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Assignment 1 ME-341A

1) The outer wall of a house is composed of two parallel slabs (Fig1).Thermal conductivities and
thickness of slabs are k1, k2 and L1 ,L2 respectively. The inside and outside ambient temperatures
and heat transfer coefficients are T and h respectively .The net radiation between the sun and
outer surface of the wall is q. Calculate the heat transfer to the house a) by an equivalent
electrical circuit method (b) by solving energy equations for the slabs.

fig 1
2) Three electric resistance heater of length L=250mm and diameter D=25 mm are submerged in a 10
gallon tank of water which is initially at 295K.The water may be assumed to have density 990 Kg/m3
and specific heat of 4180J/Kg.K.
a) If the heaters are activated each dissipating q1=500W estimate the time required to bring water to a
temperature of 335 K.
b) If the natural convection coefficient is given by expression of the form h=370(T s-T)1/3 where Ts and
T are temperature of heater surface and water respectively, what is the temperature of each heater
shortly after activation and just before deactivation ?Units of h (W/m2.K)
c) If the heaters are inadvertently activated when the tank is empty the natural convection coefficient
associated with heat transfer to the ambient air at T=300K may be approximated as h=0.7(Ts-T)1/3 .
If the temperature of the tank wall is also 300K and the emissivity of heater surface is 0.85.What is
the temperature of each heater under steady state condition?
3) In the thermal processing of semiconductor material annealing is accomplished by heatinga silicon
wafer according to temperature time recipe and then maintaining a fixed elevated temperature for a
prescribed period of time .For the process tool arrangement shown as follows the wafer is in
evacuated chamber whose walls are maintained at 27. C and within which heating lamps maintained
radiant flux qs at its upper surface .The wafer is 0.78 mm thick has a thermal conductivity of 30W/m
K and an emissivity that equals its absorptivity to the radiant flux (==0.65).For qs =3*105 W/m2 the
temperature on its lower surface is measured by a radiation thermometer and found to have value of
Tw,l=997oC.To avoid warping the wafer and inducing slip planes in the crystal structure the
temperature difference across the thickness of wafer must be less than 2C. Is this condition being
met?

HINT- qrad= (T4h-Tw4).


4) In the thermal processing of semiconductor material annealing is accomplished by heatinga silicon
wafer according to temperature time recipe and then maintaining a fixed elevated temperature for a
prescribed period of time.The scematic shows a method involving the use of a hot plate operating at
an elevated temperature Th .The wafer initially at a temperature of Tw,I is suddenly positioned at a
gap seperation distance L from the hot plate .The purpose of the analysis is to compare the heat fluxes
by conduction through the gas witin the gap and by radiation exchange between the hot plate and
cool wafer .The initial time rate of change in the temperature of wafer ,(dTw/dt)I is also of interst
.Approximating the surfce of the hot plate and wafer as blackbodies and assuming there diameter D
is much larger than spacing L the radiative heat flux may be expressed as qrad= (T4h-Tw4).The silicon
wafer has thickness of d=0.78mm and density of 2700kg/m3 and specific heat of 875J/kg.K .Thermal
conductivity of gas in the gap is .0436W/m.K
a) For Th=600 C and Tw,i=20 C calculate the radiative heat flux and the heat flux by conduction across a
gap distance of L=0.2mm .Also determine the value (dTw/dt)I of resulting from each of the heating
modes.
b) For gap distances of 0.2,0.5,1.0mm determine the heat fluxes and temperature time changes as a
function of hot plate temperature for 300 CTh1300 C .Display results graphically .Comment on the
relative importance of two heat transfer modes and the effect of gap distance on heating process
.Under what condition coulad a wafer be heated to 900 C in less than 10s?

5) At a given instant of time the temperature distribution within an infinite homogeneous body is given
by the function T(x, y, z) = x2 - 2y2 + z2- xy + 2yz
Assuming constant properties and no internal heat generation, determine the regions where the
temperature changes with time. Also find if temperature distribution, T(x,y,z) can be determined at
any future time from the information given.
6) Uniform internal heat generation 5 x 107 W/m3 is occurring in a cylindrical nuclear reactor fuel rod of
50mm diameter, and under steady-state conditions the temperature distribution is of the form
T(r) = a + br2, where T is in degrees Celsius and r is in meter, while a = 800C and b = -4.167 x 105 C/m2.
The fuel rod properties are k = 30 W/m K, = 1100 kg/m3, and Cp = 800 J/kgK. (a)What is the rate of
heat transfer per unit length of the rod at r = 0 (the centerline) and at r = 25 mm (the surface)? (b) If
the reactor power level is suddenly increased to 108 W/m3, what is the initial time rate of temperature
change at r = 0 and r = 25 mm? What will happen to time rate of temperature change as time
progresses?
7) A salt-gradient solar pond is a shallow body of water that consists of three distinct fluid layers and is
used to collect solar energy. The upper- and lower-most layers are well mixed and serve to maintain
the upper and lower surfaces of the central layer at uniform temperatures T1 and T2, where T2 > T1.
Although there is bulk fluid motion in the mixed layers, there is no such motion in the central layer.
Consider conditions for which solar radiation absorption in the central layer provides non-uniform
heat generation of the form Ae-ax , and the temperature distribution in the central layer is
The quantities A (W/m3), a (1/m), B (K/m), and C (K) are known constants having the prescribed units,
and k is the thermal conductivity, which is also constant.

(a) Obtain expressions for the rate at which heat is transferred per unit area from the lower mixed layer
to the central layer and from the central layer to the upper mixed layer.
(b) Determine whether conditions are steady or transient.
(c) Obtain an expression for the rate at which thermal energy is generated in the entire central layer per
unit surface area.

8) A plane wall that is insulated on one side (x = 0) is initially at a uniform temperature Ti, when its exposed
surface at x = L is suddenly raised to a temperature Ts. (a) Verify that the following equation satisfies the
heat equation and boundary conditions:

where C1 is a constant and is the thermal diffusivity.


(b) Obtain expressions for the heat flux at x = 0 and x = L
(c) Sketch the temperature distribution T(x) at t = 0, at t, and at an intermediate time. Sketch the
variation with time of the heat flux at x = L
(d) What effect does have on the thermal response of the material to a change in surface temperature?

9) A spherical tank of 3-m diameter contains a liquefied petroleum gas at -60OC. Insulation with a thermal
conductivity of 0.06 W/m.K and thickness 250 mm is applied to the tank to reduce the heat gain.
(a) Determine the radial position in the insulation layer at which the temperature is 0oC when the ambient
air temperature is 20 oC and the convection coefficient on the outer surface is 6 W/m2-K
(b) If the insulation is pervious to moisture from the atmospheric air, what conclusions can you reach
about the formation of ice in the insulation? What effect will ice formation have on heat gain to the LP
gas? What can be done to avoid the situation? (Neglect any radiative heat transfer in the problem)

10) The composite wall of an oven consists of three materials, two of which are known thermal
conductivity, kA=20W/m.K and kC=50W/m.K, and known thickness, LA=0.30m and LC=0.15m. The third
material, B, which is sandwiched between materials A and C, is of known thickness, LB=0.15m, but
unknown thermal conductivity kB. Under steady-state operating conditions, measurements reveal an
outer surface temperature of Ts,0=200C, an inner surface temperature of Ts,i = 6000 C and an oven air
temperature of T = 8000 C. The inside convection coefficient h is known to be 25W/m2-K. What is the value
of kB? (Neglect any radiative heat transfer in the problem).

11) A house has a composite wall of wood, fibre-glass insulation (density 28kg/m3), and plaster board, as
indicated in the sketch. On a cold winter day the convection heat transfer coefficients are h0=60 W/m2-K
and hi=30 W/m2-K. The total wall surface area is 350 m2?

a. Determine a symbolic expression for the total thermal resistance of the wall, including inside and
outside convection effects for the prescribed conditions.
b. Determine the total heat loss through the wall.
c. If wind were blowing violently, raising h0 to 300 W/m2-K, determine percentage increase in the heat
loss.
d. What is the controlling resistance that determines the amount of heat flow through the wall?
e. Now, use the more realistic conditions for which the outside air is characterized by a diurnal (time)
varying temperature of the form
2
, () = 273 + 5 sin ( )
0 12
24
2
, () = 273 + 11 sin ( )
24

12 24

With ho = 60 W/m2-K. Assume quasi-steady conditions for which changes in energy storage within the wall
may be neglected, estimate the daily heat loss through the wall if its total surface area is 200 m2.
Fiberglass Properties : kb = 0.038 W/m.K; Plywood siding : ks = 0.12 W/m.K; Plasterboard : kp = 0.17 W/m.K

12) Consider a composite wall that includes an 8-mm-thick hardwood siding, 40-mm by 130-mm
hardwood studs on 0.65-m centers with glass fiber insulation (paper Plaster faced, 28 kg/m3), and a 12mm layer of gypsum (vermiculite) wall board.
What is the thermal resistance associated with a wall that is 2.5 m high by 6.5 m wide (having 10 studs,
each 2.5 m high)? Assume surfaces normal to the x-direction are isothermal.
Hardwood Properties: kB = 0.16 W/m.K; Hardwood siding: kA = 0.094 W/m.K; Gypsum: kC = 0.17 W/m.K
Insulation (glass fiber) Properties: kD = 0.038 W/m.K

Fig for Q 12.

13) A thin electrical heater is inserted between a long circular cylinder and a concentric tube with inner
and outer radii of 20mm and 40mm. The rod (A) has a thermal conductivity of k A 0.15W / m K , while
the tube (B) has a thermal conductivity of k B 1.5W / m K and its outer surface is subjected to
convection with a fluid of temperature T 150 C and a heat transfer coefficient of 50W / m 2 K .
The thermal contact resistance between the cylinder surfaces and the heater is negligible.
(a) Determine the electrical power per unit length of the cylinder (W/m) that is required to maintain the
outer surface of the cylinder B at 5 0 C .
(b) What is the temperature at the centre of the cylinder A?
14) An uninsulated thin-walled pipe of 100mm diameter is used to transport water to equipment that
operates outdoors and uses the water as a coolant. During particularly harsh winter conditions, the pipe
wall achieves a temperature of 150 C and a cylindrical layer of ice forms on the inner surface of the wall.
If the mean water temperature is 3 0 C and a convection coefficient of 2000W / m 2 K is maintained at
the inner surface of the ice, which is at 0 0 C , what is the thickness of the ice layer?
[Conductivity of ice is 1.94W / m K ]
15) A 2mm diameter electrical wire is insulated by a 2mm thick rubberized sheath ( k 0.13W / m K )
and the wire/sheath interface is characterized by a thermal contact resistance of

Rt'',c 3 104 m 2 K / W . The convection heat transfer coefficient at the outer surface of the sheath is
10W / m 2 K and the temperature of the ambient air is 20 0 C . If the temperature of the insulation may
not exceed 50 0 C , what is the maximum allowable electrical power that can be dissipated per unit length
of the conductor? What is the critical radius of the insulation?

16) A spherical vessel used as a reactor for producing pharmaceuticals has a 10mm thick stainless steel
wall ( k 17W / m K ) and an inner diameter of 1m. The exterior surface of the vessel is exposed to
ambient air ( T 250 C ) for which a convection coefficient of 6W / m 2 K may be assumed.
(a) During steady state operation an inner surface temperature of 50 0 C is maintained by energy
generation within the reactor. What is the heat loss from the vessel?
(b) If a 20mm thick layer of fibreglass insulation ( k 0.040W / m K ) is applied to the exterior of the
vessel and the rate of thermal energy generation is unchanged, what is the inner surface temperature of
the vessel?

ANSWERS/HINTS
1.
2.
3.
4.

" (=0 )
a) 4180 sec
b) 319 K , 359 K
c) 830 K
o
Tw,u = 1000 C, Warping could occur
a) 32.5 kW/m2, 126 kW/m2, 17.6 K/s, 68.4 K/s

5.

=0

6. a) 0 W/m, 0.98 X 105 W/m

7. a) [ + ]

b) 56.82 K/s

b) steady

c) = [1 ]

8. b) (0) = 0
1
2
( ) [
() = +
]
2
42
9. a) 1.687 m

b) ice formation is possible; increased heat gain

10. 1.53 W/mK


11. b) 4.21 kW

c) 0.6% increase

12. 0.1854 K/W


13. a) 251 W/m

b) 23.5 oC

14. 5 mm
15. 4.51 W/m, 13 mm
16. a) 489 W

b) 120 oC

d) B

e) 1.302 x 108 Joule