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Improve Stove in Bangladesh

IMPROVED COOKING STOVE (ICS)


ICSs are those traditional stoves which upon some modification/alternation/addition yield
higher efficiencies when compared with the unmodified ones.
Salient Features of an ICS :
a) An ICS is an improved version of the traditional stove having higher fuel
efficiency compared with the traditional ones.
b) An ICS has a grate in the middle of its combustion chamber and fuel burns on it.
c) There is entry of primary air in an ICS below the grate which helps burning of
charcoal formed during burning of fuel wood.
d) The three raised ends of a chimneyless ICS are much smaller than those of the traditional
stoves.
e) In case of multiple mouth ICSs with chimneys, cooking in the first mouth is done by direct
flame produced from fuel, while cooking in the other mouths are done by hot flue gases
coming out from the first mouth and the spent flue gases are led out of the kitchen through a
chimney.

Advantages of Improved Cooking Stove (ICS) Technology


The improved stoves have many advantages over traditional stoves. Some of the advantages
of ICS are given below:
i.

Saves 50-65 % traditional fuels

ii.

Reduces indoor air pollution (IAP)

iii.

Save cooking times 4050 %

iv.

Keeps the kitchen environment pollution free and thereby


check health hazards of the users.

v.

Maintaining proper nutritive values of the cooked food.

vi.

Less blacking of the cooking utensils

vii.
viii.

Check the fire hazards.


Reduces CO2 emissions in the atmosphere, thereby reduce
the green house effects.

Objectives of Improved Cooking Stove (ICS) Technology:

To save traditional fuels by popularization of improved stove and keep pollution


free environment in rural areas.

ii To reduce indoor air pollution (IAP) in the kitchen.


iii To develop skill manpower through training course of improved stoves to the
unemployed men and women of the country.
iv To create awareness about the effectiveness and usefulness of improved stoves by
massive advertisements through various media.
v

To reduces deforestation and maintain ecological balance of the country by


massive used of improved stove.

vi To involve different Government, Semi-Government and Non-Government


Organizations in dissemination program of improved stoves.
Vii. To improve the hygienic condition of the kitchen

Improved Stove may be grouped into 3 categories:


(i)Improved Stove without Chimney (ii)
Improved Stove with Chimney and

(iii) Improved Stove with Waste Heat Utilization


Stoves without Chimney:

This model is just our age-old traditional stove with three modifications: Firstly, the exhaust gap
or flue gas exit has been reduced to 1.25 cm, so that convective heat loss, consistent with good
burning, is at a minimum. Secondly, a gate has been placed inside the stove at a depth of 15-18
cm. below the stove rim. Considering the size of firewood used 6-7 holes of 1.25 cm. in diameter
are made on the wall of the stove just below the grate for primary air entry. This stove saves 5055% fuel when compared with a traditional stove of the same internal diameter. However this
stove is suitable for fuel-wood, twinges and branches.

Fig. No : Improved Single Mouth Cooking Stove (Portable).

In order to make the stoves suitable for any kind of fuels including straws, leaves, dung etc. the
stove is built by digging or building a cylindrical shape stove in the ground or above it and the
grates are either at the level of the ground or below it is so that the fuels can be conveniently
pushed . Holes for primary air inlets and ash outlets are made either on one side or both sides of
the stove.
Stoves with Chimney:

For non-chimney stoves, flue-gases coming out from the stove remain in the kitchen thus making
the users uncomfortable with heat and smoke. To overcome this, a single/double-mouth stove
with chimney were introduced.A major version of chimney stove is the multi-pots stove where
cooking of more than one item is done simultaneously as shown in

Fig. Chimney for Domestic Cooking.

In this case, fuel is burnt in the first combustion chamber over a grate and cooking in other pot is
done through the hot flue gases coming from the front chamber. The stoves are so designed to
maximize heat transfer to cooking utensils. Fuel savings of this model, as compared with a

traditional one pothole, is about 60-65%. This model decreases the time of cooking and also
makes the kitchen free of smoke and hot air. It can be easily made with mud. A grate is placed
18-20 cm. below he stoves rim. On both sides of the stove, just below the grate, two small holes
are made for primary air entry and ash removal.

To accommodate bulky loose fuels such as straws, leaves and dung, the primary air/ash is the
ground and the grate is placed at the ground level so these fluffy fuels can pushed into the hearth.
Further improvements of these models are being made.

Fig. Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove (half underground).


Improved Stove with Waste Heat Utilization.

Hot flue gases entering the chimney are released in the atmosphere in the case of chimney stoves
mentioned above. For this category, arrangements have been made to recover sensible heart from
the gases passing through the chimney.
The main feature of this stove is the box, fitted at the bottom of chimney of improved double mouth
0

stove. The maximum temperature attain in the box is 150-160 C without any insulation of the box.
0

With a proper insulation, temperature can attain 280-300 C. When the cooking medium reaches its
boiling point, it is removed from the stove and placed in this hot box. The empty pot hole of the
stove is again covered with another utensil containing fresh food items. The remaining cooking in
the hot box is completed in about the same time as the fresh food items would require in the stove. A
maximum of one utensil can be accommodating at a time in the hot box. The hot box alone shows saving
of 10-15%. The cooked food can be kept warm for a longer time. Good quality polao, bhuna khichuri, rice,
pudding, cake, biscuits etc. can be made in this box. The box

can be used as a drier. In larger models, water heaters have been attached to the chimney just below
the hot box for supplying hot water for tea making or other purposes.

Fig : Improved Double Mouth Cooking Stove with Chimney for Large Scale
Cooking Coupled with Water Heater and Oven

Fuel wood using Rural Industries in Bangladesh where Improved


Stoves can be used:

A) Food Processing Industries:


i) Bakeries

C) Miscellaneous Industries:
i) Soap making

ii) Fish Smoking

ii) Printing (Saree/Clothes)

iii) Ghur making

iii) Road Tarring

iv) Noodle making, potato chips,

iv) Textile mills

Jams & Jellies etc.

B. Agro- Processing Industries:


i)

Rich parboiling.

ii) Tobacco leaf curing.

iii) Tea leaf curing.


iv) Vegetable drying.

PROBLEMS FACED IN DISSEMINATION OF ICS TECHNOLOGY MADE OF MUD

In Bangladesh dissemination of improved cooking stoves are being undertaken by installation of mud stoves in
the users kitc and repair of ICS technology. The training course for these technicians is for one week. After the

training they start dissemination of improved stoves different parts of the country. But
their dissemination activities are being faced by several problems. Some of the problems
are mentioned below:
Implementing agencies could not select proper technicians for ICS dissemination. However,
after the training course some of them unwilling to work as a ICS technician and on the other
hand some of them built wrong design of stoves. It may be due to lack of confidence. While
some of them can build good quality of stoves.
There are some implementing agencies generally take short term project (6-12 months) for
dissemination of ICS in a particular area the country. However, at the beginning of the project
their technicians installed some improved stoves in that area and after some time they left that

area or do not regularly monitor the installe using the stoves for a couple of months, some of them faced some
technical problems of the
stoves. In most of the cases, they do not get back up services of the technicians for repair
/ maintenance of their stoves. So, after sometime they do not use improved stoves.
The constructions of improved stoves need some accessories viz. chimney, grate, cap etc. These
accessories have some proper dimensions. But these things are not available in the local
market. As a result, beneficiaries again switched over to traditional stoves.
There are different models of ICS are available. During installation ICS in the users kitchen, the
technicians some time could not select the proper model for a particular user. During selection of

models importance should be given to the cooking habits and type of traditional fuels used by
the beneficiary. Sometimes proper model of ICS are not installed in the users kitchen and as a
result, after some times the users do not use the stoves.
Installation of mud stove takes about a week, make it ready for use. But most of the users
prefer to install and use stove in a shortest period of time.
In natural calamities like flood in low laying areas mud stoves washed away with flood
water. Finally, lack of public awareness and political will this environment friendly
Technology is facing difficulty to reach the grass-roots level of the country.

IMPROVED COOKING STOVES (ICS) MADE OF CONCRETE

Since the innovation of ICS in Bangladesh, it is generally made of mud. However, ICS made of
mud has two main problems:
It takes about a week to install and make it ready for use during installation, the technicians
can not maintain the proper dimensions of the Stove.
To overcome these problems, Grameen Shakti (GS) has developed a more efficient process for
constructing the main parts of ICS: structure and chimney holder with concrete in last February
2010. This process replaces mud with a new construction materials made from mixing, cement:
sand: a crushed brick aggregates (estimated size )with an appropriate quantity of water in the
following ratio 1:2:4 through two different dices.

An ICS has the following parts:

1. Structure. 2. Chimney holder. 3. Grate. 4. Chimney and 5. Cap.

Now- a- days all the parts of the ICS are produced in several small factories across the
country.GS has already established over one hundred production centers in the country,
where every day a huge numbers of ICS structures and chimney holders are being produced.

After collecting all the ICS parts a technician can build a stove within 1-2 hours. Immediately
after installation of the stove it can be used for cooking and other heating purposes. The
popularity of ICS made of cement is gradually increasing because in addition to being
environmentally-friendly, it is easy to install, durable and visually appealing.

The ICS models made of: cement: sand: aggregates may be grouped in two categories:

Improved Cooking Stove (ICS) for Domestic Purposes.

Improved Cooking Stove (ICS) for Large Scale Cooking & Semi- industrial Purposes.

Improved Cooking Stove (ICS) for Domestic Purposes:

The domestic cooking stoves are divided into two classes:

ICS Single Mouth

ICS Double Mouth

Both the models can be installed,depending the us on fuel type, users comfort/habit and nature
of the kitchen. They are as follows:

On the floor

Half underground (by digging hole on the ground)

On a plat form

ICS structure and chimney holders aresize) made by through two different dices. The resultant ICS structure
and chimney holder undergo water
curing continuously at least for ten days. After water curing and drying these are thoroughly
rubbed with mud both inside and outside.
After undergoing the above mentioned steps, ICS structures and chimney holders are ready
for constructing different models of ICS.

RECOMANDATIONS

Improved stoves save 50-65% traditional fuel as compared with the traditional ones.
Total amount of traditional fuel consumption in the country is about 44 million tons
annually. If improved stoves popularized in the country and if it saves 50%

traditional fuel, then annually about 22 million tons of traditional fuel will be saved.

The reduction of traditional fuels by improved stoves, therefore have lower emission of
green house gases (CO2) in the atmosphere .It also helps to conserve the forest resources

of the country.

In reverine Bangladesh it will be difficult to supply natural gas for cooking purpose to the
every households of the country. Therefore, improved stoves have bright future in the
country. Large scale dissemination of improved stoves in the country can conserve the

local forest and change the social life to a great extent.

The following recommendations are made for popularization of ICS in the Country:

Establishment of Independent Institution for Dissemination of ICS Technology.

To bring all the Agencies who are disseminating ICS under one umbrella.

To Establish a Modern R&D Laboratory for ICS Testing & Loop Research.

To Establish National Technical Standards, Testing and Certification.

To pursue R&D on ICS for further development and provide necessary budget
man power.

Popularization and dissemination-draftStovenewly

Publicity for public awareness regarding benefits ICS though mass medias
viz. Television, Radio, News Papers, Electronic media etc.

Selection of most popular models of ICS which are accepted by beneficiaries.

A Technical Manual of ICS with most popular models ICS.

To produce more skill manpower for dissemination of ICS in the country.

To develop more Local Entrepreneurshipsf

To provide bank loan to the Local Entrepreneurships who are engaged in dissemination
of ICS.

References:
1. System Planning Directorate, Bangladesh Power Development Board(July/2012)
2. Planning Commission Bangladesh/2002
3. M. Asaduzzaman ,Douglas F. Barnes Sahidur R. Khandaker : ENERGY
AND PROVERTY, Special Report March 2009,
Rural Energy Realities, March 2009.
4. Improved model of the domestic cooking stove. Bangladesh Patent No. 10018.
Patent Application No. 47/85. Date of the acceptance September 17, 1986.
5. Design and construction of a multiple cooking stove. Bangladesh Patent No.
1001876.Patent Application No. 48/85. Date of the acceptance September 28,
1986.
6. Khan A.M.H.R., Cookstoves in Bangladesh. A Case Study Institute of Fuel
Research & Development, BCSIR, Mirpur Road, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh,
Published by The woodburning Stove Group, Eindhoven University of
Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. May, 1989.
7. E.T Ferguson in woodstove compendium by G. Delepeleire, K.K.Prssad, P
Verheert & P. Visser, woodburning stove Group, Eindhoven University of
Technology , Eindhoven(1981)
8. Eusuf M., Khan A.M.H.R., Begum N., Bgd. J.Sci.Ind.Res., 1990, 25,185.
9. Eusuf M. ,Khan A M H.R .and Islam S Ibid,1993,24,56.
10. A Technical Manual of Improved Cooking Stoves. Published by: Bangladesh
Addressing Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) Jointly Implemented by Village Education
Resource Center (VERC) & Winrock International. Sponsored by The World
Bank 2008. Web Site: www.lged.rein.org : ICS Technical Manual.
11. A Technical Manual of Improved Cooking Stoves: Booklet of Gramen Shakti
.May 2011.
12. Improved Cooking Stoves Booklet (Bengali).Institute Fuel Research &
Development, BCSIR, Dhaka-1205,1992.
13. Draft Bangladesh Country Action Plan (CAP) On Clean Cook stoves: By Global
Alliance for Clean Cook stoves, SNV & GIZ. 26 MAY, 2013.

14. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program (EEREP) Increasing Adoption of
Renewable Energy, January 2012. Submitted to US Agency for International
Development. Submitted by Winrock International and E+Co.
15. Down-draft Stoves foe Domestic Cooking purpose. Bangladesh Patent No. 1003452.
Patent Application No. 104/2000. Date of the acceptance February 10, 2002.
16. Down-draft Tandur Oven for drying of Tea & Tobacco leaves sewai etc. Bangladesh
Patent No. 1003451.Paten Application No. 103/2000. Date of the acceptance February
4, 2002.
17. Khan A.M.H.R.,Eusuf,M, Prasad K. K. , Moerman E. , Cox M.G.D.M., Visser A.M.J.
& Drissen J.A.J. The Development of Improved Stoves Adapted to the Conditions in
Bangladesh. Final Report of Collaborative Research Project, Between IFRD, BCSIR,
Bangladesh & Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, And The
Netherlands Sponsored by EEC, November 15, 1995.