableupheavalsucha
discontinuitywouldbe,sinceitwouldimplyacollapseofthetechnologicalepochwhichhasbecomeplanetary!Can"all"cometoanend?Andhowcoulditbethat
beyondthe"devastatedearth"theremightemerge,aftera''longinterval,"anewEreignis,anewlinkbetweenmanand"being"?"TheabruptWhileofthe
commencement"28surelycouldnotbeginwith"being,"forinthatcasewoulditnotbethesameHistory?Isthisonlyadesperatespeculationontheclosureof
metaphysics?Hopevainlyplacedinanapocalypse?Nobrutaldestructionoruniversalconflagration,however,ispredicted,butinsteadaslowwastingofthe"world"
endinginthereappearanceofthe"hiddenlawoftheEarth."Atleastthatishow,inthetwentyeightlongandenigmaticaphorismsoftheessay"Overcoming
Metaphysics,"29thefutureofnihilismissketchedoutestablishingthenabolishingitself.ThelinkbetweenthereceptivenessoftheEarthandtheovercomingof
technologyispositedbutnotelucidatedinthatessay:"ItisonethingjusttousetheEarth.ItisanothertoreceivetheblessingoftheEarthandgraduallyfeelathome
(heimisch)inthelawofthisreception(Empfngnis,literally"conception,"notinthesenseofaconceptbutofawomanconceivingachild)soastowatchoverthe
secretofbeingandpreservetheinviolabilityofthepossible."30"ButtheEarthremainsshelteredintheinapparentlawofthispossible,whichisitsveryself."The
elucidationofthereceptivityoftheEarthisonlyfoundinthelastwordofthetext:"thepoetic(dichtende)andthinkinghabitation."Isthisa"returntonature"?Notat
all.OnlybringingthoughtandDichtungtogether,onlytheclosenessoftheworkofart,canteachusanythingoftheessenceofEarth,theessenceofthisnonhistorical
and,perhaps,transhistoricalpossibility.
ButhowdidHeideggerarriveatthisthoughtoftheEarthhaving,throughart,aninitiatingpower?Howdidhegofromdescribingtheworldofequipmentalityandthe
ideaofaratherpejorativefacticitytotheinterpretationoftheworkofartastheoriginalconflictualappearanceoftheEarthasgroundoftheworld?Twostagesof
unequalimportanceprecedethe"OriginoftheWorkofArt"andprepareforthisturn:apageofRilkeapproachedwithprudencein1927inthecourseofBasic
ProblemsofPhenomenologyandthefamouscommentaryonthechorusinAntigoneinIntroductiontoMetaphysics(1935).
TheDiscreteAppearanceofPoetry:Rilke'sWall
TheontologyofartwasabsentfromBeingandTime.Moreover,itwasvirtuallyexcludedfromthatworkinasmuchasitwasunthinkableaccordingtoitscategories:it
wasquiteimpossibletounderstandtheworkasatooldeprivedofitsutility,orasapurelysubsistingbeing,regardedwithacool,theorizingeye.Neitheravailablenor
subsisting,stilllessaDasein,the

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workofartpossessesneitheripseitynorbeingtowarddeathnorcarenorresoluteness.Itisastrangeworldwithoutart,thisworldofworkinwhichartisonly
evokedasoneoftheinauthenticdiversionsoftheimpersonalthey:"Weenjoyandentertainedourselvesastheyenjoythemselvesweread,see,andjudgeliterature
andart,astheyseeandjudge...."31ThisistheonlymentionofKunst!TheonlyexplicitreferencetoDichtung,32oneextremelycircumspectandintheformofan
adjectiveinquotationmarks(!),istobefoundinparagraph34:"Thecommunicationoftheexistentialpossibilitiesofaffectedness(Befindlichkeit),whichmeansthe
disclosureofexistence,canconstitutethepropergoalofa'poetic'discourse(dichtendeRede)."33Itisastonishingtonote,however,thattheprivilegedrelationship
betweenStimmungandpoetrywhichwillbecentraltothetextsonH1derlinisalreadyalludedto,albeitwithreservation.
ThiscautionwithrespecttopoetryhardlychangesintheBasicProblems,butthegapfoundinBeingandTimeisfilled,forthephenomenologyofDaseinisforthe
firsttimeplacedinthepresenceofabeingdescribedbythepoet(notethatforHeideggeritisnotfictional,butadocumentofBeingintheworld)whichisneither
instrumentalnorsimplygivenlikenature.InslightlymorethanapageoftheNotebooksfromMaltaLaudridsBrigge,Rilkeindeeddescribesthepatheticnakedness,
suddenlybroughttolight,ofthewallofademolishedhouse,withitsstrataofstoriesandstairwaysanditsdelimitationsofinnerspace:theonlystandingvestige
amidstruins,itsscorchedfacadehideouslysoiledandstained,itsfloorsandwallsimprintedwiththemarksofoldfurnitureandfixtures,thestuffofmaterialexistence,
andworse,sadtracesofdailysufferinginanguishandpoverty.Thisistheterriblevisionofdistressmademonument.Thiswallshowssomethingwhollydifferentfrom
whatisshownbythewallsofaninhabitedplace,howeverpooritmaybe:everydaynessassuch,theworldassuchwhich,inaprimordial,elemental(elementare,a
rarewordinHeidegger)saying,becomesvisibleandnotamerebeingoftheworld.Justbeforehequotesthislengthytext,Heideggerwrites"Poetryisnoneotherthan
thiselementalcomingtospeech(ZumWortKommen),orexistence(Existenz)becomingdisclosedasbeingintheworld.Fortheotherswhountilthenwereblind,
theworldforthefirsttime(erst)becomesvisiblewiththisarticulation."34Andimmediatelyafterthislongquotation,hewrites,"beingintheworld,whichRilkecalls
life,springsupbeforeusinthingsinanelementalway."Thepoetmakesusseethethingsthemselvesasdoesphenomenology!Itisnotamatteroffictionbutofan
"actual"(wirklich)truth,asHeidegger'sbriefcommentaryemphasizes:"WhatRilkereadsonthatdenudedwall...isnotfictionallyprojected(hineingedichtet)onto
itonthecontrary,descriptionispossibleonlyastheexplication(Auslegung)andelucidation(Erleuchtung)ofwhatis'actually'(worklich)inthiswall,ofwhat
suddenlyspringsupinanaturalrelation(natrlichesVerhltnis)toit.''35Itishere,withthisoppositionbetweentruthinthetraditionalsenseandfiction,withthis
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Heidegger'sdiscussiongrowshaltingandshiesaway.Thepoetdeeplyunderstandsthe"originalworld,buthedoessoinanunreflecting,completelyuntheoretical
way."36ButwhenHeideggerlaterconfirmstheuncertaintyhehadconcerningtheontologicalimportofpoeticrevelation,heagainrecallsRilke'sdescriptionandcitesit
asanexampleofDasein'sunderstandingofitselfonthebasisofthingsandthereforeofaninauthenticselfunderstanding!Itisasif,obedienttothecommandofa
longtraditionstillundeconstructedonthisthemeand,inspiteofhimself,takinguponcemorethePlatonicargumentagainstpoetry,heobjectsthatthepoetcannot
"accountfor"whatheshowsusinasmuchasheisincapableoftellingushowbeingintheworldisauthenticorinauthentic,justasintheRepublicthepoetis
reproachedfornotknowingwhatistrueorfalse,goodorbad.AsdoesPlatointheIon,Heideggerseesinthepoetanillumination,aninspiration,certainlynotdivine
butonewhichgetsattheverybottomofthingsandwhichistheequivalentofthemostradicalphenomenologicalvisionbutthistrueintuition(opposedto"fiction''
thesynonymoferrorwhichisatermthatmuchlaterwillbeeliminatedfromHeidegger'sdiscourseonart)remainsnaturalandnaive,"unreflected"(unbedachte),
withoutatouchstone:itisblindintuition,intuitionwithoutaconcept!
TheTemptationofNietzscheanAesthetics
ItseemsthatduringthecrucialperiodoftheTurntowardwhichtheBasicProblemstakesone,albeithesitant,step,Heidegger'sclosenesstoNietzschewasdeeper
thansomesimpleaffinitywithhisdoctrineofartisticcreation.Granted,whenitcomestothefundamentalthemeofthecourseonNietzsche,whichwastheawakening
ofthequestionofbeingasthemostforgottenquestionofmetaphysics,theNietzscheanmotifsonlyappearinthebackground.YetNietzscheobviouslyservesasa
guideonthepathstakedout,namelythereturntothePresocratics,thereturnbeyondlogictotheoriginalsenseoflogosas"gathering"inHeraclitus:tobesure,
NietzscheremainedaprisonerofmetaphysicsandparticularlyofthefalsedichotomybetweenHeraclitusandParmenides,"butasidefromthatNietzscheunderstood
thegreatcommencementoftheentireGreekDaseininawaythatisunsurpassedexceptbyH1derlin."37So,wearedealingwithsomethingquitedifferentthana
passingfancyorafortuitouscoincidenceofvocabulary.
NodoubtNietzschehimselfispartoftheblindnessofthewholetraditionsincehecallsthephilosophicalconceptofbeing"thelastwispofrealitywhichisgoingupin
smoke"(TwilightoftheIdols).Yet,amongtheconstitutiveelementsofthe"spiritualdecadenceoftheearth"HeideggernamestwodangersthatNietzschewasthe
firsttodescribeassymptomsofnihilismandattemptedtoovercome:"makingmangregarious,hatefulsuspiciontowardallthatiscreativeandfree."38Nowthisfallof
anepoch

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where"thesinisterfrenzyofunleashedtechnologyandtherootlessorganizationofnormalizedman" reignsisnotinterpretedsimplyasaconsequenceofthe
forgettingofbeingbutasadeclineofpower."Peoplearethreatenedwithlosingthelastspiritualpowerthatallowedthematleasttoseeandestimatethisdecadence
assuch...."40Beingisatstakeinastrife.Onlythegreatoneswhoaffirm,''thestrongones,""thosewhoworkatworkspoets,thinkers,statesmen."41arecapable
ofwrenching,ingreatstrife,whatemergesfromwithdrawal,disclosure,dissimulation,andbanalization.Theveryheightoftruthrequiresaloftypowerofaffirmation.
"ThegreatpoetryoftheGreeks,"42thatoftheTragediesorofPindar,restsupona"namingstrength"whichispreciselywhatthewordPhysisloseswhenitbecomes
"nature."Withoutdoubttheoriginofthispowerisfoundinacorrespondencewithbeingasthepowerofmanifestation,ofselfshowing.Butagainandagain,the
attributesthatdesignatetheessenceofbeingasaninitialarisingoftruthareborrowedfromtheNietzscheanvocabularyofaffirmativepower:nobility,rank,value(!),
powerorstrengthbelongingtothefewinnumber,creation(Schaffen)."Beingisthefundamentaldeterminationofthenobleandofnobility...."(DasSeinistdie
GrundbestimmungdesEdlenunddesAdels.)43Laterandaproposofthemeaningoflogosas"originalgathering,ratherthanasacatchall,amixtureinwhich
everythingwouldhaveasmuchandaslittlevalue"(Heideggerwillsoonrejecttheveryprincipleofthe"hierarchyofvalues"aslinkedtoarepresentingandcalculating
metaphysicsofsubjectivity),wefindaremarkableequationofbeingwithrank."Ifbeingmustopenitself,itmusthaveandmaintainrank(Rang)."44"Whatdetermines
rank(dasRangmssige)iswhatpossessesthegreaterstrength(dasStrkere)....Thetrueisnotforjustanyone,butonlyforthestrong."45Ofcoursethese
statementsmustbeputbackincontext:theyapplyingeneraltotheGreekexperienceofbeingandareextractedfromacommentaryonspecificfragmentsof
Heraclitus.Buttakenasawholethelecturecourseaimstorevivetheforgottenquestionwhichunderliesmetaphysicsfrombeginningtoendandtoshowthatthis
questionisboth"thehiddenfoundationofourhistoricalDasein"andthe"scarcelyveiledabyssabovewhichwemakeourwayhereandthere,selfsatisfiedand
preoccupiedwithallsortsofactivities."46Theoblivionofbeingandoftheabysmaldepthofitswithdrawalseems,inIntroductiontoMetaphysics,toincludethe
oblivionofpower.
AsforartstillunderstoodfromoutoftheGreekexperienceoftechnitistakenupwithintheconceptofmasteryandtaming.Certainlymanisnottheinstigator
ofthepowersthathehastotamebymeansofartinthebroadestsense."Theactivityofpower(Gewalttigkeit)inpoeticsaying,intheprojectofthought,inthefine
workmanshipofbuilding,inthepoliticalactofinstituting,isnottheexerciseofpowerspossessedbymanbutconsistinharnessing(Bndigen)andharmonizingthe
powers(Gewalten)thankstowhichbeingsdisclosethemselvesassuch,anddosobyvirtueofthefactthatmaninvolveshimselfinit.Thisopeningofbeingis

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thepower(Gewalt)thatmanhastomaster(bewltigen)inordertobeinthemidstofbeings,whichistosay,ahistoricalbeing." Thecontextasawholerequires
ustotranslate"Gewalt"notas"violence,"asG.Kahnoftendoes,butas"power,"eventhoughHeideggerusesanothertermthanNietzsche's"Macht'':"Gewalt"
designatesapowermaintainedatanextremebutmasteredbyitself,devoidofdisorderedmovementsandofanyoftheuglinessproperto"violence."48Moreover,
howcouldtheterm"violence"beinaccordwiththecontinuity,ifnotthe"constancy,"oftheopening?Iftheopeningofbeingisgewaltig,itisbypossessingthepower
tomaintainitselfandmaintainmaninthebalanceofappearanceandwithdrawal.Thesupposed"violence"wouldmakeitajoltingpalpitation,anirregularflashing
entirelyincompatiblewiththestabilityofdisclosure.Thewholespaceofartispower.ThehumanpowerofartwhichintheGreektechnnotonlymeansknow
how,skill,butalsoknowledgeisinterpretedbyHeideggerasthe"harnessing"(Bndigung)ofnonhumanpower.Amongthesepowersonemustnotonlyinclude
the"forcesofnature,"earth,sea,andanimals,butalso,astonishinglyenough,language,theunderstandingofbeing,Stimmung,passion(Leidenschaft),thepowerof
building.Andyet,thisharnessingislimited,forthecharacteroftheseforcesisthattheyrulemanfromabove,are"overpowers"(bergewalten).Earth,nature,the
existentials,andlanguageequallybelongheretotheoverpowerofBeing.HavingstatedthesereservationswemustneverthelessseetheproximitytoNietzscheisvery
great:artasaharnessing,asconquest,impliesinboththinkersastruggle,anactofpower.Ontheonehand,oneseesinNietzsche'sdefinitionsofthe"grandstyle"or
ofthe"classic"thatartconsistsinthemasteringofa"chaos,"theimpositionofalaw,aform,astyleuponit.Whatisthis"chaos"?Chaosisthewholeoftheunderlying
drives(Triebe),thesuperabundantebbandflowofvitalforces,bothsubjectiveandnonsubjective.OfcourseNietzschemostoftenpresentsthemasteryofchaosasa
masterybytheartistofhisowninternalchaos:"Tobecomeamasterofthechaosthatoneis...."49"Tobeaclassic,itisnecessarytohaveallthegiftsandstrong
desires,apparentlycontradictory,butinsuchawaythattheyworktogetherunderoneandthesameyoke."50Thiscapacitytosubjugatetalentsandmultipleimpulses
impliesnoviolence.Onthecontrary,inartisticactivitythetendernessofgratitude(Dankbarkeit)expressesitselftowardexistence,51towardthewholeofbeing,
includingitsmost"questionable"(fragwrdig)and"daunting"(Furchtbare)aspects.52Ontheotherhand,ifthereisaconquestinallartitisbyitsmanifestationofa
willtobe.Eveniftheartistshowsawilltodestroy,tobreakforms,whenthatwillcomesnotfromany"Romantic"resentmentbutis,properlyspeaking,affirmativeor
"Dionysian,"itrefersusoncemoretoa"superabundantpowerpregnantwiththefuture."53Intheend,forNietzscheaswellasfortheHeideggerofIntroductionto
Metaphysics,artliesinambushforbeingittakespossessionofit,wrenchingitfromfamiliarbeingsinaclimateofraptureandstruggleonthebrinkoftheabyss:

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Hewhoperformsanactofpower,thecreator(derSchaffende)whobroachestheunsaid,whoburstsintotheunthought,whotakesbyforcethatwhichhasnotyethappenedand
causestoappearthestillunseen,thisauthorofactsofpowerholdshimselfconstantlyatrisk(tolma).Whileriskingtomasterbeinghemustatthesametimeaccepttheinfluxof
nonbeing(mkalon),ofdislocation,instability,nonadaptation,andnonadjustment.54

Thestrugglewhichin"TheOriginoftheWorkofArt"isastrugglebetweentheworldandEarthisherethestruggleagainsttheoverpoweringpowerofbeing.Being
istheopeningofbeingsbecausemanisthrown(einrckt)intoit."Thisopeningofbeingsistheforcethatmanmustmastersothatintheexerciseofpowerhemay
behimselfinthemidstofbeing,whichmeansbehistorical."55
Thisstruggleislopsided.Manis"withoutanescape"(aporos)inasmuchashecollideswithaninvincible,unharnessablepowerofbeing:death.Deathisthelimitofall
humanpower.Hesaysthiswithanadmirableconciseness:"It(death)bringstoanendeveryaccomplishment,itsetsoutthelimitofalllimits."56
Whateveritmaybe,theideaofastruggleforthedisclosureofbeing(whichseemscontrarytothatofafreeselfgivingofbeingtoman),thisvoluntaristicidea,is
againandagainreiteratedthroughoutthetext.Thuslogosisinterpretednotastheselfdisclosureofbeingbutastheactofdisclosing,of"producingtheuncoveredas
such,producingbeingsintheirdisclosedness."57"Logos...mustdesignatethat(human)actofpowerbymeansofwhichbeingisregatheredintoitsrecollection."58
Manisthegatherer."Inoriginarysayingthebeingofbeingsismademanifestinthearrangementofitsrecollection.''59Itwouldseemthatthishumanactofforce,a
willfuleffort,causesbeingtoappear.PoetryandartaswellaspoliticalinstitutionsarethefoundersofHistory,buttheyalsoareunderstoodaswrenchingbeingfrom
itsveiledstatebysheerstruggle."Intheworkofarttheconqueringofdisclosure,andtherebyofbeingitself,thisconquestofthedisclosednessofbeingswhichitself
comesaboutonlyintheformofaconstantantagonism,isalwayssimultaneouslyastruggleagainstthehidden,againstconcealedbeing,againstappearance."60
Despitesuggestingadeeper,ontologicalantagonism,theRiss,therendingstroke,isstillnotwhatunitesandseparatesEarthandworldascomingfrombeingitself.
Therendingwhichwrenchesforthbeingandbringsittolightinitiallyseemstocomefromanartisticactofpower,evenifthisactisinresponsetotheoverpowering
characterofbeing.
"Hewhoknows(this"knowledge"isartitself)61isthrownintotheverymidstofthearrangement(Fug),62wrenchesforth(bythe"rendingstroke,"Riss)beinginbeings
andyetcannotmastertheoverpowering.Thatiswhyheistornbetweenarrangementandnonarrangement,betweenthevileandthenoble.Allharnessing
(Bndigung)ofthepowerfulbyanactofpoweriseithertriumphordefeat.Eachinitsownwaycastsoutthefamil

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iarandunfoldsthedangerouscharacterofthatwhichisobtainedbystruggle,orlost:being.Indifferentwaysbothrisktheirdestruction." Thecombative,
conquering,andlawmakingwilloftheartistandthenecessitypushinghimtoriskgoing"beyondthefamiliar"towardtheunprecedenteddoubtlesslyhaveaNietzschean
ring.Buthowfarcanonetakethiscomparison?UnliketheDionysian,theoverpowerfulisnotthereservoirofforcesfromwhichthecreationofformsdrawsrather,it
istheverydifferentlimitofthedeinon,theterrible,thedisquietingstrangenesswhichtheartistmeetsheadon.Moreover,Heideggerdoesnotsaythattheartistmust
gobeyondgoodandevil,butonlythatheoscillatesbetweentheintegrationoftheorganizedworldandtheabsenceofadefinedplace,betweenorderanddisorder,
betweenthevileorvulgar,thethey,andthenobleorresolute,solitaryaffirmation.Artisnot"elsewhere,''superhumanorabovecommonhumanity,butlikeall
Dasein'sactionsitisforeverdividedandstrainedbetweentheauthenticandinauthenticwhichnooneeverovercomesonceandforall.Moreover,Nietzschedoesnot
envisageasstronglyasdoesHeideggerthepossiblefailureoftheartist,whichwouldconsistinhisnolongerbeinganywhereorhisbeingsimplycrushedbythepower
hefaces.
EarthandtheDionysian
Thus,inspiteofthismomentaryproximityvisvisNietzschewhichleadshimtoexaltadespoticvoluntarismandanaristocratismofthe"creator,"Heideggerstill
neveradherestothebasicprinciplesofNietzsche'saesthetics,namelytheideathattheartistandhissubjective"creativestate"aretheoriginofart,thatthiscreative
stateitselfistheexpressionof"natural"artisticforcesortheexpressionoftheartisticwilltopowerimmanentintheuniverse.Itneverthelessremainstruethatthe
interpretationoftheworkofartasitisformulatedin"TheOriginoftheWorkofArt"resultsfromanintimate,prolonged,anddetaileddebatewithNietzsche'sthought
onart.ThetextinHolzwegeonartisthefruitofthreelecturesgiveninNovemberandDecemberof1936,scarcelymorethanayearafterthelecturecourseduring
thesummersemesterof1935,andparallelsthelecturecourseon"TheWilltoPowerasArt"(NietzscheI)whichdatesfromthewintersemesterof193637.
Thisiswhyweproposethefollowingworkinghypothesis:theconflictualandunitaryrelationofEarthworldconstitutesbotharesponsetoandan"explication"ofthe
relationbetweentheDionysianandtheApollinian,especiallyinitsoriginalformasseeninTheBirthofTragedy.InthisconfrontationHeideggerfirstofallmust
exorcisethethoughtofaprimacyofcreativeforcesoverforms.Yet,despitetheinsurmountabledistancebetweenthesetwooriginalpolesthereremainsavery
stronganalogybetweenthem.

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Theanalogyholds,first,inthatthesetwoadverseandcomplementary "powers,"whichareengagedinanimplacableandunappeasablestruggle,mustfuseand
interpenetrate(Nietzscheusesthemetaphorofmasculinefemininecoupling)inordertogivebirthtotheworkofart.Thestruggleorstrifethatalwayspreservesthe
dimensionpropertotheseadverseforcesremainslatent,intimate,preliminarytotheappearanceoftheworkandthusinvisibleinit.Theessenceofthework
strifeishidden."Thecalmoftheworkreposinginitselfhasitsessenceintheintimacyofthestruggle."65InNietzscheanterms,theOlympianappearanceofthe
workdissimulatestheDionysiantearingapart.Seenintermsofthesecretstrugglepresidingoverthefusionofpowers,afusioninwhichtheydonotlosetheiridentity,
everyworkisathirdterm.JustasthereisnopurelyApollinianworkthatisnotduetoanextremedecadence,sothereisnopurely''worldly"work,thatis,one
whollydetachedfromtheEarth.Evenaworkthatonecouldcall"worldly"whichwouldbeaworkpurelysymbolicoftheEnframingofplanetarytechnology,for
examplecertainhyperrealistpaintings(AndyWarholandhiscanofCampbell'sSoup)66needsanEarthly"substance,"asupportsuchascanvasitselfanditscolors.
Attheoppositeextremefromthistwilight,GreektragedyisDionysoApollinian.EveryworksetsupaworldonanEarth.Butthis"thirdterm"isnotasynthesis.The
struggleisperpetuatedandevenexacerbated,notappeased,"stifledbyaninsipidcompromise,67fortheantagonistssustainandreinforceeachother:
EarthcannotgiveuptheopenoftheworldifitistoappearastheEarthinthefreeupsurgeofitsselfwithdrawal.Theworld,inturn,cannotsweepEarthasideifitistobebased,
asanorderingbreadthandtrajectoryofallessentialdestinies,uponsomethingstable.68

LiketheDionysian,Earthanelementrecalcitranttolightandformdoesnotappearinitselfbutremainssheltered,undiscovered,inconstant"reserve."Doesthis
meanareserveofsenseor"meaningsstilltobediscovered"asG.VattimosuggestsinhisIntroductiontoHeidegger?69Itisinsteadareserveofpossibleformsto
whichmanifestationwouldonlygivebody.Forparadoxically,inordertobeincarnatedEarthandtheDionysianmustsubmitthemselvestophenomenalitytheymust
appearinaworld.TheDionysian,theunlimited,canmanifestitselfonlyinlimitingandexposingitselfindeterminateApollinianfigures:the"pureDionysian"for
Heideggerwouldbea"barbarous"principleimpossibletograsp,intoxicationwithoutclearvision,infinitefusionempirically,thedescentintoanabyssofsensualityor
formlessaffects.70
LiketheDionysian,Earthissituatedonthesideofpower,andevenanoverabundanceofpower."Tirelessandindefatigable,"71thedriveofits"upsurge,"theflowof
its"current,"72isasunabatableasthevarietyofitsmanifestationsisplethoric:"Itunfoldsitselfinaninexhaustibleplenitude

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ofsimpletypesandforms." Yetifitissurge,flow(Strom,Verstrmen,whichindicatesanerraticflowing),thismultiformspurtingisnot,liketheDionysian,
unlimited,indeterminate.Earthisnotchaos.WhereasforNietzschenatureisa"chaos"offorces(wherethereisinitselfneitherordernorformnorbeautynoranything
thatcorrespondstoourhumancategories),74EarthisforHeideggerasecretsketchofforms.Itsfluxcontainsanorder,itsnatureis"naturing,"itscurrentis"a
delimitingcurrent.''75
Itisfromthisobscuremediumofembryonicbutnotpredeterminedformsthattheartistdraws."Todraw"(Schpfen)isthetruesenseof"creation"forHeidegger,
whileforNietzscheitisaSchaffen,alabor,afabrication(offictions).Ergo,oncemore,theimportanceofthequotationfromDrer:"...intruthartisburieddeepin
nature,andhewhocanwrestitout(reissen)withasinglestrokeholdsitfast."76Theartisticsketchisdrawnfromnature,butittakesgreateffort."Reissen,"
HeideggerwritesinhiscommentaryonDrer,"heremeansbringingthestroketolight,tracingitoutwithapenorthedrawingboard.""Creation"as"drawing"makes
possiblefeaturesofnaturevisiblewhichcertainlydonotexistinoutlinebeforetheirrevelationbythework."Certainlythereisinnatureafigure,ameasureandlimitsto
whichthepossibilityofproductionintheopenislinked:itis,precisely,art.Butitisequallycertainthatthisartinnaturebecomesmanifestonlybythework,becauseit
isoriginallyathomeinthework."77TheapparentlypostRomanticideaofanartofnatureis,insum,sharedbythetwothinkers,butwhereaswithNietzschetheWill
topowerimposesformsonthechaosthatititselforiginallyis,withHeideggerartisthedisclosureinworksofformsnotyetsketchedoutbutsecretlyprefigured.
WhatinaveryexternalwayfirstdifferentiatesEarthfromtheDionysianisthatEarthisnotasource,anorigininandofitself.TheworldreposesontheEarthbutisnot
derivedfromitliketheApollinianisderivedfromtheDionysian.YetthefundamentaldifferencebetweenthetwointerpretationsofartliesinHeidegger'sanchoring
theworkofartintheveryunfoldingoftruth.TheopeningofbeingrulesandilluminatesbothworldandEarth.Theirstruggleisprecededbytheoriginalstrugglewhich
isthatoftheclearing(Lichtung),whichmakespossibletheaccesstobeingsthemselves,notdirectlybutbywayoftheworld.Beforeeveryepochaldetermination,the
clearingconditionstheorderoftheworldandthemannerinwhichtheEarthispresent.TheconflictualrelationofEarthandworldasdeterminableinagivenepochis
definitivelydeterminedonlywiththeemergenceofthework.Thismeansthatartisderivedneitherfromthedepthsofnature,asisthecasewiththeRomantics,nor
fromtheworldasthenetworkofactionspossiblewithinahistoricalhorizon.Strictlyspeaking,artspringsfromNothing,fromthejointureofEarthandworldbutthis
jointureremainsindeterminatebeforetheappearanceofthework."TheworkbeingoftheworkresidesintheenactmentofthestrugglebetweenworldandEarth."78
Theworkgivesbodytothestrugglewhichrestsontologicallyonthecontradictorytendencyoftheworldtodoawaywiththeenclosedand

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ofEarthtopreserveitsmovementofclosinginuponitself,amovementofnonmanifestation.
Tosaythatbeforethespringingforth(whichistheputtingtoworkofaspecificEarthworldrelation)thereis,properlyspeaking,noepochistodenythatartissimply
subjectedtoitsepochanda"signofthetimes."Theepochistheoffspringofart.Artisnotoriginallyinhistory(norinnature).Inotherwords,itdoesnotcreatean
epoch,it"makes"anepochinfoundingit.FoundingHistory,italwaysisrelatedbacktothepreHistorical.ThelatterisnotsimplyreducibletotheEarth.Theinitiation,
theAnfang,thecompletelyoriginalcommencementofHistorywiththeGreeks,is,likeEarth,bothwithinandoutsideofeveryepoch.
EarthinthePoem
TheEarthoftheworkis,inageneralsense,that"ofwhich"itismade:itsmaterialelement,stone,wood,metal,colors,musicalorlinguisticsounds.TheEarthofa
poemcanonlybelanguageitself."Poetrymovesintheelementofspeech,asdoesthought."79Butspeechitself,French,forinstance,isnotassuchabeingitisnot
anythingbelongingtotheworld.Languagecannotbereducedtoatool,toameansofexpression,toaninstrumentofinformation,toagroupofsignsservingto
exteriorizeasensealreadytherebeforehand."Itislanguagethatmakesbeingsasbeingscomeintotheopen.''80"Onlythewordgrantsbeingtoathing."81Language
rendersallthingspresentandcarriesthemtothelightoftheclearingittracestheveryopeningoftheOpen.Nevertheless,theopeningisasmuchdeterminedaswhat
determines.Languageisalwaysaparticularlanguage,onespokenbyapeoplelivingontheearthinsuchandsuchanepochofitshistory.Yetlanguageisnotonlya
relationtoahistoricalEarthlyingoutsideititcarriesinitselfitsownEarth,itsdimensionofwithdrawalwhereitsresourcesliehidden.Thesoundsofspoken
language,itsrhythm,itsaccents,itstimbre,itsresonance,itspace,aswellasitswrittencharactersallatoncespreadthemselvesoutbeforethesensesofhearingand
sightandthroughtheirmaterialweighttheyescapesignificationandwithdrawfromtheclarityofsenseandfromthetransparencyoftheworld.Thisopacityofverbal
matteriswhatmakesupthematerialandstuffofpoetry."Thattowardwhichtheworkwithdrawsandwhatitbringsintoreliefinthiswithdrawaliswhatwehave
calledtheEarth."82Likeeveryworkofart,suchasthetemple,thepoem"farfromallowingthematerialtodisappearinsteadmakesitcomeintorelief."83Thusthe
poemdoesnotinitiallyunderscorelanguageasthepowerofopeningbutasthemysterious,obscure,silentregion.Thepoemdrawsitsformsandfindsitsbeautyinthe
Earthofwords,inverbalsubstance.
How?OnceagainHeideggersaysnothingaboutthe"poeticart"ortheartisticactivityitself,seemingtoforgetthatthepoetnecessarilyworkswith

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languageatthesametimeas"listening"toit.ForValry,thepoetextractsfromtheEarthofwords"thegold,thediamonds,thepreciousstones"thankstoalongand
arduouslabor,apurelyartificialandtotallycontrived"operation."84
FollowingHeidegger,mustonebelievethepoetisamediumwhowrites"undertheinfluence,"asthoughtakingdictationfromthesacred?Whateverthecasemaybe,
hewouldagreeatleastinpartwithValry,whosefundamentalaphorismhecitesinErluterungenzuHlderlinsDichtung85("Thepoemthisprolongedhesitation
betweensoundandsense")inordertoacknowledgethattheessenceofpoetryisfoundprincipallyinthebodyoflanguageandnotinthecontentofthought.
Valryshowedthatinsteadoflosingitselfinitsinstrumentalfunctionofdesignation,thelanguageofapoemsomehowcomesbacktoitselfsoastosignifyitselfand
allowthemeresonorousand,asitwere,incantatoryvibrationofwordstoresonate.Inthisregardheastutelyremarksthatsomeofthemostbeautifulversessuchas
"Soissage,madouleur,ettienstoiplustranquille"[Bewise,mysadness,andbemorestill]donotconveyany"message,"articulateanyidea,furnishany
information,orsustainanythesis."Whentheverseisverybeautifulonedoesnotevendreamofunderstanding."86YettheHeideggerianapproachradically
distinguishesitselfandinmanywaysfromthiscontemporaryformalismofthetextthatValryinsomerespectanticipates.87ThroughasortofNietzscheanreversal
ofthePlatonicprimacyofthe''signified,"textualismtendstoabsolutizethesignifier,inprincipletoreducetheimportanceoftheeffectsofsense,finallytosurreptitiously
excludethought.ButforHeidegger,"thegenuineexperienceoflanguagecanonlybethethinkingexperience,andsotheloftypoetizingofeverygreatpoetryalways
vibratestotherhythmofathought."88Thisreciprocitybetweenthoughtandpoetryfoundedontheuniqueandoriginalcapacityoflanguageifitisreturnedtoits
primarypowerofsaying[dire]inthestrictsense,whichmeansofrenderingpresent,manifest,of"giving"beinginterdictsthetraditionalcontempttowardpoetryas
aninconsistentplayofimagesjustasmuchasitdoesthemoderncontempttowardthinkingasimpotentincomparisontoactivetechnologicalrationality.More
precisely,iflanguageiscapableofinstitutingthingsinbeing,ofrevealingtheirrelationtotheworld,poetry,ifitrecoverstheEarthoflanguage,cannotbereducedto
thematerialityoftheword,foritmakessensible"thenamingpowerofspeech,"thepuresaying.Withoutanalyzingthispower,"Origin"mentionsitasbeingamongthe
essentiallyEarthlytraitsoftheworkingeneralthatmakeuppartofthisWerkstoff,thisconstructionmaterialthattheworkofartdoesnotdissimulateforthesakeof
utilitybutexposesandexpresslybringsintorelief:
themetalcomestoglimmerandshimmer,thecolorstoshine,thetonetosound,thewordtosaying.Allthesecomeforthwhentheworkplacesitselfbackinthemassandweight
ofthestone,intothesturdinessandflexibility

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89

ofthewood,intothehardnessandlusterofthebronze,intothelightanddarknessofthecolor,intothesoundingofthetonesandintothenamingpowerofwords.

Becauseitmakesthisoriginalpowerofnamingmanifestapowernotofthepoetbutoflanguageinitsessenceallgreatpoetrybringstolanguagewhatremainsin
abeyanceinordinarylanguagewhereitisreducedtoitsfunctionasaninstrumentofcommunication:thedisclosiveessenceoflanguage.Poetrysaysitsgenuine
essenceaswellastheessenceoflanguageasanoriginalpoem,asilentpoemoftheappearingofbeing.Thepowerofnamingexercisedandcelebratedinthepoemis
prioreventotheconflictualappearanceofEarthandworldinasmuchasthisappearancedependsonthepowerofnaming.Totheextentthatitiswhatismostdeeply
concealed,thispowerconstitutesthe"material,"sotospeak,ofallpoetry.Thatpoetryspeaksitselfinitspowerbyspeakingthingsandthesilentdifferencebetween
thingsandworldthisgivestopoetrythedensityofaground,afoundation.ThisiswhyHeideggercallspoetryUrsprache,90the"primordiallanguage"ofapeople.
Poetryisthepossibilityoflanguage,andlanguageisthefirstpoem."Poetryisnaming,whichisthefounderofbeingandoftheessenceofallthingsitisnotjustany
speaking,butonethroughwhichallthatwethendiscussanddealwithineverydaylanguageisinitiallydisclosed.Poetrybeginsbymakinglanguagepossible.Poetryis
theprimordiallanguage(Ursprache)ofahistoricalpeople."ThisUrsprache,whichispoetry,keepsits"original''characterbysayingagain(thepoetcanonlynach
sprechen,speakinthewakeoflanguage)whatlanguagehassilentlyalreadybroughtintotheopen.Theprimordialpoem(Urdichtung)isnothingbutthegatheringof
languagesayingthebeingofthings.Thisprimordialopening,theSacred,isthefirstpoem,"thepoempriortoallsaying(dasunvordichtbareGedicht)thathasalready
surpassedinitssaying(berdichtet)allpoeticsaying."91Thisinitial,silentpoemthatinErluterungertzuHlderlinsDichtungisequivalenttotheSacred
understoodasanapportionmentofmanandgodsisinOntheWaytoLanguageratherthemutedifferencebetweenthingsandtheworld("theresonanceof
silence")thatlanguageshelters.Hencethisderivation:

Thepoetcanonlyrespondto(entsprechen,addresstheencounterwith)theessenceoflanguagewhichisthepowerofgivingrise,priortoeverydiscourse,tothe
correspondenceofthingandword,thepoweroftyingasilentlinebetweenathingandtheworld.Ordinarylanguagethusimpliesadoubledegradation,adoubleloss
inrelationtothesilentpoemoflan

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guageandinrelationtothepoetrythatgivestoitafaithfulecho.Inmakingmanifestitsownpowerofnaming,thepoemrevealsthe"supportingground"thatlanguage
is,agroundpriortohistoryinsofaraseveryeventwillbeinscribedinit:"Poetryisthesupportingground(tragendeGrund)ofhistory"..."Thepoetsconsecratethe
soil.''92
HereisanotherradicaldifferencewithValry:poetrycannotbereducedtoacleverlyarrangedandcalculatedassemblageofwordswhosesonoritiesandrhythmsare
harmonizedwithaviewtoeffecting"happiness"orartisticeuphoria(beitsadnessorgaietythatisexpressed).Thewordsofapoemalwaysallowamoreorless
fundamental,particularStimmungtoappear:joy,sorrow,melancholy,or"thecalmlucidityofrapture."93Everypoemsingstheaccordalwaysthesame,always
changingwhichateachmomenttraversesbeingintheworldinitsentirety,modulatingthedifferencebetweenthingsandworld,betweenearthandworld.Whenitis
fundamental,doesnotatonalitylikewisemanifestagroundwhichmaybeanEarth?CouldtherebeonetonalitymoreintimatelyassociatedwiththeSacredthan
another,andthustotheessenceofpoetry:isitjoy?isitmelancholy?
So,theEarthoflanguage,itsterrestrialdimension(dasErdigederSprache),94isfirstofallthebodilinessoflanguage:95ontheonesidethereisthematerialityofthe
voice,whichmeansthesonorityorresonanceofarticulated,spokenlanguage(Gesprochenes)96oreventhemurmuring[bruissement]ofthevoiceandits
"projection"[bruitement],97thearticulatesoundsthatleavethemouthandstriketheear,thephysicaltraitsofthevoice,betheysonglikeoronlyconversationalon
theothersidethereisthevisibilityofwrittencharactersonwhichthelegibilityoflanguagedepends:inshort,writing."Thespeech(Wort)oflanguageresoundsand
reverberatesinthevoice(Wortlaut),itbecomesclearandglimmersinthewrittenfigures(Schriftbild)."98Heideggertakeshisdistancefromthetraditionalphilosophy
oflanguageinatwofoldway.Ontheonehand,unlikePlatoandRousseau,hedoesnotproposetheprimacyofthevoiceoverwritinganddoesnotregardthelatter
astherepresentationoftheformer.Phenomenologicallywehavenowayofknowingifoneishistoricallyolderthantheother.Apartfromthethoughtofa"voice"of
being(whichwouldbetheotherpoleororiginofwhatweexperienceinStimmung),boththehumanvoiceandwritingmust,fromthepointofviewoftheessenceof
truth,appearintheLichtung.Fromthispointofview,writingwouldbeclosertotheclearingsinceitclearsandilluminatesitself(lichtetsich)andglows(leuchtet).
Ontheotherhand,Heideggergoestogreatpainstoextractthe"sensible"aspectsoflanguagebothaudibleandvisiblebothfrommetaphysics,whichreducesthem
tothepurelybodilyinitselfdeprivedofsenseandtowhichsenseisaddedonlyafterthefact,aswellasfromthescientificexplanationthatreducesthemtophysical
phenomena,toacousticandvisualimpressions."Voiceandwritingcertainlybelongtothesensible"

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(whatthepoetHebelcallstheEarthisindeedthesensible,hesaysearlieroninthistext),"buttoasensiblewhereasenseceaselesslyresonatesandappears.Speech
assensiblesensemeasuresthebreadthofthespaceofplay(Spielraum)betweenEarthandsky.Languageholdsopentheregionwheremandwellsinthehouseof
theworldonEarthandunderthesky."99Itisclearthatlanguageas"sensiblesense"isequivalenttoallappearing,andthisisbecauseits"sensible"aspectscannotbe
reducedtothephysiological,eventhoughtheybelongtophysis.TheHeideggeriancritiquedischargeseachinturn,themodernandscientificinterpretationsof
languageasagroupofphenomena,ofacousticfacts,andthetraditionalormetaphysicalinterpretation.ReturningtotheEarthoflanguageisnotamatterofexaltingthe
socalledsensibleoveragainstthetraditionwhichhasdeprecateditinfavorofasupersensibleelement.''Itisratheramatterofaskingifinthetraditionalmannerof
representingthisstructureonereallyhastheexperienceofthebodilinessoflanguageasthecharacterofsonorityandwritingitisamatterofwhetheritsufficesto
tracethissonoritybackonlytothephysiologicallyrepresentedbodyandofreducingittothemetaphysicaldomainofthesensible."100"Butthemouthisnotsimplya
typeoforganinabodyrepresentedasanorganismonthecontrary:bodyandmouthbelongtothecurrent(Strmen)andtothegrowthoftheEarthinwhichwe
mortalsflourishandfromwhichwereceivethefirmnessofagroundandfooting[assise](dasGediegeneeinerBodenstndigkeit).IfwelosetheEarth,thensurely
wealsolosethebasis(MitderErdeverlierenwirfreilichauchdasBodenstndige)."101"LosingtheEarth"means,forthosewhospeak,thatwearenotonly
isolatingspeechfromthespeakingbodybutisolatinglanguagefromthetotalplayofEarthandworld,ofmanandthesacred.
Oncemorewefindherethecritiqueofthe"organ"quainstrument102ofabodywhichisitselfreducedtoaphysiologicalapparatus.ButHeideggerdoesn'tsimply
meanheretoshowthatweare"intheworld"andnotina"naturalenvironment"likeanimals.The"physical"resonanceofthevoice,thesoundsissuingfromthemouth,
isbroughtback,likethelivingbody,totheEarthunderstoodnotonlyasthegroundandbasisbutasthepowerofautonomousemergence,asanonhistoricalcurrent
andgrowth.Inwhatsense?Theresonanceofthevoicedoesnotcomeintoreliefinasimplematerialisticexplanation,foritsmaterialitybelongstoouroriginandtoour
Earthlyspontaneity,totheinvisiblesideoftheworldthatisinseparablefromandsustainsit.ButifthevoicereceivesitssonorityfromtheEarth,itreceivesits
attunementfrombeingorlanguage.Itsattunementisanaccord."DieStimmestimmt.""Thevoiceharmonizes"the"physical"andthe"spiritual,"theworldandEarth.
"Theresonance,theEarthlycharacteroflanguage,iscontainedintheattunement(Stimmen)which,playingthemoffeachother,bringsaboutaunanimitybetweenthe
regionsoftheworldstructure."103Here"theregions"or"worldstructure"designatesthefourfoldwhichistheEarthandsky,manandgod.
Torenderlanguagesensibleassuch,tomakecontactwiththeEarthor

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groundthatitconstitutes,isalsotomakemanifestitspowerofnaming.Whatdoesitmeantoname?Tonameisnotthepowerofgivinganametosomethingthat
alreadyexistsbutistoallowalimit,an"openingtrace"(Aufriss),toappearbetweentheunsaidandthesaid,betweenwithdrawalandpresence.Thislimitdoesnot
comeaboutthroughapurelyhumanlaborbutfollowsfromapoweroflanguage.Tonameisnottomakesomethinghappenbuttograntlanguageitsmostsecretreign.
Whatsecretisthereintheactivitypropertolanguage?Thissecretistwofold.Ontheonehanditisthecorrelationofwordandthing:"awordiswhatdeterminesa
thingasathing."104"Innaming,thethingsnamedarecalledandsummonedtotheirbeingthings."105Wordsandthingsraisethemselvesuptobeinginthesame
movement.Anamedoesnotfoundathing,nordoesitconditionitinthesenseofaBedingung(conditionforthepossibilityinKant'ssense),butithasthepossibility
ofplacinginpresence.AnameisaBedingnis,apowerofputtingthingsintheworld.Thesecondhiddentraitoflanguageisthatitspowerofdisclosureandshowing
"fetches"notonlythingsbuttheworld,ormoreexactly,itsetsinplaythedifferencebetweenthingsandworld.Thisdifferenceinheresinlanguageasasilentcall.To
call,heissen,toname,istoletthiscallresound,whichisalsotheplayofthenearandfar.
Ifpoetrymakesthingsappearasrenderedintheirdawning,intheirbirththeworldasthough"seenforthefirsttime"106itdoessonotbyleavingtheinitiativewholly
towords,asMallarmwouldhaveit,buttotheirpowerofmanifestation.Poetryletslanguageturnbacktowarditspowerofcalling.ForHeidegger,poetrymakesthe
veryoccurrenceofthedivisionbetweentheapparentandnonapparentappear.Thisdivision,alreadysilentlyeffectedintheunexpressedessenceoflanguage,isnota
fictionora"creation"ofthepoet.Man,poets,can"onlyinturn"speakwhatlanguagesays.Tospeakistolistentolanguageitistorepeat(nachsagen)itsspeaking
(Sage)itistospeakoutloud,tomakeresonatewhatlanguagesaysinsecret.Theonlytruththatpoetryspeaksisthetruthoflanguage,itstruthofshowing."What
does'saying'mean?(...)Toshow,letappear,leadonetoseeandunderstand."107Thereisnoconcoction,noartificeinpoetry:theHeideggerianpositionisexactly
opposedtothatofMallarm.Poeticspeechisnotrecomposed,reinvigorated,recreatedlanguagebutlanguagerediscoveredinitsinitialsimplicity.Apoemdoesnot
produceafictionalworldalongsidereality."Isay:aflower!and,outsidetheforgettingwheremyvoiceconsignsanycontour,inasmuchassomethingotherthanthe
knownchalice,musicallyarises,asanideaitselfandsweet,theabsentonefromeverybouquet.''108HereMallarmthinkswordandideaasidenticallyfictitious,
"somethingother"thantheperceivedorknownworld.Anideaisnothingbutasonority,afiction.OnthispointMallarmcomesclosetoNietzsche,forwhom
languageisfoundedon"lies,"onforgottenmetaphors,andwhoshowsthatthePlatonicideaoncemoreprogressivelybecomeswhatitwasatthebeginning:a"fable."
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inMallarm'swayitisnecessarytodenyreality,toforgetitinfavorofan"idea,""sweet"becauseitisreducedtoaharmoniousgroupofsoundsheretoforeunheard
of.TonameaflowerinHeidegger'smanneristohailtheinitialemergenceofthefloweritselfintheworld,tomaketheflowersensiblypresentinsomebouquet.That
thingsoccurintheworld,intheonetrueworld,andsayingathingpoeticallyarestrictlycontemporaneous.Herethereisasimpleconfirmation,forno"explanation"of
theoriginarycorrespondenceoflanguageandthebeingofthingscanbegiven.
Nodoubtthisiswhythegestureofthepoethasoftenbeencomparedtowizardry.Rimbaudspokeof"evocativesorcery."ForSartrethiswizardryconsistsintreating
wordsasthings,whichmeansnotbeingconcernedfirstwiththeirmeaning.Thisinterpretationisnotwrong,butreductive.Theactofthepoetwho"listensto
language,"whospeaks"afterit,"wholeaves"theinitiativetowords,''isnotmagicalbutperhapsquitemysticalinthesensethathedispossesseshimselfofhimself,
effaceshimselfbeforeaspeechwhichspeaksthroughhim.The"song"ofpoetryresidesintheexperienceofthebodilyplenituderenderedinlanguageandinthe
recognitionofitsradicalpowerofmanifestation.ThecelebrationandexaltationofthispowermakeseverypoetandnotjustH1derlin"poetizetheessenceof
poetry."NodoubtH1derlinisthefirsttohavethoughtinallitsdepthwhatthenineteenthcenturyhasratherflatlycalledthe"missionofthepoet"asatestamenttoa
passionate,unbearablemediationbetweenmanandthedivinewherejoy,sorrow,anddreadmixatestamenttoaproximitystruckbylightning.
Itbefitsus,fellowpoets,tostand
Underdivinethunderstormsbareheaded,
Tograspwithourownhandtheray
OftheFatherhimself,andtothepeopleToofferthe
divinegift,hiddeninsong.Foronlywearepureofheart,
likechildren,wehaveinnocenthands.109

Poetrymeasuresman'sabodeinthefaceofGod,inthefaceoftheheavens,thespaceofthesacredwheredivinitydisclosesandconcealsitself.Poetryfounds
History"thatwhichabides"butalsotheephemeralmomentwhichthroughitreceivesitsessentialattunement,itsmemory:"Alyregivestoeachhouritstone."110
Throughpoetryhumansarehumans,whateverelsetheir"merits"maybe:"Fullofmerit,butpoeticallymandwellsonthisEarth."Withoutdoubt,morethananyoneelse
untilMallarm,H1derlinraiseshimselffarabovethelyricalexpressionofaparticulardestinyinordertocelebratethe"greatdestiny"oftheWestasawhole.But
beyond"subjective"happinessorunhappiness,everypoetsingsthenecessity,whichseemstohimquasiforeign,ofhisownsong.One

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cannotcitetoomanyexamplesofthis,andtheyarefoundinallcenturies.Torecallafew:
DuBellay:"Andmusesfrommeasforeignflee."(Regrets)
Nerval:"ModulatinginturnonthelyreofOrpheus..."(ElDesdichado)
Rimbaud:"Thiswasatfirstastudy.Iwrotedownsilences,nights,Irecordedtheinexpressible.Ideterminedvertigoes."(AlchemyoftheVerb)
Apollinaire:"Wewanttogiveyouvastandstrangedomains
Wheremysteryinflowersoffersitselftowhoeverwantstocollectit."(ThePrettyRedhead)
Trakl:"WhenOrpheustouchesthelyreofsilver
Mourningthedeceasedinthegardenofevening...."(SevensongofDeath)
Rilke:"OnlythespaceofCelebrationcanreceiveComplaint."(SonnetstoOrpheus,I,8)
Valry:"Asilenceisthestrangesourceofpoems."(ThePhilosopherandtheYoungFate)
SaintJohnPerse:"Andthebirthofitssongistohimnolessstrange."(Exile)
H.Michaux:"...zigzagginglikeaclumsyphrasethatdoesnotmeetthebedofHistory."(Labyrinthes)
R.Char:"Thepoemisloverealizedbydesireremaineddesire."(FormalDivision)

Itisnotthat"poetryaboutpoetry"isonlyH1derlinian,northat"leavingtheinitiativetowords"ischaracteristiconlyofMallarm,eveniftheparticularendthathe
givesittheabolitionoftheauthorisproperlyhis.Wordstakingovertheinitiativemeansthatthepurelyinstrumentalrelationtolanguageissuspended,whichisthe
ordinaryuseoflanguagegovernedbythetransmissionofinformation.Insteadofwordsbeingsubordinatedtoapriorcontentorsense,thesenseisdisclosedalong
withwords,inwords.Thus,contrarytothebanalnotionofpoetsexpressingtheirprivatedreams,RenChar,thepoetparexcellenceofdaybreak,of"mornings,''
salutesthesobervigilanceofthewordwhichbringsabouttheclearingofpresence("theclearnessoftheday")beforetheinterventionofasubjectivity,beitdreaming
orvigilant:"Raisedbeforeitssense,awordawakensus,lavishestheclearnessofthedayonus,awordwhichhasnotdreamed."111"Awordawakensus,"which
meansacquaintsuswithwhatwearelookingfor,teachingittous.Inthewordthatdoesnotdreamthereissomethinglikeapermanence,asortofknowledge
[savior]onthissideoforbeyondthesubject,onthissideoforbeyondsleepandvigilance."Thewordsthataregoingtoemergeknowaboutuswhatweignore
aboutthem."112Wheredowordscomefrom?Notfromus("wordsarenotofus,"saysValry),butfromlanguage,orratherfromthelinkbetweenbeingand

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language,fromtheplaythatitmaintainsbetweenthingsandtheworld,thenearandthefar."Thereisnothingsketchierthanawordcomefromelsewhereandfrom
afar."113Theworddoesnotdictatesomething,butsketchesasensethatthepoetendeavorstofix.
Whatremainstobeshownanimmensetaskishowapoetrespondstothesketchysensethatwordssuchastheseprovide:seasunnightlovelightningsilence
whatremainstobeshownishowthissketchedsenseintheEarthitself,intheverysonorityofthewords,isequallyasketchofaStimmung.Forthepoeticsongisnot
somucha"music,"asoneisinthehabitofsayingsincesymbolism,asitisanattunement,adisposition,anatmosphere.

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VIII
RilkeandtheInteriorityofEarth
Butthereremainsthesongthatnamestheearth.
Heidegger,HW,p.254
Itisnolongerpossibletoapplythemeasureoftheindividualheart.
Rilke,Correspondence,p.372

WhenHlderlincelebratesaSacred"olderthantime,"hetherebyappealstoanonhistoricaldimension,toatimepriortoHistory(andwhichneverthelesscandecide
itsfutureorder).1Contrarytothis,forHeidegger,Rilke'sthoughtissituatedstrictlywithintheprolongationoftheHistoryofmetaphysics.IfforhimthereisaRilkean
Sacred,itisnotaninaugural,dawningsacredrather,itisoneallowingforthepreservationofsimpleandephemeralearthlythingsspontaneouslyconsignedtooblivion
ortodisfigurationby"machines"2(athemeHeideggertakesupinhisownthoughtonTechnology).Rilke'spoetrywouldpertaintothetwilight:hispowerwouldliein
itscapacitytotakeuponcemoreandtorecastinafinaltransmutationthegreatnamesthathavefoundedthemainepochsofbeing.Itwouldincludeathoughtof
PhysisasthethoughtofbeingsintheirtotalityandwouldechoHeraclitusandParmenidesitwouldrepeatathoughtofthesubjectthatmakesalltruthreston
representationasitdoesforDescartesandPascalitwouldfundamentallyunfoldathoughtoftheWillasthebeingofbeingsdirectlyderivedfromSchopenhauerand
Nietzsche.Thus,underlainbytheentirehistoryofmetaphysics,Rilke'spoeticalworkwouldbyitsterminalandrecapitulative3characteroccupyapositionequaltothat
ofNietzsche.Finally,Rilkewouldbea"betternatured"Nietzsche,abgemildert,''softened,"apoetwho"remainsintheshadowofatemperedNietzschean
metaphysics."4TheAngeloftheElegieswouldbe"metaphysicallytheSameastheNietzscheanfigureofZarathustra."5Inmakinghisentireinterpre

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tationdependonthisparallelwithNietzsche,HeideggeroversimplifiesanddissimulatesthefundamentalthemesofRilke'sthoughtmorethanelucidatesthem.
Indeed,thecenterpieceofHeidegger'sargumentation,namelytheconformityoftheprincipalRilkeannamesforthebeingofbeingsthe"Open,""pureperception,"
the"heart"tothetraditionalmetaphysicsofsubjectivityandinteriority,canhardlystanduptoareadingofthegreaterpartofthetexts.However,wearenotgoing
tocontentourselvesbycitingothertextsascounterexamplesagainstHeidegger'sreadingwewilltrytoreadinadifferentwaytextscitedbyhim.Thisnot
withstanding,wearenotgoingtostirupdoubtsabouttheprincipleconcerningthe''homology"(permittingthereciprocityofpropositions)betweenthe"thought"ofa
poet,whateveritmaybe,andametaphysicaldoctrine.If,asY.Bonnefoysays,"poetryisacertainexcessofwordsoversense,"6alldebateaboutthephilosophyof
apoetwillinevitablybereductivetotheextentthatsuchadebatewillholdasnegligible,oratleastplacebetweenparentheses,thepropercharacterofthepoem.
Comparedtothefortifiedarchitectureofaphilosophicalsystem,the"doctrine"ofapoetwillinevitablyriskappearingexcessivelysimple,naive,fragile,clumsy.No
doubtRilkeseemstohaveputforwardsuchadoctrineinsomeofhisletterswhereheexplainsthebasisofhisthinkingandwhatonewouldhavetocallhis
metaphysicalvision.Butnothingprovesthatwhathehasthusexpoundedisactuallythesenseofhispoems.DoesValrynotteachusthatthepoetisinnobettera
positionthananyoneelsetogetatthetruthofhisownworks?Now,Rilkefullysubscribedtothisidea.Thesenseofapoemcannotlieelsewherethaninthepoem
itself.
SubjectiveInteriorityand"theDistantHeart"
HeideggermakesoutwhatisessentialinRilke'sthoughtfromapoemthatdefines,asdoestheEighthDuinoElegy,theopposingrelationsthatanimalsandhumans
maintaintothe"Open."Thepoemgoesasfollows:
Asnatureabandonsbeings
totheriskoftheirdullsensesandprotects
nonespeciallyinsoilorstem:
sowearetotheprimordialgroundofourbeing
nolongerloveditrisksus.Onlywe,
morethanplantsoranimals,
goalongwiththisriskwillingitsometimeswe
aretheonesthatwager(notoutofinterest)
morethanevenlifeitselfwager
abreath...Thismakesus,outsideofshelter

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secure,there,wherethegravityofpure
forcesisatworkwhatfinallyharborsus
isourbeingshelterlessandthatwehavethus
turneditintotheOpen,whenweseeathreat
inorderto,inthewidestcompass,somewhere,
whereitslawtouchesus,say"yes"toit.7

ThispoemisoneoftheraretextswhereRilkethematicallydealswith"nature"ingeneral8andarticulatestheideaofmanasbeing"wagered"bythisnatureorbythe
"primordialground"ofhisbeing.Arethisanimalnatureandourownprimordialgroundidentical?Theidentitybetweenthetwoisapossibleinterpretation,buthardly,
asHeideggerseemstoassume,somethingobvious.Indeedtherearefourterms:nature/beingstheprimordialgroundofourbeing/usandthusthereisonlyananalogy
betweenourrelationtoourownprimordialgroundandtherelationofbeingstonature.The"more''whichwearethroughinspiration(thepoeticsong)seemstobe
aradicaltranscendence,a"whollyother"withrespectto"life."Canonededucefromthispoem,asHeideggerdoesinhiscommentary,thatthethrustofRilke'sthought
istiedtothepostKantianmetaphysicsofNatureandWill?AccordingtotheHeideggerianinterpretation,Rilkedevelopsaradicaloppositionbetween,ontheone
hand,theseamlessplenitudeofanimalnaturemarkedbytheprimacyoftheWill(eachanimalis"risked,"butkeptinthewager,shelteredinitself)and,ontheother
hand,therupturebroughtaboutbymanthoughtasthebeingthatgoesbeyonditsinsertioninthenaturalground.The"Open"wouldbenotonlythetotalityofNaturein
thesenseofanimalsbut"thebeingofbeingsintheirtotality,"whichiswhattheexpression"thebroadestcircle"signifies.Agreed.Butnotefromthestartthat"the
broadestcircle"isnotanentityclosedinonitselfindeed,quitetothecontrary:"Distanceisall,andnowhereisthecircleclosed"(SonnetstoOrpheus,II,20).9Man
breakswiththeplenitudeofthe"Open,"turningawayfromitasissaidinotherpoems,abovealltheEighthElegywhereasanimals"freely"springupinit.Animals
are"free"becausetheyarecompletelyinsertedintotheOpen,"freefromdeath"andfreefromreflectiononthemselves.Itisthroughhisreflectiveandobjectifyinggaze
thatmanextractshimselffromtheworldandexposeshimself.Nevertheless,mancanrecoverthistotalinsertion,thislostshelterhecanrecovertheOpenby
internally,thatis,invisibly,turningtowardit.The"salvation"extendedtomanbyRilkewouldbe,accordingtoHeidegger,therecoveryofapaththatwouldbe,of
course,identically,simultaneously,thatofnatureandinteriority,butwhichwouldhaveitsbasisandfoundationintheinteriorityofthesubject.Overagainstthe
movementofobjectificationbornfromcalculating,Cartesianreason,RilkewouldrediscovertheequivalentofaPascalianlogicoftheheart,whichwouldmeanthe
returnofmanthroughtheinside,throughthe

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"heart,"totheinteriorityofthegreatAllofwhichtheyhavebeenexcluded.Rilkeanwisdomwouldbasicallyteachthis:thesolutiontothelossoftheelementalfusion
withnature(alossthatconstitutestheveryessenceofman)isfoundintheflighttowardaninterioritysoprofoundthatitrejoinsthislostunity.
ItisundeniablethatRilkebelongstothe"epochofsubjectivity"andthustoitsmetaphysics.Hispoetryquiteoftenstressesthenecessityofinteriorization,ofthe
transformationofvisiblethings"intous,"intotheinvisibilityoftheheart:"...themostvisiblehappiness/canberecognizedonlywhentransfigured,within./Nowhere,
mybeloved,willtheworldbeasitiswithin."10Everyhistoricalmonument("columns,towers,thesphinx,theflyingbuttressesofacathedral'')isnaturallyconsignedto
beingsweptawaybytime,thedestroyerthereforeitshouldberedressed,raisedup,orastheSeventhElegyoncemoresays,"reconstructedwithin":"inyourgaze/
itfinallystands,upright,rescuedatlast."11Perishablethings,"wemusttransformthemcompletelyintotheinvisibleheart/intoohinfinityintous"!12Thehuman
subjectcapableofinteriorityindeedseemstobeproposedhereastheunconditionedfoundationofalltruth.
Yettolookatitmoreclosely,itislikelythatthisaffirmationconcerningthemetamorphosisoftheworldintothe"heart"mightnothavebeenthepureandsimple
withdrawaltowardtheinteriorityofasubject.Thus,letusreadoncemorethisoftenquotedpassagefromtheNinthElegy:
Earth,isitnotwhatyouwant:toariseinusinvisible?
Isitnotyourdreamtobeinvisibleforonce?Earth!
invisible!13

Inthistext,thesubjectinthegrammaticalsenseaswellasinthesenseofanagent,thecenterandpoleofultimatereference,isthe"Earth"andnot"us."Earthrequires
usforitstransformationintotheinvisible.Earthaspirestoinvisibility(astoitsownessence?)bywayofus.ButwhatistheinvisibleforRilke?Itisnotcertainthatthis
is,asHeideggerthinks,humaninteriority.Itisnomorecertain,asBlanchotholds,thattheinvisibleissimplythepoem.14For,preciselyatthemomentofsupreme
adherencetoEarth,wordsfail.
"Unutterably,Iassenttoyou,"goestheNinthElegy.15Couldnottheinvisiblecorrespondtotheunutterable,tosilence?Poetrysingsthesayableworld,butsoasto
letitbebeyondeveryname.ThusinSonnets:
Lettherosesimplybloom...
Takenotgreatpainstosearchforothernames...(I,5)
Donotslowly,inyourmouth,thingsbecomenameless?(I,13)

(referringtotheflagranceofarose):

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Buttonameit,no,wedon'tknowhow"(II,6)
...thesecretandgentleintuition
thatsilentlygrowsfromtheinside.(II,6)
WordstenderlystillcomeclosetotheUnsayable[Unsglichen].(II,10).

Sometimesitseemssilenceisthefaceofgloryofwhichthepoemcanonlybethereverse,apanic,stellarsilencemoreoriginalandmorepowerfulthanallspeech.
Thissilence(Stille)encloseswordsasinthepoemTheIslandoftheSirens,"itswoopsdownuponthesailors"intheintervalswhenthesirensarenotsinging:
Howencircled(thesailors,butperhapsalsowords)
bythesilencethatcontainsallspaceandbreathesinyourears
asifitsothersidewere
thesongtowhichnonecouldresist.16

ThecelebrationofEarth("celebratingtheEarthandnottheUnsayable,"NinthElegy)beginsbyaffirmingtheexpressibilityofthingsandthedisavowalofanabsolute
orsupraterrestrialunsayable,butfinishesbyassentingtotheinexpressibilityofEarthlypresenceitself.WouldnottheRilkeanUnsayablebethevery"heart"ofthe
Earthbothonthissideofthepoetandhisegoandbeyondanypoeticutterance?
IndeedthereisadoubleeffacementoftheIandofthepoemitselfthatshouldmakeusseethatthepoetnodoubtmeansneithersubjectivitynortheworkofartwhen
hespeaksofthe"invisibleheart."
Yet,accordingtotheHeideggerianreadingtheRilkeanpoeticprocessofturningtowardtheheartplaysitselfoutexclusivelyintheinteriorityoftheconsciousnessof
thesubject.ThedimensionoftheheartsignifiesforHeideggerthepassagetoanothermodalityofrepresentation."Theturnis...areversalofconsciousness,and
indeedwithinthesphereofconsciousness,"hewrites.17Representationalandobjectifyingconsciousnessconvertsitselfintoaconsciousnessthatceasestobea
presentationinfrontofitself.Theheartwouldbetheconversiontotheselfoftheessenceofconsciousness:"thattowardwhichtheessentiallyinteriorandinvisible
mustturntofindwhatismostpropertoitcanonlybethemostinvisibleoftheinvisibleandthemostinterioroftheinterior."18"Thereversionoftheaversiontothe
Open,"thereconversiontotheOpen,wouldbeareturntotheabsoluteheartofthesubject,aradicalinteriorization,anErinnerungaccordingtoacompletely
Hegelianmovement:negation,negationofthenegation,absoluteintimacyofspirit.
Nevertheless,alargenumberofRilkeanexpressionsthatdesignatethisreturnandtheheartitselfhavethesignificanceandincontrovertibleplaceofexteriority.Why
wouldRilkecalltheheart"theinteriorspaceoftheworld"(Weltinnenraum)ifheonlywantedtomarkthemostprofoundintimacyofthesubject?Whydoeshealso
say,inthepoemcommenteduponbyHeidegger:"overtherewheregravityhaspureforces"and"thewidest

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19

compass"? Whydoeswhatheelsewherenames"theWorld"belongtotheessenceoftheheart?ItseemsthatintheRilkeanhearttheantinomybetweenexterior
andinteriorisnotunilaterallyentrenched,asHeideggersupposed,bythefoldingbackonabsoluteinteriorityrather,itisconfrontedandresolvedbyanewpossibility
fortheIandtheworldtoexchangetheirroles.Rilkedoesnotcelebratetheabsorptionoftheworldintothesubjectbuttherelativization,indeedtheinversion,of
interiority.Afterall,ishenotthefirsttoformulatethisphrase:InderWeltsein?20MightRilkeperhapsbemuchfurtherfrommetaphysicsthanHeideggerdepictshim?
Adoubt,aquestion,keepscroppingupinthepoetaboutthe"obvious"characteroftheindubitable,certainseparationoftheinsideandoutside:"Whatistheinside?..
."InRilke'stextthisquestionimmediatelyfollowsanimpulsetoshatterthisseparationsoastoestablishaunitythatisnotaunityoftheheartsubjectbuttheunityof
heartworld:''Oh,nottobeseparated!"(Nichtgetrenntsein!)Rilkeveryoftencelebratesaneccentricheartthathecalls"distant,""far,""exposed,""strange,"aheart
thatmankind,orthepoet,doesnotmaster,doesnotinhabit,doesnotknow,butaboutwhichheorshehasapresentimentanddesires."Whosingsthefaroffheart/
thatabides,hale,inthemiddleofallthings?"21Thisworldhearta"youheartspace/whohasgrownoutofus.Mostintimatetous/that,surpassingus,
departs"22wouldhavemoreincommonwiththecoincidenceoftraditionaloppositessuchastheIandtheworldthanwithaninflationofinteriority.Thereis
somethingbesidestheNeoromanticreaffirmationoftheabsoluteprimacyoftheIinRilke.FarfromtheIbeingwhatabsorbstheworld,theworlditselfisendowed
withinteriority.Thingsthemselvesshelterintheirintimateobscurityaquasihumaninterioritymadeofahazeofardentsentimentsnotrelatedtodefinite,isolated
subjects:
Thingsarethebodyofviolins
chargedwithrumblingobscurity
thereindreamstheweepingofwomen
there,insleep,isrootedtherancor
ofentireraces....23

InmanywaysRilke'spoetryshakesthecertitudesofinteriority,andamongthem,selfassuredness,selfpossession.Ourdeepestheart,heoftensays,isnotours."Our
possessionisloss."24
"TheInteriorSpaceoftheWorld"(Weltinnenraum)ortheHeartbeyondSubjectivity
"DurchalleWessenreichtdereineRaum:Weltinnenraum.DieVgelfliegendurchunshindurch...."25

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"Onespaceextendsthroughallbeings:theinnerspaceoftheworld.The
birdsflythroughus...."26
Onenessandunityinandbythespaceoftheworldthiscertainlyisnottheneutral,universalspaceofscience.Thisspacewespeakofasexteriorisnotsimply
"outside."Ittraversesusandbondsus,unitesus.Us:"allthebeingsoftheworld,"whichmeanswewhobelongtoacosmos,haveanarrangementandharmony,have
anEarthlyplaceandalinkwiththeEarth.The"world"forRilkeisnotthenetworkofinstrumentalrelationsbutthelivingreignof"purespace,"adifferentnamethan
theonegivenintheEighthElegytothisinteriorspaceoftheworld.Acrossallbeingonespacestretchesitselfout:reicht.Theverbreichenmeans"tostretch,''"to
extend"toone'sproperbreadthitalsomeanstoreign.Whatisthisreign(Reich)ofspacethatgovernsbeingswithoutdominatingthemfromtheoutside,butcarries
andpressesthemfromtheinside?Isitsimplytheburstof"natural"growth?Perhapsso,butontheconditionweunderstand,asdoesRogerMunierinhislimpidand
profoundinterpretationoftheEighthElegy,thereignofpurespaceasacall,asawaiting."TheOpenisspace:thepurespacethatisonlyacall,anakedwaiting,the
virginandsovereignelementthatreceivesallthatcomesforthandarisesinthegrowthofwhathappens,inwhich(inden,towardwhich),forexample,flowers
blossomwithoutend."27Farfrombeingtheirpassivesubstrate,atthesametimethatitmovesbeingsinteriorspacegathersthem,orratherprecedesthem,attracts
themitwaitsfortheminanontemporalwaitingorratheritlongsforthem."TheOpenlongs,"writesR.Munier.28Purespaceisthetelos,withoutformandwithout
limit,ofthefreeexpansionofthings.Itisafreedomdifferentfromthatofhumans,notthe"congealed,isolatedaffirmation"ofasubjectbut"fullandwithoutmeasure:
freedomastheelement."29
Mustwenotadmiteveninthesimplestapproachtothings,invision,thatthedensity,theinnermost"substance"andtheinaccessibilityofspace,iswhatinhabitsus?To
look"outside"atthegrowingtreeistoexperiencetheinside:"Ilookoutside,anditisthetreethatgrowsinme."30Perceptionisnotreducedtothecontemplativeact
ofasubjectfacinganobject,butitparticipatesinthegrowth,inthemovement,inthespacingpropertothings,whetherornottheyarenaturalthings."Thebirdsfly
throughus"doesnotmeanourconsciousnessrepresentstheflightofthebirdsnotonlydoweexperiencetheirveryflightinourbody,butithappenstousthrough
ourbodyinasensethatisnotsimplyamatterofaperceptionbutafitofpassion,ofanecstaticoutburst,of"sympathy,"ofaflutteringofwingsthatquiversthrough
andbeyondusinaspacethatgathersandenvelopsus.Rilkerecognizesinthe"inside"thecharacteristicsofthe"outside,"andinthe"outside"thepowersofan
"inside."

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Whatistheinside?
Ifnotamoreintensesky
Traversedbybirdsanddeep
ofallthewindsofreturn.31

Here"interior"spaceappearsasendowedwithaspontaneouslife,asopentoanimmense,active("intense")depthendowedwithitsownlife,andthusfarfrombeing
personalandsubjective.Thispreobjectivespaceistraversedbymysteriousmovements,thoseofthefreeanimal,thoseofthewind,awindthat"returns,''insteadof
dissipating,orofblowingintothevoidortowardsomeotherplace.Ratherthanthe"returntotheself"ofthesubject,isnotthisreturnthereturnwithoutreserve,the
Open?Asfor"exterior"space,itisa"project/outside(imFreien,intheopenair)ofinnerworlds."32Everywherethereisexchange,circulationoftheinteriorandthe
exterior,aboveallinthepoemsofTheSpanishTrilogy:33
Whymustamanstandtherelikeashepherd,
soexposedtotheexcessofinfluence,
somuchapartofthisspacefullofevents
..........................................................................
Sohearisesatnightandthecry
outsideofthebirdisalreadyinhisexistence
andheisemboldenedbecausehehastaken
alltheheavensintohisface....
andtheshadowsofclouds
traversinghimaswouldthoughtsthatspace
wouldthinkforhim,slowly.

Themostdistancespace,"thespacewherethestarsmove,"miraculouslyblossomsinus.Yetthisstellarspacecoulddowithoutus,it
...could,givenover
tothedistance,overflow
intothedistancefarfromus.
Andnowitdeignstocometoourface,
likethegazeofthelovedone,throwingitselfopenbeforeusandperhapsdispersingitsexistenceinus."34

"Thespaceoftheworld"flowsinus,butontheconditionthatthe"heart"opensitselftoharboringthemostfarflungdistanceintime,tothatofnaturaltimeitself,the
immemorialpastof"blood"("Itsheart[...]anearnameofmillennialabsences),35andtothemostfarflungdistanceinspace,thatofthestarsandtheskies,
beyondtheskies.

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OhImust
havedonewithmywishesforeveryotherconjunction,
toaccustommyhearttoitsremoteness.Ithad
betterliveinthedreadofitsstars,
thantobeprotectedbyappearances,allayedbyproximity.
Theoverflowingheavensofdisappearedstars
luxuriatingindistress....Here,alreadyontheweeping,
endingface...begins
theimperiousspaceoftheworld....
Breaththedarknessoftheearthandagain
lookup!Again.Lightandfaceless
thedepthfromaboveweighsdownuponyou.Toyourface
thefacecontainedwithinthenightaffordsspace.36

Tothehumangazetowardtheconstellatedheight,frighteningandlofty,correspondsthe"intensemovementofthesestarstowardyou."37Whatdoesloftinessfollowing
frightmeanfortheheartthatstaresatthestarryskies?Isitnotalossofourownness?Thefaceofthefacelessnightapproaches.Whatisourslightsupwiththestars,
flowsoutofus,asonepoemsaysthathasthesameinspirationasTheTrilogy:
Turneduptowardwhatstills,
Ihaveassentedtotheholynight,
mysenseshaveabandonedme
andthehearthasincreasedwithoutname.38

The"heart"learnstherenotonlyitsinnermeasurebutthenocturnaloutpouring,thebreakingofindividualsubjectivityenclosedinitself,whichseesitselfdeliveredover
totheanonymousspaceoftheworld."Theheart,"andnolonger"myheart."
Black,hugeheartholder.
...........................................................................
Andthesublimethatyouprepareinspace
Ireceive,unrecognizable,uponmyfleetingface.39

Thegazeimmersedinthenight,"theinfiniteobscurityoflight,"feelsitssingularitydissolve,thefacetowhichitbelongseffaced.
Spacewassilentlyborninmytraits
tofillitsgreatgaze
thenight,throughallitsstars,prevailedoverme.40

Theexperienceoftheheartoroftheinnerspaceoftheworldthatthenightfavorsgivesthepoetaccesstothecompletereversibilityofinteriorandexterior.The
plungetowardaninteriorityoftheworldsummonstheeffacementnotonlyofthefacebutofitsidentifiablesubstrate.

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Face,myface:
whoseareyouandforwhatsortofthing
areyouface?41

NodoubtitmayseemthatinthissurprisingpoemtheI,thepersonalheart,triestorejointheanonymityofnature"withoutface."
Doestheforesthaveaface?
Doesnotthemountainofbasalt
standtherefaceless?
Doesnotthesea
raiseitselffromoutof
theseabottomwithoutface?
Isnottheskymirroredthere
withoutbrow,withoutmouth,withoutchin?42

However,thisexperienceofspacewithoutafaceexpressesrathertheexperienceofanexteriorization,anexpositionorastrippingbareofsubjectivitywhichthereby
reachesthe"unheardofCenter,"theheartoftheworldoverwhichnodiscoursecantrulyhaveahold("youunderstandthatthenamesforitendlesslywasteawayfor
itisthecenter").43Purespace,ifwecanreachit,defacesus[dvisage]literally.Strippedofitsface,subjectivitylosesitseidos,whichisthesight(ofoneself).It
doesnotenvisageitselfanymore.The"faceless"dismissesthetheoreticalandreflexivegazeinordertobecomeopentoaninteriorityotherthanthatwhichisthe
inverseofasubjectfacingup,standingfast,expressingitself,affirmingitself.Thereisasimultaneityofdispossession,ofexportationandofthelossofthevoice,which
revertstoacry:
Mydarkness,mydarkness,Istaytherewithyou
andeverythingoutsidegoesby
andIwantedtohavegrownlikeananimal
asinglevoice,auniquecry
foreverything.44

Howdowereadinthesetextstheexpressionofasubjectivitybasedonitselfandsatisfiedwithitsconsciousness?ForRilketheheartonlydiscoversitselfifit
surrendersthepropertyofthesubjecttobecomethepropertyoftheworld.ThisheartisnottheIbutthe"excessofexistence"overallipseity:"Ohheart,howmuch
did,fromthefirstmoment,theexcessofexistence(dasbermassdasDaseins)overcomeyou?"45
TheRilkeanecstasyoftheheartaccomplishesanenlargementinthesenseofanexpansionandliberation.Thepoemcitedaboveemphasizesthattherediscovered
"uniquecry"couldbebothbeyondlanguageandthesingleheart:

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auniquecry
forallforwhatisittomethenumber
ofwordsthatcomeandflyby
whenabirdsongfourthousandtimes
sungandsungagain
makesatinyheartsograndandone
withtheheartofthegrove....46

CertainlytheexpansionoftheheartispartofenteringagainintodirectcommunicationwiththeOpenwhichdoesnotmeantakingpossessionoftheOpen.Butit
seemsdifficulttointerpretthisreturntotheOpenasasimpleinnermovementofconsciousness,asthereopeningofalarger,vaguer,moreindeterminatesubjective
space.Heideggerwrites:"...notonlydoeseverythingelseturntowardthegenuine'inside'ofconsciousness,butevenmore,withinthisinsideeverythinglimitlesslyturns
forusintoeverythingelse.TheturninginwardoftheinnerspaceoftheworldreleasesuswithoutendtotheOpen."47UnderstandingthereturntotheOpenasthe
inversionofallobjectivityintoanindefinite(morethaninfinite)subjectivity,Heideggerdoesnotsee,orpretendsnottosee,thattheturnbacktowardtheinterior,the
transformationoftheoutsideintotheinside,doesnotcomeaboutasaonewaymovement.Thediscoveryofthedimensionoftheheartimpliesatranspositionand
expositionoftheinteriortotheexterior.Or,moreradically,exterioritybecomesinterior.Orstillmoreradically,the"purespace"oftheheartoftheworldisnolonger
subjectiveorobjective.Farfromtheexteriorsimplybeinginteriorized,indeedthefirstmovement,whichisapowerfultransfigurationofthings,permitsthedirect
readingoftheinteriorfromtheexterior:
Totransformtheworldthereoutside,winds,rains,
........................................................................
intoahandfulofinnerthings.
Nowitallliescarefree
Inthewideopen[heartof]roses.48

Butthis"wideopen"impliesatthesametimeasecretdimension,withdrawn,difficulttoapproach.Thenonanthropological,nonsubjectiveopeningoftheheartisquite
differentfromtheimmediateopeningoftheanimalwhich,"wideeyed,seestheOpen"(beginningoftheEighthElegy).Couldnotthisheartoftheworldintheendbe
whatRilkenamestheInvisible?IftheInvisibleisnotreducibletohumaninteriority,nortotheTextureofapoem,isitnotsomethinglikeatransmutationoftheOpen?
IsnottheInvisiblethenonimmediateOpen,thewithdrawncenterthatholdsallgatheredthingsandunitestheiradversetensions?Isnotthisungraspableandall
powerfulcenterthatresistsand"dominatesus"andtowardwhich"ourcenter"inclines(asthesixthpoemofVergersaseriesofpoemswritteninFrenchcited
belowindicates)closertoHeidegger'sbeingthantoanypar

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ticularbeing,notablytoSchopenhauer'swill?Whocouldunderstandtheattractionitexertsasthesimpleruseofthevitalillusion?
The"Invisible"orInapparentHarmonyoftheEarth
Nooneknowshowmuchitdenies,
theInvisible,dominatesus,when
ourlifetotheinvisibleruse
givesin,invisibly.
Slowly,tothepleasureoffascinations
ourcenterisdisplacedso
thattheheartisreturnedtoitinitsturn:
tohim,atlast,theGrandMasterofabsences.49

Thesubjectofthispoemisnotaruseoflife,thewilltoliveorthewilltopower,butaruseofbytheInvisibleregarding"ourlife."Whichruseisthis?Makinguseof
ourdesires,ouraffinities(our"fascinations"),theinvisiblecenteroftheworldenticesoursubjectivity("ourcenter")withoutviolence("gently")todecenteritselfsothat
theheartoftheworldcantakeitsplace("returnstoitinturn'').Theinvisibilityoftheheartiswhatmovesusitistheheart,andnotus,whichisthesovereignMaster
"ofabsences."Whicharetheseabsences?TheyarethemodesofthepresenceoftheInvisible,andfirstofallthoseoftheAngels:"TheangeloftheElegiesthe
'terrible'angelistheguaranteeforahigherlevelofrealityoftheInvisible."50TheRilkeanangelseemstobethispowerthatfreesusfromourowncenter,thathelps
usovercome,ifnotabolish,theselfenclosureofsubjectivity,forhereishowthepoetappealstotheliberator:
Ourfate:notknowinghowtoexit
theinnerdomainthatmisleads.
Youappearinourhindrances
andenflamethemlikeanalp.
Yourjoyoverhangsourrealm,
andwehardlygrasptheoutcome
..................................................................
Angel,doIcomplain,doIcomplain?
Butthenhowwouldthecomplaintbemine?51

Theseabsenceshavecomeafterthoseofdeath:"Beingdeadisahardship/andfullofrecommencements."52Theheartopenstowardthisother"reign."Becausethere
issolittleofNietzscheinRilke,hetreatsdeathandlifeasa"reign."TheInvisibleistheunityofthelivingandthedead.Butthisunitythatisaffirmedmanytimes("In
theElegiesaffirmationoflifeandofdeathrevealthemselvestobeone")53shouldnotbethoughtofasitselfbelongingtoahinterworld,toa"worldbeyondwhose
shadow

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54

55

56

57

plungestheearthintogloom." This"profoundlyEarthly" immanencewhichiscalled"thegrandUnity," orelsewhere"theprofundityofbeing" (whichisanother


namefortheOpeninits''largestcircle"),obviouslyechoestheOneAllofHeraclitus,butwithouttheexplicitreferencetothelatterthatonefindsmostprominentlyin
Hlderlin.If,aswithHeraclitus,"aninvisibleharmonysurpassesthevisibleharmony,"58itisinthesenseofanimmanenceoftheinvisible"principle"thatgoverns
everything,sotospeak,behindthescenes.Yet,incontradistinctiontothephilosopher(HeraclitusorHeidegger),Rilke,thepoet,mostoftenexceptforthefamous
lettertovonHulewicz,ofwhichthepreviouscitationsareextractsdesires,seeksinhispoemtheinvisibleunitywithoutconsideringitanacceptedprinciple.Poetry
quiteoftenseemsmorehesitant,lesstheticandlessaffirmativethanontology.Thus,inthedramaticSpanishTrilogy,theunityamongsomefragmentsofthenocturnal
countryside(eerilylightedandtormentedlikeVanGogh'sStarryNight,whichseemstobeevokedbyit),theunityamongvariousbeastsandforeignpeopleandtheI
ofthepoet,isnotpositedor"realized"butpostulated,requestedofGodinastrangeprayer.Doesnotthefusionsoviolentlydesired("tomakebutonethingofall
that")acknowledgeadistressingseparation?Inanycase,thepoemwhosebeginningwecitebelowgivestheIaneccentric,happenstanceplace(atfirsttheIisfound
atthemargin,literallywritteninparenthesesthen,foramoment,asapointofdeparturethenstrayingagain,uncertainofitself):
Outofthiscloud,see:thatsowildly
coversupthestarthatjustappeared(andfromme)
yonderofthesefoothillsnownightfallen,
nightwindsforawhile(andfromme),
fromthisriverinthevalleyfloor,thatcatches
theshiningofajaggedstarlitsky(andfromme)
tomake,ohLord,outofmeandallthings
onesinglething:outofmeandoutofthefeeling
thattheherd,returnedtothefold,
exhaling,enduresthegreatobscure
absenceoftheworld,frommeandeverylight
amongsomanydarkhouses,ohLord:
tomakebutonethingfromstrangers,for
Idonotknowasingleone,ohLord,andfrommeagain
tomakeonething....59

Theuniquething(dasDing)thatthepoetsummonsfromhiswishesisnotobviouslyaparticularbeingreferredtoasearthandsky,asthepitcherofwineisin
Heidegger.Itisnamedintheoptativemodeasapossibility:"whatbelongstoworldandearth"(Welthaftirdisch)itwouldbe"thearrival"(dieAnkunft),nothingbut
it,graspedinthepurityofitsessence:

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60

...weighingnothingbutthearrival

"dasDing,daswelthaftirdischwieeinMeteor...nichtswiegendalsdieAnkunft."WhatarrivalifnottheveryappearingofthenocturnalthingsandtheI,of
worldearthI,whose"unity"wouldbesuddenlymanifest,imponderable,dazzlingandungraspable"asameteor''?Indeedthethingwouldbetheflashofthe
presentationofthingspresent.
Butthearrivalinpresencethis"uniquething,"theverysuddenshowingofpresence,thequitedazzlingburstescapesinthispoemitislacking.61TheInvisibleis
theabsenceofabsencesatthesametimeasitisthepresenceofthingspresent:alogicalcontradiction.TheInvisibleresists,andyetitpullsallthestrings,itactsand
therebyappearsdisclosed.
InRilke'spoetrythe"contradiction"constitutedbythisplenitudeofbeinginitsverywithdrawalbeingthatshinesbywayofbeingsissymbolizedbytherose.
Rose,ohpurecontradiction,delightOfbeingthesleepofnooneundersomanyeyelids.62

FollowingHegelianlogiconthispoint,"purecontradiction"hereistheessenceofpureidentity.Butthispurecontradictionisnotaccompaniedbyanypain,anylabor
ofthenegative.Itispleasure(Lust),thedelightofanonsubjectiveidentity("thesleepofnoone").Thedelightofanextremesurrenderofipseity.Underpetaleyelids
sleepstheinvisibleeyethatisnotonlyprovisionallyclosedbuteternallyunconsciousofitself.Theinteriorspaceoftherosehidesaperfectabsence.Rilke'srose,like
thatofAngelusSilesius,iswithoutwhyitdoesnotwantanythinganddoesnotwantitself.WearefarfromthepostKantianmetaphysicsofthewill.Therosesoftly
callstolettheinvisibleopeningbe,tolovetheunfathomableintimacyofitswithdrawal.Andyetitnegativelyevokessomeonewhoinhissleepcouldseeelsewhere,
couldhaveanothermodeofpresenceandlooking.Isnottheeyeleftunsaidinthepoemtheinvisiblecenterofphysis,itsgazeabysmallyclosedbutopen,which
inexhaustiblyexposesitselfinthevisibilityofpetaleyelids?Theamazementofthepoetovertheunityofopeningandclosingthatcanbediscernedinoneidentical
thing,overthisgiftandthisextremereserve,ismarkedinthepoemTheRoseCuttingbyanexclamation:
Thatonecanopenuplikealid,
andunderitliegenuineeyelids,
closed,asthough,sleepingtenfold,they
hadtosubduethevisualpowerofaninnerworld.63

Herethereisnolongera"contradiction"butacoincidenceofopposites,namelysleepandthewatch("visualpower"),eventhoughthiswatchis

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nothingbutahypothesis,indeedafiction("asthough").Theidentityofabsenceandpresencewhichishereonlysuggestedisclearlyaffirmedattheendofthepoem
whentheoutsideandinside,"thewinds,therains...,"''anxiety,offense,...allthisliescarefreeinthewideopen[heartofthe]roses."Theroseobviouslyappearsas
thesecretoftheworld.Butpreciselywhydoestherosebecomethesymbolofthesecretharmonyofopposites?
Rilke'smeditationonthe"insideoftherose"64avoids,withapparentease,theconnotationofaperfectlyedifyinginsipidity,asisimpliedinabloomingbeautycloseto
being"plucked"inpursuitofthecarpediem,aconnotationwhichhasbeenassociatedwiththesymboloftherose.Withoutdoubtitisinrevoltagainstsuchinsipidity
thatSaintJohnPersespeaksof"theobsceneroseofthepoem."65Incontrast,Rilkeonceagaintakesup,inastrangeandparadoxicalmanner,withamystical
traditionforwhichtherosesymbolizedthe"chalice"containingthebloodofChrist,andbyextensionthedivineheart,thesourceofbeautyandlife,indeedtheoriginal
unity.Farfromsimplytransposingthisthemeintotheprofaneorder,Rilkemakesemergefromtherose,takenasathingofeverydaylife,anenigmaticdualityandunity
ofcontraryaspects,notablyofpresenceabsence.
ThisquasimysticismofthemostbanaleverydaynessnowhereappearsmoreclearlythaninthecycleoftwentyfourpoemswritteninFrenchentitledTheRoses.66In
itsperfectselfreference,therosetheremanifestsanastonishingunity,notonlyofgiftandreservebutaunityofmultiplecontrarydimensions,acoincidenceof
numerousopposedqualities.Thisunityisallthemorepureandmoreperfectasitleavesthehumansubject,thepoeticego,outsideofitself.Strictlyspeakinghere
thereisnomysticisminthesenseofanabsorptionoftheIintoadivineprinciple.ThisquasimysticalunityoccursbyitselfbeyondorapartfromtheIinthe"silent
heart"(1)oftherosewhichfullybestowsitselfandfullywithdraws,asdoeseverythingandaswedoourselves.67Letuslistentoafewverseswherethislitanyofdual
unityisintonedwithanardentandsimplepiety.Wesaylitanybecausethisevocativelyricismoftheyou[toi]("Rose,you,ohthingfullparexcellence"(3)"Youare
ineffable"(16))findsinitsveryrepetitionsinvocationsorcallsvergingonveneration("Rose.../thatoneshouldcallreliquary/ofSaintRose"(9)).Theroseisboth
thesupremevigilanceandprofoundsleepofnaturalthings:
wholeallawakewhosemiddle
sleeps...(1)

legible,writtenthingsandillegibleandunwrittenthings:
thebookcracked...thatwewillneverread(2)

thereserveortheretentioninitselfandthedissipationoutsideitself,bothunlimited:

Page135
whichinfinitelycontainsitself
andwhichinfinitelyoverflows...(3)

themanyandtheone:
...onehundredtimesthyself
inasingleflower(4)

lovingitselftothepointofautoeroticism,butwithoutdivisionbetweenitselfanditsimage,itrealizestheimpossible"Narcissusfulfilled"(5)itisbothindividualityand
species,fragmentandtotality:
Asingleroseisallroses(6)

andagainboththepurenameandthepuretissueofthings:
theperfect,thepliantword
framedbythetextofthings(6).

Inthelastsixpoemsdoubtandquestionswilldisturbthelitanyofharmony.Canwebe,howcouldwebe,liketherose,afullnessthatdiffusesitself?Isitamere
"example"(19)?Doesitknowitsownenigmaticunity?Doesitknow,enclose,andspreadtheverysecretitselfofallbeing?
Thisineffableaccordofnothingandbeing
thatweareunawareof(23).

Inspiteofthisdoubt,thecycleendsonanoteofconfidencetheharmonyoccurswearethe"contemporaries"(14)ofthisflowerwhichisnotour"age"(itdoesnot
haveourhumantemporality):
...Youhere
whoshare
withus,distracted,thislife,thislife
whichisnotyourage....(24)

Betweenthebeginningandendofthecycletherosemanifestsitselfinadoubleaspectofproximity(7to11)as"friend"and"lover"inthegentlefamiliarityofits
"tenderformsbetweencheeksandbreasts''(8)anddistance(12to19)orasamenacethatmarksasuddenpassagetotheThou[vous]("againstwhom,rose,hast
thouadoptedthesethorns"(12)).Throughthisalternation,thebeatingoftheheartofoppositesisrepeatedinvariousfigures:thatofthesaintandthelover(9),ofthe
presentandmemory(13),ofdeathandafterlife(14)oragainitis"youareineffable[...]sungbyanangel"(16),avertiginouswhirlingand"calmcenter,""impulse,"
and"fullrest"(21)departingthis"earthofdeath"andleaving"foragoldenday"(22).Theroseisbothtouchedandintangible,visibleandinvisible,exterior

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andinterior.Buttheintangibility,invisibility,interiority"physical"interiorityirreducibletosubjectivityaretheessenceofthisduality.Naturalthingsescapeall
dependencevisvishumanconsciousnessevenmorethandoesthefabricatedthing,likethepitcherofwine.Evenifwecansaythatsomeoftheseattributesarise
fromanobviousanthropomorphism("friend,"''lover,""actress,""yourovertightcorset,"etc.),therosepossessesneverthelessasortofradicalautonomyandthe
alterityofpureselfposition:"intangiblemedium"(17)"weareunawareofwhathappenstoyou"(18)"enclosedinyourself"(20).
NodoubtitistruetoacknowledgewithHeideggerthat"notonlyarewenotpreparedbutalsonotqualifiedtogiveaninterpretationoftheElegiesandtheSonnets"68
ofRilke.Buthavewegonewrongbynothaving"sufficientlythought"theirpropersphere"beginningwiththeessenceofmetaphysics"?69Insteaditseemsthatthe
attempttoestablishandanalyzethismetaphysicalbackgroundmakesusinsensitivetotheirreplaceablevoiceofthepoetanddosesustotheirreducibleHolythatit
welcomes.ThisvoiceindeedrespondstothepetitionofaninvisiblecenteroftheworldthatisneithertheI(the"heart"oftheworldisnottheindividualhumansubject)
nornature(whichisnotconceivedofasthemetaphysicaltotalityofbeings).Incelebratingtherose,thepoetattemptstoapproachthiscenterwhichisthevery
essenceofEarth:"Osupremeessenceofthisfloatingabode."Thisperfectionoftheunstabledoesnotcomeabout,aswithNietzsche,fromitseternalrepetition.The
Earthlyisnotrepeatable.Itbelongs,outsideofalloppositionoftherelativeandabsolute,totheorderofthe"onceandforall"itismarkedbythesealof
Einmaligkeit,whichistheunicityofeachmomentofexistence.Theperfectionofunicityliesintheabsenceofitspossiblereturn:perfectionofthe"onetimeforeach
thing."ThisexpressionrecursinsixvariationsintheNinthElegy,andthispassageendsasfollows:
...Butthis
havingbeenonce,evenifonlyonce:
havingbeenearthlydoesnotseemrevocable.70

Butisn'tthisunicitytheechooftheuniqueheartoftheEarthratherthanthesimpleconsequenceoftheirreversibilityoftime?
ThewayRilkecelebratestheperfectionoftheephemeralandallowsbeingstobeintheirwithdrawalsetsitselfapartfromeverypositivemetaphysicswithoutleading
toanegativetheology.Allthecontrariesordiverseattributespropertometaphysicaldiscourseareindeedsummoned,onlytobe,intheend,rejected:theroseinits
inaccessibleheartisandisnot:individual,speciesmovement,restsimpleword,simplething....Allopposedorcompatibletermsareannulledwhen,attheinteriorof
athingaswellasofallthings,theyrejoinitspointofharmony,ofperfectequilibrium:

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Obscurityandclarity,
theflowerlikethebook:
allisrest.

Butthereisnotheophany,nonightoftheintellectandofthesenses,nosupernaturalandwithdrawnprofundity.Simplytheabysmalunityofthesimplethingreposingin
itself.This"interior"unitythatisalsotheunityoflifeanddeathisvertiginouslydistant,sidereal,butatthesametimequiteclose,foritevensoutnotonlyintherosebut
inthesource,inthetree.CouldnotOrpheusthescatteredgod,thegodthataccordingtothemythis,likeDionysus,tornapart,shred,andcastoutintomultiple
beingsbeanothernamefortheheart,orthisintimate,inaccessibledimensionoftheEarth:
Theearth
issimilartothechildthatknowspoems.
........................................................................
Allthattheteachertaught,theinnumerable
andwhatisimpressedintherootsandthelong
andcomplicatedtrunks:itsingsit,itsingsit!

ThismysteriousteacherthathastaughtpoetrytotheEarthandwillteachittothepoetifheknowshowtolistentothesongoftheEarthwhoisthisifnotOrpheus?
ButwhoisOrpheus?Thegodwhocarriesalyre,whichmeanstheonewhoishimselfthepointfromwhencesongisborn,the"unheardofcenter,"thesecrethearth
beyondthereachwherethelyreraisesitselfupbyitself("thisplacewherethelyre/resoundingraiseditselfup:theunheardcenter,"71unerhrte,thatis,thatofwhich
onehearsnothingbuttheecho).This"medium''(Mitte)isnamedOrpheus,nottoconformtoalegend,buttoconfirmthatthesecretandsacredbirthofthepoem
escapesthepoetandthathumansubjectivityisnotitsownsourceofinspiration."Tosingisintruthanotherbreath":thebreathofanother."AflightinGod."Thepoem
istransport,ekstasisintothedivine,forgetfulnessbythepoetofhisownvoice.WhoisthisGodtowhomRilkeinhisyouthbestowedapowerfulbutalreadyclosed
andungraspablefigure?
Youarethecock'scrowafterthenightoftime,
themorningdew,themorningprayersandthemaiden,
thestranger,themotheranddeath.
Youarethechangingfigure
whoemergesalwayssolitaryfromdestiny,
whomnorejoicingnorcomplaintescorts
andnoonelikeavirginforeststreads.
Youarethedeepsenseofthings
thathushesthelastwordofitsessentialbeing
andshowsitselfalwaysothertoothers:
totheshipasearthandtothelandasship.72

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Thisdistantgodisnowbroughtnear,butasspreadingoutintotheinnumerableandephemeralfiguresofEarth.Hisplacecannolongerbelocatedandyetitremains
one,recollectedintoonesinglecenter.Certainlyitisdispersedintothelionsandthecrags,thetreesandthebirds(I,26):"Thereyousingnowagain"(ibid.).Itis
neverthelessoriginallyonesong.GesangistDasein."Songisexistence"(I,3),butthesongofanother,thesongofOrpheus,thesongoftheuniqueheartofthe
Earth:"lerne/vergessendab duaufsangst.""Learntoforgetthatyouroseupinsong."Knowthatitisthegod.Thisdivinityisbothoneanddiffuse.ForRilkeitis
clearthatGodisnotdead,contrarytowhatHeideggerleadsustobelieveinhisreading.73''Godistheplacethatheals"(II,16).ItisnotliketheHeideggerianSacred
thatdwellswithinitselfunscathed,safe,butaplace(Stelle)thatbringsabouthealing,thatistheregeneratingcenterofthings.Itisanobscure,silent,andunlocatable
place."ButHeissereneanddispersed"(ibid.).Itisaplacealreadynamedandsituated,foritcouldnotbefoundelsewherethanintheheartoftheworld,"thisunique
hearttossedtothejoyofthemostampleskies"(NinthElegy)butitisanunnameableandunlocatableplacethat,inanastonishingletterfromMuzot74writtentoward
theendofhislife,Rilkemeanstoleavenameless,"anonymous":"foralongtimeIhavelivedkneelingintheantechamberofhisname....Ananonymitybeginstogrow
thatmustcommenceagainwithGodinordertobewholeandwithoutevasionItsattributesarewithdrawnfromGodwhoisnolongersayable"Rilkethinksthathe
couldaccepttheChristianideaofthemediatoronlyif"oneadmitsthereisanabyssbetweenGodandus."75Inthisletterhecallsthisabyss"theobscurityofGod,"
whichmeanshiseffacementintheunsayable.

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IX
EcstaticDwelling
HLderlinAndSaintJohnPerse
DifficultitisforhimtoleavehisplaceWhodwellsneartotheprimordialupsurge.
Hlderlin,"TheMigration"(dieWanderung)
Theuninhabitableisoursite.
SaintJohnPerse,Amers

Whatdoesitmeantodwell?Isitsimplytofindyourselfathomesomewhere?Butwhatisthis"athome"?Thedwelling,usuallyexperiencedasashelter,hearth,or
comfort,soontakesonanenigmaticaspectwhentheseunusualquestionsareasked.Isitakindofspatialexcrescenceofthehumansubject?Ashell?Amore
elementaryrelationwithaplace?Aroot?Yet,despitethesecurrentandquitereassuringmetaphors,the"athome"cannotbereducedtothesimplefactoflivingin
symbiosiswithaspacebecomefamiliar,norevenoffindingoneselftherebyensconcedinacertainsoil,linkedbyanetworkofbondsandattachmentstoaland,toa
country.''Todwell"alsomeans"tolast."SomeregionalFrenchdialectssay"toremain"[rester]for"tolive"hereorthere.Ahabitationincorporatestimeandthe
epochjustasradicallyasitdoesplace.
Thusopeningitselftoavastertimeandplace,adwellingalwayscomprisesan"ekstatic"dimensionbywhichitsinhabitantisdrawnoutsideofthesphereofintimacy,
ofthehearthinthesenseofthecenter,inordertobedeliveredtotheopaqueremotenessofanEarthandtotheluminousdistanceofaworld.An"athome"thatdoes
notinsomewayoranotherleadbacktothis"excentration"wouldbeaprisonoramaddeningconfinement.Thesuffocatinginstance[enstase]oftheathomemust
bebroken,openedupsoafreedwellingcantakeplace.ContrarytoLeibniz'smonadsthat"havenowindowsthroughwhichsomethingcould

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1

leaveorenterthem," humanhousesneedopenings,windowpanes,bays,doorsbywhichtheair,light,andvisitorscanenter.Yet,thehumanhabitationisecstaticnot
becauseoftheopeningsdesignedbythearchitectbutbecausehumansintheiressence,inasmuchastheyarebeingintheworld,are,asHeideggerhasremarked,
always"alreadyoutside"withouthavingtodepartfromthemselves."Dasein,"hesays,"isnotatallinashell(Gehase)."2Certainlyheisthinkinghereofthehuman
body,butthisphraseisjustasapplicabletothehumandwelling.Beginningwiththeintimacyinwhich,outofneedandnecessity,itprotectsandhidesitself,thefree
dwellingmustletthetranscendenceofwhatismostremoteappear.
Beyondbutprimarilyattheheartoftheempiricallyinhabitedspacecomesthecallforamoresecretormorespaciousabodethedesireforamoreharmonious,more
completesitearises.Whatabode,whatsite?Forthephilosopherthisotherdimensionthattranscendstheordinaryhabitationwillbe"theneighborhoodofbeing,"the
distancetakenwithregardtotechnicalobjects,therecoveredgiftoflettingthingsnearandsimplebe,anewlisteningtolanguage.Butforthepoet,thedesireforthe
freedwellingmanifestsitselfasadesirefortheabodeamongtheelements.Forthepoet,theelementalisnotasimplemetaphorofbeing,aswhenHeideggersaysthat
"thegroundandthesoilaretheelementwheretherootsofthetreespread."3Forthethinkertheelementisthenonmetaphysical,nongroundingreservoir,beingas"
'thecalmforce'ofthelovingcapacity,whichmeansofthepossible."4ForHlderlinitisthenativesoil,theGeburtsland,the"homeland"(Heimat),thecountry
(Vaterland)celebratedastheelementaldwelling:themostintimateplacebygiftofnatureandatthesametimethemostdesirable,themostperfectdasNchste
Beste,"theclosest(is)thebest.''5Butthemostdesirabledwellingonearth,theplaceofbirthwhichthroughanobscureaffinityandmysteriousalchemypreservesfor
thepoetthecallsandthecorrespondencesofdestiny,withdrawsintoitsremoteintimacy,thedeepsecretofthesourcethatitisitself.Thedwelling(Heim)drawsits
essencefromthesecret(heimliches).Tocometotermswiththissecretistopassitoverinsilence,ortospeakaboutitwithreticence,withfear:
Anenigmaispureemergence.Even
Songmayhardlyrevealit....6

Theclosestandhappiestabode(althoughitisquitedistressingforthepoettorecognizeitintheactualGermanhomeland),themostfamiliarandthemostconnatural
seemstobethemostalienandremoved.Itwillbenecessarytoforegospontaneouslyfindingoneself"athome"there,toacceptexile,thedistanceofforeignabodes,in
ordertorecover,hopefully,theenigmaticproximityanddistanceofthefamiliar.

Page141
Noone,withoutwingsiscapable
ofgraspingwhatisnear.7
Oh,giveuswings,withmostfaithfulsenses
Tocrossoverandreturn.8

Thepassagethroughtheforeignspacealongsail,asinRemembranceorTheVoyager,ormagicallytakingflight,asinPatmossupposesthepassagethrougha
foreignelementwithrespecttotheearth:thesea,theaether,theairwhereitisimpossibletobeathome.Itisatrial,the"trial"parexcellence.Eventhoughitisnot
themajorthemeofthissong,thepoetryofHlderlinsingsjustasmuchaboutwhattheGermanlanguageunderstandsunderthetermHeimsuchungasitdoesabout
Heimkunft,thehomecomingHeimsuchungmeansboth"affliction"and''visittoone'sdomicile"a"quest"(Suchung)forthedwelling(Heim).9
Alsoseekingitsdwellingintheelemental,thepoetryofSaintJohnPerserevealstousthattheekstatichabitationisnotnecessarilylinkedtothenativeelementinthe
senseofplace("Whostillknowstheplaceofhisbirth?")10Itteachesusthatthefamiliarisnotbynaturemoredesirable.Besides,the"inhabitable"element,orrather
thoseinhabitableelementsthataresea,wind,sandfavoritethemesofPerse'spoetrybearamuchmoresymbolicmeaningthantheearthinHlderlin.Sometimes
becomingimmersedinthelanguageandconcernsofthethinkerandcompetingwithhim,SaintJohnPerseexplicitlyannouncesaprojectofpromoting"afewnew
propositionsontheessenceofbeing."llTheelementalisforhimboththe"natural"elementitselfandthesymboloftheeffacementofallbeings,indeedofeverysignand
everyname,intheencounterwithbeing.12SandisaduneaswellastheseashoreanddustandasaneclipseofHistory,thepuremanifestationofthenon
foundation.
Ihavebuiltupontheabyss,andthesprayandthesandsmoke.13

Theseaisbothitsmultipleplayofwaves,ofshadowandlight,andthesymbolofbeing,"athingfarandnear"14"Beingsurprisedinitsessence."15Despitethis
ambiguityoftheelemental,thedwellingthatthepoetdesiresisclearly,strangely,exiledfromeveryactualplace.
Andwhothenstillwhispersintoourearaboutthetrueplace?16
Placeoftheword:everyseashoreofthisworld.17

Theincessantuprootingofthedepartureforavasterandmoredistantspace,unoccupiableandwithoutboundaries,isaccompaniedbytheperpetualrefusaland
repeatedabandonmentofeveryabodethathasoncemorebecomefamiliar.

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18

Andthepenate,orthehouseholdgod,letnoonethinkaboutcarryingthemwithhim.

IfforH1derlintheexilehauntsthedwelling,forSaintJohnPersethedwellingisinexile.
Butwhatisanexileforwhichthereisnolongeranythingforeign?Isitawilltopossessthewholenessoftheworld?Itseemsnot,fortodwellpoeticallyinexiledoes
notmeantofeeleverywhereathomerather,itmeansnottohaveahomeanywhere.Perseanexileisneithervoluntarismnorthespiritofconquestnornostalgianor
dereliction.Itconsistsneitherinfleeingaparticularpoliticalcountrynorinbeinghoundedoutofit.19Exiledoesnotsymbolizetheabstracttranscendenceof
consciousnessortheaffirmationofthelibertyofthesubjectbutthesacredcalloftheelementalandthejoyful,poeticextraditionintotheOpenofbeing.
"Exileisnotofyesterday!Exileisnotofyesterday!Ohvestiges,ohpremisses,"
SaystheStrangeramongthesands,"thewholeworldisnewtome!..."Andthebirthofhissongistohimnolessalien.20

Exileisimmemorial,withoutatraceinanyarchiveorinanyrecordinganonlocatableplaceofforgetfulnessandofeternalbirth,aplacethatdoesnotexistexcept
perhapsastheinstantofalightningflash.Perseistherebyless"Heideggerian"thanH1derlin.ButisitnotparadoxicalthatthephilosopherofUnheimlichkeit,of
anxietyaswellasofestrangedjoy,21thethinkeroftheabyssofbeingasthewhollyotherthanbeingswhichstillawaitsanamehassofullyprivilegedthepoetic
questfortheHomelandandfortheproper,familiar,domesticabode.
"Thethinkerthinksinthedirectionoftheunfamiliar(dasUnheimlichkeit)whichforhimisnotapassagebuthisdwelling(his"athome,"his"house":zuHause
emphasizedinthetext).Onthecontrary,thepoet'srecollectivequestioningpoeticallysaysthefamiliar(dasHeimische)."22Inoccupyingtheunfamiliardwellingthat
Heideggerassignstothethinker,doesnotPerseinviteustooncemorebringintoplaynotonlydwellingbutalsothenecessaryandyetfragileseparationand
distributionoftherespectivetasksofthoughtandpoetry?23
TheImpossibleReturntoNativeEarth
IftheonlytruedwellingforH1derlinisthehomeland(Heimat),notthelandofthefather,the"fatherland,"butthatofthemother,whosewelcominghouse,associated
withcaresses,withlove,withtheplayofchildhood,isevokedwithitsgardenof"secretobscurity"(heimlichDunkel)24aspossessing,alongwiththefamiliar
countrysideofthebankssurroundingthe

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Neckar,thepowerofhealingallpainwhyisthisplacealwayslost,alwaystobereconqueredthroughsufferingandthroughreturnswhichneverthelesscanneverbe
complete(Heimkunft,RckkehrindieHeimat,etc.)?
Sureandveneratedfrontiers,maternalhouse,Andembracesofmylovingsistersandbrothers,SoonIwillgreetyouagain....25

This"soon"isforeveradeferred,anungraspablepresence.AsHeideggeradmirablyshowsinhiscommentary,thisiscertainlybecausewhatisnearandproperto
everyone(andalsotoapeople)isnotimmediatelyaccessibletothem.Thefamiliarisinitselfthemostdistant."Itisnecessarytolearnwhatispropertousjustasitis
whatisforeign,"writesH1derlininanoftencitedletter.26ButtheemphasisplacedbyHeideggeronthedistancevisvisthehomelandasanintrinsicdistancevis
viswhatisone'sownlimitssomewhattheH1derliniansenseoftheReturn.Theelantowardtheother"sacredelements,"theEther,theSun,the"adorableblue"of
thesky,''theholybreath"oftheAirtheyearningforNatureastheMotherandoriginaldwelling(HeimatlicheNatur)thenostalgiaforGreeceastheidealfatherland
negatively,theinsensibility,theintolerablehardnessoftheheartofthe"maniacallycalculatingBarbarians"27oftheGermanfatherlandfinally,thewanderings,the
"flights"abroad(toBordeaux)contributeasmuchifnotmoretoexilingthepoetfarfromthenativedwellingthantheontologicalinaccessibilityoftheOwn.Theode
TotheEtheralreadycontainstheconfessionofan"elemental,"primordialbetrayalofthematernalabode:
...OhFatherEther,liftmeevenbeforemothertookmeintoherarmsandsuckledmeatherbreast,Yousurroundedmetenderlyandpouredmeaheavenlydrink,Youfirstgave
thedivinebreathtomynewbornchest.
Noonecanliveonlyonthefoodoftheearth.28

Anotherflight,dreamedthistimefarfromthepaternalsoil(Vaterland)thevoyageinGreece,anotheravoweddesertionoftheGermanland:
Whatisitthat
bindsmetotheancient
blessedcoasts,sothatIlove
themevenmorethanmyfatherland?29

Nodoubtonlytheearthproper(eigen)asthenourishing,womblikeelementis"sacred,"whichmeansbothinfinitelybeneficialandinfinitelyhidden.Noonecanflee
outsideitsprotectiveobscurityandtraversethepureclarityoftheworldwithoutspirituallywitheringinone's"soul,"

Page144

without"erring,"whichmeanswithouttravelingindefinitelyandinvain,forhewillnevercomebackhomeagain.
For,astheplantuprootedfromitsnativeground(eigenemGrund),
Thesoulofthemortalwillwither,if
Aloneunderthelightofdayit
Wandersmiserablyonthesacredearth.30

Inordernottoendupinarootlessnessfataltothesoul,theexilemustpreservethebondwithwhatisone'sown,withfinitude.But,onceagain,whythisnecessityof
leaving"forforeignlands"?WhatistheforeignforH1derlin?Doesnotforeignnessconsistpreciselyinwhatisone'sown,inthedwellingitself?Commentingonthese
versesofTheMigration,wherethenativerecedestowarditsownunfathomableanddisquietingdepths:
Unfriendly,andhardtowinoveris
TheClosedOne[dieVershlossene]thatIescaped,theMother,31

Heideggerwrites:"TheOwn(Eigene)andthefamiliar(Heimische),thehomeland,theSea,isthemostdifficulttowinover."32
Onlytheimaginaryexileorflighttowardanexotic,geographicaloutpost(theNorthPole,theIndes,Asia,theCaucuses)themostperfectandmostfictionalexample
ofwhich(H1derlinnevertook"passage"onanoceangoingvessel)willbetheoceanvoyagewilllearntorecognizetheinteriordistanceashisinverseimage,to
drawcloserto,toaccepttheroughnessandcruelwithdrawalofthematernalabodeandits"source."FortheSeaisnottheelementofthewhollyotherbutthe
symbolicplacewherethesource(theheartofthematernal,oftheoriginal),springingfromtheearthafterhavingbecomeriverandland(thefinished,theMeasure),
spreadsoutandlosesitselfintheungraspable,overrichabundanceoftheOpen(theUnlimited,theAll).IftheeccentricmovementfromthesourcetotheSeastands
forthe"panic"thrusttowardamergingwiththeelementcalledthe"nonorganic"33amortalmergingwithwhatisone'sownliketheleapofEmpedoclesintoEtna
thiselementitselfwillbetheparadoxicalspaceofthereversalortheturningwheretheHomecomingcommences.Theplaceofforgetfulnessbutwhereforgetfulness
turnsintomemory,animpoverishedplace,aplaceofsolitudeandextremeerrancy("withoutpaths''),butwhereallrichnesscommences:
...Many
shrink(Scheue)fromgoingbacktothesource
Itbegins,namely,wealth
Inthesea.[...]
Thesea
givesandtakesawaymemory.34

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Thisyearningfortheextremeremovalfromfamiliarsurroundingsasthepathoftheinitiationtothemostintimatesecretisnotjustmythicalormystical.Itcannotbe
explained,butitcanbetranslatedintothreeconceptualequivalents:thefirstismetaphysicalandHegelianthesecondisanabridged"philosophyofhistory"belonging
toHlderlinthethirdistheHeideggerianthemeoftheselfenclosureofpureproximity,oftheselfdissimulationoforiginalemergence.Tothesethreeinterpretationsof
theHlderliniansymbolismofthe"dialectic"oftheownandtheforeignthreeverydifferentfeelingsregardingtheoriginalabodewouldcorrespond:theconquering
appropriationtheexperienceofanexhaustingtensionbetweenthe"native"tendencytowardtheMeasureandthecontrarytendency"Scheue"(modesty),as
correspondingwiththewithdrawalofthebeingofthenative:
...forthespiritisathome
notinthebeginning,notatthesource.Thehomelandconsumesit.35

TheHegelianschemeofthealienationornecessaryestrangementoftheSubjectasAbsoluteSpirit,whichfindsitselfagaininthefullnessofitsbeingwithitselfonly
afterhaving"overcome"itsbeingoutsideitself,isaschemethatseemstoimposeitselfhere.Yet,inhisbookHlderlinetHeideggerBedaAllemannhasshown
throughcontextualrelationsthatthisschemeisnotsuitable.InH1derlin'stext"spirit"meansneithertheabsolutespiritoftheHegelianwilltoknowledgenor"the
poeticspirit"asHeideggerinterpretsitbutthe"god"or''thedemon."Spiritmeanspreciselythefamiliaremanationofthedivine:theAngeloftheHouseorofthe
Homeland.Yettherelationbetweenwhatisone'sownandwhatisforeigninHlderlinremainsextremelyclosetoHegel'sdialectic.Theforeign,theunlimited,is
subduedandrelatedtothehomeland,transformedbythe"daringsailors."Thesymbolicsojournacrosstheforeignlandcomesbacktoanappropriationitcontains
thenotionoftheassimilationanddomesticationoftheforeign:asHeideggersays,"thisrecollectionthatisbestowedandthatthroughbeingunderwayanticipatesthe
sourcenowletswhatisoddabouttheforeignbeforgotten,suchthatonlytheforeignthatistobeclarifiedintermsofwhatispropertoitisretainedbyit."36TheOther
isreducedtotheSame.Apparentviolence.
Nevertheless,thedwellingisnottakenbyforceandtheReturnisnotasynthesis.ThesinglebutradicaldifferencewithregardtoHegelisthattheownness
reconquereddoesnotexpandoutintotheplenitudeofanabsolutepresencetoselfbutwithdrawsanewintotheinaccessibleanteriorityofthe"source."Thehomeland
isnotattainedexceptbyaceaselessgoingbacktothesource,areturnthatisgovernedbythelawof"modesty."Itspureproximitywouldbeviolatedifitwere
captured,exposed,possessed.Thepoetwillalwaysseekthenativeandnascent.Hewillneverbeabletobecomeensconced,immobileatthesource,ortoidentify
himselfwiththe

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37

originalsite.Hewillalwaysbeunderwaytowardit."Todwellinwhatisone'sownistobeunderwaytowardthesource." Thepoetisthemodestoneamongus,
saysHeideggerattheendofanastonishinglylyricalpassageinhiscommentary."Modestysetsthetoneforthestrollonthebywaysofpoetry.Itguidestheadvance
towardtheorigin.Itismoredeterminativethananyviolence."38Thismodestyisnotpsychologicalitisthereservewithregardtotheproximity,force,andcourageto
allowwhatissecrettobesecret,theinfinitelovingtendernessthatknowshowtolettheenigmaofthemostfamiliarthingsappear.Asanothersurprisingdraftof
BreadandWinesays:
butitisdifficult
tothinkthattheoriginandthehouseofyouthdonot
grasptheseeranymore.
Andyetsomethingholds,asapurerule,theEarth.
Aclarity,thenight,variousthingscalmknows
onewhoindeedunderstands,aprincelyone,andshows
thedivine,evenifitisbroadanddeepastheheavens.39

OutsidebothHegelianappropriationandHeideggerianmodesty,wherecanwefinallyfindinH1derlin'sthought,ratherthaninhispoetry,the"identity"ofthis
mysterious"nativeelement"andthe,sotospeak,exotericmeaningofthe"trialoftheforeign"?Inthehistoricalmeditationsofthepoettwosymmetricallyinverse
trajectoriesarticulatetheveryconstitution,thatis,theinstitution,ofwhatis"theproper"fortheGreeksandfortheWest(whichhenames''Hesperia").Foroneasfor
theother,thediscoveryofitsnativecharacteraswellasthedevelopmentofitsartandculturemustwithdrawfromthe"native"elementinordertoconfrontthe
contraryelement,andtherebytomakeitsreturntoitsown.Hlderlinwrites,"AndIbelievethattheclarityofexpositionisoriginallyjustasnaturaltousasthecelestial
firewastotheGreeks."40The"celestialfire,"intheHlderlineancontext,meansthepanic,Dionysianecstasy,theprimitivelyorientalunitywithall:thismadeupthe
ProperoftheGreeks.The"clarityofexposition,"analytical,conceptual,logicalpower,isthenaturalgiftoftheGermans,oroftheHesperiansingeneral.Departing
fromtheunlimited,theGreekshadtogooutofthemselvesintotheforeign,Apolliniandomainofdifferentiation,ofthelimit,ofindividuation,soastoconquerwhat
H1derlincalls"theOccidentalandJunoean(whichmeanscold)sobriety."41Theywillhavebeen"athome"onlyafterhavingbeenabletocomplete"thereturntothe
fatherland"(VaterlndischeUmkehr),torediscovertheoriginalsubstanceofwhatissacredtothembywayoftheclarityofexposition,orinotherwords,bywayof
theirgods,theircities,andtheirlaws.Inversely,theHesperiansstillhavetoconfrontwhatisforeigntothem:this'"celestialfire,"thisdeindividualizingecstasy,this
returntoanelementalholy.Germanmetaphysicsbelievedtohavecarried

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outthistaskbyattemptingto"conceivetheinconceivable,"asHeidegger'sexpressionputsit. Therepatriationtohisownabodebywayoftheforeignelement
remainsforH1derlinthe"trial"HeimsuchungthatstillbelongstothefuturehistoryoftheWest.
Truly,itisindeedthelandofthebirth,thesoilofthehomeland
Thatyouseek,itisnear,italreadymeetsyou.43
Butthebest,thefundthatunderthearch
ofholypeacelies,isreservedfortheyoungandold.44

Whydoestheheartofthedwelling,itselfalwaysreadytowelcometheexilewhoalwaysreturns,theprodigalsonwhoknocksonthe"doorawashinsurf"45why
doesthisintimacyslipawaynotonlyforthepoetbutforeveryone?Whyisthis"best,"this"fund"(Fund,whichmeanstheburiedtreasure,thepreciouslode,the
legacyfromthepast,piouslyexhumed)gespart,reserved,dissimulated...tothepeopleofthistime?Theforceddepartureforforeignpartsandthewithdrawalofthe
Sourcearenottheonlyfiguresofthedistancingofwhatisnear.''Homesickness"isnotthemostpiercingpartofH1derlin'snostalgia.Thebestofthelandthe
sacreddwells,butveiled,exhausted,shroudedundertheancientmonumentserectedtoitsglory,abandonedbythegods.Rarelydotheyshowthemselves,roaming
"wildgame,"throughtheelemental.46Thesacredisinmourning.Thegreatestsorrowisthe"sacredgrief,"thefundamentalStimmung,asHeideggercallsit,inthe
Hlderlineansong.ThegodshavingflednolongerilluminatetheEarthwiththeirpresenceandnolongerdrawupitstreasureforthemortals.Thejoyofthereturnisat
everymomentplungedintomourning.Wewillalwaysreturnhometoolate.
Butfriend,wehavecometoolate.Nodoubtthegodslivebutoverourheads,thereabove,inanotherworld.47
[...]
...theFatherhasturnedhisfaceawayfromman
andmourningbeganitsjustreignovertheEarth.48

Thetruereturnawaitedandprophesiedinthe"sacrednight"willbethereturnofthegods.Untilthisnewmorning,everydwellingonearthisdeserted,distressed,but
notempty."Thetraceoftheflowngods"(dieSpurderEntflohenenGtter)49remains.
Thereisadoubleexileinthedwelling,adoubleveilofmourningoverthethreshold,overthedoor.
Howisonetoendurethisdistress,andwhencewillcometousthestrengthofwaitingandofbeingkeptawakethroughoutthisnight?Thepoetaskstheelemental
nightitself,"theardentone...theStrangeramonghumans,"50toblessuswith"forgetfulnessandholy

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rapture/togranttheflowingforthoftheword!" Thepoeticspeech(Wort)namedhere,this"Stranger[who]comestous,theWaker,theVoicethatinstructs
humans"52theVoiceofthesacredandnotofthepoetseemstoleadtoanotherdwellingwhereneithernostalgianormourningreigns,butatlastahappinessinthe
solecareoflanguage:thepoemitself!
Be,ohsong,myamicablesanctuary!Be
Theonethatgiveshappiness!withcaringlove
Wellcaredfor,bethegardenwhere,strolling
Amongtheblossoms,everyoung,
Iliveinsecuresimplicity.53

H1derlinheretakesrefugeintheshelteroflanguage.Hestillhasnotexperiencedindeedhewillalittlelateronlanguageashavingbeengiventomanas"themost
dangerousofallgoods."54Buthasnotthisdifficultdwellingofspeech,wherethepoetstillinnocentlylingers,wendshisway[wandelnd],andwherehefinallyfindshis
owngood(Eigentum)whichisneverthelesstaughttohimbya"ForeignVoice"hasthisnotsuddenlyremovedustoasiteanalogoustothatofPerse?
ExilewithoutNostalgia
ThepoeticexperienceofexileinPerseisnotderivedfromalofty,concertedwilltoceaselesslydepartfromafamiliardwellingfornoreasonandtowardnowhere.It
revealsasituationofprimordialdispossessionintowhichmanisthrown.Bybirth.Itisanexilewithinbeingthatexcludeseverypoliticalorevenpsychological
connotation.Theexileisnotafeelingarisingasareactionagainstaspecificsituationbutratheraprimordialcondition.TheStranger,theWanderer,theNomad,the
Prodigal,thePilgrim,thePrinceofExiletheseinsistentfiguresoftheexileinthepoetryofPersearenotmendrivenout,persecutedlikethecontemporaryrefugee,
dissident,expatriatetheydonotsuffermortallylikethosebanishedorostracizedfromancientcities.Joyandraptureaccompanythemontheirjourney.Whereare
theygoing?Towardanabodebothmorehumbleandricher,nearerandmoreremote.Theexileisexposedlikethelegendarycastawaythrownbacknakeduponthe
desertedbeachofanunknownland,butforhimthismomentisnotoneepisodeamongothersinanodyssey.Hisexilebeginswiththewonderof"beingthere"("and
thewonderisannouncedbythecry:'ohwonder!'anditisnotenoughtolaughbeneathtears...")byhimselfnotbeingneartobutwithoralongsidetheleastglorious,
mostfragile,ormostmalleablethingslikethesand(theGering,Heideggerwouldsay):55

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HereIamrestoredtomynativeshore...
Withtheachene,theanopheles,withthestrawandthesandwiththe
frailestofthings,withthecommonestofthings,thesimplething,the
simplethingthere,thesimplethingofbeingthere,inthe
passingoftheday.56

Nodoubttheexileis"theonewhodoesnotrecognizehisfatherlandanywhere,"asRogerCailloissaysinafamousandmoreoverinsightfulstudy,forhis"nativeshore"
isprecisely"everyseashoreofthisworld"andyetitisnotinthedepthsofitssubjectivity,inthehomeofitsheartofhearts,thathewillseekrefugeasaman''whohas
chosentouncoverhispleasuresandpainsonlywithinhissoul"and"isonlyathomeinthisinneruniverse."57Thisisacuriousmisinterpretationwhichrevealsthe
archetypalpressureofthemetaphysicsofselfpresence,fornothingislessintimatethanthewayPerseproceeds.Ifthereisaninteriority,itresultsfromtheinner
correspondencebetweenmanandtheelementswhichinnaturedonothaveanyparticularplace.Manissimilartothejubilantwindsthathave"neithernooknor
restingplace,"58tothe"labile"constellationsthat,changingnameswhentheexilechangesskies,disappearoverthehorizon"insearchofapureplace."59Whatisa
"pureplace"?Itisanunpossessed,unpossessableplacewhereeverymarkofownership,whereeverylimit,iseffaced,anelementalplace.
The"uninhabitable"60elements,sands,winds,rains,snows,andaboveallelsetheSea,symbolizeecstatichabitationinthenearnesstobeing.Theysummonman
toceaselesslyleavedeadsedimentation,thecindersofhistory,toshattertheidolatryofhisownremnants,toreturntothemostoriginalsite.Thissite,a"glaringand
voidplace,"isnolonger"his"site,andyetthereisnoresource,regeneration,orfuturepowerexceptthroughit.
Theopenwaterswillwash,theopenwatersonourtables
themostbeautifulciphersoftheyear.61
AtwhatfeastsofverdantSpringshallwe
washthisfingersoiledbythedustofarchivesinthisbloomof
oldage[...]asbythestrataofsacredvillagesofwhite
pottery,deadfromtoomanymoonsandattrition?62

CivilizationtheepicpoemofknowledgeandpowerisnotcelebratedinPerselikeatriumphantascent,asconventionallymindedhumanistshavebelieved,nor
caricaturedbyagalleryofinconsistentpersonalities,ascritiquesdiscontentedwithnotfindinganyheroestherehavenoted,butasforcedtoappearinthefaceof
primordialemergence.IftheinnumerableprotagonistsofhistoryevokedbythisantiepicarealwaysreducedtosilhouetteswithoutsubstancetheDespot,the
Captainofthechaingang,theLegate,theRegent,theUsurperofthethrone,theDonor,theProphet,

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theMerchant,etc.thisisbecause,summonedtojudgment,totheordealbytheelemental,thesefiguresarealwaysonthevergeofbeingeclipsedlikefrailshadows
suddenlyexposedtothelightofbeing.
Exileistheexultanttrialoftheeffacementofallbeingsinthepresenceofelementalbeing.Theelementalwashes,heals,absolves"everypenaltycommutedtomenof
merememory."63Itannulsthemonstrousproliferationofsignsandtraces,ofcodesandregisters,ofannals,ofboundaries,frontiers,andstakes,ofinscriptionsand
titles,ofallthe"tablesofmemory':
Wash,wash,ohRains!thehightablesofmemory.64

Thismultiform,iconoclasticdispersionofreferencemarksandtablesoforientation65includesthedispersionof"ritualtables"andinapure,sacredplaceletsnot"new
tables"appear,asNietzschewouldsay,but"forbiddentables"whereonecanreadthesignsornewciphersofadifferent,completelyfugitivewriting,likeavisionof
immobilitywithinmovement:
OnthegreatforbiddentableswheresignsgomorefleetinglyinthedistantmirrorswherethefaceoftheWandererslideshishelianthicfacethatdoesnotblink.66

Facedwiththeelementalsite,notonlyarehistoricalpersonalities,writings,monuments,cities,andthemostsolidfoundationsdoneawaywith,buttheyarerenderedas
anoffering,piouslyandceremoniouslypoured,inprocession,backintotheSea(theelementalparexcellenceinPerse'spoetry)asinaritualsacrificeorexpiation,the
worksandpersonalitiesofdramasortheheroesofmyths,aswellasalltheinstrumentsofstagingmasks,costumes,andtheaterclothing.67Exileisanakedexposure
totheSea,astoabeingwithoutmemory,withoutinscription,withoutallusion,withoutreferenceanexpulsiontoadistancethatgrowsdizzyinglyuntilrevertingtoan
unnameablebuttransparentandtendernearness:
Facewashedwithforgetfulnessintheeffacementofsigns[...]theSeahigherandfurther...inallusiveandpureofeverycipher,thetender,luminouspageagainstthenight
withouttaintofthings.68

ParadoxicallyandthisisthechiefenigmaofPersethisexileisalsotheecstatichabitationinwhatHeideggercalls"thehouseofbeing,"namely,inlanguage.How
cantheelementthatsymbolizestheeffacementofbeingatthesametimesymbolizenot(only?)thesayingandthesaidofthepoet,thepoem,butlanguageitself,the
selfuttering,selfcreatingtext,"thegreatesttext"?
Teachus,Potency![...]tellusthetoneofthegreatestart,exemplarySea
ofthegreatesttext!69

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Itwouldindeedbea"contradiction"touseanexpression,inappropriatehere,deartophilosophersifthe"greatesttext"weretheactualityoflanguage,thenetwork
ofwordsignswiththeirlexicalandsemanticcode,theirinternalplayandtheirplayofreferences,inshort,thelanguageobjectandinstrument,orevenifthistext
elementwerethepoeminitsverbalarticulation,itspronunciation,itstimbreandsonority.ButwithPerse,aswithHeidegger,itisnecessarytodistinguishontheone
sidethe"Voiceofbeing"thatisunformulated,the"silentVoice,"70thespeechofbeingthatnoonehasspoken,71theunspoken(precedingallspeaking)gatheringof
logos,72andontheotherside,articulatedhumanspeechastheresponseandcorrespondencetothisprimordialVoiceunderstoodasaCall.The"greatesttext''will
neverbewritten,norcanitbewrittenItisitselfasymboloftheCallofbeing,ofbeingwithoutapropername,ofbeingasthemarineelementthat,fromtime
immemorial,sendsupasimilar"muteclamor,"73uttersfromthe"samewave":"Asingleandlongsentencewithoutbreakforeverunintelligible"74WiththisVoiceprior
tospokenspeech,Perse,likeHeidegger,repeatedlyemphasizessameness:"inthe"samebreathutteredthesamewaveuttering...."75"Thesamewavethroughthe
world,thesamewavethroughtheCity."76
WhatwecallcosmicorprehumaninmanistheVoicewithoutwriting,whereanoriginalhappinessofbeingisheard:"Wegobacktothepurenongraphicdelight
wheretheancienthumanphraseruns."77
HowisonetocorrespondtothisCall,theebbandflow,theimmemorialandpresent("ohoriginalbreath...whatdoyouthinkyouwillbedrawingfrommylivinglip,
Ohwanderingforceonmythreshold..."),78alwaysnewandrepeatedidentically("Therehasalwaysbeenthisclamor,theidenticalbeginningofthreegreatsuccessive
"stanzas"),79thisinsistentmoanbothintimateandfarflung("thethinginussocloseandsofar"),80deafeningandsilent("thismuteclamoronmythreshold")?81There
aremanypathstowardthelogosofexile,buttheroyalroad,itselfchanging,alwaysseemstobeavianegativa:thepathalreadyevokedoftheactiveforgetfulnessof
thesignsoftheworld,thisdestructiverepetitionoftheepicpoemofWeltgeschichtethepathofcompoundingnegations(theseainitstranscendenceiswithout...,
without...:withoutmonuments,withoutcities,andwithoutstatues"withoutstonedignitaries""withoutregencyorguardianship,""withoutadjudicatororcouncil"
"OhSeawithoutguardsorenclosure,ohSeawithoutvinesorhusbandry...")82intheendthemostparadoxicalpathoftheabsenceofaname("thegreatthingwhich
hasnoname").83Thisunutterabilityoftheelementaldwellingthelossofapropername("andsea,stillwenameyou,wewhonolongerhaveaname")84goesalong
withtherepeatedconfessionbythepoetthatheisnotthesourceofhisownpoetizingactivityThe"birthofhissong"isputback,entrustedto"thestranger"inagreat
processofdesubjectification:"Letabroaderbreathariseinus,thatwouldbetousliketheSeaitselfanditsgreatstranger'sbreath!"85AndindeedtheSeaas"the

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86

thingitself"showsitself,revealsitself"outsideofthestropheofthePoet," andthewordsarerepudiatedinasmuchastheysupposeaspacebetweensignifierand
signified:
Andwordsforusarenomore,nolongerbeingsignsnorornament
Butthethingitself[...]
...recitingyouyourself,thestory,seehere
howwebecomeyouyourself,thestory....87

Whatisthisidentity,this"recoveredunity"ofthethree"terms"thatare,forlogicalthinking,thepoem(becomethe"Story"),thepoet(theStoryteller),andtheSea
(alsocalled"thetextitself")?Nothingfoundsitnorguaranteesit.Isita''dreamoftheseainus"or"theTruthofthedream:thisothersea...thatnooneteachesor
names"?Real,possible,dreamedwhocouldsayoraffirmthatthisfusionismetaphysicalorextrametaphysical?OrthatitistheEmpedocleanleap?
Whatremainsisthethingitself,theelemental,thepureplaceofexile,thehouseofbeinglanguage.Togainaccesstoitandtoabideinexileitisnecessarytocross
overaThresholdbutperhapstheStrangerPoetcanonlywithdifficultystayunderwayonthisthreshold.TheSeaiscalledtheThresholdyetitisitselfuninhabitable.
Whatsymbolizesherethe"threshold"..."theroyalgreenoftheThreshold...thedivinefable":88
theforeignSeaopens[...]thechiefthresholdofthegreatest
OrbandprodigiousthresholdofthegreatestAge....89

Withoutpushingthesymboltoofar,athresholdisanarrowplaceofpassagebetweenaninsideandanoutside,ahomeandanopenspaceaplacethatsupportsa
radicaldifference.Doesnot"thetextual,theSea"90as"thegreattext,"sustainandnourishthedifferencebetweenitselftheVoiceandthePoemthatisbornfromit
andinwhichitisfoundedintheend(theendwhosesensewedonotknow)?Astheambivalentplaceofacceptanceandrejection,themarinethreshold(designatedas
botha"placeofsanctuary"oratemple91andthe"forbiddensite"oftheapocalypse)92gathersintoitselfthecontradictorydoubledimensionofthesacredorthe
"numinous"accordingtothefamousanalysisofRudolfOtto:93theterrifying,repulsiveelementofthe"whollyother"ontheoneside,andbeatitudeontheother,the
mysteriumtremendumetfascinans.Theseaasthresholdisbothaturningbacktowardasupremelysalutaryintimacyandanexpulsionbeyondeverybasis,the
streamingdesireandthecruelthreatoftheunapproachable:
resplendenceoftheotherstoneofthethresholdwashed
withloveandterribleplaceofdesecration!94

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Aconflictualplacebetweenasacralityofthefoundation(stone),ofmemoryandrite,andawildsacrality,forgetful,wanderingwithoutatemple,fatedtobecursedby
allestablishedcultures.
CommentingonTrakl'sverse"Painpetrifiedthethreshold"inthepoem"AWinterEvening"Heideggerwrites:
Thethresholdbearsthebetween.Whatgoesinandoutinthebetweenisunitedinitsreliability.Thereliabilityofthemiddlemaynotgivewayinanydirection.[...]Asthe
decisionofthebetween,thethresholdishardbecausepainpetrifiesit.[...]Painisthearrangementoftherift.Itisthethreshold.Itenduresthebetween,themiddleofthetwo
thatareseparatedbyit.Painjoinstheriftofdifference.Painisdifferenceitself.95

IfforPersethethresholdisalsotherendingbetweenandthisholdsaboveallforanygrandeurofthefoundationandinstitutionsifitistheplaceofgatheringandof
scattering,ofjointureanddisjunction,themobileandfluidthresholdisnotpurepain,noronthecontraryapureunalloyedjoy,butthe"favorofthethreshold,"grace,
giftofthepoeminastrangeness"loftierthanjoy."96
TherearemanythresholdsuptothehighestThreshold,andallaretobeleft,oraresymbolsofexile:ournarrowdomesticthresholds,beachesandseashores,death
itself.Sealanguage,theplaceofthereplenishmentofthepoem,istheonly"frequentable"thresholdpreciselybecauseitis"uninhabitable,"97whichmeansitforbids
construction,thecomingtoastandstill,afounding.Ifthemanofexileiswonderstruckbythis"splendidlavaatourthreshold,"98itisnolesslava,aburning,tumultuous
devouringpowerofviolenceandforgetfulness.Buttearingawayfromthethresholdoftheordinaryhearthisexperiencedaspurepainandheartbreakonlyby"the
usualmanblindedbydomesticstars."99MustwenotreadtheenigmaticopeningofExileinthissense:"Doorsopenontothesands,doorsopenontoexile,...andthe
starbrokenonthewheel,thestonethreshold''?100Namely,inthesensethattheStrangerprecedes,greetsthecruelretreatofthestar(thesunofafamiliarplace),a
retreatnotbybeingremovedbutbytheverycrossingofthethreshold.Theexileextenuatesthetoohumanthreshold.Theordinaryhouseclosedinuponitself,when
tortured,becomespallid,translucent,provisional:"glasshouseinthesand,"101aborrowedhouse(thatofthe"host"andnotthepoet'sownhouse).
Themarinethresholdmakeseverydooroutofdoors:"Ohyouwhoendlesslysingthearroganceofdoors..."102disturbseverysmugpower:"Andyouwhoprowlthe
homesoftheGreatlikearumblingofthesoulwithoutlair...."103Forthepoettheseaisataremove,abewildermentforthedweller.
Beachesandseashoresundertherainandtidesarecoveredwithcodedwritingsandportentsprofferingsignsovertheirthresholdsofahigher

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threshold.ThishighestThresholddismissesorconciliatesdeath:atthemomentthatmanloseshisfootingandsetsfootintheelemental,themomentofa"lasting
fulguration"104anexpressionthatechoesofRenChardeathis"visitedbytheimmortalGraces."105Heredeathisnot''theshelterofbeing,"106theverybeingof
being,but"hereticalandhollowdeath,deathreprieved!"107How?By"theseabeyondthestoneofthethreshold...,"108"avasterplacefortheresurrectionofthe
dead."109
Isthisametaphysicsor"mysticism"ofpresence?Certainlynotoffullpresence,thefullnessofselfpresence,but"allpresenceandallabsence,"110allgenerosityand
"alldenial."111Andagain,theSubject,thePoet,theStoryteller,isnotthemasterofwhathesaysbutisinhabitedbytherhythmandpulsationoftheelemental,drunk
withdivineinebriationlikethesibylbreathingnotchthonicemanationsbutthe"smokeofthethreshold,"thefoam,thefrothoftheseaandsaltedcracklings:"...isityou,
smokeofthethreshold,whobyyourselfriseinuslikethesacredspiritofwine...."112EveniftheThresholdas"gap,"as"lapse"113iseverywhereandnowhere,and
eveniftheseais"wanderingwithoutreturn"114andthepoem"dreamwithoutreturn,"115cantheexilebethoughtasastrangertoeverydwelling?Atthethresholdof
metaphysicsPlatohasshownthatthereisonlyanOtherthatisdialecticallyrelatedtotheSame.HeideggersaystheStrangerisalwaysunderwaytowardhome."The
strangerseeksoutthesitewherehecanremainawanderer."116DoeswhatappliestotheStrangerofTraklapplyalsototheStrangerofPerse?ForTraklandabove
allforH1derlinpoetichabitationcomesbacktotheearth.Itnecessarilycomestorestthere,establishesitselfthere,preferablyclosetothesources.Perse's
uprootednessandbeing,casttowardtheuninhabitable,thedissociationofinhabitingandbuilding,couldnotbetoleratediftheywerenotsimultaneouslydoubledbyan
indestructiblebondtobeing,toanotherunrootedness.ThePersianStrangerdoesnotsomuchfleetheearthastheCity,whichisusedupandabused,thewornout
earth,"theearthattheendofitsutility."117Buthowarewetodescribehisnewrootedness?
Body,Physis,language:housesofbeing.
Ifnothingis"morepowerfulthanbirth,"118the"nativeorder"ll9thataccompaniesuseverywhereandthatisdepositedinourbodygivesusrootsattachedtono
"country."Hiddenrootoftheflesh.Ecstaticroottowardanotherflesh:"...mylove...Ihavenoplacebutinyou."120
RootednessinPhysis,emergenceandwithdrawal,iswhenthewordsoftheEpheseanseemtorecur:
Ohyouwhoknowanddonotknow,ohyouwhospeakanddonotspeak....121

Buttheexiletoward"thegreattext"doesnotrootusinagenuine,"natu

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ral"site.Thoughitmaybetheleastuprooted,oneofthesymbolsofPersethatofthehabitationofman,"thegreattree"assumestheambiguityandthereversibility
ofPhysisandLogos.Thegreattreeisbothanaturalbeing,resonantandmusical,"shiveringinitswoodenrattlesofdeadwood,"122theseminatural,semicultural
placeofidolatry,ofmagic,andthespeakingmediumwherespeechspeaks,whereitspeaksinus,insensitivetoacquiredknowledge:''Ah!greattreeoflanguage,
peopledwithoracles,withmaximsandthemurmuringmurmuroftheblindborninthepentagramsofknowledge"123
This"reenrootment"alwaysunderway,inprogress,producesstutterings,mullingsbutbyallowingmomenttomomentfortheforgetfulnessofalllearnedlanguage
(withitsturns,withits"arms"),perhapsitgivesrisetoamemoryofamorenativelanguage,ofamoresilentVoice:
Thosewhoeverydaypitchcampfurtherfromtheplaceoftheirbirth,thosewhoeverydaybeachtheirskiffsonothershores,senseeverydaymoreclearlythecurrentofillegible
thingsandgoingbackupstreamtotherivers'source,betweentheverdantbanksofappearances,aresuddenlystruckbythisstarkLightinwhichalllanguagelaysdownits
arms.124

Thedistant"Source"ofwhichthepoetspeaksheredoesnotemergeinanygeographicalland.Itistheverysourceoflanguagepriortolanguage.The"Light"isnotthe
lightofday,butthelightningflashofbeing:"...TheycalledmetheObscureandIlivedintheLight."125

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NOTES

Foreword
1.HansGeorgGadamer,"ZurEinfhrung,"inMartinHeidegger,DerUrsprungdesKunstwerkes(Stuttgart:Reclam,1960),especiallypp.107109.
2.G.W.F.Hegel,PhnomenologiedesGeistes,ed.J.Hoffmeister(Hamburg:FelixMeiner,1952),p.219.
3.EdmundHusserl,"FoundationalInvestigationsofthePhenomenologicalOriginoftheSpatialityofNature,"trans.FredKersten,inHusserl:ShorterWorks,ed.
PeterMcCormickandFrederickElliston(NotreDame:UniversityofNotreDamePress,1981),p.226.ThemanuscripthasbeendatedMay1934.
4.Ibid.,p.230.
5.FriedrichNietzsche,AlsoSprachZarathustra,involumeVIofWerke:KritischeGesamtausgabe,ed.GiorgioColliandMazzinoMontinari(Berlin:Walterde
Gruyter,1968),p.9.
6.Hesiod,TheHomericHymnsandHomerica,withtranslationbyH.G.EvelynWhite(Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,1914),p.457.
7.MartinHeidegger,SeinundZeit,9thed.(Tbingen:MaxNiemeyer,1960),p.163.

Preface
1.Herewewrite"being"inlowercaseletterstomarkthefactthatitisnotaquestionofsubstanceorasubjectseparatefromhumans,butitmustbeunderstoodasa
verbthatimpliestime."Being"withacapitalusuallyreferstothosegreatmetaphysicalnames(Idea,Subject,Will)definingpreciselytheBeingofbeingsintheir
totality,orthebeingnessofBeingaccordingtoitssuccessiveepochaldefinitions.Beingashistorical(seebelowPartTwo)remainsambiguoustotheextentthatitis
identifiedwithitsHistoryandbyitslimits(commencementandfulfillment).
2.Accordingtotheconventionaluse,theadjective"historical"referstogeschichtlich:itmarksthedistinctionmadebyHeideggerbetweenGeschichte(Historyasa
seriesofepochswherebeinggivesitselfandwithholdsitself)andHistorie(historyscience,ifnotpurelyincidental,atleastfactuallyandstrictlychronological).
3.HW,p.300.
4.TK,pp.4344.
5.Whentheyareautonomousandnotobjectified,allthings,andnotonlythepotter'sjug,are"diewachstmlichenDingederErde,"thegrowingthingsoftheEarth
(VA,p.191).SeealsoHW,pp.5758.
6.ItseemstousthatthethoughtofEreigniscannotgiverise,asReinerSchrmannsuggests(Leprinciped'anarchie:Heideggeretlaquestiondel'agir[Paris:
Seuil,1982]),toaliberationofmultipleanddecenteredforces.Theturnbeyondtheoblivionofbeingmarks,onthecontrary,areentryintotheSimpleanda
concentrationintheUnique.
7."...todayintheatomicagewhereparticularity,separation,andvalidityoftheindividualdisappearsatbreakneckspeedinfavoroftotaluniformity"(SvG,p.138).
8."Inthesmallestaswellasthegreatesthappiness,thereisalwayssomethingthatmakeshappinesshappiness:thepossibilityofforgetting,ortospeakinmore

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scientificterms,thefacultyofsensing,foratime,inanonhistoricalmanner"(unhistorischzuempfinden)."VomNutzenundNachteilderHistoriefrdas
Leben"inUnzeitgemb eBetrachtungen,1,3.
9.Thisistheconclusionof"ZeitundSein,"ZSD,p.25.
10.VA,p.97.
11."UmstruzderkopernikanischenLehre:DieErdealsUrarchbewegtsichnicht"["FundamentalInvestigationsintothePhenomenologicalOriginofthe
SpatialityofNature"].
12.VA,p.99,GA13,p.146.
13.VA,p.99.
14.WM,p.336:("DieHeimatlosigkeitwirdeinWeltschicksal").
15.HW,p.57.
16.HW,p.31.

PartOne
1.IdeenII,p.29.
2."Man...gatherstogetherinhimselfalltheessentialdegreesofexistenceingeneral,andinparticularoflife,andinhimnatureasawholeattainsthemost
concentratedunityofitsbeing."(Lasituationdel'hommedanslemonde,Aubier,p.29.)
3.GPGA24,p.240.
4.SeeSZ,p.100,forexample.
5.EHD,andGA39:HGR,GA52,GA53.
6.GA55:Heraklit.
7.GA54:Parmenides.
8.EM,p.11.
9.HW,p.31.
10.WM,p.299.
11.EHD,pp.6465.
12.SvG,p.139.
13.EM,p.11.
14.SZ,p.34:theexpression"fromitself"isrepeatedtwiceintheHeideggeriandefinitionofphenomenology:"toletwhatshowsitselfshowitselffromitselfasit
showsitselffromitself."Emphasisadded.
15.SZ,p.63.
16.GA29/30,p.274,p.275.
17."Humanismusbrief,"WM,p.313.
18."Humanismusbrief,"WM,pp.32122.
19."TheHistoryofBeingisbeingitselfandnothingbutthis,"NII,p.489.AsalreadyindicatedinthePreface,followingcurrentpracticewetranslate"geschichtlich"
as''historical"and"historisch"as"historiographic."
20.VA,p.99.Theexpression"thenonmanifestlaw"(dasunscheinbareGesetz)doesnotrefertoanyscientificlaw.Itdesignatesthecourseof"self
sufficiency"(Gengsamkeit)orthe"moderation"propertothe"emergenceandthedisappearance"ofthethingsofnature(cf.below,p.108ff).Butisnotthesecret,
invisible,unformablecharacterofthisfundamental"law"whatisessential?Doesitnotmeanthatnaturekeepsinitselfanonmanifestnessmoreradicalthanbeing?
Natureismorethanold,immemorialmorethanyoung,productiveofformsneverseen.Howdothingsstandwithbeing?Wouldnaturestillbewithoutmemory?
Wouldnaturestillbewithoutforgetting?
21.Plato,Timaeus,52b.
22.HW,31.
23.HW,37.

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24.InterviewinDerSpiegel.

1."Nature"asaCategoryofBeingsEncounteredintheWorld
1.Dasein,thebeingwhoseexistenceconsistsinitsunderstandingofbeing(cf.SZ,9,31),doesnotcoincidewithexistenceinthetraditionalsenseofwhatisop
posedtoessence,norwithmanasthelivingbeingendowedwithreason,norwiththetranscendentalhumansubject.TheFrenchtranslationofDaseinbybeing
theredoesnotseem"skewed"tous(F.Vezin,treetTemps,p.524).Forthe"there"doesnotdesignatetheoccurrenceofsomethingactuallypresent,butthevery
openingtopresence,tobeing,oronemightsaywhatpermits"beingtoward"AsR.Munierrightlyshows,inbeingtherethethereisnotsimplytakenintheadverbial
sense(Iamthere)butinthesubstantivesense(Iamthetherewhich"expressesnofacticity,butanecstaticrelationtobeingwhichoccursandcanonlyoccurthrough
it....Thereforebeingthereisintheinfinitivevoice,notthebeingofwhatisthere,butofwhatisathereforbeing,openedtobeingandactivelywaitingitsarrival."
Cahierdel'HerneHeidegger,p.57).WhenHeideggerwritesthewordwithahyphen:Dasein,hemeansexplicitlytoemphasizethe"there''(howelseisoneto
translateDa?)astheplacewherebeingisgrasped.Thetranslation"therebeing"(treetTemps2,p.188)seemsbothtoflyinthefaceoftheFrenchlanguageand
againstatraditionofthinking.Asasimpleinversion,itbelongstowhatNietzschewouldcallareactivemovement.[IhavefollowedtheEnglishconventionbynot
translatingDasein(RL).]
2.SZ,p.50.
3.WM,pp.32122.
4.GA15:Seminare,pp.23334.
5.SZ,p.63.
6.Ibid.,p.65.
7.Ibid.
8.SZ,p.65cf.alsoSZ,p.112.
9.SZ,p.70.
10.Seehisarticle,"Delatechnlatechnique,"Cahierdel'HerneHeidegger,pp.292ff.
11.SZ,p.70.
12.Ibid.
13.Ibid.
14.Ibid.(theexpressioninquotationmarksinthetextreferstoasortofcommonplaceofvitalism).
15.Ibid.
16.SZ,p.71.
17.Ibid.,p.71:("einzunchstansichvorhandenerWeltstoff").
18.Ibid.
19.Ibid.,p.68.
20.GA20:PGZ,p.300.
21.Seebelow,chapter2,"DaseinandAnimality."
22.SZ,pp.8081.
23.EHD,p.85.
24.SeePartThree,chapter9,"EcstaticDwelling."
25.SZ,p.263:"withoutrelation(toanyone)."
26.VA,p.177.
27.PaulValry,LaJeuneParque,uvres,I,Pliade,p.106.
28.Rilke,DasBuchvanderundvomTode.
29.SZ,p.244.
30.Ibid.,p.247.

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31.Ibid.,p.248.
32.BegriffderZeit,p.10.
33.Ibid.
34.Ibid.
35.SZ,p.411:DiebesorgteZeitItisnotaquestionof"preoccupiedtime"butthetimeof"preoccupations"(Besorgen),orevenbetter,of"occupation,''forBesor
genimpliesmorethenotionofeverydayactivitiesthatprovideforthisorthat:onesays,forexample,"ichbesorgemiretwaszumEssen,""Igetmyselfsomethingto
eat."Thetranslationbypreoccupationputstoomuchemphasisonacaring,aworryingthatisnotimpliedbythewordBesorgen.
36.Ibid.,p.412:"officially"weappeartoo"political."
37.Ibid.
38.Ibid.
39.Ibid.,p.416.
40.Ibid.,p.419:"frher"istranslatedas"prior."
41.GA24:GP,p.370(emphasisadded).

2.DaseinandAnimality
1.GA29/30:GBM,pp.37172.
2.Seebelow,p.65ff.,andPartThree,chapter8.
3.Ibid.,p.371.
4.Itgoesonfor145pagesinGA29/30:GBM(pp.261404aremostessential).
5.Notably,HeideggercitesandcommentsupontheworksofthegreatbiologistsW.Roux(onembryologyinparticular),JacobvonUexkll(ontheUmweltof
animals),andBuytendijk(onthedifferenceinthebehaviorofanimalsandhumans),aswellasanumberofotherfamousauthors.
6.GA29/30:GBM,p.319.Heideggerwillabidebythispositionlateron.ThushewritesinVA:"wecanbefittedoutwithbodilyearsbecausewehear,"p.215.
7.Ibid.
8.GA29/30:GBM,p.340.Thisideawouldcomeclosetothenotionofthe"unifiedfield,"orthe"absolutedomain"ofindividualityorpresence,whichaccordingto
R.Ruyer(Laconscienceetlecorps,passim)characterizeslife.
9.GA29/30:GBM,p.340.
10.Heideggerindicates(ibid.,p.348)thattheterm"compulsion"ishabituallyusedinpsychiatry,andinregardstohumansdesignatesastateofconfusionbetween
consciousnessandunconsciousness.InthewordBenommenheititisnecessarytohearbothsichbenehmen,tobehave,andtheverbBenehmen,tocarryoff,
remove,fromwhichcomestheadjectivebenommen,"deprivedofsensation,""numb."Onecouldliterallytranslate:transport[emportement]ontheconditionthat
wedon'ttakethistomeansomethinglikeanger,enthusiasm,orvervebutratheramovementofbeingcarriedofftooneselfwhichclosestheanimaldriveinonitself,
evenmorethanleadingittowarditsgoal.
11.Orbetter,ifitseesit,itdoesnotviewit.Heideggerthinksthatthereisaradicaldifferencebetweenseeing(sehen)asatraitofanimals,andviewing(blicken)asa
humantrait.OnlythehumanBlickgathers,collects,andallowstoappear,whichmeansmakesbeingsvisibleinthelightofbeing,aslogosdoes.Heideggerwrites:"
'Animalsseeus,'onesays.Butanimalsdonotview.Withanimalsa'watching,''beingonthelookout,''staring,''tracking'isneveraselfdisclosureofbeinginits
supposedviewing,ananimalneverbringsitselftoappearalongwiththatbeingthatisrevealedtoit"(GA54:Parmenides,pp.158159.[...,niebringtdasTierin
seinemsogenanntenBlickeneinAufgehenseinerselbstineinihmentborgenesSeiendesmit.]
12.GA29/30:GBM,p.361.

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13.Ibid.,p.363.
14.Ibid.,pp.37576.
15.Ibid.,p.396.
16."...toalllifethereisattachedanindestructiblemelancholy,"Schelling,SmtlicheWerke,Lotte,VII,p.466.
17.GA29/30:GBM,p.396.
18.SeeGA54:Parmenides,p.237GA39:HGR,p.75.
19.GA39:HGR,p.75.
20.In"WozuDichter"(HW)aswellasinacourseonParmenides(GA54:Parmenides,8,pp.255240).
21.Rilke,EighthElegy.
22.Ibid.(thewordisisunderlinedbyRilke).
23.Op.cit.p.66.
24.GA54:Parmenides,p.235.
25.HW,p.264.
26.GA54:Parmenides,p.226.
27.Ibid.,p.234.
28.Ibid.,p.226.
29.Ibid.,p.227.
30.Ibid.,p.229.AccordingtoNietzscheahumanizationoftheanimalcorrespondstothisanimalizationofhumanity:"Italmostseemsthatatworkinthispoetryisa
limitlessandgroundlesshumanizationoftheanimalbywhichtheanimal,intermsoftheoriginalexperienceofbeingasawhole,isevenplacedabovehumansand
becomesinacertainmannerthe'overman'"(ibid.,p.239).
31.Ibid.,p.233.
32.Ibid.
33.Intheword"Nature"employedherebyRilketherestillresonatestheechooftheearlierword:"physis"(HW,p.257).
34.GA54:Parmenides,p.230.
35."WozuDichter?"inHW,p.286.
36.Rilke,RSWII,p.477.
37.Ibid.
38.HW,p.262.
39.RSWI,p.720,NinthElegy.
40.RSWII,184.
41.Thesequestionsareagaintakenupanddevelopedinchapter8,"RilkeandtheInferiorityofEarth."

3.ThePrimacyofStimmungoverDasein'sBodiliness
1.TheemphasisondenHand,thehand,whichhasacommonrootwithVorhandenheitandZuhandenheit,seemsexcessivewhenthesetermsarerenderedinthe
FrenchtranslationofE.Martineau(Authentica,1965)assouslamain(athand)andportedelamain(takeninhand).Ifthereferencetothispartofthebody
wereofsuchimportance,Heideggercouldnothaveavoidedundertakingananalysisofthesewords.Yethedoesnotdoit,atleastinBeingandTime.Hewill
explicitlydealwithHandmuchlatersee,e.g.,GA54:Parmenides,pp.11819,andWasheibtDenken?,passim.
2.SZ,p.107(thetextindeedmentionsthestreet,Strabe).
3.Liketheproximityofglassesonthenoseorofthetelephoneclosetothehand.
4.EveryDaseincarrieswithitself(beisich)thevoiceofthefriend(dieStimmedesFreundes),SZ,p.163.
5.SeeVA,pp.16364.

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6.SZ,p.107.
7.Ibid.,p.368:HeideggerquiteregularlyusesthewordLeibkrper:literally"fleshbody"(LeibisthelivingbodyKrperingeneralistheinanimatebody).
8.Ibid.,p.164.
9.Ibid.,p.164.
10.Ibid.,p.163.
11.Ibid.,p.164.
12."Apropostoitsspatiality,Daseinisneverfirsthere,butoverthere,anditisfromthisovertherethatitcomesbacktoitshere."Ibid.,p.107,emphasis
added.
13.SvG,p.89.
14.SZ,p.147(theword"Sehen,""see,"isinquotationmarksinthetext).
15.GA24:GP,p.102:"Beingscanbedisclosed,bethisbywayofperceptionorsomeothermeansofaccess,onlyifthebeingofbeingshasalreadybeen
disclosedthatis,ifIunderstandit."
16.SZ,p.221.
17.Geworfenisthepastparticipleofwerfen.
18.SZ,p.251,1.910.
19.Ibid.,p.284,1.2627.
20.Ibid.,p.339.
21.Ibid.,p.138.
22.Ibid.,p.148.
23.Ibid.,p.136.
24.GA45:Grundfragen,p.154.
25.Herankshisdescription"aboveeverypsychologyofStimmungen"(SZ,p.134).
26.Valry,Cahiers,II,p.346.
27.HenriMichaux,Passages,p.126,Gallimard,1982(emphasisadded).
28.Perhapstheamorousfeeling"fixed"onapersoncanonlybebornbeginningwithageneral,eroticmoodthatisinsomesense"withoutanobject."
29.Kierkegaard,Either/Or"TheImmediateStagesoftheErotique,"trans.DavidF.SwensonandLillianMarvinSwenson(Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,
1959),pp.74ff.
30.GA29/30:GBM,p.101.OnthespecificanalysisofGrundstimmungandboredomcarriedoutinthecourseof192930,seeourstudy:"Letempvideet
l'indiffrencel'tre,"ExercicesdelaPatience,7,1986,pp.1736.
31."WasistMetaphysik,"inWM,p.109(emphasisadded).
32.Novalis:"...adeadfeeling,agrayish,faintlife,""DieLehrlingzuSais,"NovalisWerke:Studienausgbe,ed.GerhardSchulz(Mchen:C.H.Beck,1969),p.
113.
33.Nietzsche,DieFrhlicheWissenschaft,179."Thoughtsaretheshadowsofourfeelingsalwaysmoreobscure,emptier,simplerthanthem."
34.GA39:HGR,p.223.
35.WM,p.154,note55("VomWesendesGrundes").
36.GA45:Grundfragen,p.197(HeideggerwritesErstaunensoastoemphasizeboththesuspenseandinsistencewondersetsup).
37.Seeouressay,"Letournantdeladtresse,"CahierdeL'HerneHeidegger,translatedas"TheEndofDistress:TheEndofTechnology?,"inResearchin
Phenomenology,Vol.XIII,1983.
38.GA45:Grundfragen,p.170.,emphasisadded.
39.Forthefirsttimein1925inGA20:PGZ,pp.400406,inrelationtoUnheimlichkeit("uncanniness").
40.Bollnow,VomWesenderStimmungen,drittedurchgeseheneunderweiterteAuflage(VittorioKlostermann:FrankfurtamMain,1956),p.67.
41.J.F.Courtine,"L'idedelaphnomenologieetdelaproblmatiquedelarduction"inPhnomenologieetMtaphysique,ed.J.L.Marion,PUF,1984,p.
245.

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42."WasistMetaphysik?,"WM,p.111.
43.Ibid.,p.113:einegebannteRuhe.
44.Ibid.,p.117.
45.Ibid.
46.Ibid.,p.113.
47.Ibid.,p.304(emphasisadded).MustwesaythatStimmungisthesilentsourceofthinkingassuch?Seeourstudy:"Stimmungetpense,"inHeideggeretl'ide
delaphnomenologie,ed.F.Volpi(Dordrecht:Kluwer,1988).
48.Ibid.,p.117.
49.OnthesignificanceoftheeschatologyofHistory,seebelowPartTwo,especiallyp.147.

4.PhysisandEarth
1.HW,p.31.WecitethispassagebecauseitsummarizesinanexemplaryfashionHeidegger'sposition.
2.GA55:Heraklit,p.173:"Aletheia...istheessenceofphysis."
3.Ibid.,pp.110ff.
4.Diels,FragmentsofthePresocratics,Fragment67.
5.GA55:Heraklit,p.87.
6.Ibid.,p.102.
7.VA,p.271.
8.Ibid.
9.GA55:Heraklit,p.132.
10.ReinerSchrmann,Leprinciped'anarchie:Heideggeretlaquestiondel'agir(Seuil:Paris1982),p.258.
11.Ibid.,p.248.
12.Ibid.,p.323.
13.VA,p.274.
14.GA55:Heraklit,p.96.Seealsop.162.
15.EM,p.77.
16.GA55:Heraklit,p.161.
17.EHD,p.55(emphasisadded).
18.GA39:HGR,p.128.
19."DerIster,"HSW2,1,p.190.
20."Wie,wennamFeiertag...,"HSW2,1,p.118.
21.EHD,p.52.
22.Ibid.,p.77(emphasisadded).
23.EHD,p.59.
24.Ibid.,p.53.
25.H1derlin,Hyperion,endofPartTwo.
26.EHD,p.54,"DieSchnheitistdieAllgegenwart."
27.Thirdstropheof"WiewennamFeiertage...,"HSW2,p.118.
28.R.Otto,DasHeilige,1917.
29.WM,pp.34748.
30.EHD,p.71.
31."WiewennamFeiertag..."(seventhstrophe).
32.EHD,p.76seealsoHeraclitus,Fragments,50:"Ifitisnotmetowhomyoulistenbutthelogos,itiswisetorecognizethatallisone."
33.EHD,p.75"persistence"translatesFestbleiben.
34.EHD,p.75"dasKommendesAnfangs."
35.Ibid.,p.76.
36.Ibid.
37.Ibid.,p.75.

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38.Ibid.,pp.6263.
39.HW,p.43:"dieErdeistnichtdasVerschlossene,wasderVerbergungentspricht."
40.Ibid.p.36.
41.Ibid.p.35.
42.Ibid.p.37.
43.Ibid.p.38.
44.Ibid.p.37.
45.Ibid.p.311.
46.Ibid.p.37.
47.Ibid.p.43:"Ungeheuer."
48.Ibid.p.36.
49.Ibid.p.35.
50.Ibid.p.38.
51.Ibid.emphasisadded.
52.Ibid.p.30.
53.Ibid.p.35.
54.Ibid.p.18.
55.Cf.thevariationsontheCartesiantreeofmetaphysicsatthebeginningof"ReturntotheBeginningofMetaphysics,"WM,pp.36063.
56.GA39:HGR,p.242.
57.VA,p.150:"DerGrundzugdesWohnens(aber)isdasSchnen."
58."The700YearsofMesskirch"("700JahreMesskirch"),inMartinHeideggerzum80Geburtstag,V.Klostermann,1969,p.38.
59.Ontheconsistencyof"stuff"(Bestand),seebelow,pp.162ff.

5.TheHistoryofBeingandItsHegelianModel
1.ZSD,p.84.
2.HW,p.298.
3.ID,p.39.
4.NII,p.489.
5.ZSD,p.56.
6.HW,p.307.
7.Hegel,Leonssurl'histoiredelaphilosophie,Gallimard,p.156.
8.Hegel,DieVernunftinderGeschichte,A:DieBestimmungdesGeistes,herg.J.Hoffmeister(FelixMeiner:Hamburg,1955),p.59.
9.PrefacetoVA.TheoppositionofVergangenes/GeweseneswasalreadymadeinSZ,p.328:"'Solong'asDaseinfacticallyexistsitisneverpast,thoughindeedit
hasalwaysalreadybeeninthesenseof'Ihavebeen.'"SeealsoGA24:GP,p.411,on"theordinaryconceptofthepast."
10.SeeHW,p.295:"Thewholeofwhathasbeen(dasGewesene)iswhathasthecharacterofaGeschick."
11.NII,p.481.
12.Cf."Principesdelapense,"Cahierdel'HerneHeidegger,p.75.
13.NII,p.388.
14."WasistMetaphysik,"HW,p.52.
15.NII,p.487.
16.EHD,p.106.
17.EHD,p.84."Gesetzt,diesAndenkendenktvoraus,dannkannauchdasZuruckdenkennichtein'Vergangenes'denken,demnurderBescheiddesUnwider
ruflichenzuleihenwre.Das'Denkenan'dasKommendekannnurdas'Denkenan'dasGewesenesein,worunterwirimUntershiedzumnurVergangenendas
fernhernochWesendeverstehen."

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18.WHD,p.95.
19.NII,p.481.
20.NII,p.420.
21."Everyepochofphilosophyhasinitselfitsownnecessity."DieTechnikunddieKehre,p.66.
22.VA,p.76.
23.ZSD,p.56.
24.SvG,p.154.
25.ZSD,p.56(emphasisadded).
26.Ibid.
27.WHD,p.98.
28.Forexample,NII,p.444.
29.NII,p.435.
30.NII,p.435.
31.NII,p.428.
32.Calledtomindas"vesperal,"theplanetaryepochisoccasionallynamed"hesperial"(fromtheGreekhespra,evening)whichmeansthetwilightofthedestinyof
Being.
33.NII,p.423.
34.Emphasisadded.Cf.HW,p.223.
35.SeeHW,"DerSpruchAnaximanders,"p.302.
36.Ibid.
37.Ibid.
38.ZSD,p.44.
39.ZSD,p.57.
40."Nachwort"to"WasistMetaphysik?"
41.ZSD,p.25.
42.Ibid.,p.44.
43.NII,p.262.
44.Ibid.
45."TheOvercomingofMetaphysics,"inVA,p.71.
46.VA,p.36:cf.alsoZSD,p.58.
47.Gelassenheit,p.37.
48.NII,p.202.
49.HW,p.300.

6.TheEssenceofTechnology
1.US,p.121.
2.Oneoftherareexceptionsbeingthecelebratedphrase"das'Wesen'desDaseinsliegtinseinerExistenz,"wherethequotationmarksunderlinestronglythe
necessityofbreakingwiththetraditionalusageoftheword(cf.onthissubjectthe"LetteronHumanism,"WM,pp.32223.SZ,p.42.
3.SZ,p.34.
4.Cf.ZeitundSein,ZSD,p.3.
5.Intheworkthatbearsthesamename,DerSatzvomGrund(1957),ThePrincipleofReason.
6.HW,p.33.
7.Seeabove,PartTwo,chapterfive,"TheHistoryofBeingandItsHegelianModel."OtherHegelianresonancescanbediscernedintheHistoryofBeing,in
particulartheextremeemphasisplacedonrecollection,totalization,eveneternalizationforexample,inSvG,p.150:"thehistoryofWesternthinkingshowsitselfas

Page166

theGeschickofbeingwhenandonlywhenweglancebackuponthewholeofWesternthinkingfromthepointofviewoftheleapandwhenwerecollectively
preserveitastheGeschickofbeingthathasbeen....Theleapleavestherealmfromwhichoneleapswhileatthesametimerecollectivelyregaininganewwhat
hasbeenleftsuchthatwhathasbeenbecomes,forthefirsttime,somethingwecannotlose."
8.VA,p.38whren(OldHighGerman)wouldbea"derivative"formconstructedfromwesan,whichbecomeswesen.
9.VA,p.36.
10.TK,p.45.
11.VA,p.13.
12.Cf.ouranalysisbelowandthenotebelowonGestell(note17).
13.VA,p.31.
14.VA,p.93(seenote4ofthischapter).
15.VA,p.39:"Allthatcomestobeendures."
16.VA,p.30.
17.ThetranspositionofGestellbyArraisonnementinFrench(Prau,inEssaisetconfrence)doesnotrenderthegathering,collectivecharacterofthe"Ge."The
FrenchDispositifallowsonetorenderquitewellthesenseofauniversallywoundupmechanism,preparedlikeasnare.Despitethedoublesense,thewordcon
sommationcouldinsomecasesbeused:itwouldallowforthecombiningofthetwosensesofsummation,namelyaddition,totalization,calculationingeneralonthe
onehandandbrutalquestioninganduniversalseizureontheother.TheforceoftheGestelIisindeedthatofageneralizedconsummation(consommation)that
presumestheenumerationandtheexploitationofresources,alsousuryandconsummationonthebasisofabsolutemercantilism.However,Heideggerclearly
indicatesthattheessenceoftechnologyimpliesthemercantilizationofbeingitself:"Thehumanityofhumansandthethinglinessofthingsdissolve,withinthoroughgoing
production,intothemarketvalueofamarketthatnotonlyincludesthewholeearthasaglobalmarket,butwhichasthewilltowillmarketstheveryessenceof
being..."(HW,p.270emphasisadded).Notethesenseofprofanationinthe"market":thevery"temple"ofbeing,Heideggerseemstosay,belongstothe
merchants.IsnottheGestelltheontologicalconditionofwhatonecallstheconsumersociety?
18.VA,p.24.
19.VA,p.71.
20.WM,p.312.
21.VA,p.76,VI,thirdparagraphoribid.,p.81(XI:"dievorletzteStufe").
22.VA,p.82.
23.OntherelationbetweenHegelianspeculativereasonandtechnologicalrationality,seetheremarkableinterpretationofDominiqueJanicaud,inLapuissancedu
rationnel,Gallimard,1985(forexample,pp.23949).
24.Twovolumesofthecourselectures(theNietzschevolumes),twoessaysandabunchofscattered,importantremarks.TheremarkcitedhereoccursinVA,p.
126.
25.VA,p.81.
26.VA,p.82.
27.HW,p.223,emphasisadded.
28.Nietzsche,SmtlicheWerke,ed.NaumannKrner,Leipzig,1913,vol.XV,331.
29.NII,pp.16566.
30.VA,p.82(Umschreibungen).
31.VA,p.40.
32.VA,pp.9899.
33.VA,p.90.
34.HW,p.272.

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35.WM,"VomWesenderWahrheit,"p.93p.195,emphasisadded.
36.VA,p.41.
37.VA,p.37.
38.VA,p.150.
39.VA,p.98.
40.Cf.Gelassenheit.
41.EpistletotheRomans(V,20).
42.ID,pp.2829.
43.Ibid.
44."DasEndederPhilosophie,"inZSD,p.73.
45.TK,p.44.
46.Ibid.,p.43.
47.Ibid.,p.45.
48.TheFrenchwordhereis"regard,"whichwehavebeentranslatingas"look"or"gaze."However,theroot"garder"means"towatch,keep,protect,
maintain''[RL].
49.KPM,p.239.
50.Gelassenheit,p.24.
51.WM,p.351.
52.HebelderHausfreund,p.31.
53.OnefindsastrangecorrespondencetothisthemeinaposthumousfragmentbyNietzschefromtheperiodofGayScience,Autumn1881,SmtlicheWerke,eds.
Colli&Montinari,14(10).Letusmerelyquoteit:"Whereshallwe,theloneliestofthelonelyforitiscertainlywhatwewillbeonedayunderfurthereffectsof
sciencewhereshallwefindanallyofman!Ofold,welookedforaking,afather,ajudgeofeverything,forlackoftruekings,truefathers,truejudges.Laterwe
willlookforthefriendmanwillhavebecomethenallmightysplendor,solarsystemsbutlonely.Willtheimpulsetoproducemythstendalsotolookforthe
friend?"

7.EarthintheWorkofArtandinthePoem
1."TheOriginoftheWorkofArt,""DerUrsprungdesKunstwerkes,"inHW.Thefirstversionof"Origin"datesfrom1936.Thetexthasbeenreworkedmanytimes.
The"Postface"datesfrom1940.Theappendixwaswrittenin1956fortheReclamedition(1960).
2.Seeabove,PartOne,chapterfour,"TheFourSensesofEarth."
3.HW,p.62.
4.Ibid.,p.64.
5.Ibid.,p.59(dasSichinsWerksetzenderWahrheit).
6.Ibid.,p.58.
7.Ibid.,p.41.
8.HW,p.49:"stance"=StandStndigkeit="constance."
9.Ibid.,p.50:irgendwoindenSternen.
10.L'iletEsprit,Gallimard,pp.6970.
11.Ibid.,p.62.
12.Ibid.,p.60.
13.Ibid.,p.50.
14.HeideggerhimselfindicatestheetymologicalequivalencebetweenLichtungandclairire(clearing):TheGermanwordLichtungwascoinedinthenineteenth
centurytorendertheFrenchclairire(onthissubject,andaboveallonthequestionofthepriorityofLichtung,seeHenriMongis,Phenomenologica,vol.76:
Heideggeretlaquestionduvaleur[TheHague:Nijhoff,1976],ChapterV,especiallyp.186).

Page168

15.ZSD,p.72.
16.Ibid.
17."Clarityplaysintheopenandthereiswhereitstruggleswithshadows,"ibid.,p.71.
18.Ibid.,129,emphasisadded.
19.VA,p.98.
20.Ibid.
21."Thehistoryofbeingisbeingitself,andnothingbutthis"(NII,p.489).Suchastatement,alreadycited(ouremphasishere),givestheappearanceofa
metaphysicalpropositionexcludingthenothingfromthefullnessofbeingtakenasbeingsassuchintheirtotality.Butwhatisatstakehereistheessenceof
metaphysicsanditistruethatmetaphysicshasalwaysthoughtthebeingofbeings,andthattheEarthhasbeenleftoutsideoftheHistoryofBeing.
22.FacticityisboththefactualbeingofDaseinandDasein'sinvolvementinthebeingofsubsistentbeings,inthisradicallyanteriorpasttowhichitisdelivered,
subjected,inthe"throw"(Wurf)thatthrowsitintotheworld."ItbelongstoitsfacficitythatDasein,aslongasitiswhatitis,remainsinthethrow..."(SZ,p.179).
23.HW,p.6263.
24.Seeabove,PartTwo,chapterfive,"ThePrimacyofthePastasGewesen,"especially[pp.13742].
25.WM,p.362:"Thetreeofphilosophygrowsoutofthenourishingsoil(Wurzelboden)ofmetaphysics."
26.HW,p.300:"einesganzanderenWeltalters."
27.Ibid.,emphasisadded.
28.VA,p.73:"diejheWeiledesAnfangs."
29.VA,pp.7199.
30.Ibid.,p.114.
31.SZ,pp.12627.
32.TheoldfableofCare,Cura,citedin42,isseenbyHeideggeras"apreontologicaltestimony"ofDasein,whichmeans,priortotheHistoryofBeing,
prehistoricalinaspecificmanner.IftheEarthasamythologicalfiguregivestohumanbeingitsname(Homoisderived,accordingtothefable,fromHumus),the
primacyofCare,hencetime,iswhatkeepsitinitsessence"foritswholelife."InthefableandInHeidegger'sowncommentary,theEarthonlygivestomanhisbody,
understoodasitssubstanceandnotitsoriginalbeing."Thisbeingdoesnotreceiveitsname(homo)fromaconsiderationofitsbeing,butinrelationtothatofwhichit
consists(humus).Thedecisionastowhereoneistoseethe'original'beingofthiscreatureisSaturn's,time's''(SZ,p.198).Thetextmakesnoreferencetothestatus
ofpoeticormythologicaldiscourseassuch.
33.SZ,p.162.
34.GA24:GP,p.244.
35.Ibid.,p.246.
36.Ibid.
37.EM,p.97.
38.Ibid.,p.49.
39.Ibid.
40.Ibid.
41.Ibid.,p.47.
42.Ibid.,p.77.
43.Ibid.
44.Ibid.,p.101.
45.Ibid.,p.102.
46.Ibid.,p.71.

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47.Ibid.,p.120.
48.CurrentusageinGermanassociatesGewaltwithlaw,authority,institutions,andnotatallwiththearbitrary,disorder,thebarbaric.Inoneofhiscourseson
Hlderlin,Heideggerspeaksofthe"poweroftheopening(dieerffnendeGewalt)ofthefundamentalattunement(Grundstimmung)"(GA39:HGR,p.92).
49.WillezurMacht,842.
50.Ibid.,848.
51.Ibid.,845,"(Raffael)wardankbarfrdasDasein,"and852,"ihrSchaffenistDankbarfrihrSein."
52.Ibid.,852.
53.Ibid.,846.
54.EM,p.123.
55.Ibid.,p.121.
56.Ibid.
57.Ibid.,p.130.
58.Ibid.,p.129.
59.Ibid.,p.131.
60.Ibid.,p.146.Weemphasizeantagonism,inbeing,andhumanstrugglefordisclosure,whicharenotoppositeoneanotherbutechoeachother.Disclosedness,
beingdisclosed,contains"initself"aconflict(Widerstreit)whoseessenceisnotmadeexplicit.
61.ThisfirstparenthesisisourstheoneatRissisinthetext.
62.ItseemstousthatFug,whichrenderstheGreekdik(ordinarilytranslatedas"justice"),isbetterrenderedbyajustement["arrangement"]thanbyajointment
["jointure"](G.Kahn).
63.EM,p.123.
64.UltimatelyNietzschewillmaketheprimitivedoubleaspectofcreativeforcesmergeintheunityofDionysus,inlucidrapture.ButthepolarityoftheApollinianand
Dionysianremainsattheveryheartof"Dionysianwisdom."
65.HW,p.38,emphasisadded.
66.OnthissubjectseetheessaybyM.FromentMeurice,"L'artmoderneetlatechnique,"Cahierdel'HerneHeidegger,pp.302ff.
67.HW,p.38:"fadenbereinkommen."
68.Ibid.
69.EditionsduCerf,1985,p.130.
70.Cf.NI,pp.104105.Nietzsche,whoseeksin"thegrandstyle"themasteryandstructuringofthepassionsandwhootherwiserejected"pureDionysianism"after
TheBirthofTragedy,isopposedtoWagner,whosemusicsupposedlydeveloped"theincreasingbarbarismofaffectivestates,""thepureexaggerationofthe
Dionysian.''
71.HW,p.35.
72.Theseterms(HW,p.36)arealsofoundinHeidegger'sanalysisoftheconceptof"bodilyandvitalchaos"inNietzsche(NLpp.56566).
73.Ibid.
74.TheGayScience,109.
75.HW,p.36:StromdesAusgrenzens.
76.Ibid.,p.58.
77.Ibid.
78.Ibid.,p.38.
79.US,p.188(us).
80.HW,p.60.
81.US,p.164.
82.HW,p.35.
83.Ibid.

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84.SeeValry,"PoetryandAbstractThought,"Oeuvres,I,Pliade,pp.133435.
Allthepreciousthingsthatareintheearth,gold,diamonds,gems,aredisseminated,strewnthere,stingilyhiddeninanumberofbouldersorinthesandwherechance
sometimeshasthemdiscovered.Thesericheswouldbenothingwithouthumanlabor,whichextractsthemfromthemassivenightwheretheyslumber,whichgathers
them,modifiesthem,andorganizestheminfinery.Thesesliversofmetalinsinuatedinanunformedmaterial,thesebizarrecrystalfigures,mustreceivealltheirlusterfrom
intelligentlabor.Itisalaborofthissortthatiscarriedoutbythetruepoet.Oneindeedsenseswithabeautifulpoetthatthereislittleroomforpersons,regardlessofhow
giftedtheyare,tohavebeenabletoimprovisewithoutreturn,withoutanyotherfatigueexceptthatofwritingorspeakingacoherentsystemfullofhappyserendipifies.
Asthetracesofeffort,thereprises,theregrets,thechunksoftime,themiserabledays,andtheloathingshavedisappeared,thingsareeffacedbythesupremereturnof
thespirittoitsworksome,whoseeonlytheperfectionoftheresult,viewitasbeingduetoasortofprodigycalledINSPIRATION.

85.EHD,p.153.
86.Valry,CahiersII,p.1076(Pliadeedition).
87.Itisnotanaccidentifthestructuralistgroup"TelQuel"borrowedValry'ssloganoftheprimacyoftheliteralityofwords,thetextualityofthetext.
88.US,p.173,translationmodified.
89.HW,p.35.
90.EHD,p.43.
91.Ibid.,p.148.
92.Ibid.,p.148.
93.Ibid.,p.153:dieNchternheitdesTrunkenen.
94.US,p.208.
95.DasLeibhaftederSprache,ibid.,p.204.
96.Ibid.,p.16:"Thepoemisthatwhichispurespoken"(reinGesprochenes).
97.Ibid.,p.31:Verlautbarung,Verlauten.
98.GA13:AED,p.150.
99.Ibid.,p.150.
100.US,p.204,emphasisadded.
101.Ibid.,p.205.
102.Cf.abovePartOne,chaptertwo,"ThePhenomenologyoftheAnimal'World.'"
103.US,p.208.
104.Ibid.,p.232:"DasWortbedingtdasDingzumDing."
105.Ibid.,p.22.
106.GA13:AED,p.15.HebelderHausfreund,p.25.
107.US,p.252.
108.Mallarm,"Crisedevers,"uvres,Pliade,p.368.
109."WiewennamFeiertag,"penultimatestrophe,HSW2,1,p.120.
110.Heimkunft,6.
111.R.Char,"Contreunemaisonsche,"uvresCompletes,Pliade,p.79.
112.R.Char,ChantsdelaBalandrane,op.cit,p.534.
113.Ibid.,p.571.

8.RilkeandtheInteriorityofEarth
1.EHD,p.76.
2.RSWII,SonnetstoOrpheusI,18,p.742.

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3."Rilke,inwhomtheepochofcompletedsubjectivitypoeticizesitselftotheend,"GA55:Heraklit,p.220.
4.HW,p.264.
5.Ibid,p.288.
6.Y.Bonnefoy,Laprsenceetl'image,Paris,MercuredeFrance,p.23.
7."FrHelmuthFreiherrnLuciusvonStoedten,"RSWII,p.261.
8.Moreoften,forexampleintheThirdElegy,itisamatterofblood,ofheredity,ofancestry,orofpureanimality,asintheEighthElegy.Theidentityofmanand
natureisexactlywhatmanhaslostbyturningawayfromtheOpen.Mantranscendsnatureinanegativesense(inthesensewherehehasdefinitivelylostthe"matrix")
andinapositivesense:"...dull,obsessiveNature/isfleetinglysurpassed"("SonnetstoOrpheus,II,28,"RSWI,p.76970).
9.CertainlytheOpenisnotpresenceandwithdrawal,likealetheiainHeidegger,buthowcanhemaintainthatforRilketheOpenistheboundless,hence"precisely
theclosed,theuncleared"?HW,p.262.
10.SeventhElegy,RSWI,p.711.
11.Ibid.,p.712.
12.NinthElegy,RSWI,p.719.
13.Ibid.,p.720,emphasisaddedto"you"and"your."
14.Blanchot,L'espacelittraire(Paris:Gallimard),p.184."Ides":"L'ouvertc'estlepome."
15.Ibid.,emphasisadded.
16."DieInselderSirenen,"RSWI,p.560.
17.HW,p.282.
18.Ibid.
19.Emphasisto"overthere"added,op.cit.
20."FrFrauLisaHeise,"RSWII,p.260.
21."Trnenkrglein,"RSWII,p.144,emphasisadded.
22."AndieMusik,"RSWII,p.111.
23."AmRandederNacht,"RSWI,p.400.
24.RSWII,p.502.
25."FnfGesnge,"ibid.,p.93.
26.Ibid.,p.93.
27.Munier,NouveauCommerce,Cahier2122,Spring1972,p.71reprintedinParcoursOblique,d.delaDiffrance,Paris,1979.
28.Ibid.
29.Ibid.
30.Ibid.
31.RSWII,p.184:"Ach,nichtgetrenntsein"
32."Gong,"RSWII,p.186.
33."DiespanischeTrilogie,"ibid.,p.4546.
34."DerGeistAriel,"ibid.,p.52.
35.Ibid.,p.730cf.theentireThirdElegy.
36."DerGeistAriel,"ibid.,p.5354.
37.Ibid.,p.54.
38."AusdenGedichtenandieNacht,"ibid.,p.407.
39.Ibid.,p.406p.67"AusdenGedichtenandieNacht."
40.Ibid.,p.70.
41.Ibid.,pp.33435.
42.Ibid.
43.Ibid.,p.477.
44.Ibid.,p.335.
45.Ibid.,p.429.

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46.Ibid.
47.HW,p.285.
48."DieRosenschale,"RSWI,p.554.
49.RSWII,p.519.
50.Correspondence,BriefanvonHulewiczdu13.11.1925,p.588.SeealsotheBrieftoGrafinSizzo:"readthedeadwordwithoutnegation,"p.532.
51."AndenEngel,"RSWII,p.48.
Unserist:denAusgangnichtzuwissen
ausdemdrinnenirrlichenBezirk,
duerscheinstaufunsernHindernissen
undbeglhstsiewieeinHochgebirg.
DeineLustistberunsermReiche,
undwirfassenkaumdenNiederschlag
wiediereineNachtderFrhlingsgleiche
stehstduteilendzwischenTagundTag.
.....
Engel,klagich,klagich?
DochwiewredenndieKlageMein?

52."FirstElegy,"RSWI,p.688.
53.LettertovonHulewicz,ibid.
54.Ibid.
55.Ibid.
56.Ibid.
57.Ibid.
58.Heraclitus,Fragment54.
59."DiespanischeTrilogie(I),"RSWII,pp.4344,emphasisadded.
60.Ibid.,p.44.
61.When"onesinglething"occurs,asin"AttheEdgeofNight,"itisnolessungraspableneitherisitanInoranonI."Myroomandthisvastness/watchingover
nightfallingland/areOne"(RSWI,p.400).
62.RSWII,p.185.Rilkehadthisverseengravedonhistombstone.Thereforeitisnotonlyanelegyonhisowndeath,butanelegyonthedeathofthesubject.
63."DieRosenschale,"RSWI,p.553.
64.Ibid.,p.554.
65.SaintJohnPerse,Pluies,p.141.
66.RSWII,pp.57384.TheArabicnumeralsgivenafterthequotationsrefertothenumbersgiventothepoemsbyRilke(forexample,"thesilentheart":poem
number1).
67.Asthepoem"DieRosenschale"saysofroses:"Theseextremegiftsofbeing...perhapstheyareours"(RSWI,p.552).
68.HW,p.254.
69.Ibid.
70.RSWI,p.717.
71."DieSonetteanOrpheus(II,28),"RSWII,p.763.
72."DasBuchvonderPilgershaft,"RSWI,pp.32627.
73.HW,p.253.
74.Correspondence,p.540(LettertoIlseJahr,February22,1923).
75.Ibid.

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9.EcstaticDwelling
1.Leibniz,Monadology,7.
2.GA24:GP,p.427.
3.WM,p.362.
4."Humanismusbrief,"WM,p.314.
5.Thetitleofthreehymnsthatwereneverdevelopedbeyondsketches.
6."DerRhine,"HSW2,1,p.143.
7."DerIster,"HSW2,1,p.190.
8."Patmos,"ibid.,p.165:"OFittigegiebuns,treuestenSinns/Hinberzugehenundwiederzukehren."
9.NietzscheplaysonthiswordinZarathustra,IV,"TheShadow."
10.Exil,p.127.Thefirsteditionreads"hisbirth"(cf.uvrespotique,I,p.213,Gallimard,6thedition,1953).Theeditionofcompleteworks(whicharen't
complete!)inthePliade,Gallimard,1972,reads"mybirth."OurcitationsofPerseareexclusivelyfromthislatteredition,exceptforthepoemScheresse,1974(in
Chantpourunquinoxe,Gallimard,1975),whichpostdatesthe1972edition.
11."Intheclearnightofnoon,weputforwardmorethanonenewpropositionabouttheessenceofbeing..."Exil,II,p.142.
12."...andseaagainwenameyou,wewhonolongerhaveaname,"Amers,Choeurs,p.368.
13.Exil,II,p.124.
14.Amers,VI,p.312.
15.Amers,Choeurs,p.368.
16.Amers,Strophe,p.311.
17.Vents,III,6,p.229.
18.Amers,Choeurs,p.374.
19.ThethemeoftheStrangerappearsinthepoetryofPerseevenbeforehispoliticalexileintheUnitedStatesin1940.
20.Exil,II,p.125.
21."TheanxietyofdaringdoesnottolerateouropposingittojoyItmaintainsasecretalliancewiththeserenityandsweetnessofacreativeandactivedesire."WM,
p.112.
22.EHD,p.129.
23."Thethinkersaysbeing.Thepoetnamesthesacred.[...]Weknownothingofthedialoguebetweenthepoetandthethinkerwho'liveincloseproximityonthe
mostseparatemountains.'""Nachwort"to"WasistMetaphysik?,"WM,p.309.HeideggerherecitesHlderlinwithoutnaminghim:''Andthebestoffriendslivein
doseproximity,speakingon/themostseparatemountains."HSW2,1,p.173.
24.HSW2,1,p.82.
25."DieHeimat,"ibid,p.19.
26."BriefanBhlendorff,4.Dezember1801,"4,p.260.
27."Hyperion,"SecondBook,HyperionanBellarmin.
28.HSW1,1,p.204.
OVaterAether!michaufnochehedieMutter
IndieArmemichnahmundihreBrstemichtrnkten,
FatestduZrtlichmichanundgossesthimmlischenTrankmir,
MirdenheiligenOthemzuerstindenkeimendenBusen.
NichtvonirdischerKostgedeiheneinzigdieWesen,

29.HSW2,1,p.153.

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30."MeinEigentum,"HSW1,1,p.307.
31."DieWanderung,"HSW2,1,p.141.
Unfreundlichistundschwerzugewinnen
DieVerschlossene,derichentkommen,dieMutter.

32.GA52:Andenken,p.135.
33.Cf.GrunddesEmpedocles,approx.p.5.The"nonorganic,"thecontraryoftheorganicnaturalform,isthenaturallyindistinctinfinite,the"deorganic,"the
"unconscious"(p.661).
34."Andenken,"HSW2,1,p.189.
35.FragmentofoneofthelastversionsofthelaststropheoftheelegyBrotundWein(specifically)citedandcommentedonbyHeideggerinEHD,4thed.p.89,1st
ed.p.85.
36.EHD,p.142.
37.Ibid.,p.145(137).
38.Ibid.,p.132(124).
39.Ibid.,p.130(123).
40.BriefanBhlendorff.
41.Ibid.
42.EDH,p.88(84).
43."Heimkunft,"HSW2,1,p.97.
44.Ibid.,p.98.
45.Ibid.
46.Ibid.,p.98.
47."BrotundWein,"HSW2,1,p.93.
48.Ibid.,p.94.
49.Ibid.,p.94.
50.Ibid.,p.90.
51.Ibid.,p.91(emphasisadded).
52."AmQuellderDonau,"ibid.,p.126.
53."MeinEigentum,"HSW1,1,p.307.
54.CitedbyHeideggerinEHD,pp.36ff.
55.VA,pp.18081.Cf.EHD,pp.17174.
56."Scheresse,"Exile,V,Pliade,p.130.Thisisalsoaninterrogative(perhaps)demonstrationofthepassageorthetraceofthesacredwithinbeing:"Oh
movementtowardBeingandrebirthtoBeing!Nomads,allthesands!...andtimewhistlesflushwiththesoil....Thewindthatremovesforustheslopeofthedunes
willperhapsshowusindaylighttheplacewherethefaceofthegodthatslepttherewasmoldedduringthenight...."
57.PotiquedeSaintJohnPerse,citedinPliade,p.1286.
58.Vents,I,ibid.,p.179.
59.Exile,IV,ibid.,p.128.
60.Amers,ibid.,p.338:"Theuninhabitableisoursite"
61.Exil,IV,ibid.,p.123.
62.Vents,I,ibid.,p.186.
63.Neiges,ibid.,p.157.
64.Pluies,ibid.,p.151.
65.Vents,ibid.,p.184:"Dispersingeveryjubilantstoneandeveryfaultypillar...."
66.Vents,II,ibid.,p.223.
67.Amers,Strophe,ibid.,pp.29192.
68.Amers,Invocation,ibid.,p.267.

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69.Amers,Strophe,ibid.,p.293(thesameexpressionisalreadyfoundonpage290).
70."Nachwort"to"WasistMetaphysik?,"WM,p.304.
71."Humanismusbrief,"WM,p.358:"dasungesprocheneWortdesSeins."
72.Cf.Heidegger,GA55:Heraklit,p.383:"Logosisnotwords(derWort).Itismoreoriginalthanthem....Logosistheregionthataddressesmaninsilence,
whichmeansthedimension(Weite)thatconcealseveryrevealinghintandindication,thedimensionreposinginitself."
73.ExilIII,ibid.,p.127.
74.Ibid.,p.126.
75.Ibid.(emphasisadded).
76.Amers,Strophe,VII,ibid.,p.360(emphasisadded).
77.Exil,IV,ibid.,p.162(emphasisadded).
78.Exil,III,ibid.,p.127.
79.Ibid.,p.126.
80.Amers,Strophe,p.312.
81.Ibid.,p.127.
82.Amers,Choeurs,ibid.,pp.36566.
83.Ibid.,p.342.
84.Ibid.,p.368.
85.Ibid.,p.293.
86.Ibid.,p.378.
87.Ibid.,p.378.
88.Ibid.,p.367.
89.Ibid.,p.375.
90.Amers,p.295.
91.Ibid.,p.374.
92.Ibid.,p.370.
93.DerHeil.
94.Amers,p.372.
95.US,pp.2627.
96.Amers,p.377.
97.Thetwoattributesarecoupled:Amers,p.372.
98.Ibid.,p.367.
99.Ibid.,p.310.
100.Exil,ibid.,p.123.Tobringthewanderingthresholdcloser,atthebeginningofAnabase:"Atthethresholdoftentsallglory!"(Pliade,p.93).
101.Ibid.
102.Amers,p.377.
103.Amers,p.377.
104.Amers,p.372.
105.Ibid.,p.368.
106.VA,p.177:"dasGebirgdesSeins."
107.Amers,p.342.
108.Ibid.
109.Amers,p.370.
110.Amers,p.371.
111.Ibid.
112.Amers,p.367.
113.Amers,p.376.
114.Ibid.
115.Ibid.,p.367.
116.US,p.41.

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117.Pluies,ibid.,p.141.
118."DerRhine,"HSW,5thand6thlinesof4thstrophe.
119.Amers,p.332.
120.Ibid.,p.331.
121.Ibid.,p.380.
122.Vents,ibid.,p.180.
123.Ibid.
124.Exil,IV,ibid.,p.162.
125.Amers,ibid.,p.283.

Page177

INDEX

A
Aeschylus,96
Aesthesis.SeeSensibility
Aesthetics.SeeArt
Aletheia,xii,53,69
andEarth,48,57
andfavor,51
andlight,99
andtheOpen,3031,32
andphysis,11,12,25,2930,48,49,57
truthas,72,7375,76.SeealsoTruth
Allemann,Beda,145
AllOne,53,132
Anaximander,73
Anfang.SeeCommencement
Angels,120,131
Angst,38,39.SeealsoAnxiety
Animality,12,19,2629,3032
Animals,9,47,49,53,59,115,160n5,160n11
anddeath,29,122
humanizationof,161n30
andtheOpen,3032,12122,130
andtheworld,2530
Anselm,Saint,56
Anteriority,56,69,73,99,101
Anxiety,12,142,173n21
anddeath,20
disappearanceof,87
andtheSacred,55
andStimmung,14,4246
Apollinaire,Guillaume,118
Apollinian,108109,110,146,169n64
Appearing,12,52,99100.SeealsoEmergence
Appropriation.SeeEreignis
Archimedes,1
Aristotle,12,23,63,68,84,89,101
Art,86,102104,11213
andtheDionysian,10811
andEarth,xii,6,1314,48,6061,9597,100102
andpower,105108
andTechnology,81
andthetool,99
andtruth,9799.SeealsoPoetry
Artist,97,110
0failureof,108
Attunement.SeeStimmung
Authenticity,42,44,108

B
Beaufret,Jean,67
Being:andart,95
vs.being,xv
Callof,151
anddread,4344
equipmentalvs.natural,1518
andfavor,51
andHistory,7071
andlanguage,111,112
asLichtung,99100
andnature,1014,158n20
oblivionof,31,72
openingof,105106,107
asphysis,1113,49
presentathand,16,37
andrank,105
readytohand,1618,22,23,34,35
andtheSacred,174n56
andsalvation,89
struggleagainst,107108
andtechnology,80
withdrawalof,13,14,45,67,7275,8788,98,105,133
andwonder,45.SeealsoBeingintheworld
HistoryofBeing
BeingandTime,4,1516,38,39
anxietyin,42,44
onart,102103
andbody,34
ondeath,2021
onEarth,xi,12,14,42,58,100
equipmentalityin,79
onman,87
andphenomenology,78
onwork,1819
worldin,10,57
Beingintheworld,910,15,25,3537,39,40,42,103,104,114,125,140
Bellay,Joachimdu,118
Bergson,Henri,15,29
Blanchot,Maurice,123
Body,6,28,63,64,154,162n7,168n32
andDasein,3438
humanvs.animal,9,12,15,115
andStimmung,14,41
Bollnow,O.F.,44
Bonnefoy,Yves,121
Building,17,47,59,103.SeealsoTemple
Buytendijk,F.J.J.,28,160n5

C
Carllois,Roger,149
Care,10,15,19,24,168n32
Chaos,13,54,56,106,110,169n72
Char,Ren,11819,154
Clocks,2124
Commencement,3,32,43,49,7074,101,102
andEarth,95
thenew,68,76,77,80,84
andtheSacred,56
Compulsion,27
Consciousness,9,41,78,124
Courtine,JeanFranois,44
Craftsman,18
Creator,97,108
Cybernetics,1,64,72,82,83,85

D
Danger,32,7677,80,8688
Dasein,xiii,9,14,77,105,159n1,161n4,162n12,164n9,168n32
andanimals,12,26,29
andanxiety,44,45
andart,102103,108
andthebody,3438
anddeath,2021,76
anddwelling,140
andEarth,xi,13,62,95,100
andequipmentality,1718
andfacticity,3638,39,101,168n22
andlife,25
andthepoet,103104
andtime,2124
andwork,1819
andworld,1518
Death,2021,76,107,154
inanimals,29,122
ofthehumanessence,87,88
inRilke,13132,172n62

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Density,52,126
andpoetry,95,99,113
oftime,24,46
Derrida,Jacques,xi
Descartes,Ren,11,35,74,120
Destiny,2,5,42,58,67,69,78,117
oftheCommencement,7071
andEarth,5,63,101
Dilthey,Wilhelm,15
Dionysian,106,10811,137,169n64,169n70
Dread,4344,55.SeealsoAnxiety
Dreyfus,Hubert,16
Drer,Albrecht,97,110
Dwelling,5,48,60,63,64,91,13948

E
Earth,56,168n32
andart,xii,1314,6061,9597,100102
andbeing,1214
andtheDionysian,10811
vs.earth,xvi
foursensesof,xii,5763
asground(Grund),61,6364,95,100101,115
andHistory,53,63
andtheHistoryofBeing,168n21
andlanguage,111,11415
andLichtung,99100
andmakingpossible,100101
asnativesoil,xii,6163,9596
andnature(physis),xii,11,12,4749,52,56,5960,63
andtheovercomingofTechnology,102
andthepoem,111,117
andpower,10910
inRilke,33,12324,13638
songofthe,xii,xiii,13738
andStimmung,41,42,44
ontime,22
andwithdrawal,xii,xiii,12,48,49,5759,61
andworld,xi,xiii,1314,1920,5762,9598,107,11011,114.SeealsoPhysis
Elements,14950
Emergence,50,52,54,57,145
Empedocles,144,152
Enframing(Gestell),1,8184,8789,166n17
Epoch,xvi,2,3,16,41,51,53,67,68,7275,79,157n2(2)
andart,111
ofthecompletionofmetaphysics,42,84
newseriesof,101
planetary,1,77,102,165n32
andworld,58
Equipmentality,10,1519,59,79,81,102.SeealsoTools
Ereignis(appropriation),34,76,8990,102,145,157n6(2)
Errancy,67,72,77,81,8788
Eschatology,46,68,7577,163n49
Essence(Wesen),7882,8990,165n2
deathofthehuman,87,90
andsalvation,88.SeealsoGewesen
Eternalreturn,80,8586,136
Ethics,9091
Exile:inHlderlin,14448
inPerse,14142,14855
Existentialism,22
Exteriority,37,129,130

F
Facticity,19,22,3638,42,96,100,101,168n22
Faculties,26,35,97.SeealsoHearingVision
Fatherland,63,14243
Favor,51
Feeling,3841
Fiction,103,104,11617
Fink,Eugen,15
Foreign,14448
Friend,90,91,135,161n4,167n53
FromentMeurice,Marc,169n66

G
Gadamer,HansGeorg,xi
Gestell(enframing),1,8184,8789,166n17
Gewesen,53,68,6971,75,101
Geworfenheit.SeeThrownness
God,89,145
inRilke,132,13738
Gogh,Vincentvan,132
Greeks,4243,111,146
andart,95,96,105
andnature,9,56
andphysis,11,4749
andSpirit,72
andtechnology,70,84,89
andvision,36,90.SeealsoAnaximander
Empedocles
Heraclitus
Parmenides
Thales
Ground(Grund),13,37,38,4244,61,64,83,100101,115

H
Habitation,6264,13940
Hand,14,161n1,161n3
Harmony,60,13138
Hearing,14,35,41
Heart,32,33,54,12125,128,129,130,134,136
Hebel,JohannPeter,91,115
Hegel,G.W.F.,1,19,6777,79,145
andearth,xixii
andthepreparationofTechnology,84,85
andtime,21.SeealsoSpirit
Heidegger,Martin.Works:BasicProblemsofPhenomenology,23,102,103,104
"TheConceptofTime,"2122
Holzwege,31,32,69,77,108
IntroductiontoMetaphysics,11,102,105107
KantandtheProblemofMetaphysics,90
"LetteronHumanism,"15,84,88
"OntheEssenceofTruth,"8788
OntheWaytoLanguage,71,78,113
"TheOriginoftheWorkofArt,"xi,xii,6,11,12,47,57,100101,102,107,108,11213,167n1
"OvercomingMetaphysics,"102
ThePrincipleofReason,14
PrinciplesofThought,70
TimeandBeing,67,73
WhatIsCalledThinking?,14,71
WhatIsMetaphysics?,44,70
"TheWilltoPowerasArt,"xii,108.SeealsoBeingandTime
Heraclitus,11,14,105,132
andlogos,104,163n32
andphysis,48,4952,120
andtotalityofbeings,50,5355
History,15
artas,96,97
andEarth,5,53,58,61,63
endof,15,68,75,7880,

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163n49
vs.history,xvi,68
andthepast,6971
andpoetry,107,117
asprehistoryoftechnology,84
andtheSacred,56
ofthought,6768,69.SeealsoCommencement
Destiny
Epoch
HistoryofBeing
HistoryofBeing,15,32,42,6768,84,88,165n7,168n21
anxietyin,45
andcommencement,70,74
andEarth,48
eschatologyof,7577
andfavor,51
fourepochsof,58,7475,79
andtheovercomingofTechnology,14,101102
andphenomenology,79
andStimmung,4244,46
aswithdrawal,7273.SeealsoEpoch
Hlderlin,Friedrich,3,11,32,42,63,77,103,132,154,169n48,173n23,173n28
commencementin,70,104
ondwelling,14048
onnature,1920,5256
onthepoet,11718
andtheSacred,120
andsalvation,89.
Works:Hyperion,5354
Remembrance,1920,141
Voyager,141
Homeland,42,14248
Homer,52
Husserl,Edmund,xixiii,5,9,34,44,78,79

I
Idea(Eidos),1,43,67,69,78
Inauguration,6970.SeealsoCommencement
Interiority,39,41,136,149
andtheheart,33,121,128,130
Invisible,130,131,133

J
Janicaud,Dominique,166n23
Joy,37,3940,46,63,87,114,117,142,173n21
inexile,148
Jnger,Ernst,19

K
Kahn,Gustave,106
Kant,Immanuel,10,16,35,95,97,99,116,122,133
Kierkegaard,Sren,40,44
Knowledge,1,63,73,145,149
eschatologyas,68,75
retrospective,8485,88
andwonder,43

L
Language,9,96,106
andanxiety,44
Earthof,11415
ashouseofbeing,150,154
andnaming,116
andpoetry,11114,11619.SeealsoSpeech
Leibniz,Gottfried,1,11,13,68,74,83,85,13940
Lettingbe,3,28,30,91
Lichtung,49,52,90,99100,110,114,167n14
Light,50,52,54,99,100,155
Logos,2,79,175n72
asgathering,75,104,105,107,151,160n11
oftheSacred,5556
Love,40

M
Mallarm,Stphane,11617,118
Man:animalizationof,31,161n30
and
being,102,107108
essenceof,86
andtheOpen,122
andTechnology,83,87
andtime,2122.SeealsoBody
Marcuse,Herbert,88
Martineau,Emmanuel,161n1
Marx,Karl,19
Melancholy,28,39,42,114,161n16
Memory,71,75,144,158n20
MerleauPonty,Maurice,9,14,54,98
Metaphysics,44,63
andanxiety,46
completion(end)of,2,42,72,7477,80,81,8384,87
anddeath,2021
inHeraclitus,4950
inNietzsche,3032,63,74,75,84,8586
inRilke,3031
andTechnology,8486
andtreeofphilosophy,164n55,168n25
Michaux,Henri,39,118
Mongis,Henri,167n14
Mozart,Wolfgang,40,98
Munier,Roger,30,126,159n1

N
Naming,powerof,113,116
Nativesoil,xii,6,6163,9596,140
Nature,914,29,100,143,158n20,161n33
artof,110
inDasein,42
andearth,56
andequipmentality,1618
inHlderlin,5256
inRilke,33,122
andworld,1518,1920,47,50.SeealsoPhysis
Nerval,Grardde,118
Nietzsche,FriedrichWilhelm,xi,xiii,4,9,41,50,150,159n1
andart,10411,169n64,169n70
andchaos,56,169n72
onthefriend,167n53
onlanguage,112,116
andmetaphysics,3032,63,74,75,84,8586
andRilkecompared,12021,131
andtechnology,80,86
onthought,162n33.SeealsoEternalreturn
Overman
Willtopower
Nihilism,3,72,82,102,104105
Nonhistorical,2,73,79,120
commencementas,56
Earthas,49,58,64,96,100,102
Ereignisas,3,4,89
Nothingness,29,44,45,46,50
Novalis,41,162n32

O
Objectivity,1,910,23,39,49
One,55,56,72
Open,2,25,98,12122,132,144,171n8
andaletheia,3031,73
andEarth,6,57
andexile,142
andtheheart,3233,121,124,130
andlanguage,111
andlight,52,54,100
andspace,126,127
Opening,53,56,169n48
andart,60,99,105106,107
aspossibility,15,87
Openness,25,28,35,36,58,59
Organism,15,2628,115
Origin,62

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Orpheus,137,138
Otto,Rudolph,54,152
Overman,xii,80,86,161n30
Own,11,48,69,71
andanimality,26
inH1derlin,14346,148

P
Parmenides,11,104,120
Pascal,Blaise,44,120,122
Past,68,6971
Perception,primacyof,9
Perse,SaintJohn,118,134
andexile,14142,14855
andtheStranger,148,154,173n19
Phenomenology,910,15,7884,8990,103,158n14(2)
Philosophy:endof,xi,79(seealsoMetaphysics:completionof)
treeof,101,164n55,168n25
Physis:andaletheia,11,12,25,2930,5053,57
earthas,xii,5,1213,4749,115
andfavor,51
inHeraclitus,4952
inH1derlin,5356
andlight,50,52,54
andnature,17,105
andtheOpen,32
inPerse,15455
inRilke,32,120,133,161n33.SeealsoNature
Pindar,105
Plato,xiii,14,73,78,84,154
Earthin,13,63
onlanguage,112,114
onpoetry,104
onsalvation,89
Poet,5556,112,11718,121,173n23
dwellingof,140
modestyof,146
Poetry,103104,107,11114,11619,12122
Dichtungandart,98,99,102,103
Power,10510,169n48
Presence,12,54,72,79,116,134,154,160n8.SeealsoWithdrawal
Presentathand,16,37
Preservation,63
Presocratics.SeeGreeks
Property,2627

R
Readytohand,1618,22,23,34,35
Reason,9,13,67,68,166n23
andTechnology,1,72,74,79,82,83,85,166n23
unthoughtof,85
Reservoir,83,87,140
Rilke,RainerMaria,69,102,103104,118,12021,172n51,172n61
ondeath,20,172n62
ontheEarth,13638
onGod,13738
onNature,12125,161n33
therosein,13336
andspace,12630
unityin,13137.Works:BreadandWine,146
Elegies,30,12122,126,130,136,171n8
TheIslandoftheSirens,124
TheMigration,144
NotebooksfromMaltaLaudridsBrigge,103
TheRoseCutting,133
TheRoses,123,13435
Sonnets,12324,136
TheSpanishTrilogy,127,132
TotheEther,143
TheTrilogy,128.SeealsoHeartOpen
Rimbaud,Arthur,117,118
Romanticism,28,41,110
Rose,123,133,13435
Rousseau,JeanJacques,29,31,114
Roux,Wilhelm,160n5
Ruyer,Raymond,160n8

S
Sacred,42,54,5556,138,173n23,174n56
inHlderlin,14748
andpoetry,113,114
inRilke,120
Salvation,14,80,8789,122
Same,32
Sartre,JeanPaul,37,44,117
Scheler,Max,9
Schelling,Friedrich,13,161n16
Schopenhauer,Arthur,28,30,120
Schrmann,Reiner,51,157n6(2)
Science,14,16
andanxiety,45
anddeath,2021
andTechnology,81
andtime,22
Sea,14953
Seeing.SeeVision
Sensibility,9,3536,38,11415.SeealsoBody
Silence,124
Silesius,Angelus,133
Sophocles,96,102
Space,12630
Speech,29,87
andanxiety,44,4546
andlanguage,111,11415,116,148
andtheSacred,5556
Spirit,67,69,71,72,73,98
inHlderlin,54,145
State,andTechnology,81
Stimmung(attunement),3941,63,64,87,106,169n48
andanxiety,4246,163n47
andthebody,14,3538
andpoetry,103,114,115,119
oftheSacred,55,147
Stranger,148,154,173n19
Subjectivity,1,23,35,38,39,43,44,136,137
inRilke,121,123

T
Technology,15,43,63,64,74,75,120
dangerof,8688
essenceof,32,70,72,8084,91,166n17
andethics,9091
overcomingof,14,77,101102
phenomenonof,7984
preparationof,8486
rationalityof,1,72,74,79,82,83,85,166n23
andsalvation,89
Temple,6,47,59,60,96,111
Temporality,12,15,19,20,44,78,100,135.SeealsoTime
Thales,1,50
Thing,48,51,95,116,13233
Thought(thinking),71,162n33
historyof,6769
andpoetry,111,112
andsalvation,8889
Threshold,15254
Thrownness(Geworfenheit),22,3538,42,100

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Time,xiii,15,2124,46,53,127
Tools,1617,18,26,58,61,99,102,111
Totality,16,23,48,57,72
andanxiety,14,46
inHeraclitus,50,53
andtheOpen,31,122
andStimmung,38,41.SeealsoPhysis
Tragedy,109
Trakl,Georg,118,153,154
Truth,11,13,86,87
asaletheia,72,7375,76(seealsoAletheia)
andart,60,61,95,9799
Turn,10,19,22,42,75,104

U
Uexkll,Jacobvon,27,160n5
Understanding,35,37,63,100,162n15
Unity,40,53,72,126,13138
UnterwegszurSprache,71,78,113
Unthought,49
ofMetaphysics,76,80
ofreason,85

V
Valry,Paul,112,114,118,121,170n84,170n87
Vattimo,Gianni,109
Violence,106,131,145
Vision,14,26,3536,80,8890,121,126,160n11
Voice,99,11415,129,151,155,161n4
Voltaire,31

W
Wesen.SeeEssence
Will,82,122,131
tobe,106
tolife,28.SeealsoWilltopower
Willtowill
Willtopower,1,50,72,74,8586,110,131
Willtowill,1,32,72,79,87
andTechnology,82,8384,85
Wind,17,1920,141
Withdrawal,2,54
ofbeing,13,14,45,67,7275,8788,98,105,133
ofEarth,xii,xiii,12,48,49,5759,61
ofphysis,5051
Wonder,4243,45
Work,19,61.SeealsoArt
World,10
oftheanimals,2530
andart,6061
ofDasein,1518
andEarth,xi,xiii,1314,1920,5762,9598,107,11011,114
andepoch,5758
andequipmentality,18
andnature,1520,47,50
spaceof,12628,130
andtime,23

Z
Zarathustra,xii,63,120
Zen,52

Page182

MICHELHAARisProfessoroftheHistoryofContemporaryPhilosophyattheUniversityofParisXII.HispublicationsincludeHeideggeretl'essencedel'homme
andessaysonNietzsche,Heidegger,MerleauPonty,Levinas,andDerridaandonquestionsofartandesthetics.
REGINALDLILLY,AssistantProfessorofPhilosophyatSienaCollege,istranslatorofThePrincipleofReasonbyMartinHeideggerandauthorofarticlesabout
Heideggerandcontemporarycontinentalphilosophy.