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CRIMINAL

LAW 1 REVIEWER

CRIMINAL
LAW I
Finals Reviewer
BECAUSE SHARING IS LOVING
A new command I give you: Love one another.
As I have loved you, so you must love one another
By this everyone will know that you are my disciples,
if you love one another.
John 13: 34-35


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Criminal Law in General



POINTS

I. Definitions
What is criminal law?
o Branch or division of law which defines crimes, treats of
their nature, and provides for their punishment.
What is crime?
o An act committed or omitted in violation of a public law
forbidding or commanding it.

II. Sources of Criminal Law
Revised Penal Code
Special Penal Laws passed by the Legislative
Presidential Decrees issued during Martial Law

III. Common Law Crimes
Crimes not written in the law but are understood as all to be
offenses.
The Philippines does not have common law crimes. Thus, even if
the act be socially or morally wrong, its commission incurs no
criminal liability if the act is not punishable by a particular
provision in penal law or special penal law.

IV. Power to Define and Punish Crimes
The state, as part of its police power, has a large measure of
discretion and possesses the authority to define and punish
crimes and lay down the rules of criminal procedure.
This power is given to the state by its people in order for the
former to be able to look after the rights of the latter.

V. Limits to the Power of Law-Making Bodies
No ex post facto law or a Bill of Attainder.

Bill of Attainder a legislative act which inflicts


punishment without trial. Its essence is the substitution
of legislative act for a judicial determination of guilt.
Cannot enact laws that punish people without due process.
o


VI. Why Ex Post Facto Laws are Prejudicial to the Accused
1. Makes criminal an act, which before the laws passage was
innocent.
2. Aggravates a crime.
3. Changes the punishment and inflicts a greater penalty than the
law annexed to the crime when committed.
4. Alters the legal rules of evidence, and authorizes conviction
upon less or different testimony than the law required at the
time of the commission of the offense.
5. Imposes penalty or deprivation of a right for something which
when done was lawful.
6. Deprives a person accused of a crime some lawful protection
which he was entitled to, such as the protection from a former
conviction or acquittal.

VII. Constitutional and Statutory Rights
Constitutional Rights (Article III, Bill of Rights, 1987
Constitution)
o Bill of Rights states that the accused has the right to
speedy trial, due process, right against self
incrimination, free access to the courts, etc.
Statutory Rights are found in and created by statutes
o Section 1 Rule 115 of the Revised Rules in Criminal
Procedure states that the accused have the right to be
informed of accusations against him, confront and
cross-examine witnesses, make appeals, etc.

VIII. Can an Accused Waive his Rights?
YES but only those that affect only him and not society


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o

He can waive his right to cross-examine but he cannot


waive his right to be informed of the crime


IX. Characteristics of Criminal Law
General
o Binding on all persons who live or sojourn in the
Philippines.
Territorial
o Criminal Law undertakes to punish crimes committed
within Philippine territory
Prospective
o Forward Looking and never retroactive

X. The Military
General Rule: Jurisdiction of civil court over a case is not
affected by the military character of the accused.
o When the military courts takes cognizance of a case
involving a person subject to military law, the Articles of
War apply. The Revised Penal code and other penal law
is not applicable.
Members of the military can be tried under civil court because
military courts and civil courts have concurrent jurisdiction.
o This is true even in times of war provided that (a) the
crime was not committed where hostilities are in
progress, and (b) the civil courts are functioning.
o US v. Sweet
Sweet was a member of the US military. He
claimed that because of this, our courts had no
jurisdiction over him and the case filed against
him.
The fact that he was a member of the US
military did not affect the jurisdiction of the civil
courts unless special legislation said otherwise

For a member of the military to be tried in military court, his


offense must be service- oriented (Articles of War).
o Article 63 Disrespect toward the President
o Article 64 Disrespect toward superior court
o Article 67 Conduct Unbecoming of an Officer and a
Gentleman.
o Article 97 General Article.
The Revised Penal Code is not applicable when the Military
Court is in charge of the case though the said court can refer to
the RPC when considering what penalty to give.
Once tried in a military court, that same case cannot be tried in
a civil court and vice versa.
War criminals are triable by Military Commission.


XI. Exceptions to the applicability of the RPC
Laws and Treaties of preferential application
o Bases Agreement March 14, 1947
o RP-US Visiting Forces Agreement February 10, 1998
o Republic Act 75 October 21, 1946
Republic Act No. 75
RA No. 75 works in favor of diplomatic representatives and their
domestic servants (Section 4).
Exception: When the process against servant (who is a citizen of
the Philippines) is founded on debt contracted before he
entered such service (Section 5).
Not applicable when the foreign country adversely affected
does not provide similar protection to our diplomatic
representatives.
Persons exempt from the operation of our criminal laws by virtue of
the principles of public international law
II Hyde International Law: as a principle of international law,
the following are not subject to the operation of our criminal
laws:
o Sovereigns and other chiefs of state.


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o

Ambassadors, ministers, plenipotentiary, ministers


resident, and charges daffaires.


XII. Exceptions to the prospective application of criminal laws: New
Statutes that are more lenient or favorable to the accused
Must be favorable to the accused in order for it to be followed
as long as (a) accused committed act before the new statute
came out, and (b) he is not a habitual criminal.

XIII. Different Effects of Repeals on Penal Law
If the penalty in the repeal is lighter, it shall be applied to the
case except if accused is a habitual criminal.
If the penalty in the repeal is heavier, the law in force when the
offense was committed shall be applied.
If the new law totally repeals the old law, the crime is
obliterated.
o People v. Tamayo
While the case was pending, the ordinance
violated was repealed.
The accused was acquitted.
If the new law simply reenacts the old law, criminal liability is
not destroyed.
o US v. Cuna
Accused was charged with selling opium
While the case was pending, a new law against
opium was passed which still included the act
done by the accused
The new law does not take away the criminal
liability of the accused
If both old law and new law punish the same offense, offender
can be tried in the law which is more favorable to him
provided that the old law was still in place when he committed
the offense.

If the new law fails to penalize an act (punishable under the old
law), it is no longer punishable.
o Cessante ratione legis cessat ipsa lex
The reason for the law ceasing, the law itself
also ceases.
o People v. Sindiong and Pastor
Accused was prosecuted from neglecting to
make a return of the sales of newspapers and
magazines within time prescribed as stated in
law.
While case was pending, a new law was passed
wherein the act of the accused was no longer
included as punishable.
The accused were acquitted.
If someone is mistakenly accused and convicted under a
repealed law, he may be tried again under the new law as long
as such an offense still exists in the law.
Self repealing laws (laws with expiry dates) are self executing.


XIV. Construction of Penal Laws
Penal Laws are strictly construed against government and
liberally in favor of the accused.
o This does not apply if the law is clear and unambiguous.
o People v. Garcia
Respondent accused of violating a law
prohibiting the selling of PCSO tickets without
being authorized
Accused claims he sold llave tickets
Respondent is acquitted because the law does
not expressly prohibit the selling of llave tickets
The Spanish text is superior to the English text.
o People v. Mangulabnan
Respondent fires a gun upwards while
committing a robbery.


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Respondent ends up killing the owner of the


house who was situated on the floor above him
Respondent is accused of robbery with.
homicide because though the English text says
that the killing should be intentional for it to be
homicide, the Spanish text says that homicide
can take place even by mere accident.

The Revised Penal Code



I. History
September 4, 1884 Royal Decree ordering penal code in the
Peninsula to be published and applied in the Philippines
December 17, 1886 Royal Order directed the execution of
the September 4, 1984 decree
March 13 & 14, 1887 Penal Code published in the Official
Gazette of Manila
July 14, 1897 Penal Code takes effect
October 18, 1927 A committee was created by Department
of Justice Administrative Order No. 94 to revise the penal code,
taking into consideration the existing conditions and the special
laws and ruling laid down by the Supreme Court.
o Anacleto Diaz as chairman, Quintin Paredes, Guillermo
Guevara, Alex Reyes and Mariano H. De Joya.
o The RPC does not embody the latest progress of
criminal science, as the results of the application of
advanced and radical theories still remains to be seen.
December 8, 1930 draft of the Revised Penal Code approved.
January 1, 1932 RPC takes effect.
o Felonies and misdemeanors committed prior this were
punished in accordance with the Code or Acts in force at
the time of their commission, as directed by Article 366.

II. Content
Book I
o Basic principles affecting criminal liability (Art. 1-20)
o Provisions on penalties including criminal and civil
liability (Art. 21-113)
Book II
o Definition of felonies with the corresponding penalties
(art. 114-365)

III. Theories that guided the RPC
Classical
o The basis of criminal liability is free will and the purpose
of the penalty is retribution.
o Man is seen as an essentially moral creature. Thus,
more emphasis on the act and its effect rather than on
the person who committed the act.
o Establishment of a mechanical and direct proportion
between crime and punishment.
Positivist
o Man is subdued occasionally by a strange and morbid
phenomenon which constrains him to do wrong in spite
of or contrary to his volition.
o Crime is a natural and social phenomenon; each case is
different.
The RPC is guided primarily by the Classical theory though it is
also partly influenced by the Positivist Theory.







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PRELIMINARY TITLE
DATE OF EFFECTIVENESS AND APPLICATION OF THE
PROVISIONS

Article 1. Time when Act takes effect
This code shall take effect on the first day of January, nineteen
hundred and thirty two.

Article 2. Application of its provisions.
Except as provided in the treaties and laws of preferential application,
the provisions of this code shall be enforced not only within the
Philippine archipelago, including its atmosphere, its internal waters
and maritime zone, but also outside of its jurisdiction, against those
who:
1. Should commit an offense while on a Philippine ship or airship;
2. Should forge or counterfeit any coin or currency note of the
Philippine Islands or obligations and securities issued by the
government of the Philippine Islands;
3. Should be liable for acts connected with the introduction into
these Islands of the obligations and securities mentioned in
the preceding number;
4. While being a public officers or employees, should commit an
offense in the exercise of their functions; or
5. Should commit any of the acts against national security and
the law of nations, defined in title one of book two of this
code.

POINTS

I. Important Phrases
Its atmosphere

Penal laws extend to all their air space which covers the
territory, subject to the right of way or easement in
favor of foreign aircrafts.
Interior Waters
o Bodies of water within the 3 mile limit
Maritime Zone
o 3 miles from the coastline starting from the low water
mark
o 12 miles measured in a straight line from headland to
headland
o Established through international treaties
o


II. Human Security Act of 2007 (RA 9372)
Has provisions providing for extra-territorial application subject
to existing treaties and laws of preferential application
The Act shall apply to:
o Persons committing a crime within the Philippine
territory
o Persons involved in a crime within the Philippine
territory despite being physically outside of the territory
o Persons who commit an offense while on a Philippine
ship or airship
o Persons who commit crimes within our embassies,
consulates, and other diplomatic premises occupied by
the Philippine government in an official capacity
o Any person committing a hate crime against Filipinos
o Any person committing a crime directly against the
Philippine government

PAR. 1: The RPC with regards offenses on a Philippine ship or airship
Does not apply when the ship or airship is within foreign
territory.
Does not apply if ship or airship is not properly registered with
the Philippine Bureau of Customs even if owner is Filipino.


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Does not apply if the crime is committed in high seas (i.e. areas
of the seas not belonging to any one country), BUT the vessel is
not registered or licensed in the Philippines.


I. The RPC and Foreign ships or airships
Continuing offense:
o Defined as forbidden conditions existing while the ship
or airship was in our territory even if such conditions
already existed prior to its entry into our territory.
o Continuing offense is punishable by our courts.
When a foreign merchant vessel enters the 3-mile limit, the
ships officers and crew are subject to the jurisdiction of our
courts.
o Disorders which disturb only the peace of the ship or
those on board are to be dealt exclusively by the
sovereignty of the home of the ship.
o Disturbances which may affect public peace of the
Philippines may be suppressed and the offenders may
be punished by Philippine authorities.
With regards foreign ships, the Philippines follows the English
Rule:
o French Rule crimes are not triable unless they affect
the peace and security of the territory and safety of the
state.
o English Rule crimes are triable unless they only involve
matters within the vessel.
Absolutely no jurisdiction over foreign war ships.

II. Crimes not involving a breach of public order committed on board a
foreign merchant vessel in transit are not triable by our courts
Carrying opium on a ship which is in transit is not triable in our
courts. BUT, when the opium is landed, it is within our
jurisdiction because such act is an open violation of the laws of
the Philippines (US v. Look Chaw).

Smoking opium on a ship while it is in transit is triable because it


affects our territory (atmosphere) (People v. Wong Cheng).
A person who is carrying opium and who is on board a foreign
merchant ship may be liable for illegal importation of opium (US
v. Ah Sing).


PAR. 2: SHOULD FORGE OR COUNTERFEIT ANY COIN OR CURRENCY OF
THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, OR OBLIGATIONS AND SECURITIES ISSUED BY
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.
AND
PAR. 3: SHOULD BE LIABLE FOR ACTS CONNECTED WITH THE
INTRODUCTION INTO THESE ISLANDS OF THE OBLIGATIONS AND
SECURITIES MENTIONED IN THE PRECEDING NUMBER.

I. Why are people who introduce forged or counterfeit obligations and
securities being punished?
They are being punished because such acts have an effect on
our economy
Thus, any person who makes counterfeits in a foreign country
may be prosecuted before our courts for violation of Article 163
(coins or currency counterfeit) OR Article 166 (forging securities
or obligations) of the RPC.

PAR. 4: WHILE BEING PUBLIC OFFICERS OR EMPLOYEES SHOULD
COMMIT AN OFFENSE IN THE EXERCISE OF THEIR FUNCTIONS

I. Does the RPC apply to public servants and employees who commit
their offenses abroad?
Yes as long as it was during the exercise of their functions.

PAR. 5: SHOULD COMMIT ANY OF THE CRIMES AGAINST NATIONAL
SECURITY AND THE LAWS OF NATIONS, DEFINED IN TITLE ONE, BOOK
TWO OF THIS CODE.


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I. Examples of offenses against national security and the law of nations
Treason, conspiracy and proposal to commit treason, espionage,
inciting to war and giving motives for reprisals, violation of
neutrality, correspondence with hostile country, flight to
enemys territory, piracy and mutiny on the high seas.


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TITLE I: FELONIES AND CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH


AFFECT CRIMINAL LIABILITY

CHAPTER 1: FELONIES


Article 3. Definitions
Acts and omissions punishable by law are felonies.

Felonies are committed not only by means of deceit (dolo) but also by
means of fault (culpa).

There is deceit when the act is performed with deliberate intent and
there is fault when the act results from imprudence, negligence, lack
of foresight, or lack of skill.

POINTS

I. Elements of Felonies
1. There must be an act or omission.
2. Said act or omission must be punishable by Revised Penal Code.
3. Said act or omission must be performed by means of deceit or
fault.

II. FIRST REQUISITE: There Must Be An Act Or Omission
A. Important Words And Phrases
Act
o Any bodily movement tending to produce some effect
in the external world.
No need for it to actually be produced.
Possibility of its production suffices.
o Must be defined as a felony in the Revised Penal Code
At least an overt act an act which has direct
connection with the felony to be committed.

Omission
o Failure to perform a positive duty that one is bound to
do
There must be a law requiring the doing or
performance of an act
o Examples
Article 275, par. 1 Abandonment of persons
in danger.
Article 213, par. 2[b] Failure to issue
receipts
Article 116 Misprision of Treason.


B. Are Internal Acts Covered By The Revised Penal Code?
No because they are beyond the sphere of penal law. Thinking
of committing a felony does not constitute a felony unless you
act on it.
Thus, only external act is punished.

III. SECOND REQUISITE: Said Act Or Omission Must Be Punishable By
Revised Penal Code
Punishable by law
o Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege
There is no crime when there is no law
punishing it
Case: People v. Silvestre and Atienza
o Atienza threatens to burn down a house; Silvestre is
standing right beside him.
o Silvestre does nothing as Atienza commits the crime.
o Court ruled that Silvestre is not criminally liable
because mere passive presence at the scene of
anothers crime, mere silence, and a failure to give the
alarm, without evidence of agreement or conspiracy is
not punishable


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IV. THIRD REQUISITE: Said Act Or Omission Performed By Means Of
Deceit Or Fault
A. Classification Of Felonies: Intentional v. Culpable
1. Intentional Felonies
o Act is performed with deliberate intent (malice).
o Offender has the intention to cause an injury to the
person, property or right of another.
o Crimes which cannot be committed through
imprudence or negligence such as murder, treason,
robbery, and malicious mischief.
o Requisites of dolo (malice)
Freedom
Without freedom, a person is no longer
a human being, but a tool.
There is no freedom if the offender is
under the compulsion of an irresistible
force or uncontrollable fear.
Intelligence
Intelligence is necessary to determine
the morality of human acts. Without
this, no crime can exist.
The imbecile, insane, infant under 9
years of age, and minor between 9-15
years of age have no criminal liability.
Intent
This is presumed from the proof of the
commission of an unlawful act
2. Culpable Felonies
o The injury caused is unintentional, it being simply the
incident of another act performed without malice.
People v. Guillen
Accused threw a grenade at the
president in an attempt to kill him and
ended up killing other people

Accused did not commit a culpable


felony because deliberate intent to do
an unlawful act is essentially
inconsistent with the idea of reckless
imprudence
Acts resulting from imprudence, negligence, lack of
foresight, or lack of skill.
Reason for punishing acts of negligence:
A man must use his common sense and
exercise due reflection in all his actions.
He is responsible for such results as anyone
might foresee and for his acts which no one
would have performed except through culpable
abandon.
Examples
US v. Divina
Defendant who is not a medical
practitioner ties up a girl and sets her
on fire. He claims he is trying to cure
her ulcer and that he acted in good
faith.
Defendant is guilty of physical injury
through imprudence
People v. Lopez
A man runs over a girl with his truck
despite him not intending to do so.
Man convicted of reckless imprudence
The driver should have taken the
precaution necessary to avoid injury to
persons because he was neither
compelled to refrain from or prevented
from doing so.

o
o


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o

Definition of reckless imprudence consists in


voluntarily but without malice, doing or failing to do an
act from which material damage results.


B. Both Intentional And Culpable Felonies Are Voluntary
Reasons
o Man has free will.
o Man is a rational being who can distinguish between
good and evil.
o Intentional felonies were intended while culpable
felonies resulted from acts, which were voluntary but
not intended as felonies.
Acts cease to be voluntary when there is compulsion or
prevention by force or intimidation

V. Intent
Intent is a mental state manifested through the overt acts of
people.
o A person who causes an injury by mere accident does
not have intent therefore is not criminally liable.
When the acts naturally produce a definite result, courts are
slow in concluding that some other result was intended
o People v. Sia Teh Ban
Respondent stole a watch therefore showing
intent to gain.
Criminal intent and the will to commit a crime
are always presumed to exist on the part of the
person who executes an act which the law
punishes, unless the contrary shall appear
Lack of intent to kill the deceased because offender meant to
kill another person does not clear the offender of criminal
liability.
Lack of intent may be inferred from the facts of the case.

A. Presumption Of Criminal Intent Does Not Arise From The Proof Of


The Commission Of An Act Which Is Not Unlawful.
US v. Catolico
o Judge orders money deposited by the defendants as a
bond to be given to the plaintiff. Judge is subsequently
accused of malversation.
o It was ruled that his original act was not unlawful
therefore there was no criminal liability.
o Actus non facit reum, nisi mens set rea
The act itself does not make a man guilty unless
his intentions were so.

B. Criminal Intent Is Necessary In Felonies Committed By Means Of
Dolo
There is no felony by dolo if there is no intent.
Actus me invito factus non est meus actus
o An act done by me against my will is not my act.
o Example
People who commit crimes while sleepwalking
do not incur criminal liability because there was
no intent (People v. Taneo).

C. Distinction Between General Intent And Specific Intent
Some felonies necessitate specific types of intent.
o Robbery necessitates intent to gain.
o Frustrated homicide necessitates intent to kill.
When the accused is charged with intentional felony, absence
of criminal intent is a plausible defense.
o If there is only error on the part of the accused, he does
not act with malice and as such, he cannot be liable for
intentional felony.
Criminal intent is replaced by negligence and imprudence in
felonies committed by means of culpa.


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VI. Mistake Of Fact
A. General Points
Ignorantia facti excusat
o Ignorance of fact relieves the accused from criminal
liability.
Mistake of fact is a misapprehension of fact on the part of
the person who injury to another. He is not criminally liable,
because he did not act with criminal intent.
An honest mistake of fact destroys the presumption of criminal
intent which arises upon the commission of a felonious act.

B. Requisites Of Mistake Of Fact As A Defense:
1. Act would have been lawful is facts were as the accused
believed them to be.
o US v. Ah Chong
Accused killed a man because after taking all of
the necessary precautions, he thought that he
was being attacked by a robber
Acquitted by mistake of fact because had the
facts been as the accused thought, his actions
would have constituted self defense. Also, the
circumstances pressed him for immediate and
decisive action
o People v. Oanis
Killed a sleeping man because he was mistaken
for an escaped felon.
Accused was convicted because he did not take
all the necessary precautions needed to verify
the identity of the person and the accused had
no authority to shoot a sleeping man even if he
was the escaped felon. Lastly, the
circumstances did not press him for immediate
and decisive action.
2. Intention of the accused must be lawful.

When an unlawful act is done willfully, mistake of the


identity of an intended victim does not relieve the
accused of criminal responsibility (People v. Gona).
o Mistake in the identity of the intended victim is not
reckless imprudence (People v. Guillen).
3. Mistake must be without fault or carelessness on the part of
the accused
o People v. De Fernando
Accused shot a man going up the stairs because
he thought he was an escaped felon
Accused is guilty of homicide through reckless
negligence because he failed to take all the
necessary precautions to ensure the identity of
the man he eventually shot
The act done by the accused would have constituted:
o A justifying circumstance (Article 11)
o Absolutory clause (Article 247)
o An involuntary act
Resisting arrest is not a crime when there is a mistake of fact
o


VII. Crimes Punishable By Special Laws
A. General Points
Includes crimes punishable by municipal or city ordinances.
Dolo is not required.
o It is enough that the prohibited act is done freely and
consciously.
o The act alone, irrespective of its motives, constitutes
the offense.
People v. Bayona
Unwittingly but voluntarily brought a
gun into a polling place
Convicted because no matter what his
intentions were, the act prohibited by
the special laws was committed


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Intent to commit the crime and intent to perpetuate the act


must be distinguished
o If there is no intent to perpetrate the act prohibited,
there is no criminal liability


B. Reasons Why Criminal Intent Is Not Necessary In Crimes Made By
Statutory Enactment
The act in itself, without the intervention of any other fact, is
the evil.
o Example: Law Prohibiting display of revolutionary flags
The evil to society and to the government does
not depend upon the state of mind of the one
who displays the banner, but upon the effect
which that display has upon the public mind.
The public is not affected by the intention of
the offender but by the act itself.
When the doing of an act is prohibited by a special law, it is
considered that the act is injurious to public welfare and the
doing of the prohibited act is the crime itself.

C. Good Faith And Absence Of Criminal Intent Are Not Valid Defenses
In Crimes Punished By Special Laws
Since the offense is malam prohibitum, the performance of the
act itself will constitute the offense.
Exceptions:
o People v. Landicho If it is done in order to comply
with government policies.
When there is a law prohibiting the carrying of
loose firearms in relation to a man who was
authorized to buy and collect guns to be sold to
the authorities later on, that individual is not
criminally liable.
This is not the same if the man held on to the
firearms for a undue length of time when he

had all the chances to surrender it to the


proper authorities.
o People v. Asa & US v. Samson Civilian guards who
acted in good faith and never had any intention of
committing an offense against the law prohibiting the
carrying of loose firearms because they believed their
position in the civilian guard association warranted the
carrying of such firearms.
o Peope v. Mallari When the accused has a pending
application for permanent permit to possess a firearm
and whose possession in not unknown to the
authorities who actually advised him to keep his
firearm for the meantime.
o People v. Lucero When accused was given authority
to carry a revolver in order to capture or kill a wanted
person.
In all cases mentioned, the absence of intent to violate the law
was considered in favor of the accused.


VIII. Mala In Se And Mala Prohibita Distinguished
General rule: Acts in mala in se, there must be a criminal
intent; but those in mala prohibita it is sufficient if the
prohibited act was intentionally done.

A. Mala In Se
Wrongful from its nature.
Crimes mala in se are those so serious in their effects on society
as to call for almost unanimous condemnation from its
members.
Punishable by Revised Penal Code.

B. Mala Prohibita
Wrongful because it is prohibited by a statute.


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Violations of mere rules of convenience designed to secure a


more orderly regulation of the affairs of society
Found in special laws.
Refers generally to acts made criminal by special laws.


C. When The Acts Are Inherently Immoral, They Are Mala In Se Even If
Punished Under Special Law
People v. Sunico et al.
o Voters names were omitted from the list.
o The act was mala in se because the omission and failure
to include a voters name in the registry list of voters is
not only wrong because it is prohibited, it is wrong per
se because it disenfranchises a voter and violates one
of his fundamental rights.
o For such an act to be punished, it must be shown that
said act was committed with malice.

IX. Motive
A. Intent Distinguished From Motive
Motive The moving power which impels one to action for a
definite result.
Intent The purpose to use a particular means to effect such
result.

B. Motive: When Relevant And When Not Need To Be Established
Not an essential element of a crime; need not be proven for
purposes of a conviction.
o Even a strong motive cannot take the place of proof
beyond reasonable doubt.
Good motives do not prevent an act from becoming a crime
o Example: Mercy Killing
Relevance:
o When the identity of the perpetrator is being disputed,
the motive is very relevant (People v. Murray).

Not applicable if perpetrator has been


positively identified (People v. Gadiana).
Not applicable if perpetrator admits to crime
(People v. Arcilla).
When ascertaining the truth between two antagonistic
theories or versions of the killing (People v. BoholstCaballero; People v. Lim; People v. Tabije)
Where the identification of the accused proceeds from
an unreliable source and the testimony is inconclusive
and not free from doubt, evidence of motive is
necessary (People v. Beltran).
When there are no eyewitnesses and suspicion falls on
a lot of people (People v. Melgar).
When evidence is merely circumstantial (People v.
Oquio).
Not applicable if guilt is established by
sufficient evidence (People v. Corpuz).
When there is no doubt that the accused committed
the crime, his motives are unimportant (People v.
Feliciano).

o
o


C. How Motive Is Proved
Established by the testimony of witnesses on the acts or
statements of the accused before or immediately after the
commission of the offense.
Establishment through the evidence presented.
Lack of motive may be aid in showing innocence.
Proof of motive alone is not sufficient to support a conviction.
It cannot take the place of proof beyond reasonable doubt,
sufficient to overthrow presumption of innocence.

Article 4. Criminal liability
Criminal liability shall be incurred:
1. By any person committing a felony (delito) although the


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wrongful act be different from that which he intended.
2. By an person performing an act which would be an offense
against persons or property, were it not for the inherent
impossibility of its accomplishment, or on account of the
employment of inadequate or ineffectual means.

POINTS

I. The Manner Of Incurring Criminal Liability Under The Revised Penal
Code Is Stated In Article 3
This article has not reference to the manner criminal liability is
incurred.

II. One Who Commits An Intentional Felony Is Responsible For All The
Consequences Which May Naturally And Logically Result Therefrom,
Whether Foreseen Or Intended Or Not
One is not relieved from the criminal liability for the natural
consequence of ones illegal acts, merely because one does not
intend to produce such consequences.
o Thus, one who fired his gun at B, but missed and hit C
instead, is liable for the injury caused to C, although the
one who fired the gun had no intention to injure C.

III. Rationale Of Article 4
El que es causa de la causa es causa del mal causado
o He who is the cause of the cause is the cause of the evil
caused.

IV. Important Words
Committing a felony
o Act or omission has to be punishable by the Revised
Penal Code.
o Necessitates malice because of the phrase that which
he intended.

Cannot therefore be an act or omission punished by a


special law because the offender violating such a law
may not have the intent to do an injury to another.
US v. Divino
Defendant who is not a medical
practitioner ties up a girl and sets her
on fire. He claims he is trying to cure
her ulcer and that he acted in good
faith.
He is not guilty of a felony because he
had no intent to harm. He is however
guilty of physical injury through
imprudence and/or illegal practice of
medicine.
Although the wrongful act be different from that which he
intended
o Causes
Mistaken identity (error in personae) A
shoots B because he thinks he is C.
Mistaken blow (aberration ictus) A tries to
shoot B but accidentally shoots C.
The act exceeds the intent (praeter
intentionem) A only intends to injure B but
ends up killing him.
o Examples
People v. Mabugat
Accused and B were sweethearts. They
got into a fight and one night, accused,
with revolver in hand, waited for B and
her niece C to leave the house of D and
head home. As they reached the house,
accused aimed and fired a shot at B but
instead hit C.
o


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Accused is criminally liable (frustrated
murder)
People v. Tomotorgo
Accused, incensed by his wife, beats
her until she falls to the ground and
complains of chest pains. Accused
proceeds to take his wife home and
take care of her. Wife dies.
Accused is guilty of parricide.
SC ruled that the fact that the accused
intended to maltreat his wife only or
inflict physical injuries does not exempt
him from liability for the resulting and
more serious crime of parricide
Maltreatment inflicted by the accused
was the proximate cause of wifes
death


V. When A Person Has Not Committed A Felony, He Is Not Criminally
Liable For The Result Which Is Not Intended
US v. Villanueva
o Accused, out of curiosity, snatched a bolo carried by
the victim in his belt. The victim was subsequently
injured.
o Accused is not criminally liable because there is no
provision punishing the act of snatching the property of
another just to satisfy curiosity.
People v. Bindoy
o Accused, carrying a bolo in one hand, got into a heated
altercation with Pacas wife. Pacas attempted to take
away the bolo from the accused and during the scuffle,
an innocent bystander was injured.

Accused is not criminally liable because the law permits


him to use necessary force to retain what belongs to
him.
If accused had been trying to strike Pacas and instead
hit someone else, he would be criminally liable.


PAR. 1: BY ANY PERSON COMMITTING A FELONY (DELITO),
ALTHOUGH THE WRONGFUL ACT DONE BE DIFFERENT FROM THAT
WHICH HE INTENDED

I. Requisites Of Article 4 Paragraph 1
In order that a person may be held criminally liable for a felony
different from that which he intended to commit:
1. Intentional felony was committed
2. The wrong done to the aggrieved party be the direct, natural,
and logical consequence of the felony committed by the
offender

II. FIRST REQUISITE: Intentional Felony Was Committed
A. No Felony Is Committed When:
The act or omission is not punishable under Revised Penal
Code.
o Suicide is not punishable under the Revised Penal Code
(Article 253) If A jumps off the building and lands on
B, he is not criminally liable for intentional homicide.
The act is covered by any of the justifying circumstances in
Article 11
o Self defense, fulfillment of duty, etc.
o These acts must still be exercised with due care
otherwise the accused will be liable for culpable felony.
o Example: People v. Salinas
Accused, along with B, go to the house of C and
D. Accused enters the house, B stays outside. B
challenges C to a fight and accused holds on to


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C to prevent him from going outside. A struggle


ensues and D, while holding a baby, attempts
to free C from the accused. D ends up falling
down the stairs, baby in hand. The baby
eventually dies.
Accused cannot be criminally liable for holding
on to C and preventing him from engaging in
what would have been a bloody encounter
with B because such an act is not punishable.
Similarly, accused is not guilty of the death of
the baby because the death was not the direct
consequence of a crime seeing as how accused
did not committing any crime.


B. Any Person Who Creates In Anothers Mind An Immediate Sense Of
Danger, Which Causes The Latter To Do Something Resulting In The
Latters Injuries, Is Liable For The Resulting Injuries
People v. Toling
o Accused proceeds to commit robbery aboard a
jeepney. Accused threatens the passengers and
subsequently, B jumps out of the jeepney in order to
escape. B ends up hitting her head on the pavement
and eventually dies.
o It was held that accused is guilty for the death of B
because he created an immediate sense of danger that
prompted B to try and escape.
o Similarly, if a person believing himself to be in danger
of death or great bodily harm jumps into the water and
drowns, the person who caused him to believe he was
in danger is criminally liable for his death

III. SECOND REQUISITE: Wrong Done Must Be The Direct, Natural, And
Logical Consequence Of A Felonious Act (Proximate Cause).

General Rule: A person is criminally responsible for acts


committed by him in violation of the law and for all the natural
and logical consequences resulting therefrom.
Examples
o US v. Valdez Victim who was threatened or chased
by the accused with a knife, jumps into the water and
drowns because of the heavy current.
Accused is criminally liable.
o People v. Quianson Victim removes drainage from a
wound given to him by the accused in order to alleviate
great pain. Victim subsequently contracts an infection
and dies.
Accused is criminally liable because he directly
caused the great pain which victim was trying
to alleviate.
o People v. Moldes A wound that was inflicted was
dangerous or calculated to destroy human life.
Immediate cause of death was erroneous medical
treatment.
Even if erroneous medical treatment comes
into play, the one who inflicted the wound is
still criminally liable.
o People v. Illustre; People v. Rodriguez; People v. Reyes
Victim was suffering from an internal malady and
said malady was fatally aggravated by a blow from the
accused.
Accused is criminally liable.
o US v. Marasigan Victim refused to submit to surgical
operation.
Offended party is not obliged to submit to a
surgical operation to relieve the accused from
the natural and ordinary results of his crime.
o People v. Martir Injury was aggravated by infection


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An accused is liable for all the consequences of


his acts, and the infection of a wound he has
caused is one of the consequences for which he
is answerable
Except if infection is due to the malicious act of
the offended party (US v. De los Santos).

Cases
o People v. Quianson
A injures B. While taking medical treatment, B
removes the drainage from his wound in order
to alleviate immense pain. This results in the
development of an infection which eventually
leads to the death of B.
A contends that he was not involved in the
taking out of the drainage which eventually led
to the infection and subsequent death.
Court rules that A is criminally liable for the
death of B because his removal of the drainage
was due to the immense pain he felt from the
wounds inflicted by A.
o US v. Marasigan
Accused strikes at B with a knife. In an attempt
to ward off the blow, the finger of B was
severed.
Claims of the accused that B can get surgery in
order to restore his finger is not a valid defense
because B is not obliged to receive surgical
treatment in order to relieve accused of his
liability.
o People v. Reloj
Accused stabs B with an ice pick. B undergoes a
successful surgical operation but days later he
dies because of a condition that takes place as

a consequence of internal organs being


exposed during surgery.
Accused is criminally liable because the
condition would not have come about if B did
not need to undergo surgery because of
injuries inflicted by the accused.
If it clearly appears that the injury would not have caused
death, in the ordinary course of events, but would have healed
in so many days and where it was shown beyond all doubt
that the death was due to the malicious or careless acts of the
injured person or a third person, the accused is not criminally
liable for homicide


A. Proximate Cause
The felony committed must be the proximate cause of the resulting
injury
Proximate cause is that cause which, in natural and
continuous sequence, unbroken by any efficient intervening
cause, produces the injury, and without which the result would
not have occurred.
o Natural refers to an occurrence in the ordinary course
of human life or events.
o Logical means that there is a rational connection
between the act of the accused and the resulting injury
or damage.
Proximate legal cause
o That acting first and producing the injury, either
immediately, or by setting other events in motion, all
constituting a natural and continuous chain of events,
each having a close causal connection with its
immediate predecessor.
o There must be a relation of cause and effect, the
cause being the felonious act of the offended, the


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effect being the resultant injuries and/or death of the


victim.
Not altered because of pre-existing conditions,
predisposition of the offended party or the
concomitant or concurrent conditions, or the
conditions supervening the felonies.
Exceptions (felony committed is not proximate cause when)
1. There is an active force that intervened between the
felony committed and the resulting injury, and the
active force is a distinct act or fact absolutely foreign
from the felonious act of the accused.
2. The resulting injury is due to the intentional act of the
victim.
The offender is criminally liable for the death of the victim if his
delictual (wrongful) act caused, accelerated, or contributed to
the death of the victim.


B. How To Determine The Proximate Cause
Vda. de Bataclan, et al. v. Medina
o Passenger bus travelling in the province at 2 in the
morning turns over, trapping 4 passengers. Gasoline
begins to leak and spread all over the bus. Men with
torches come to help out the trapped passengers but
the fire from their torches (keep in mind the gasoline
that spread all around the bus) causes the bus to
become engulfed in flames.
o It was ruled that the proximate cause was not the fire
from the torches but instead the turning over of the
bus. The arrival of men carrying torches in the middle
of the night to help the trapped passengers was a
natural consequence seeing as how it was dark and
they were in the province.
o Furthermore, there is negligence on the part of the
agents of the carrier since they would have realized

that gasoline was leaking (gasoline has a distinct scent)


and should have warned the men with torches.
People v. Luces
o Accused gave a fist blow to victim in the stomach,
causing her to fall to the ground and become
unconscious. Victim never regains consciousness and
eventually dies. Autopsy shows that cardiac failure was
probable cause for death.
o Accused argues that cardiac failure and not the fist
blow was not the cause of death.
o Court rules that the fist blow was the primary and
proximate cause of death because the cardiac failure
(incurred either directly because of the fist blow, while
falling to the ground, or while being unconscious) was
caused by the fist blow.
He who is the cause of the cause is the cause of
the evil caused.
Causes, not being efficient intervening causes, do not break
the relation of cause and effect the felony committed and
the resulting injury.


C. Intervening Causes
The following are not efficient intervening causes
People v. Illustre & People v. Reyes The weak or diseased
physical condition of the victim, as when one is suffering from
tuberculosis or heart disease.
People v. Almonte & People v. Quianson Nervous
temperament, as when a person dies in consequence of an
internal hemorrhage because he was moving around against
doctors orders because of his nervous temperament due to the
wound inflicted by the accused.
People v. Buhay, US v. Valdez Causes inherent to the victim
o Victim does not know how to swim
o Victim is an alcoholic


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US v. Marasigan & People v. Red Neglect of the victim or a


third person.
o Refusal of victim to undergo surgery
o Failure of doctors to give anti-tetanus injection to the
injured person
People v. Moldes Erroneous or unskillful medical treatment
as when the assault took place in an outlying barrio where
proper modern surgical service was not available
Case: People v. Piamonte, et al.
o A stabs B. B is successfully operated on but eventually
he contracts a condition due to his weakened state.
o A is criminally liable because the stabbing was the
proximate cause of death.


D. Natural Consequence
When death is presumed to be the natural consequence of physical
injuries inflicted
1. The victim was in normal health when the injury was inflicted.
2. Death may be expected from the physical injuries inflicted.
3. Death ensued within a reasonable time.
Case: People v. Tammang
o Boy was in good health the morning of the incident.
Teacher assaults boy and boy complains about
experiencing oppressive pain to his mother later on.
Boy vomits blood until he dies 3 days later.
o Teachers liability for homicide necessarily follows from
the premises stated.
o Had it been proven that the boy died from
hypochondria and not the injuries inflicted by the
teacher, accused would have been acquitted on the
charge of homicide.
Not direct, natural, and logical consequence of the felony committed.

If the consequences produced have resulted from a distinct act


or fact absolutely foreign from the criminal act, the offender is
not responsible for such consequences.
A person is not liable criminally for all possible consequences
which may immediately follow his felonious act, but only for
such as are proximate:
o People v. Rockwell
A strikes B. B falls to the ground. A horse jumps
on B and kills him.
A is not liable for the death of B
o US v. De los Santos
A lightly injures B. B deliberately immerses
himself in a cesspool of filth. The injuries of B
become greater.
A is not liable for the worsened condition of B.
o People v. Palalon
A strikes B with the back of his hand. Later on,
B dies. There is a prevalent sickness in the
locality.
A is not liable for the death of B because it is
reasonable to believe that it could have been
caused by the prevalent sickness in the locality.
o US v. Embate
Accused strikes a child who was seriously ill.
Child dies two days later.
Accused is not liable for childs death because it
cannot be established if the illness or the strike
caused the death.
o Urbano v. IAC
When medical findings lead to the possibility
that the infection of the wound was an efficient
intervening cause (not a proximate cause), the
accused must be acquitted of the crime of
homicide


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PAR. 2: BY ANY PERSON PERFORMING AN ACT WHICH WOULD BE AN
OFFENSE AGAINST PERSONS OR PROPERTY, WERE IT NOT FOR THE
INHERENT IMPOSSIBILITY OF ITS ACCOMPLISHEMTN, OR ON
ACCOUNT OF THE EMPLOYMENT OF INADEQUATE OR INEFFECTUAL
MEANS

I. Impossible Crimes
The commission of an impossible crime is indicative of criminal
propensity or criminal tendency on the part of the actor.
o Such person is therefore a potential criminal.
o The community must be protected from anti-social
activities, whether actual or potential, of the morbid
type of man called socially dangerous person.

II. Requisites Of Impossible Crime
1. Act performed would be an offense against persons or property
2. Act was done with evil intent
3. Accomplishment is inherently impossible or that the means
employed are inadequate or ineffectual
4. Act is not a violation of another provision of the Revised Penal
Code

III. Important Words And Phrases
Performing an act which would be an offense against persons
or property (Requisite 1)
o A felony against persons or property should not be
actually committed, for, otherwise, offender would be
liable for that felony. This means there is no impossible
crime to speak of.
o Felonies against persons
Parricide (Article 246)
Murder (Article 248),
Homicide (Article 249),

Infanticide (Article 255),


Abortion (Article 256, 257, 258, and 259),
Duel (Article 260 and 261),
Physical injuries (Art, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266)
Rape (Article 266-A)
o Felonies against property
Robbery (Art. 294, 297, 298, 299, 300, 302,
303)
Brigandage (Article 306 and 307)
Theft (Article 308, 310, 311)
Usurpation (Article 312 and 313)
Culpable insolvency (Article 314)
Swindling and other deceits (Article 315, 316,
317 and 318)
Chattel mortgage (Article 319)
Arson and other crimes involving destruction,
malicious mischief (Article 327, 328, 329, 330
and 331)
o If the act performed would be an offense other than a
felony against persons or property, there is no
impossible crime
Act was done with evil intent (Requisite 2)
o Offender must have the intent to do an injury to
another
Stabbing a persons corpse to satisfy a grudge is
not a crime if and when the accused knew that
the person was already dead
o A takes the check payment meant for her company and
deposits it in her own account. The check bounces.
Accused found guilty of an impossible crime
There can be no question that as of the time
accused took possession of said check, she had
performed all the acts to consummate the


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crime of theft, had it not been impossible of


accomplishment in this case
o A peppers the bedroom of B with bullets. B was not in
his bedroom.
Convicted of an impossible crime
Were it not for the inherent impossibility of its
accomplishment or on account of the employment of
inadequate or ineffectual means
o Inherent impossibility of accomplishment
Legal impossibility
Physical impossibility
Examples:
Trying to kill a person without knowing
that he is already dead legal and
physical impossibility.
Trying to poison a person with arsenic
when it turns out, only salt was used.
Stealing a watch even if it turns out the
said watch is actually yours legal
impossibility,
Attempting to steal money from a safe
that turns out to be empty.
o Employment of inadequate and ineffectual means
Examples
A tries to poison B with a decent
amount of arsenic but B does not die
because he has strong resistance to
arsenic
A tries to shoot B in the head only to
find out the gun is not loaded when he
pulls the trigger


IV. Purpose Of The Law In Punishing The Impossible Crime
To suppress criminal propensity or criminal tendencies

Objectively, the offender has not committed a felony but


subjectively, he is a criminal


Article 5. Duty of the court in connection with acts which should be
repressed but which are not covered by the law, and in cases of
excessive penalties.
Whenever a court has knowledge of any act which it may deem
proper to repress and which is not punishable by law, it shall render
the proper decision and shall report to the Chief Executive, through
the Department of Justice, the reasons which induce the court to
believe that said act should be the subject of legislation.

In the same light, the court shall submit to the Chief Executive,
through the Department of Justice, such statements as may be
deemed proper, without suspending the execution of the sentence,
when a strict enforcement of the provisions of this Code would result
in the imposition of a clearly excessive penalty, taking into
consideration the degree of malice and the injury caused by the
offense.

POINTS

I. First Paragraph Pertains To Acts Which Should Be Repressed But
Which Are Not Punishable By Law.
Basis of Paragraph 1: Nulllum crimen, nulla poena sine lege
o There is no crime if there is no law that punishes the
act (no matter how bad that act may be).
Trial of a criminal case requires the following:
1. The act committed by the accused appears not
punishable by any law.
2. The court deems it proper to repress such act.
3. In that case, the court must render the proper decision
by dismissing the case and acquitting the accused.


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4. The judge must then make a report to the Chief
Executive through the Secretary of Justice, stating the
reasons which induce him to believe that the said act
should be made the subject of penal legislation.

II. Second Paragraph Pertains To Excessive Penalties
Second paragraph requires the following:
1. The court of trial finds the accused guilty
2. The penalty provided by law and which the court
imposes for the crime committed appears to be clearly
excessive because
The accused acted with lesser degree of malice
There is no injury or the injury caused is of
lesser gravity
3. The court should not suspend the execution of the
sentence.
4. The judge should submit a statement to the chief
executive, through the Secretary of Justice,
recommending executive clemency.

A. Cases
People v. Monleon
o Accused maltreats his wife while inebriated. Wife dies.
Since the accused had no intent to kill his wife
and her death may have been hastened by lack
of proper medical care, the punishment of
reclusion perpetua appears to be excessive.
People v. Espino
o Accused steals coconuts for his familys consumption.
Punishment for the crime was 4 months and 1
day of arresto mayor to 3 years, 6 months, and
21 days of prison correccional according to the
Revised Penal Code.

In light of the circumstances surrounding the


case, the court recommended the accused be
pardoned after serving 4 months of the
sentence
People v. Cabagsan
o Accused alters documents in order to show that a
person was arrested on a later day. Falsifications were
done in order to make it appear that there was no
delay in the preliminary investigation being conducted
on the case.
It was ruled that there was an apparent lack of
malice and a total absence of injury
People v. Canja
o Battered wife kills her husband and confesses to doing
so
Court recommended that the accused is
deserving of executive clemency, not of full
pardon but of a substantial if not radical
reduction or commutation of her life sentence
People v. Manlapaz
o Accused committed simple rape
The penalty for simple rape was increased from
reclusion temporal to reclusion perpetua as a
means to deter rampant cases of rape
happening after WWII.
It was recommended that after the accused
shall have served a term of imprisonment
consistent with retributive justice, executive
clemency may be extended to him.


B. Penalties Are Not Excessive When Intended To Enforce A Public
Policy
People v. Estoista


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Rampant lawlessness justifies imprisonment for
promiscuous carrying and use of powerful firearms
when ordinarily such a penalty would seem excessive.
People v. Tiu Ua
o Heavy fines imposed by congress to repress
profiteering so that people would not take advantage
of critical conditions (like a global recession, strong
storms, etc.) to make unusual profits.
o


III. Duty Of The Courts To Apply The Law
A. Courts Have The Duty To Apply The Penalty Provided By Law
It is the duty of judicial officers to respect and apply the law,
regardless of their private opinions.
o Courts are not concerned with the wisdom, efficacy, or
morality of laws. Such questions fall exclusively within
the legislative that makes the law and the executive
who approves or vetoes it.
o Example
Judge sentences accused to life imprisonment
when the law clearly states that the
punishment should be death.
In this situation, the judge did not fulfill
his duty

B. Judge Has The Duty To Apply The Law As Interpreted By The
Supreme Court
Judge must first think that it is his duty to apply the law as
interpreted by the Highest Court of the land, and that any
deviation from a principle laid down by the latter would
unavoidable cause, as a sequel, unnecessary inconveniences,
delays and expenses to the litigants
Judge is free to state his opinion on the matter if his views
contrast with those of the SC but he must still follow the
interpretation of the SC


C. Courts Are Not The Forum To Plead For Sympathy
Dura lex sed lex
o The law is hard but it is the law

III. Strict Enforcement Of The Provisions Of This Code
Article 5 may not be invoked for cases of mala prohibita
because it is expressly worded that Article 5 only applies to
strict enforcement of the provisions of the Revised Penal Code

Article 6. Consummated, frustrated, and attempted felonies.
Consummated felonies as well as those which are frustrated and
attempted are punishable.

A felony is consummated when all the elements necessary for its
execution and accomplishment are present; and it is frustrated when
the offender performs all the acts of execution which would produce
the felony as a consequence but, which, nevertheless do not produce
it by reason of causes independent of the will of the perpetrator.

There is an attempt when the offender commences the commission of
a felony, directly through overt acts, and does not perform all the acts
of execution which would produce the felony by reason of some cause
or accident other than his own spontaneous desistance.

POINTS

I. Development Of Crime
From the moment the culprit conceives the idea of committing
a crime up to the realization of the same, his act passes through
certain stages.

A. Stages:
1. Internal acts


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Thoughts in the mind of the person; can never be
punishable no matter how evil they are.
o Mere intent to commit a crime cannot be punished if it
produces no effect.
o Intent and effect must concur.
2. External acts
a. Preparatory acts
Ordinarily they are not punishable unless
provided by law.
The act of buying poison is not
necessarily punishable.
Carrying a picklock is punishable
because there is a provision against it.
BUT preparatory acts which are considered in
themselves by law as independent crimes are
punishable.
Article 304 The possession of
picklocks is a preparatory act to the
commission of robbery.
b. Acts of execution
Punishable by law
Stages of acts of execution:
AttemptedFrustratedConsummate
d
All stages of acts of execution are punishable
o


II. STAGE 1: Attempted Felony
A. Elements Of Attempted Felony
1. Commencement of the commission of the felony directly by
overt acts.
2. Offender does not perform all acts of execution which should
produce the felony.
3. The offenders act is not stopped by his own spontaneous
desistance.

4. The non-performance of all acts of execution was due to a


cause or accident other than his own spontaneous desistance.

B. Important Words And Phrases For Attempted Felony
Commences the commission of a felony
o Two requisites:
i. There must be an external act committed.
ii. External acts must be connected with the crime
intended to be committed.
Directly by overt acts
o Only offenders who personally execute the commission
of a crime can be guilty of attempted felony.
If A tells B to kill C but B refuses
A is not liable for attempted homicide
since the attempt was not done
directly with physical activity
If A tells B to kill C and B shoots at C and misses
A and B are criminally liable of
attempted
felony
because
of
conspiracy. In conspiracy, the act of
one is the act of all.
Does not perform all the acts of execution
o If all the acts of execution are performed, it is
automatically either frustrated or consummated.
o If not all acts are performed, it is only attempted.
US v. Eduave
If anything yet remained for him to do,
he would be guilty of an attempted
crime.
People v. Lamahang
Accused did not enter the store
therefore there was only an attempted
trespass.
By reason of some cause or accident


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Cause
A tries to pickpocket B but B catches him
before he can do so.
A has not done all the acts of execution
in relation to pick pocketing.
o Accident
A tries to shoot B but the gun jams.
A has not committed all the acts of
execution.
Other than his own spontaneous desistance
o You cannot be punished if you stop yourself from
committing a crime.
o It is a sort of reward granted by law to those who,
having one foot on the verge of crime, heed the call of
their conscience and return to the path of
righteousness.
o One who takes part in planning a criminal act but
desists in its actual commission is exempt from criminal
liability.
Could have been caused by his conscience
o It does not matter if spontaneous desistance was due
to either fear or remorse as long as act is stopped on
account of the would-be offenders own free will.
o Desistance must be made before the crime is
committed.
A steals a chicken & brings it back an hour later.
Robbery has already been committed
therefore the return of the chicken
does not free A from criminal liability.
o Own spontaneous desistance exempts one from
criminal liability for the intended crime, and not from
any crimes which may have been committed before the
desistance.
o

A shoots B and misses. A decides not to shoot


anymore.
A is not guilty of attempted homicide
because of his spontaneous desistance
but he is guilty of making grave threats
which he had already committed.


Subjective phase of the offense
In an attempted felony, the offender never gets past the
subjective phase.
Definition
o That portion of the acts constituting the crime, starting
from the point where the offender begins the
commission of the crime to that point where he still has
control over his acts, including their natural cause.
As long as he does not commit the last act of
execution, offender is still in the subjective
phase
Example: A tries to poison B with poisoned soup.
o Subjective phase ends as soon as the B swallows the
soup.

III. Overt Acts
Some physical activity or deed indicating the intention to
commit a particular crime, more than a mere planning or
preparation, which if carried to its complete termination
following its natural course, without being frustrated by
external obstacles, nor by the voluntary desistance of the
perpetrator, will logically and necessarily ripen into a concrete
offense.

A. Distinguishing Between Preparatory Acts And Overt Acts
Act of buying poison


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On its own, this act is a mere preparatory act because
it does not logically follow that he who buys poison
wishes to commit a felony.
o It becomes an overt act when he who buys poison
begins to mix said substance into a soup which he will
serve to his intended victim. In such case, there is clear
intent to poison a person
People v. Tabago
o Accused seemed to be drawing his pistol while talking
to a policeman.
o Accused is not criminally liable for attempted homicide
because merely drawing a pistol does not show intent
to kill.
o To constitute attempted homicide, the person using a
firearm must fire it, with intent to kill, at the intended
victim without inflicting a mortal wound.
US v. Simeon
o Accused raised a bolo as if to strike at the offended
party.
o Not an overt act because there was no blow struck, and
there is no proof that the accused issued threats to kill
or to do bodily harm.
B. Overt Acts May Not Always Be Physical Activities
US v. Gloria
o Offering money to a public officer with the purpose of
corrupting him is an overt act in the crime of corruption
of a public officer.

C. External Acts Must Have Direct Connection With The Crime
Intended To Be Committed By The Offender
People v. Lamahang
o Accused was caught making an opening in the wall of a
store while the owners were asleep.
o

Cannot be counted as attempted robbery because the


mere act of making an opening in the wall of the store
does not immediately mean that a robbery was taking
place.
The crime that the accused was convicted of was
attempted trespass given that when he was caught, the
only act that he had committed so far was the making
of an opening in the wall of the store.


IV. Indeterminable offense
It is one when the purpose of the offender in performing an act
is not certain. Its nature in relation to its objective is
ambiguous.

A. The Intention Of The Accused Must Be Viewed From The Nature Of
The Acts Executed By Him, And Not From His Admission
The intention of the accused must be ascertained from the
facts
o It is necessary that the mind be able to directly infer
from the facts the intention of the perpetrator to cause
a particular injury.
People v. Lamahang
o Acts susceptible of double interpretation, that is, in
favor as well as against the accused, and which show an
innocent as well as a punishable act, must not and
cannot furnish grounds by themselves for attempted
crime.
o Acts must be shown to be directly aimed at the
execution of the crime, and therefore they must have
an immediate and necessary relation to the offense.

V. STAGE 2: Frustrated Felony
A. Elements Of Frustrated Felony
1. Offender commits all acts of execution.


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2. All the acts performed would produce a felony.
3. Felony is not produced.
4. By reason of causes independent of the will of the perpetrator.

B. Important Words And Phrases For Frustrated Felony
Performs all the acts of execution
o Nothing left to be done by the offender.
Homicide Offender is able to afflict a fatal
wound.
o The SC in some cases has emphasized the belief of the
accused.
People v. Sy Pio
A shoots at B. B escapes and A does not
chase him.
A cannot be accused of frustrated
homicide because he knew that he did
not perform all the acts of execution
necessary to kill his victim.
A is guilty of attempted murder.
People v. Dagman
A shoots at B. B pretends to be dead. A
no longer shoots at B.
A is guilty of frustrated homicide
because he only stopped shooting
because he thought he had already
killed B.
US v. Eduave
A thinks he kills B and disposes of the
body in the bushes.
A is guilty of frustrated homicide
because he believed he had already
killed B.
o The belief of the accused need not always be
considered.

What ought to be considered is whether or not


all the acts of execution that would produce
the felony as a consequence were performed.
Would produce the felony as a consequence
o All the acts of execution performed by the offender
could have produced the felony as a consequence.
A tries to stab B but instead stabs the back of
the chair where B was sitting. Attempted
murder only because murder would not have
been produced as a consequence of the actions
performed by A.
o Does not pertain to the stopping of the felony from
happening because the performance of the acts of
execution were prevented.
Do not produce it
o If the intended felony was produced, the act is
consummated.
Independent of the will of the perpetrator
o If the crime is not produced because of the timely
intervention of a third party (after all acts of execution
have been committed).
o If the crime is stopped because of spontaneous
desistance (perpetrators own will), there is no
frustrated felony, because the 4th element is absent.
o Example:
Doctor poisons wife but immediately
administers to her an adequate antidote.
Not guilty of frustrated parricide because the
intervening cause that saved the wife was not
independent of the will of the perpetrator.
Doctor is only guilty of physical injuries since
the wife already ingested the poison before he
administered the antidote.


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C. Is There Frustration Due To Inadequate Or Ineffectual Means?
Such a frustration would be tantamount to an impossible crime

D. Distinguishing Frustrated Felony From Attempted Felony
In frustrated felony, the offender has reached the objective
phase (completion of all acts of execution) while in attempted
felony, the offender has not made it past the subjective phase
In the following cases, the stage of execution was held to be
frustrated, because the wound inflicted was mortal:
o People v. Honrada Accused stabbed the offended
party in the abdomen, penetrating the liver, and in the
chest.
o People v. Mercado Accused wounded the victim in
the left abdomen with a sharp-edged weapon which
was serious enough to have possibly caused death.
o People v. David Accused in firing his revolver at the
offended party hit him and perforating the lungs.
Victim was only saved by timely medical attention.
In the following cases, the stage of execution was held to be
attempted, because there was no wound inflicted or the
wound inflicted was not mortal:
o US v. Bien Accused threw the victim, who didnt
know how to swim, into deep water. Victim held on the
boat, and the accused tried to hit him with the oar.
Accused was prevented from striking the victim, and
hence there was only attempted homicide.
o People v. Kalalo Not having hit the offended part
despite firing four successive shots, the accused failed
to perform all acts of execution.
o People v. Domingo Two physicians testifying could
not agree on the seriousness of the wound. One of
them said the wounds were not serious enough to
produce death even if no medical assistance had been
given to the offended party.

People v. Somera where the head of the offended


party was merely grazed by the shot which hit him, the
wound being far from fatal.


E. Distinguishing Attempted Or Frustrated Felony From Impossible
Crime
In attempted or frustrated felony, the crime could have been
accomplished in impossible crime, the crime can never be
accomplished.
Attempted or frustrated felony are thwarted by external
reasons impossible crime is thwarted by internal reasons
such as the inherent impossibility of the crime or the
employment of inadequate or ineffectual means by the
offender.

VI. STAGE 3: Consummated Felony
A. Important Words And Phrases For Consummated Felony
All the elements necessary for its execution and
accomplishment are present.
o Every crime has its own elements which must all be
present to constitute a culpable violation of a precept
of law.

B. What Happens When Not All The Elements Of A Felony Are Proved?
Felony is not shown to have been consummated.
Felony is not shown to have been committed.
Another felony is shown to have been committed.
Examples
o Homicide not consummated without death.
o Theft not consummated if no intent to gain.
o Estafa not consummated if there is no deceit or
abuse of confidence proven.
Can instead be found guilty of attempted or
frustrated estafa.


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o

Robbery with violence not consummated if no intent


to gain.
Can instead be found guilty of grave coercion.
Forcible abduction not consummated if no element
of lewd designs is proved.
Can instead be found guilty of kidnapping and
serious illegal detention.


VII. How To Determine Between Attempted, Frustrated, And
Consummated
A. Nature Of Crime
Arson
o Attempted poured gasoline around the house but
got caught before he could strike a match.
o Frustrated poured gasoline around the house and lit
the fire but the house did not burn
o Consummated poured gasoline around the house
and lit the fire. The house is burning.

B. Elements Constituting The Felony
Theft
o Consummated when thief is able to get hold of object
even if he is not able to carry it away
US v. Adiao
A steals a belt and keeps it in his desk.
Belt is found in his desk shortly after.
Court ruled that the theft had been
consummated because A was already
in possession of the belt.
People v. Espiritu
Accused steal linen curtains and put
these items in the back of their truck.
Accused gets caught when they try to
pass a checkpoint.

Court rules they are guilty of


consummated theft.

Estafa
o The crime is consummated when the offended party is
actually damaged or prejudiced.
US v. Dominguez
A receives money from a sale which he
should give to the cashier. A puts the
money in his pocket with intent to
misappropriate the amount.
Court ruled that this is frustrated estafa
because estafa can only be
consummated when the offended
party has been damaged or prejudiced.


C. Manner Of Committing Crime
1. Formal crimes Consummated in one instant; no attempt.
o There are crimes like slander and false testimony that
are consummated by a single act. It is either
consummated or not.
2. Crimes Consummated By Mere Attempt
o Flight to enemys country a mere attempt is a
consummated felony.
o Corruption of minors a mere proposal to satisfy the
lust of another will consummate the offense.
3. Felony By Omission
o There is no attempted stage because in this kind of
felony, the offender does not execute acts.
4. Crimes Requiring The Two Or More Persons Is Consummated
By Mere Agreement
o Corruption of a public officer consummated if
agreement is reached; attempted if offer is rejected.
o Cases
People v. Diego Quin


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A gives B a bribe. B later returns the
bribe.
A is guilty of frustrated bribery because
all the acts of execution were done but
the end result was not attained
because the money was returned
US v. Te Tong
A gives B a bribe. B accepts bribe
because he will use it as evidence
against A later on.
A is guilty of frustrated bribery because
all the acts of execution were done but
the end result was not attained
because the money was returned
5. Material Crimes
o Crimes with 3 stages of execution
Attempted, frustrated, consummated
o Rape:
Consummated entry of the labia or lips of
the female organ without rupture of the hymen
or laceration of the vagina is generally held
sufficient to warrant conviction of the accused
for the consummation of rape
People v. Orita Perfect penetration
is not essential
Frustrated There is doubt as to whether
accused succeeded in penetrating the vagina.
Attempted The accused, on top of the
victim, firmly endeavored to have sexual
intercourse with the victim but the victim
managed to get away.
o Homicide
Consummated
People v. Sazon

A wounds B. A and B grapple


for the gun. C stabs B.
Though it was C who inflicted
the proximate cause of death,
A is liable because of the
existence of a conspiracy
between A and C.

Attempted
People v. Ramolete
o A shoots B but misses all the
vital organs.
o A is liable for attempted
homicide because all the acts
of execution were not done
(you have to mortally wound
your target in order to
complete all the acts of
execution).
Murder
Frustrated
People v. Mision
o A stabs B and C. B dies, C lives.
o A is liable for frustrated murder
in relation to C.


Frustrated theft
The Espiritu and Dino cases
o Both were claimed to be cases of frustrated theft
because they were unable to dispose freely of the
articles stolen
People v. Espiritu
Accused stole a truck in a compound
surrounded by a tall fence. Accused
was caught before he left compound


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People v. Dino
Court ruled that there was no
consummated theft because the truck
and van that were being stolen were
still within the compound
o Supreme court says that there is no crime of frustrated
theft and that the Espiritu and Dino cases should not be
adopted in this jurisdiction
Ability of the offender to freely dispose of the
property stolen is not a constitutive element of
the crime of theft.
Theft is produced when there is deprivation of
personal property due to its taking by one with
intent to gain.
It should be immaterial if the offender was able
to freely dispose of the property stolen since
the owner of the said property has already
been deprived.
The unlawful taking is deemed complete from
the moment the offender gains possession of
the thing, even if he has no opportunity to
dispose of the same.
People v. Del Rosario
o Accused entered the bodega through a hole in the floor
but were caught before they could put a sack of sugar
into the hole from whence they came.
o Accused liable for frustrated theft.
In robbery by the use of force upon things,
offender must enter the building and exit it
carrying the stolen goods.
In robbery with violence against or intimidation
of persons, the crime is consummated the
moment the offender gets hold of the thing

taken and/or is in a position to dispose of it


freely.

Attempted theft and Estafa
Attempted theft
o People v. De la Cruz
A tries to steal a jeep but he cannot do so
because there was an iron bar on the gearshift.
A is guilty of attempted theft because he was
unable to perform all the acts of execution.
Attempted estafa
o US v. Villanueva
A pretends to be of authority in order to collect
money from B. B does not pay him the money.
A is guilty of attempted estafa because he
began the acts of execution (pretending he was
an authority figure) but was not able to
complete it (because B did not give him the
money).

Frustrated Estafa
People v. Gutierrez
o Accused makes false representations in order to get
money from B. Accused is able to receive money from B
but is arrested before he can receive the full amount.
o All acts of execution were committed; frustrated
because of the intervention of the policeman.
People v. Castillo
o Accused is able to receive money but is immediately
arrested because the whole situation was a setup
meant to catch him in the act of estafa.

VIII. Element Of Intent To Kill When Inflicting Physical Injuries


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If there is intent to kill, offender could be liable for attempted


or frustrated parricide or murder.
o US v. Joven
Accused inflicts several wounds on the victim.
Accused utters until I can kill you.
Attempted homicide, not physical injuries,
because clear intent to kill can be established
o US v. Maghirang
Accused inflict wounds on shoulder and lips of
the victim using a bolo and then stops.
Not frustrated homicide but serious physical
injuries because there is no intent to kill.
o Mondragon v. People
A hits B. B retaliates by hitting him with a bolo.
A runs away.
A is liable for less serious physical injuries
because there was no intent to kill since he ran
away.
o People v. Malinao
A voluntarily leaves his victim after giving him a
thrashing.
Mere physical injuries and not murder because
there is no intent to kill that can be established.


IX. There Is No Attempted Or Frustrated Impossible Crime
In impossible crime, all the acts of execution were committed
therefore an attempt is impossible.
There is no frustrated impossible crime because the acts
performed by the offender are considered as constituting a
consummated crime.
The act was completely carried out, the result was just
inherently impossible.

Article 7. When light felonies are punishable

Light felonies are punishable only when they have been


consummated, with the exception of those committed against
persons or property.

POINTS

I. What Are Light Felonies?
Infractions of the law punished by arresto menor, a fine not
exceeding 200 pesos, or both (Article 9, par. 3).
Light Felonies punished by the Revised Penal Code:
o Slight physical injury (Article 266)
o Theft (Article 309, par. 7 & 8)
o Alteration of boundary marks (Article 313)
o Malicious mischief (Article 328, par.3; Art. 329, par.3)
o Intriguing against honor (Article 364)

II. General Rule: Punishable only when consummated unless
committed against persons or property
Light felonies product such light, insignificant moral and
material injuries that the public is satisfied with providing a
light penalty for their consummation.
If they are not consummated, the wrong done is so slight that
there is no need to penalize it.

III. Reasons For The Exception
Light felonies against persons or property presupposes moral
depravity of the offender.
For this reason, even attempted and frustrated light felonies
against persons or property is punishable.

IV. Examples
Light felony against persons
o Slight physical injuries and maltreatment (Article 266)
Light felony against property


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o

o
o

Theft by hunting, fishing, or gathering of forest or farm


products within a enclosed area where trespass is
prohibited and the value of items stolen is less than 5
pesos (Article 309, No. 7)
Theft of items valued at less than 5 pesos where the
offender was prompted by hunger, poverty, or the
difficulty of earning a livelihood (Article 309, No. 8)
Altering boundary marks (Article 313)
Malicious mischief where the damage less than 200
pesos or it cannot be estimated (Article 328, No.3)


Article 8. Conspiracy and proposal to commit felony
Conspiracy and proposal to commit felony are punishable only in the
cases in which the law specially provides a penalty therefore.

A conspiracy exists when two or more persons come to an agreement
concerning the commission of a felony and decide to commit it

There is proposal when the person who has decide to commit a felony
proposes its execution to some other person or persons

POINTS

I. Important Words And Phrases
Conspiracy and proposal to commit felony
o Two different things: (1) conspiracy & (2) felony
Only in the cases in which the law specially provides a penalty
therefore
o There must be a specific provision in the Revised Penal
Code punishing a specific instance of conspiracy or
proposal.
Treason (Article 115)
Rebellion (Article 136)
Sedition (Article 141)


II. Reason For The Rule
Conspiracy and proposal to commit a crime are only
preparatory acts, and the law regards them as innocent or at
least permissible except in rare and exceptional cases.
As long as the conspirators do not perform overt acts in
furtherance of their malevolent designs, the sovereignty of the
state is not outraged and the tranquility of the public remains
undisturbed.

III. When A Felony Is Committed, The Existence Of A Conspiracy
Assumes Pivotal Importance In Determining Who Is Criminally Liable.

IV. Treason, Rebellion, Coup Detat, Insurrection, Sedition Must
Actually Not Be Committed
If they are committed, the charge is no longer proposal to or
conspiracy to commit but rather the act itself.
o Ex:
If A commits treason, he is guilty of treason and
not conspiracy or proposal to commit treason
because the act of treason has already been
committed.
A cannot be charged with treason and
conspiracy to commit treason at the same
time.
Though it must be said that the establishment of a conspiracy
could be used to see who else is criminally liable.

V. Conspiracy
A. Examples Of Conspiracy As A Felony And Conspiracy As A Manner
Of Incurring Criminal Liability
A and B decide to rise publicly and take arms against the
government with the help of their followers.


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If they carry out their plan, A and B are guilty of
rebellion.
o If they do not carry out their plan, A and B are guilty of
conspiracy to commit rebellion.
A, B, and C conspire to kill D.
o If they do not carry out their plan, they are not
criminally liable because conspiracy to commit murder
is not punishable by law.
o If they carry out their plan, they are all liable for
murder even if A was just a lookout or B was the only
who really harmed D.
The fact that there was a conspiracy between
A, B, and C is enough grounds to make all of
them criminally liable for the murder of D.
o


B. Article 186 Of The Revised Penal Code Punishing Conspiracy
Monopolies and combinations in restraint of trade.
o Penalty is prision correccional in its minimum period or
a fine ranging from 200 to 6,000 pesos, or both.
Any person who shall enter into any contract or
agreement or shall take part in any conspiracy
or combination in the form of a trust or
otherwise, in restraint of trade or commerce or
to prevent by artificial means free competition
in the market.
Any person who, being a manufacturer,
producer, shall combine, conspire or agree with
any person for the purpose of making
transactions prejudicial to lawful commerce, or
of increasing the market price of any such
merchandise.

C. Requisites Of Conspiracy
1. Two or more persons came to an agreement

Must be shown that defendant received or accepted


the agreement
2. Agreement concerned the commission of a felony
3. Execution of the felony be decided upon
o


D. Direct Proof Is Not Essential To Establish Conspiracy
Existence of conspiracy can be inferred from the collective acts
of the accused before, during, and after the commission of the
crime
o Not necessary to show that all conspirators actually hit
and killed the victim

E. Indications Of Conspiracy
When the defendants by their acts aimed at the same object,
one performing one part and the other performing the other so
as to complete it, with a view to the attainment of the same
object, and their acts, though independent, were in fact
concerted and cooperative, indicating closeness of personal
association, concerted action and concurrence of sentiments,
the court will be justified in concluding that said defendants
were engaged in a conspiracy.
o At the time of the aggression, all of them acted in
concert, each doing his part to fulfill their common
design to kill the victim, and although only one of them
may have actually stabbed the victim, the act of that
one is deemed to be the act of all.
Acts of the defendants must show a common design.
o Neither joint nor simultaneous action is per se
sufficient proof of conspiracy.
o Obedience to command does not necessarily show
concert of design, for at any rate it is the acts of the
conspirators that show their common design.


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Although defendants may be relatives and had acted
with some degree of simultaneity in attacking their
victim, this fact alone does not prove conspiracy.
People v. Pugay
o A and B are friends. A pours gasoline over B for fun. C
sets B on fire.
o Where there is nothing in the records showing that
there was previous conspiracy or unity of criminal
purpose between A and C immediately before the
commission of the crime, no animosity between A and
B, and it is clear that A just wanted to have fun with B,
there is no conspiracy.
o A is liable only for the act he committed, not for the act
of C.
o


F. Quantum Of Proof Required To Establish Conspiracy
Elements of conspiracy must be proven beyond reasonable
doubt.
o Evidence of actual cooperation rather than mere
cognizance or approval of an illegal act is required.
A conspiracy must be established by positive and conclusive
evidence.
o Conspiracy must be shown to exist as clearly and
convincingly as the commission of crime itself.
o Mere presence of a person at the scene of the crime
does not make him a conspirator for conspiracy
transcends companionship.
o People v. Comadre
Mere act of running away with the accused
does not automatically lead to a conspiracy

VI. Proposal
A. The Rpc Specially Provides A Penalty For Mere Proposal In Article
115 And 136

Article 115
o Proposal to commit treason prison correctional and
a fine not exceeding 5,000 pesos
Article 136
o Proposal to commit coup detat prision mayor in its
minimum period and a find not exceeding 8,000 pesos
o Proposal to commit rebellion or insurrection prision
correctional in its medium period and a fine not
exceeding 2,000 pesos
The felony must actually not be committed or else it would not count
as a mere proposal.

B. Requisites Of A Proposal
1. Person has decided to commit a felony.
2. Person proposes the execution of that felony to others.

C. Situations When There Is No Criminal Proposal
Person who proposes the felony is not determined to commit
the felony.
o A wants to overthrow the government but is afraid to
do it. A suggests the overthrow of the government to
desperate people who would do it with the slightest
provocation. A is not liable for proposal to commit
rebellion because A has not decided to commit it.
There is no decided, concrete, and formal proposal.
o A mere suggestion to commit rebellion does not count
as a formal proposal.
It is not the execution of a felony that is proposed.
o A wants to overthrow the government. A goes around
the country with his pals to convince people of the
need to have a new government.
Going around the country trying to convince
people of the need for a new government is


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not a crime therefore the proposal of it incurs


no criminal liability.
It can however be considered a preparatory act
for the commission of rebellion (still does not
incur criminal liability).


D. What If The Proponents Of The Rebellion Desist Before Rebellion Is
Committed?
Once a proposal to commit rebellion is made by the proponent
to another person, the crime of proposal to commit rebellion is
consummated and the desistance of the proponent cannot
legally exempt him from criminal liability
Similarly, the law does not require that the proposal be
accepted by whoever it was proposed to.
o If it is accepted, it would become conspiracy and not
proposal because there was agreement

E. Proposal As An Overt Act
One who offers money to a public officer but is rejected is liable
for attempted bribery

VII. Reasons Why Proposal And Conspiracy Are Punished
The crimes in which conspiracy and proposal are punishable are
crimes against the security of the state or economic security.
o Treason against external security.
o Coup detat, rebellion, sedition against internal
security,
o Monopolies and combinations in restraint of trade
against economic security,
If the perpetrator succeeds in these crimes against the external
and internal security of the state, they would obtain power and
therefore impunity for their crimes.
o If A overthrows the government successfully, A will
likely not be punished for rebellion.


Article 9. Grave felonies, less grave felonies, and light felonies
Grave felonies are those to which the law attaches the capital
punishment or penalties which in any of their periods are afflictive, in
accordance with article 25 of this code.

Less grave felonies are those which the law punishes with penalties
which in their maximum period are correctional, in accordance with
the above mentioned article.

Light felonies are those infractions of the law for the commission of
which the penalty of arresto menor or a fine not exceeding 200 pesos,
or both, is provided.

POINTS

I. Important Words And Phrases
Capital punishment
o Death penalty
Penalties which in any of their periods are afflictive
o When the penalty prescribed includes an afflictive
penalty.
A felony punishable by prision correccional to
prision mayor is a grave felony because prision
mayor is afflictive.
o If the penalty prescribed is composed of two or more
periods corresponding to different divisible penalties,
the higher or maximum period must be that of an
afflictive penalty.
A felony punishable by prision correccional (in
its maximum period) to prision mayor (in its
minimum period) is a grave felony because the
minimum period of prision mayor is considered
afflictive.


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If both penalties prescribed are afflictive, it is a grave
offense.
Penalties that are afflictive: Reclusion
perpetua, reclusion temporal, perpetual or
temporary absolute disqualification, perpetual
or temporary special disqualification, prision
mayor
Penalties which in their maximum period are correccional
o When the penalty prescribed includes a correctional
penalty.
A felony punishable by arresto menor to
destierro is a less grave felony because
destierro is a correctional penalty.
o When the penalty prescribed is composed of two or
more periods corresponding to different divisible
penalties, the higher or maximum period must be that
of a correctional penalty.
A felony punished by arresto menor (in its
maximum period) to destierro (in its minimum
period) is a less grave felony because the
higher is a period of a correctional felony.
o If both penalties prescribed are correctional, it is a
grave offense.
Penalties that are correctional: Prision
correccional, arresto mayor, suspension,
destierro.
The penalty of arresto menor and a fine not exceeding 200
pesos, or both is provided
o Fines
200 pesos or less light felony
201 pesos to 6,000 pesos less grave felony
6,001 pesos and above afflictive felony
o Article 9 should take precedence over Article 26
because the former classifies felonies according to their
o

gravity while the other does it according to amount of


money for fines.
Arresto menor and public censure are also penalties for
light felonies


Article 10. Offenses not subject to the provisions of this Code.
Offenses, which are or in the future may be punishable under special
laws are not subject to the provisions of this code. This code shall be
supplementary to such laws, unless the latter should specially provide
the contrary.

POINTS

I. Meaning Of Article 10
Composed of 2 clauses
o First clause provides that the offenses under special
laws are not subject to the provisions of this code.
Special penal laws prevail over general ones.
o Second clause makes the Revised Penal Code
supplementary to the special laws unless the special
laws say otherwise.

II. Important Words And Phrases
Special laws
o A penal law which punishes acts not punished in the
Revised Penal Code.
Enacted by the legislative
Not a law which amends the Revised Penal
Code
Usually follows the form of American penal law
Supplementary
o The Revised Penal Code supplies what is lacking in the
special laws unless the latter provides for the contrary
Examples


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Article 39 of the Revised Penal Code


o Imprisonment in case person
convicted cannot pay fine
Article 45 of the Revised Penal Code
o Confiscation of instruments
used in the commission of the
crime


III. Provisions Of The Revised Penal Code On Penalties Cannot Be
Applied To Offenses Punishable Under Special Laws
Special laws do not provide a scale of penalties where a given
penalty can be lowered by one or two degrees.
o Example:
Mitigating circumstances and aggravating
circumstances cannot affect the penalties in
the special laws unless expressly provided by
said special law.
People v. Noble
Even when accused pleaded guilty,
Article 13 of the Revised Penal Code on
mitigating circumstances did not
automatically take effect .
Special laws use the term imprisonment rather than the
other terms ascribed to the penalties found in the Revised
Penal Code.
Hence, the penalty for illegal possession of firearms under the
special laws is imprisonment and not prision correccional
because the latter is peculiar to offenses punished in the
Revised Penal Code.

IV. If The Special Laws Adopt The Penalties Found In The Revised
Penal Code, The Rules For Graduating Penalties By Degrees Can Be
Applied

Act 4103 later amended under RA 4203 (Indeterminate


Sentence Law)
o If a penalty found in the Revised Penal Code is imposed
on an offense under special laws, the rules of the
Revised Penal Code governing said penalty will be
applied
Example
If the special law imposes the penalty
of arresto mayor, the articles in the
Revised Penal Code that deal with
arresto mayor shall be applicable


V. Article 6 Of The Revised Penal Code (Attempted, Frustrated,
Consummated) Cannot Be Applied To Offenses Punished By Special
Laws
Special laws are mala prohibita which means you either commit
them or you dont.
Examples
o Special law prohibiting interest in municipal contracts
by councilors.
US v. Basa
Acquitted because a mere attempt is
not punishable by the special law.
o Remember that under the
Revised Penal Code Article 6,
attempts are punishable.
Navarra v. People
Convicted because the deal was
approved by the municipal board thus
the offense was committed.

VI. Special Law Has To Fix Penalties For Attempted And Frustrated
Crime Before They Can Be Punished
Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine legit.


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The special law does not provide for a penalty one or two
degrees lower than that provided for that consummated stage.
If the special law covers the mere attempt to commit the crime
defined by it, then the mere attempt is punishable.
o Law prohibiting the any attempt to export gold.
Had this act been consummated, the exporter
would already have been outside our
jurisdiction thus he is able to get away with the
offense.


VII. Article 10 Is Not Applicable To Punish An Accomplice Under The
Special Law
Unless expressly provided, the penalty imposed is clearly
intended only for the one committing the offense.
o People v. Padaong (dissenting opinion)
If the special law does not prescribe a penalty
for accomplices, it would be a legal
impossibility to determine what their penalty
would be.

VIII. Revised Penal Code Supplementary To Special Laws
People v. Moreno
o Accused was convicted of homicide through reckless
imprudence and violation the Motor Vehicle Law.
Motor Vehicle Law is silent about indemnity to
heirs of the deceased (art. 100) and subsidiary
imprisonment in case of insolvency (art. 39).
Court rules that Article 39 and Article 100 can
be applied as supplementary to the Motor
Vehicle Law.
People v. Lardizabal
o Article 39 of the Revised Penal Code was applied if and
when the person convicted could not pay the offended
party the indemnity that was awarded to the latter.


IX. Example Of Article 12 Par. 3 Of The Revised Penal Code Being
Applied In A Special Law
People v. Navarro
o 13 year old girl sells cocoa for 11 cents more than the
price fixed by government
Article 12 par. 3 was used as a basis
Prosecution failed to show that the
accused acted with discernment
o Accused could not have been
able to act with intelligence
because of her age
o For crimes that are mala
prohibita, offense must be
done voluntarily
o Accused could not have been
able to act voluntarily because
of lack of intelligence

X. Suppletory Application Of The Revised Penal Code
Only applies if the provisions of the special law is silent on the
matter
o Subsidiary Penalty (Article 39) imprisonment if
cannot pay fine.
o Civil Liability (Article 100) every person criminally
liable for a felony is also civilly liable.
o Rules on service of sentence (Article 70).
o Definitions on Principals, Accomplices, Accessories
(Article 17-19) was used when the special laws cited
but did not on their own provide a definition for
principals, accomplices, and accessories.
o Principle of conspiracy (Article 8) was used when the
special laws cited but did not on their own provide a
definition for conspiracy.


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XI. Revised Penal Code Is Not Suppletory When The Penalties Under
The Special Law Are Different From Those Under The Revised Penal
Code
People v. Panida
o Court did not apply the provisions of the Revised Penal
Code suppletorily because the anti-carnapping law
provides for its own penalties which are distinct and
without reference to the Revised Penal Code.

XII. Special Laws Amending The Revised Penal Code Are Subject To Its
Provisions
If the special law is an amendment of a certain article in the
Revised Penal Code, that special law will necessarily be covered
by relevant provisions in the Revised Penal Code.
o Example:
PD 533 amends the provision of the Revised
Penal Code governing theft of large cattle.
Since the special law (PD 533) is an amendment
of an existing provision in the Revised Penal
Code, all the other provisions of the Revised
Penal Code such as mitigating circumstances,
etc. may be applied.


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CHAPTER 2: JUSTIFYING CIRCUMSTANCES AND


CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH EXEMPT FROM CRIMINAL
LIABILITY

I. Circumstances Affecting Criminal Liability
Justifying circumstances
Exempting circumstances and other absolutory causes
Mitigating circumstances
Aggravating circumstances
Alternative circumstances

Ii. Imputability And Responsibility
Imputability act was committed freely and consciously and
may be put down to the doer as his very own
Responsibility obligation of suffering the consequences of
the crime
While Imputability implies that a deed may be imputed to a
person, responsibility implies that the person must take the
consequence of such a deed

Iii. Guilt
Guilt is an element of responsibility
o A man cannot be made to answer for the consequences
of his crime unless he is guilty
Presumption of innocence

Iv. Justifying Circumstances
Definition
o When the act of a person is said to be in accordance
with the law so that such person is deemed not to
have transgressed the law
Person is therefore free from both criminal and
civil liability

Civil liability can however be applied if


the person benefitted from the
justified act

Basis
o Article 11 expressly states the following do not incur
criminal liability


Article 11.
The following do not incur criminal liability:
1. Anyone who acts in defense of his person or rights, provided
that the following circumstances concur:
First, unlawful aggression;
Second, reasonable necessity of the means employed
to prevent or repel it;
Third, lack of sufficient provocation on the part of the
person defending himself
2. Anyone who acts in defense of the person or rights of his
spouse, ascendants, descendants, or legitimate, natural, or
adopted brothers or sisters, or of his relatives by affinity in
the same degrees, and those by consanguinity within the
fourth civil degree, provided that the first and second
requisites prescribed in the next preceding circumstance are
present, and the further requisite, in case the provocation was
given by the person attacked, that the one making defense
had no part therein.
3. Anyone who acts in defense of the person or rights of a
stranger provided that the first and second requisites
mentioned in the first circumstance of this article are present
and that the person defending be not induced by revenge,
resentment, or other evil motive.
4. Any person who, in order to avoid an evil or injury, does an
act which causes damage to another, provided that the
following requisites are present:
First, that the evil sought to be avoided actually exists;


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Second, that the injury feared be greater than that
done to avoid it;
Third, that there be no other practical and less
harmful means of preventing it
5. Any person who acts in the fulfillment of a duty or in the
lawful exercise of a right or office.
6. Any person who acts in obedience to an order issued by a
superior for some lawful purpose.

POINTS

I. Main Ideas
The persons cited in Article 11 are not criminals because their
acts do not incur any criminal liability
The burden of proof lies with the accused
o Accused must prove that he falls under one of the
categories mentioned in Article 11

PAR. 1: SELF-DEFENSE
Covered by the first paragraph of Article 11
Self defense must be proved with certainty by sufficient,
satisfactory and convincing evidence that excludes any vestige
of criminal aggression on the part of the person invoking it
The plea of self defense cannot be justifiably entertained where
it is not only uncorroborated by any separate competent
evidence but in itself is extremely doubtful

I. Rights Included In Self-Defense
Aside from the right to life on which rests the legitimate
defense of our person, we have the right to property acquired
by us, and the right to honor which is not the lease prized of
mans patrimony

Ii. Reason Why Penal Law Makes Self-Defense Lawful

It is lawful because it would be quite impossible for the state in


all cases to prevent aggression upon its citizens (and even
foreigners) and offer protection to the person unjustly
attacked.
It cannot be conceived that people should succumb to unlawful
aggression without offering any resistance
The idea of self preservation


III. Elements Of Self-Defense
1. Unlawful aggression
2. Reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or
repel it.
3. Lack of sufficient provocation on the part of the person
defending himself

IV. FIRST ELEMENT: Unlawful Aggression
A. Meaning Of Unlawful Aggression
Unlawful aggression is equivalent to assault or at least
threatened assault of an immediate or imminent kind.
o There is unlawful aggression when the peril to ones
life, limb, or right is either actual or imminent.
o There must be an actually physical assault upon a
person, or at least a threat to inflict real injury.
o In case of threat, the same must be offensive and
positively strong, showing the wrongful intent to cause
an injury.
o When there is no peril to ones life, limb or right, there
is no unlawful aggression.
o Cases
People v. Flores
The act of the deceased in preventing
the accused from inflicting a retaliatory
blow is not unlawful aggression
US v. Padilla


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In the spirit of fun, A (who is a soldier)
tells B (who is also a soldier) that the
latter does not have a singing voice.
With the same spirit of fun, B puts
seizes A by the throat. A ends up killing
B using a rifle.
There is no unlawful aggression in this
case of two companions in arms
quartered in the same barracks
People v. Yncierto
A kills B while trying to get the latter to
let go of his knife in order to avoid
bloodshed.
Since there was no unlawful aggression
on the part of B, A is not justified in
killing B.


B. Unlawful Aggression Is An Indispensable Requisite
There can be no self-defense, complete or incomplete, unless
the victim has committed an unlawful aggression against the
person defending himself.
For the right of defense to exist, it is necessary that we be
assaulted or that we be attacked, or at least that we be
threatened with an attack in an immediate and imminent
manner.
If there is no unlawful aggression, there is nothing to prevent or
repel.
The unlawful aggression must have come from the person who
was either injured or killed.

C. Aggression Must Be Unlawful
Two kinds of aggression:
o Unlawful see Meaning of unlawful

Lawful The fulfillment of a duty or the exercise of a


right in a more or less violent manner is an aggression,
but it is lawful.
People v. Gayrama
o Facts: Policeman throws stones at an escaping
offender.
o Ruling: The aggression is not unlawful. The fulfillment
of a duty or the exercise of a right in a more or less
violent manner is an aggression that is lawful.
Valcorza v. People
o Facts: Policeman fires warning shots in the air hoping
that the offenders would stop escaping. Offenders do
not stop escaping and so the policeman shoots directly
at the offenders.
o Ruling: The aggression is not unlawful. The fulfillment
of a duty or the exercise of a right in a more or less
violent manner is an aggression that is lawful
A public officer exceeding his authority may become an
unlawful aggressor
o People v. Hernandez
Sheriff exceeds his authority and takes the
personal property of a debtor.
The debtor has every right to repel the
unlawful aggression of the Sheriff.
o


D. Peril To Ones Life And Limb
Peril to ones life: must be ACTUAL and IMMINENT.
o Actual peril the danger must be present, that is,
actually in existence.
US v. Jose Laurel
Facts: A kisses Bs sweetheart and runs
away. At a later date, B confronts A. B
eventually hits A with a cane. After


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being hit with the cane, A grabs hold of


a pocket knife and stabs B.
Ruling: A was justified because he
showed all three requisites for self
defense.
o Imminent the danger is on the point of happening.
Not necessary that the attack already begins for it may
thus be too late to prevent it.
People v. Cabungcal
Facts: A and B are on a boat with many
people. B decides to shake the boat
and A warns him not to do it. B
continues to shake the boat and A hits
him with an oar that causes him to go
overboard. B manages to cling to the
side of the boat and persists in
attempting to make the boat shake
vehemently. A hits him again with an
oar and this time B dies from the blow
Ruling: A was justified because B
placed everyone on the boat in
imminent danger with his actions
Peril to ones limb When a person is attacked, he is in
imminent danger of death or bodily harm.
o Peril to ones limbs includes peril to the safety of ones
person from physical injuries.
o An attack with fist blows can therefore count as
unlawful aggression.


E. What Constitutes Unlawful Aggression
If there is no imminent and real danger to the life or limb of the
accused, there is no unlawful aggression
o People v. Riduca

Facts: A and B are in a kalesa. A tries to touch


Bs gun. As a result, B shoots A.
Ruling: B is not justified in shooting A because
there was no imminent and real danger to the
life or limb of B.
There must be actual physical force or actual use of a weapon
o Insults alone cannot constitute unlawful aggression (US
v. Carrero).
o A light push on the head with a hand or a mere push
not followed by other acts cannot constitute unlawful
aggression (People v. Yuman).
o A foot-kick greeting among friends does not constitute
unlawful aggression (People v. Roxas).
Aggression that is real and expected
o Aggression must be real and not imaginary
o People v. De la Cruz
Fats: A dislikes B. A goes to the house of B
armed with a gun and sees the latter holding a
knife. A shoots B to death.
Ruling: There is no unlawful aggression in this
case because the aggression was not real since
B was merely holding a knife.
Aggression that is expected is real
o The expected aggression must be imminent
o US v. Batungbacal
When A chases B with the intent to harm him,
there is already aggression even if A has not yet
raised his hand to discharge a blow.
Mere belief of an impending attack is not sufficient.
o Mere belief of an attack unsupported by evidence does
not constitute unlawful aggression.
o Belief of the accused may be considered in
determining the existence of unlawful aggression
Lloyds report as cited in US v. Ah Chong


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If A sees B running towards him with a
gun, and A subsequently fears for his
safety and hits B with a club when the
former gets closer to him, it would be
immaterial that the gun held by B had
fake bullets and thus A had every right
to defend himself in this situation.
People v. Boral
There is self-defense even if the
aggressor used a toy pistol provided
that the accused believed it was a real
gun.
People v. Calip
An officer forcibly pushing picketers
around in order to let company trucks
enter the compound cannot be
considered as unlawful aggression.
An intimidating or threatening attitude does not constitute
unlawful aggression.
o A mere threatening or intimidating attitude, not
preceded by an outward and material aggression, is not
unlawful aggression.
o It is required that the act be offensive and positively
strong, showing the wrongful intent of the aggressor to
cause an injury for there to be unlawful aggression.
o US v. Guy-sayco
Facts: Accused enters the house of the
deceased where accuseds husband is.
Deceased is enraged and holding a knife.
Accused lunges for the knife held by the
deceased and a struggle ensues. Accused ends
up killing the deceased.
Ruling: Accused was not acting in self defense
because even if the deceased was holding a

knife, a mere threatening or intimidating


attitude does not constitute unlawful
aggression.
o Examples of threats to inflict real injury
When threatening attitude of the aggressor is
offensive and positively strong, manifesting
intent to cause an injury
When one aims a pistol at another with the
intention of shooting the latter
When one, through his motions, indicates his
purpose to commit an assault with a weapon
Opening a knife and motioning as if to make an
attack
BUT when intent to attack is manifested, picking up a weapon
is sufficient unlawful aggression
A slap on the face is considered unlawful aggression because
o The face represents a persons dignity therefore
slapping it is a serious personal attack.


F. Retaliation Does Not Amount To Self-Defense
Retaliation is not self-defense.
Retaliation is not a justifying circumstance
Retaliation is done after the aggression has ended.
o The aggression has already ceased thus the imminent
and real danger to the life or limb of the accused has
also ceased
In order to justify homicide on the ground of self defense, it is
essential that the killing of the deceased by the defendant be
simultaneous with the attack made by the deceased, or at least
both acts succeeded each other without appreciable interval of
time
o People v. Ferrer


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Facts: A has a gun. A is disarmed by B. After


disarming A, B proceeds to grab a knife and
stab him in the abdomen.
Ruling: B was acting in retaliation and not selfdefense because the imminent and real danger
to Bs life ended when A was successfully
disarmed.


G. Source Of Unlawful Aggression
Unlawful aggression must have come from the person who
attacked the accused.
o If the unlawful aggression came from the accused, the
accused could not have been acting in self-defense.
Improbability of the deceased being the aggressor belies the
claim of self-defense.
o People v. Diaz
Fact: Accused is armed with a gun and a bolo.
Deceased had nothing but a pig, which he
refused to give up.
Ruling: It is improbable that the deceased
would have began assaulting the accused given
the situation.
o People v. Ardisa
Fact: Deceased is a 55 year old man with ulcer
who had already lost his right hand in the
conflict with the accused.
Ruling: It is hard to believe that the deceased
would have continued attacking the accused
given the circumstances
When the aggressor flees, unlawful aggression no longer exists
o When the unlawful aggression no longer exists because
the aggressor runs away, the one defending no longer
has a right to wound or kill the aggressor
o People v. Alconga

Facts: B provokes A and they fight. B runs away


and A pursues him. A catches up to B and kills
him.
Ruling: Court rules that A did not kill B out of
self defense because B had ceased his unlawful
aggression
o People v. Del Rosario
Facts: A shoots at B. A runs out of bullets and
flees. B pursues him and inflicts several wounds
on him.
Ruling: B was not acting in self defense because
A was fleeing and had ceased his unlawful
aggression.
o BUT if it is clear that the aggressor merely retreats to
take a more advantageous situation, the unlawful
aggression is still considered continuing and the one
defending himself has the right to pursue and disable
to aggressor.
How to determine the unlawful aggressor
o US v. Laurel
In the absence of direct evidence to determine
who provoked the conflict, it shall be presumed
that:
In the nature of the order of things, the person
who was deeply offended by the insult was the
one who believed he had a right to demand
explanation of the perpetrator of that insult
and the one who struck the first blow when he
was not satisfied with the explanation
o People v. Berio
The accused, not the deceased, had a greater
motive for committing the crime


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H. Nature, Character, Location, And Extent Of Wound Of The Accused
Allegedly Inflicted By The Injured Party May Belie Claim Of SelfDefense
The wound inflicted may be indicative of whether or not the
accused acted in self-defense.
Cases
o People v. Mediavilla
Facts: Accused shows a small scar on his head.
Ruling: Court says who would not wound
himself slightly in order to escape the penalty
of reclusion temporal prescribed for the crime
of homicide?
o People v. Batas
Facts: Accused stabs the victims 21 times.
Ruling: 21 stabs shows more than just a desire
to defend ones self.
o People v. Labis
Facts: The wounds inflicted are inconsistent
with reality.
Ruling: The victims wounds had a right-to-left
direction and could not have been inflicted by a
right-handed person in front of the victim with
a two-feet long bolo.

I. No Unlawful Aggression When There Is Agreement To Fight
No unlawful aggression in concerted (mutually agreed) fight
o People v. Marasigan
Facts: A and B agreed to fight. A and B
purchase knives. A tells B that he no longer
wants to fight but B does not mind his
protestations and instead lunges at A with a
knife. A subsequently manages to kill B.
Ruling: There was no unlawful aggression in
this instance because both parties agreed to

fight thus the aggression was reciprocal and


legitimate as between two contending parties.
o People v. Monteroso
Facts: Accused is chased by deceased. Accused
reaches his house, picks up a weapon, taunts
the deceased, and then proceeds to attack and
kill him.
Ruling: There was no unlawful aggression in
this instance because the accused, after arming
himself, decided to fight.
The challenge to fight must have been accepted
o If the accused does not agree to fight, there is unlawful
aggression
Logic behind the rule on agreed fights
o There can be no unlawful aggression in an agreed fight
because aggression is necessarily an incident in a fight
because it is bound to arise from any of the
combatants.
o There can be no fight without aggression.
Aggression (in relation to an expected fight) which is ahead
of the stipulated time and place is unlawful
o If A agrees to fight B at a specified time and place,
A is guilty of unlawful aggression if he attacks B
anywhere or any time other than those specified in
their agreement.
o This is because B is only expected to be ready to fight at
and during the agreed place and time.
Anyone who voluntarily joins a fight cannot claim they were
acting in self-defense


J. Stand ground when in the right
The law does not require people to retreat when an assailant is
rapidly advancing upon them


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o

The reason for this is because those who flee incur the
risk of getting attacked from behind
Better to stand your ground and defend
yourself than run away


K. When The Accused Declines To Give Any Statement To The Police
When He Surrenders, His Acts Are Inconsistent With The Plea Of Self
Defense
People v. Manansala
o A protestation of innocence or justification is the logical
and spontaneous reaction of a man who finds himself
in such an unculpatory predicament as that in which
the policemen came upon him still clutching the death
weapon and his victim dying before him.
People v. De la Cruz
o The accused did not act in self defense because if he
had, he would have reported it to the police whom he
passed as he fled from the scene of the incident

L. Physical Fact May Determine Whether The Accused Acted In SelfDefense
People v. Dorico
o Fact: Accused said that deceased was stabbed as he
lunged forward for the bolo accused was holding.
o Ruling: The court did not believe him because the
evidence showed that the deceased was stabbed from
the back.
People v. Perez
o Ruling: Accused did not act in self-defense because the
deceased was shot 13 times despite his gun still being
tucked inside his waistband. Deceased was defenseless
when shot

M. Unlawful Aggression In Defense Of Other Rights

Attempt to rape a woman (defense of right to chastity)


o People v. De la Cruz
Embracing a woman, fondling her, and
throwing her to the ground with intent to rape
her would constitute an attack upon her honor
and therefore it is considered unlawful
aggression
o People v. Jaurigue
Facts: Deceased puts his hand on the upper
thigh of accused. Accused subsequently stabs
him with a knife.
Ruling. Accused acted in self-defense. Placing
of hand by a man on the womans upper thigh
is considered unlawful aggression.
o People v. Luague
An attempt to rape a woman constitutes an
aggression sufficient to put her in a state of
legitimate defense.
The woman thus imperiled may kill her
offender if that is the only means left for her to
protect her honor from so grave an outrage.
Defense of property
o People v. Apolinar
Facts: Accused is holding a shotgun. Accused
sees the deceased carrying a bundle over his
shoulder and assumes that the deceased was
stealing the accuseds palay. Accused issues
warning shots before subsequently killing the
deceased.
Ruling: The right to life is more important than
the right to property. Thus, the accused could
not have been justified in killing the deceased
because the latter did not make any attempt to
attack the former.


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There must be an attack by the person stealing the
property on the person defending it in order for the
shooting of the deceased to have been warranted.
o Use of force to protect property
The owner or lawful possessor of a thing has
the right to exclude any person from the
enjoyment and disposal thereof.
For this reason, he may use such force as may
be reasonably necessary to repel or prevent an
actual or threatened unlawful physical invasion
or usurpation of his property.
US v. Merced
Facts: Husband walks in on accused
having an affair with his wife. Husband
assaults accused but accused manages
to kill husband. Accused claims selfdefense.
Ruling: Self-defense is not applicable in
this case because the husband was
merely defending his honor and rights
therefore it was not unlawful
aggression. Husband would not have
been guilty of unlawful aggression had
he killed both the accused and his wife
after catching them in bed
Defense of home
o People v. Mirabiles
Violent entry of one into anthers home while
holding a bolo warrants unlawful aggression.
Owner of home does not need to wait for a
blow before he can start acting to prevent or
repel the one who entered his home
o People v. Salatan
o

Accused assaults a robber who enters the


house of the accused in the darkness.
Even if accused did not see the robber with a
weapon, he is still well within his rights to
exercise self defense because the entry of the
robber into his home constitutes unlawful
aggression.


V. SECOND REQUISITE: Reasonable Necessity Of The Means Employed
To Prevent Or Repel It
Presupposes the existence of unlawful aggression which is
either imminent or actual
o If there is unlawful aggression, there is a need to
prevent or repel it because we are either in actual or
imminent danger
US v. Batungbacal
The law protects not only the person
who repel aggression but also the
person who tries to prevent an
aggression that is expected.
This requisite of self-defense entails necessity.
o There be a necessity of the course of action taken by
the person making a defense.
o There be a necessity of the means used.
o The necessity to take a course of action and to use a
means of defense
US v. Molina
The person attacked is not duty bound
to expose himself to be wounded or
killed.
While the danger to his person or life subsists,
he has a perfect and indisputable right to repel
such danger by wounding his adversary, and if


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necessary, to disable him completely so that he


may not continue his assault.
Either or both the course of action taken and the means used
must be reasonable.
o The reasonableness of the necessity depends upon the
circumstances


A. Necessity Of The Course Of Action Taken
In emergencies where the person or life of another is imperiled,
human nature does not act upon processes of formal reason
but in obedience to the instinct of self-preservation
o People v. Ocana
Fact: Accused is attacked by deceased while
the former is unarmed. Accused manages to
find a lead pipe and strikes the deceased in a
vital part of the body. Deceased is
subsequently killed.
Ruling: Accused acted reasonably given the
circumstances. There was no time for Accused
to aim for a less vital part of the body because
his life was in danger
There is no necessity when there is no unlawful aggression
o People v. Masangkay
After the accused disarmed the deceased, he
was no longer acting reasonably in self-defense
when he stabbed and killed him.
o People v. Narvaez
Facts: Deceased is chiseling the walls of the
house of the accused. Accused gets a shotgun
and kills the deceased.
Ruling: The means used was not reasonable
because his resistance was disproportionate to
the attack.
Context of the assault matters

o US v. Ah Chong
When the aggressor is disarmed
o If aggressor when disarmed still shows intent to reclaim
the weapon, the aggressor is still showing aggression
(People v. Datinguinoo), but if after being disarmed, the
aggressor shows a refusal to continue fighting, any
attack on the aggressor by the defendant is no longer
justified (People v. Alviar).
When only minor physical injuries are inflicted after the
unlawful aggression has ceased to exist, there is still selfdefense if mortal wounds were inflicted at the time the
requisites of self-defense were present.
o People v. Del Pilar
Minor wounds inflicted after the aggression
ceased to exist are permitted as long as the
major wounds that led to the death of the
aggressor took place when the aggression had
not yet ceased.
This is because the proximate cause of death
would be the major wounds and not the minor
wounds.
This ruling cannot be applied if the defendant
inflicts a mortal would on the aggressor after
the unlawful aggression has ceased.
Person defending is not expected to control his blow.
o Brownell v. People
One is not required to draw fine distinctions as
to the extent of the injury which a reckless and
infuriated assailant might probably inflict upon
him.
o U.S. v. Macasaet
The accused, in the heat of the encounter at
close quarters, was not in a position to reflect


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coolly or to wait after each blow to determine


the effects thereof.
o U.S. v. Mack
In necessary circumstances, the accused could
hardly be expected to take deliberate and
careful aim so as to strike a point less
vulnerable than the body.
When aggression is so sudden that there is no time left to the
one making a defense to determine what course of action to
take.
o People v. Pante
During the split second the accused had to
think and act to save his superior officer, the
trial court cannot demand him have been able
to control his blow.
In preventing unlawful aggression, the one defending must aim
at the assailant.
o People v. Galacgac
Facts: Galacgac was beaten twice by an iron bar
by one Pablo Soriano thereby causing him to
fire at random with his unlicensed revolver.
Issue: whether his act of defense relieves him
of criminal liability.
Held: No. He was held liable for physical
injuries. Because the accused did not aim at his
assailant but instead indiscriminately fired his
deadly weapon, his act of defense was not
exercised with due care.


B. Necessity Of The Means Used
The means employed by the person making a defense must be
rationally necessary to prevent or repel an aggression.
Instances wherein there was no rational necessity to employ
means used:

U.S. v Apego
A sleeping woman, who was awakened by her
brother-in law grasping her arm, was not
justified in using a knife to kill him as the latter
did not perform any other act which could be
construed as an attempt against her honor.
o People v. Montalbo
When a person was attacked with fist blows
only, there was no reasonable necessity to
inflict upon the assailant a mortal wound with
danger.
o People v. Jaurigue
When a man placed his hand on the upper
thigh of a woman seated on a bench in a
chapel, there was no reasonable necessity to
kill him with a knife because there was no
danger to her chastity or honor at that
moment.
The test of reasonableness of the means used.
o Whether the means employed is reasonable will
depend upon the nature and quality of the aggressors
weapon, physical condition, character, size, other
circumstances and the place and occasion of the
assault.
o Perfect equality between the weapon used by the
defender and the aggressor is not required. What the
law requires is rational equivalence, the imminent
danger and the instinct that moves or impels the
defense.
o The reasonableness of the means employed will
depend upon:
The nature and quality of weapons
The use of a knife when attacked by a
club, rod or stick is reasonable if it cant
o


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be shown that the person assaulted (1)


had other available means or (2) if
there was other means, he could coolly
choose. Use of a bayonet against a
cane is not reasonable.
To use a firearm against a dagger or a
knife does not imply any difference
between such weapons.
When a person is attacked with fist
blows, he must retaliate with fist blows
IF both parties are of the same size and
strength.
Physical condition, character and size.
People v. Ignacio when defendant,
who was middle aged, was cornered by
three or four men bigger and stronger,
such person is justified in using a knife.
People v. Sumicad Killing an
aggressor larger and stronger than the
defendant was justified.
People v. Padua Taking into
consideration the character of the
aggressor (troublesome, strong and
aggressive with criminal records), the
CoA held that the striking of bolo was
justified.
Other circumstances considered
US v. Batungbacal
o Facts: M killed P, who was
pursuing Ms children with a
bolo, by firing a shotgun at P
and killing him at once.

Ruling:
Under
such
circumstances, the use of the
shotgun was justified.
Reasonable necessity of means employed to prevent or repel
unlawful aggression is to be interpreted in favor of law-abiding
citizens.
Rule regarding the reasonableness of the necessity of the
means employed when the one defending himself is a peace
officer.
o While the law on self-defense allows a private
individual to prevent or repel an aggression, the duty of
the peace officer requires him to overcome his
opponent.
o A police officer is not required to afford a person
attacking him, the opportunity for a fair and equal
struggle.
o US v. Mojica
A policeman is justified in using his revolver
against one who is armed with a knife.
o US v. Mendoza
It was held that it is NOT reasonable for a
policeman to kill his assailant who was using a
Calicut
o


VI. THIRD ELEMENT: Lack Of Sufficient Provocation On The Part Of The
Person Defending Himself.
A. Reason For The Third Requisite Of Self Defense.
To be entitled to the benefit of the justifying circumstance of
self-defense, the one defending himself must not have given
cause for the aggression by his unjust conduct.

B. Cases In Which 3rd Requisite Is Considered Present


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1. When no provocation at all was given to the aggressor by the
defending party (B was running amuck with a dagger rushing
towards A when A did nothing to provoke B)
2. When the provocation was insufficient (A asks B a harmless
question that angered the latter who immediately attacked)
o How to determine the sufficiency of provocation
This means that the provocation must be
proportionate to the act of aggression and
adequate to stir the aggressor to its
commission.
Verbal argument cannot be considered
sufficient provocation. It is not enough that the
provocative act be unreasonable or annoying. A
petty question of pride does not justify the
wounding or killing of an opponent (People v.
Dolfo)
o Requisite of lack of sufficient provocation refers
exclusively to the person defending himself
People v. Espino
If the accused appears to be the
aggressor, it cannot be said that he was
defending himself from the effect of
anothers aggression.
3. When the provocation that was sufficient was not given by the
defending party (C, not A, was the one who provoked B)
4. When the provocation given by the defending party was not
proximate and immediate to the act of aggression. (A slapped
B. Two days later, B attacks A where A defends himself. The
provocation (slapping) should be disregarded)
o Provocation by the person defending himself not
proximate and immediate to the aggression (no.4)
People v. Dolfo
Facts: B was As assistant. A called B. B
replied why are you calling me? A

threw a wood to B. B threw the wood


back. A battered B with the wood. A
mortally injures B with a screwdriver.
Issue: (1) was the retort why are you
calling me? sufficient provocation? (2)
was the defense using the screwdriver
reasonable?
Held: (1) It was not sufficient
provocation. (2) The act of A throwing
a wood to B constituted unlawful
aggression.
Bs
defense
was
reasonable. The screwdriver was a
reasonable means.
People v. Boholst A wife killed her husband
with a knife as an act of defense when her
husband choked her kneck.


Vii. Battered Woman Syndrome As A Defense
Republic Act No. 9262- Anti-Violence Against Women and
their Children Act of 2004 provided that:
o Sec 26- Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS) as a
Defense- victim survivors suffering from BWS do not
incur criminal and civil liability notwithstanding the
absence of any of the elements for justifying
circumstances of self-defense (courts shall be assisted
by psychiatrists)
Battered woman syndrome, explained
o Battered woman- a woman who is repeatedly
subjected to any forceful physical or psychological
behavior by a man in order to coerce her to do
something he wants her to do without concern for her
rights.
o Personality traits of a battered woman-
Low self-esteem


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Traditional Beliefs about the home, family and
sex role
Emotional dependence
Tendency to accept responsibility
False hopes
o A battered womans cycle of violence
1. The tension-building phase
2. Acute battering incident
3. Tranquil and loving phase
Effect of Battery on Appellant
o The cycle of violence immobilizes the womans ability
to act decisively in her own interests, making her feel
trapped in the relationship with no means of escape.
o She also believes that he is capable of killing her, and
that there is no escape. Battered women feel unsafe,
suffer from pervasive anxiety,, and usually fail to leave
the relationship.
Flight after the commission of a crime is highly evidentiary of guilt and
incompatible with self-defense.

PAR. 2: DEFENSE OF RELATIVES

I. Relatives That Can Be Defended
1. Spouse
2. Ascendants
3. Descendants
4. Legitimate, natural or adopted brothers and sisters, or relatives
by affinity in the same degrees
o Relatives by affinity because of marriage
5. Relatives by consanguinity within the fourth civil degree.
o Relatives by consanguinity blood relatives

Ii. Basis Of Justification

The justification of this clause is formed not only upon a


humanitarian sentiment, but also upon the impulse of blood


Iii. Elements Of Defense Of Relatives
1. Unlawful aggression
2. Reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or
repel it
3. In case of provocation was given by the person attacked, the
one making a defense had no part therein

IV. Defense Of Relatives Also Requires That There Be Unlawful
Aggression.
Of the 3 requisites of defense of relatives, unlawful aggression
is a sine qua non, for without it any defense is not possible or
justified.
When two persons are getting ready to strike each other, there
can be no unlawful aggression (People v. Moro Munabe).

V. Unlawful Aggression Can Be Made To Depend Upon The Honest
Belief Of The One Making A Defense.
When A attacked and wounded B with a dagger but B defended
himself and seriously wounded A. (note: A is the unlawful
aggressor) Then the sons of A came and believed in good faith
that their father was the victim of an unlawful aggression. If
they kill B, they are justified by a mistake of fact.

Vi. Third Element Of Defense Of Relative
Reason for the rule that although the provocation prejudices
the person who gave it, its effects do not reach the defender
who took no part therein, because the latter was prompted by
some noble or generous sentiment in protecting and saving the
relative.
The fact that the relative defended gave provocation is
immaterial.


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Vii. Examples Of Defense Of Relatives
People v. Ammalun
o The accused heard his wife shouting from their house.
He rushed to the house and killed the man forcibly
abusing his wife.
US v Rivera
o Antonio Rivera kills the person who was attacking his
son.

PAR. 3: DEFENSE OF STRANGER

I. Element For Defense Of Stranger:
1. Unlawful aggression
2. Reasonable necessity of the means employed to prevent or
repel it
3. The person defending be not induced by revenge, resentment
or other motive

II. THIRD ELEMENT Of Defense Of Stranger
Such defense must be actuated by a disinterested or generous
motive, when it puts down revenge, resentment or other evil
motive
3rd requisite would be lacking if such person was prompted by
his grudge against the assailant

III. Persons Deemed As Strangers
Persons not included in the enumeration of relatives
mentioned in paragraph 2 of this article (close friend or distant
relatives are included).
Example:
o People v. Valdez
A heard a cry for help. He saw B attacking Bs
wife with a dagger. A defended Bs wife and

inflicted wounds on B. Held: It was a valid


defense of a stranger

PAR. 4: AVOIDANCE OF GREATER INJURY

I. Elements For Avoidance Of Greater Injury:
1. That the evil sought to be avoided actually exists.
2. That the injury feared be greater than that done to avoid it
3. That there be no other practical and less harmful means of
preventing it.

II. Damage To Another Is Required
This covers injury to persons and damage to property.

III. FIRST ELEMENT: Existence Of Evil Sought To Be Avoided
If the evil sought to be avoided is merely expected or
anticipated or may happen in the future, par. 4 is not
applicable.
Example of injury to person under par. 4:
o Guevara A person was driving his car with due
diligence when an incoming truck cause him to swerve
his car to the right thereby saving his life however
killing a passerby.

IV. SECOND ELEMENT: Injury Feared By Greater Than That Done To
Avoid
The greater evil should not be brought about by the negligence
or imprudence of the actor.
o Driver drove his car at full speed, disregarding the
condition of the place, and although he saw the six-bysix truck at a distrance of 500 meters away, he didnt
not slacken his speed. He cannot invoke par. 4 because
the necessity (of avoiding greater injury) was brought
about by his reckless imprudence.


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When the accused was not avoiding any evil, he cannot invoke
the justifying circumstance of avoidance of a greater evil or
injury.
o People v. Ricohermoso
Facts: Pio and Severo attacked Geminiano who
was wounded. Nearby, Juan embraced
Marianito, Geminianos son, who had a gun
and grappled with him. Geminiano died. Pio,
Severo and Juan were persecuted for murder.
Issue: Can Juan validly invoke the justifying
circumstance of avoidance of greater evil?
Held. No. His reliance on that justifying
circumstance is erroneous. He was not avoiding
any evil when he sought to disable Marianito.
The evil which brought about the greater evil must not result
from a violation of law by the actor.
There is civil liability under this paragraph. The civil liability is
borne by the persons benefited.


PAR. 5: FULFILLMENT OF A DUTY OR LAWFUL EXERCISE OF RIGHT OR
OFFICE

I. Elements Fulfillment Of A Duty Or Lawful Exercise Of Right Or
Office:
1. That the accused acted in the performance of a duty or in the
lawful exercise of a right or office
2. That the injury caused or the offense committed be the
necessary consequence of the due performance of duty or the
lawful exercise of such right or office.

II. Fulfillment Of A Duty
People v. Felipe Delima
o Facts: Felipe Delima pursued and shot Lorenzo Napilon
who escaped from prison a few days prior to the

incident. The policeman was tried and convicted by the


Court of First Instance of homicide and sentenced him
to reclusion temporal.
o Held: The killing was done in performance of the duty.
In accordance with Article 8, No. 11 (now Article 11,
par 5 of Revised Penal Code) Felipe Delima committed
no crime and is acquitted.
Shooting an offender who refused to surrender is justified, but
shooting a thief who refused to be arrested is not justified
Legitimate performance of duty v. Illegal performance of duty
o People v. Cabrera
When the victim without apparent reason, but
probably due to drunkenness, fired his gun
several times at the Alta Vista Club, the
accused and his partner had to intervene for
they were with the NBI. They would have been
remiss in their duty if they did not. It must be
presumed that both officers acted pursuant to
the law when they tried to discharge his duty
as an NBI agent.
o People v. Tan
The attitude adopted by the deceased in
putting his hands in his pocket is not sufficient
to justify the accused to shoot him. The
deceased was unarmed and the accused could
have first warned him.
Distinguished from self-defense and from consequence of
felonious act.
o The public officer acting in the fulfillment of a duty may
appear to be an aggressor but his aggression is not
unlawful, it being necessary to fulfill a duty.


III. Lawful Exercise Of Right Or Office
Of Right


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Under the Civil Code (Article 429) the owner or lawful
possessor of a thing has the right to exclude any person
from the enjoyment and disposal thereof. For this
purpose, he may use such force as may be reasonably
necessary to repel or prevent an actual or threatened
unlawful physical invasion or usurpation of his
property.
o If in protecting his possession, he injured the one trying
to get it from him, he is justified under this paragraph.
Of Office
o The executioner of the Bilibid Prison cannot be held
liable for murder for the execution performed by him
because he was merely acting in the lawful exercise of
his office (Guevara).
o A surgeon who amputated the leg of a patient to save
him from gangrene is not liable for the crime of
mutilation, because he was acting in the lawful exercise
of his office.
o


IV. The Actual Invasion Of Property May Consist Of A Mere
Disturbance Of Possession Or Of A Real Dispossession
If its mere disturbance of possession, force may be used
against it at any time as long as it continues, even beyond the
prescriptive period of an action of forcible entry.

PAR. 6: OBEDIENCE TO AN ORDER ISSUED FROM SOME LAWFUL
PURPOSE

I. Elements:
1. That an order has been issued by a superior
2. That such order must be for some lawful purpose
3. That the means used by the subordinate to carry out said order
is lawful.

II. SECOND ELEMENT:


Both the person who gives the order and the person who
executes it, must be acting within the limitations prescribed by
law.
When the order is not for a lawful purpose, the subordinate
who obeyed it is criminally liable.
People v. Barroga
o One who prepared a falsified document with full
knowledge of its falsity is not excused even if he merely
acted in obedience to the instruction of his superior
because the instruction was not for a lawful purpose.
People v. Margen
o Upon order, a soldier tortured to death the deceased
for bringing a kind of fish different from that he had
been asked to furnish. The order to torture was illegal
so the accused was not bound to obey it.
The subordinate is not liable for carrying out an illegal order of
his superior if he is not aware of the illegality of the order and
he is not negligent.

CLASS DISCUSSION
Self-Defense
DEFENSE OF PROPERTY: Lentejas punched a thief, who fell and
died as a result, while she was trying to prevent the theft of her
mobile phone.
o She is not liable under Article 4 because she was
exercising a lawful right and not a felony. Therefore,
she can claim defense in Article 11(1) and (5).
o However, if she pulls out a gun and kills the thief using
such, she may be criminally liable because it exceeds
the second provision that there should be reasonable
necessity of the means employed to repel the
supposed unlawful aggression Article 11(1). As such,


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she has overstepped the lawful exercise of her right to


defend her property.
What is the extent to which you can protect your property
without incurring criminal liability?
o The standard depends on the reasonable necessity of
the means used.
o In the defense of property rights, there must be
unlawful aggression on the person of the owner.
However, in the exercise of the right to protect your
property, no unlawful aggression on the person of the
owner is necessary to entitle the accused to use
reasonable force to defend his or her property.
DEFENSE OF HOME: Thieves entered your home with a torch,
which you mistook for aliens and thus fired your shotgun at
them. Can you argue defense of property?
o Issue: given that the situation took place in the house,
is there a need for unlawful aggression in order to
entitle you to defend your property?
o Ruling: NO. The defense of ones home does not
require unlawful aggression towards the accused. Even
if there is not aggressive stance on the part of the
victims, the owner can already exercise defense (so
long as the means used was reasonable).
General rule for unlawful aggression in relation to defense of
home: No need for unlawful aggression.


Belief of the accused
Facts: Friend who played a trick on you by grabbing you at
night, and you thinking that it was a threat to your person
hit the person and he died.
Ruling: You are justified in your acts because you did not have
the intent to kill the person, and (assuming) you did not act
negligently.

REASONABLE NECESSITY TO PREVENT OR REPEL AGGRESSION


Does it require equality? Such that if someone punches you,
you may only just use your fists?
o Not necessarily. See B. Necessity of Means Used
Mr. Arzaga is holding Mr. Bonifacio by the neck. Unknowing to
him, Mr. Bonifacio had gotten hold of a cutter. If Mr. Bonifacio
uses the instrument against Mr. Arzaga, can he invoke the
defense that his means was reasonable and necessity?

Article 12. Circumstances which exempt from criminal liability.
The following are exempt from criminal liability:
1. An imbecile or an insane person, unless the latter has acted
during a lucid interval.
When the imbecile or an insane person has committed an act
which the law defines as a felony, the court shall order his
confinement in one of the hospitals or asylums established for
persons thus afflicted, which he shall not be permitted to
leave without first obtaining the permission of the same
court.
2. A person under nine years of age
3. A person over nine years of age and under fifteen, unless he
has acted with discernment, in which case, such minor shall
be proceeded against in accordance with the provisions of
Article 80 of this code.
When such a minor is adjudged to be criminally irresponsible,
the court, in conformity with the provisions of this and the
preceding paragraph, shall commit him to the care and
custody of his family who shall be charged with his
surveillance and education; otherwise, he shall be committed
to the care of some institution or person mentioned in said
Article 80.
4. Any person who, while performing a lawful act with due care,
causes an injury by mere accident without fault or intention of
causing it


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5. Any person who acts under the compulsion of an irresistible
force.
6. Any person who acts under the impulse of an uncontrollable
fear of an equal or greater injury.
7. Any person who fails to perform an act required by law, when
prevented by some lawful or insuperable cause.

POINTS

I. Exempting Circumstances
1. Definition: Are grounds for exemption from punishment
because there is wanting in the agent of the crime any of the
conditions which make the act voluntary or negligent
2. Basis The exemption from punishment is based on the
complete absence of intelligence, freedom of action, or intent,
or on the absence of negligence on part of the accused.

II. In Exempting Circumstances, There Is A Crime Committed But No
Criminal Liability Arises
Technically, one who acts by virtue of any of the exempting
circumstances commits a crime, although by the complete
absence of any of the conditions which constitute free will or
voluntariness of the act, no criminal liability arises.
Circumstances mentioned in Art 12 is a matter of defense and
the same must be proved by the defendant to the satisfaction
of the court.

PAR. 1: AN IMBECILE OR INSANE PERSON, UNLESS THE LATTER HAS
ACTED DURING A LUCID INTERVAL.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 1
Complete absence of intelligence, an element of voluntariness.

II. Imbecility Distinguished From Insanity

Imbecile is one who, while advanced in age, has a mental


development comparable to that of children between 2 and 7
years of age. Such person is exempt in ALL cases from criminal
liability.
Insane is one who is deprived completely of reason or
discernment and freedom of the will at the time of committing
the crime. Such person is not exempt if it can be shown that he
acted during a lucid interval (when the insane acts with
intelligence).


III. To Constitute Insanity There Must Be Complete Deprivation Of
Intelligence Or That There Be A Total Deprivation Of The Freedom Of
The Will
Complete deprivation of intelligence- the accused is deprived of
reason and without the least discernment.
Mere abnormality of mental faculties is NOT enough, especially
if the offender has not lost consciousness of his acts.

IV. Procedure When The Imbecile Or The Insane Committed A Felony
Court shall order his confinement in one of the hospitals or
asylums established for persons afflicted.
Court has no power to permit the insane to leave such facility
without first obtaining the opinion of the Director of Health
that he may be released.

V. Insanity At The Time Of The Commission Of The Felony
Distinguished From Insanity At The Time Of The Trial
When a person is insane at the time of the commission of the
felony, he is exempt from criminal liability.
When he becomes insane only at the time of the trial, he is
criminally liable.

VI. Who Has The Burden Of Proof To Show Insanity?


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The defense must prove the insanity of the accused at the time
of the commission of the crime.
The presumption is always in favor of sanity.
How much evidence is necessary to overthrow the presumption
of sanity?
o In order to ascertain a persons mental condition at the
time of the act, it is permissible to receive evidence of
the condition of his mind during a reasonable period
both before and after that time.
o Direct testimony is not required.


A. Evidence Of Insanity
The evidence of insanity must refer to the time preceding the
act under prosecution of to the very moment of its execution.
If the insanity is only occasional or intermittent in its nature,
the presumption of its continuance does not arise.
Where it is shown that the defendant had lucid intervals, it will
be presumed that the offense was committed in one of them.

B. When A Defense Of Insanity Is Not Credible:
People v. Renegado Where appellant, Loreto, testified that
he was acting sanely that morning before he killed Lira after
being confused and losing his senses. Moreover, he was able
to recall most of the incidents that morning. The defense of
insanity is incredible.
People v. Ambal Being able to recall significant events in the
weeks prior to the crime, he was declared sane.
People v. Magallano Where psychiatrists who observed the
accused for a month attested that he did not manifest any odd
behavior and it was evident that he was coherent and
intelligent, the presumption of sanity holds.
People v. Puno In spite of his schizophrenic reaction, his
symptoms were not socially incapacitating and he could
adjust to his environment. He is not legally insane.

People v. Aquino The doctor attested that despite having


organic mental disorder with psychosis, the accused recalled
events prior to the commission of the crime. The presence of
his reasoning faculties discounts any intimation of insanity.


VII. Coverage of the terms

A. Dementia Praecox (Schizophrenia) Is Covered By The Term Insanity
When a person is suffering from a form of psychosis (a type of
dementia pracox) homicidal attack is common because of
delusions. During the period of excitement, such person has
not control whatever of his acts.
People v. Bonan An irresistible homicidal impulse was
considered embraced in the term insanity. It may be said that
a person who has lost the power of his will, at the moment,
also lost consciousness of his acts.

B. Schizophrenia, Formerly Called Dementia Praceox
It is a chronic mental disorder characterized by inability to
distinguish between fantasy and reality and often accompanied
by hallucinations and delusions.
Schizophrenic reactions are recognizable through odd and
bizarre behavior apparent in aloofness or periods of impulsive
destructiveness and immature and exaggerated emotionality,
often ambivalently directed.

C. Kleptomania
If the unlawful act of the accused is due to mental disease or a
mental defect, producing an irresistible impulse, as when the
accused has been deprived or has lost the power of his will the
irresistible impulse should be considered covered by insanity.
On the other hand, if the mental defect only diminishes the
exercise of his will-power then kleptomania is only a
mitigating circumstance.


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D. Epilepsy May Be Covered By Insanity
This is a disease characterized by fits, occurring at intervals,
attended by convulsive motions of the muscles and loss of
consciousness.
An accused must be undergoing an epileptic fit when he
committed the crime in order to be acquitted (People v.
Mancao and Aguilar).

E. Feeblemindedness Is Not Imbecility.
A feebleminded person can distinguish right from wrong, in
contrast to an imbecile or insane person who cannot do so.

F. Pedophilia Is Not Insanity
Pedophiles can distinguish right from wrong. (People v. Diaz)

G. Amnesia Is Not Proof Of Mental Condition Of The Accused
Amnesia, in itself, is no defense to a criminal charge unless it is
shown that the accused did not know the nature and quality of
his action.

H. Other Cases Of Lack Of Intelligence
1. Committing a crime while in a dream does not make one
criminally liable (Somnambulism/ sleepwalking)
a. Hypnotism - whether this causes somnambulism
2. Committing a crime while suffering from malignant malaria
does not make one criminally liable for malaria affects the
nervous system and causes complications such as melancholia
and insanity.

PAR. 2: A PERSON UNDER 9 YEARS OF AGE

I. Basis Of Paragraph 2
Complete absence of intelligence


II. Age Of Absolute Irresponsibility Raised To Fifteen Years Of Age
Republic Act No. 9344 (Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act) raised
the age of absolute irresponsibility from 9 to 15.
Absolute irresponsibility exempts the offender from criminal
liability

PAR. 3: A PERSON OVER 9 AND UNDER 15, UNLESS HE HAS ACTED
WITH DISCERNMENT, IN WHICH CASE, SUCH MINOR SHALL BE
PROCEEDED AGAINST IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROVISIONS OF
ARTICLE 80 OF THIS CODE

I. Basis Of Paragraph 3
Absence of Intelligence

II. Par. 3, Art. 12 Of The Revised Penal Code Impliedly Repealed By
Republic Act No. 9344
The age bracket for conditional responsibility is now 15-18
years of age instead of 9-15.
The child is exempted from criminal liability, but not from civil
liability.
It is incumbent upon the prosecution to prove that a minor has
acted with discernment, in order for him to be deprived of this
exempting circumstance.

III. Periods Of Criminal Responsibility

Period
Age
ABSOLUTE
IRRESPONSIBILITY 15 years and below
(infancy)
CONDITIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY 15 years and 1 day to 18 years
(Child in conflict with the law)
FULL RESPONSIBILITY
18 years or over (adolescence) to
70 (maturity)


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MITIGATED RESPONSIBILITY

15 years and 1 day to 18 years,


the offender acting with
discernment; over 70 years of age.


Senility the age over 70 years, although said to be the
second childhood is only a mitigated responsibility. It cannot be
considered as similar to infancy which is exempting.


IV. Meaning Of Discernment
Capacity of the child to understand the difference between
right and wrong and its consequences.

A. Determination Of Discernment
The determination of discernment shall take into account the
ability of a child to understand the moral and psychological
components of criminal responsibility and the consequences of
the wrongful act.

B. Discernment & Intent Distinguished
Intent refers to the desired act of the person
Discernment the moral significance that a person ascribes to
the said act.

C. Discernment May Be Shown By:
1. Manner of committing the crime (e.g. minor committed the
crime during nighttime to avoid detection).
2. Conduct of the offender (e.g. a minors perverted character and
satisfaction upon the accomplishment of the act).

D. The Allegation Of With Intent To Kill In The Information Is
Sufficient Allegation Of Discernment
People v. Neito
o Facts: Alleged accused, with intent to kill, did then and
there willfully, criminally and feloniously push 8-year-

old Lolita Padilla (victim) into a deep place thus causing


her death by drowning.
Ruling: The allegation clearly conveys the idea that she
knew what would be the consequence of her unlawful
act of pushing her victim into deep water and that she
knew it to be wrong.


V. Burden Of Proof Of Age
Any person alleging the age has the burden of proof.
A. Presumption Of Minority
A child shall enjoy all the presumption of minority and all the
rights of a child until proven to be eighteen years or older at
the time of the commission of the offense.

B. Determination Of Age
A childs age shall be determined according to the ff rules:
1. Original or certified true copy of birth certificate.
2. Similar authentic documents (baptismal certificates, school
records)
3. Testimony of a member of the family related to the child by
affinity or consanguinity, testimonies of other persons, physical
appearance of the child and other relevant evidence.

PAR. 4: ANY PERSON WHO, WHILE PERFORMING A LAWFUL ACT WITH
DUE CARE, CAUSES INJURY BY MERE ACCIDENT WITHOUT FAULT OR
INTENTION.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 4
Lack of negligence and intent
Under this circumstance, the person does not commit either an
intentional felony or a culpable felony.

II. Elements:
1. A person is performing a lawful act


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2. With due care
3. He causes an injury by mere accident
4. Without fault or intention of causing it

III. FIRST ELEMENT: The Person Must Be Performing A Lawful Act
People v. Galacgac
o The discharge of a firearm in a crowded place in Manila
being prohibited by Article 155, appellant Galacgac was
not performing a lawful act. Hence, exemption cannot
be invoked.
Striking another with a gun in self-defense, even if it fired and
seriously injured the assailant is a lawful act
o People v. Vitug
When the defendant drew his gun and with it
struck the diseased after the latter had given
him a fist blow on the shoulder, the defendant
was performing a lawful act. Whether the gun
was cocked or uncocked the striking could not
have been done in any other manner. The act
was a legitimate act of defense.
The fact that the gun fired because the hand of
the defendant was on the trigger when he hit
deceased was a mere accident without any
fault or intention of causing it.
People v. Reyta
o The act of drawing a weapon in the course of a quarrel
not being in self-defense is unlawful. It is light threat
(Art. 285, par. 1).

IV. SECOND ELEMENT: The Person Performing A Lawful Act Must Do
So With Due Care, Without Fault Or Negligence
Criminal liability exemption in this article cannot be invoked if
the appellant is guilty of negligence.

V. THIRD ELEMENT: Causes Injury By Mere Accident



A. What Is An Accident?
Something that happens outside the sway of our will, and
although it comes about through some act of our will, lies
beyond the bounds of humanly foreseeable consequences.
o It is an event that does not necessarily and logically
follow/result from ones act.
It is negligence when the consequences are foreseeable.
Examples Of An Accident:
US v. Tanedo
o Facts: the accused, while hunting, saw wild chickens
and fired a shot. The slug recoiled and hit the tenant
who was a relative of the accused, thereby killing him.
o Held: IF life is taken by misfortune or accident while the
actor is in performance of a lawful act executed with
due care and without intention of doing harm, there is
no criminal liability.
US v. Tayongtong
o A chauffer, while driving on the proper side of the road
at a moderate speed and with due diligence, suddenly
and unexpectedly hit a man. It was held that he is not
criminally liable, it being a mere accident.

VI. FOURTH ELEMENT: Without Fault Of Intention Of Causing It
A. Accident Presupposes Lack Of Intention To Commit The Wrong
Done.
The exempting circumstance of Article 12 refers to purely
accidental cases where there was absolutely NO intention to
commit the wrong done.

B. Case Of Negligence, Not Accident
People v. Nocum


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The defendant drew a pistol and shot twice in the air to
get the attention of 2 persons fighting. He fired another
shot that ricocheted and hit an innocent bystander. He
was convicted of homicide through reckless
imprudence.
Comment: Such ruling was given because the consequences in
the given situation are foreseeable.
o


C. Accident And Negligence, Intrinsically Contradictory
Jarco Marketing Corporation v. Court of Appeals
o Accident and negligence are intrinsically contradictory.
One cannot exist with the other.
People v. Ayaya
o Court held that the absence of any reasonable motive
to prompt said defendant to injure her husband
compelled the court to conclude that in thrusting her
umbrella in the opening of the door, she did so to free
her son from imminent danger of having his head
crushed or being strangle; the injury was caused by a
mere accident.

D. When Claim Of Accident Not Appreciated:
1. People v Taylaran Repeated blows negate claim of wounding
by mere accident.
2. People v. Reyes Accidental shooting is negated by
threatening words preceding it.

PAR. 5: ANY PERSON WHO ACTS UNDER THE COMPULSION OF AN
IRRESISTIBLE FORCE

I. Basis Of Paragraph 5
Complete absence of freedom, an element of voluntariness.
Presumption: person is compelled by means of force or
violence to commit a crime.


II. Elements:
1. Compulsion is by means of physical force
2. Physical force must be irresistible
o Before a force can be considered an irresistible one, it
must produce such an effect upon the individual that,
in spite of all resistance, it reduces him to a mere
instrument (reason why hes incapable of committing
the crime)
o In spite of all resistance, it compels the person to obey
or act upon it.
3. Physical force must come from a third person
Example: US v. Caballeros
Facts: Baculi, one of the accused but is not part of the band
which murdered the American school-teachers, was at the
scene of the crime and was made to bury the bodies because
he was struck with the butts of the bands guns.
Held: Baculi was not criminally liable because an outside
irresistible force compelled him to do the said act.

III. FIRST & SECOND ELEMENT: Compulsion Of Irresistible Force
NO Compulsion of irresistible force
People v Sarip
o Pretension of an accused to be threatened with a gun
by a friend doesnt hold when the accused has a rifle at
hand.

IV. THIRD ELEMENT: Physical Force Must Come From A Third Person
Passion or obfuscation cannot be irresistible force
Irresistible force can never consist in an impulse or passion or
obfuscation. Irresistible force must consist of an extraneous
force from a third party.

V. Nature Of Force Required


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Irresistible to reduce the actor to a mere instrument who acts


not only without will but against his will.
Duress, force, fear, or intimidation must be present, imminent
and impending to induce a well-grounded apprehension of
death or serious bodily harm if the act is not done.
Compulsion must be of such a character as to leave no
opportunity to the accused for escape or self-defense in equal
combat.


PAR. 6: ANY PERSON WHO ACTS UNDER THE IMPULSE OF AN
UNCONTROLLABLE FEAR OF AN EQUAL OR GREATER INJURY

I. Basis of Paragraph 6
Based on the complete absence of freedom; actus me invite
factus non est meus actus (an act done by me against my will
is not my act.).
Presumption: a person is compelled to commit a crime by
means of intimidation or threat.

II. Elements:
1. Threat which causes the fear is an evil greater than or at least
equal to that which he is required to commit.
2. It promises an evil of such gravity and imminence that the
ordinary man would have succumbed to it.

III. Elements:
1. Existence of an uncontrollable fear.
2. Fear must be real or imminent.
3. Fear of an injury is greater than or at least equal to that
committed.
Example: (US v. Exaltacion)
Facts: Liberato Exaltacion and Buenaventura Tanchinco swore
allegiance to the Katipunan because of fear of death.

Held: Cannot be held criminally liable because the impulse of


an uncontrollable fear of an equal or greater injury (penalty of
rebellion is prision mayor or imprisonment for a period of 6-12
years and fine is less than the injury of death)


IV. Nature Of Duress As A Valid Defense (People v. Quilloy)
Should be based on real, imminent, or reasonable fear for ones
life or limb.
Should not be speculative, fanciful, or remote fear.

V. The Accused Must Not Have Opportunity For Escape Or SelfDefense
Compulsion must be of such a character as to leave no
opportunity to the accused for escape or self-defense in equal
combat.
Duress is unavailing where the accused had every opportunity
to run away or resist when he wanted to because he was
armed
When several opportunities are present but accused did not act
upon it, defense of being under intimidation is untenable.
When the accused carries a much stronger weapon that the
one intimidating him, its held that accused did not act under
impulse of an uncontrollable fear of an equal or greater injury.
Command of Hukbalahap killers cause of uncontrollable fear
because of their ruthless killing nature (People v. Regala)
In treason nothing will excuse that act of joining an enemy,
but the fear of imminent death.

VI. Speculative, Fanciful, And Remote Fear Is Not Uncontrollable Fear
Threat must be of a serious character and imminence as to
create in the mind of the defendant an uncontrollable fear and
an infliction of an equal or greater evil would be done upon him
on non-compliance.


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Absence of proof of actual physical or moral compulsion to act,


it not sufficient to exempt the accused from criminal liability.


VII. Real, Imminent Or Reasonable Fear
Case of US v. Exaltacion as an example
Threat of future injury is not enough it must be clearly
shown that the compulsion must be of such character as to
leave NO opportunity to escape

VIII. Distinction Between Irresistible Force And Uncontrollable Fear
Irresistible force (par. 5) uses violence or physical force
Uncontrollable fear (par. 6) uses intimidation or threat

PAR. 7: ANY PERSON WHO FAILS TO PERFORM AN ACT REQUIRED BY
LAW, WHEN PREVENTED BY SOME LAWFUL OR INSUPERABLE CAUSE

I. Basis Of Paragraph 7
Accused acts without intent.

II. Elements:
1. Act is required by law to be done.
2. Person fails to perform such act.
3. His failure to perform such act was due to some lawful or
insuperable cause

III. When Prevented By
A. Some Lawful Cause
(Vide, Sec. 24[d], Rule 130, Rules of Court)
A confessed to a Filipino priest that theres an ongoing
conspiracy against the government, which he is a part of. Under
the law, one is required to tell the government about the said
act. Non-compliance of this law by the Filipino priest exempts
him from criminal liability because he is bound by his
professional capacity for non-disclosure of confessions.


B. Some Insuperable Cause
Municipal president detained the offended party for three days
and was not able to comply with the 18-hour requirement
because of the no means of transportation (US v. Vicentillo)
insuperable cause is the no transportation.
A mother who was overcome by severe dizziness and extreme
debility left her child in a thicket who subsequently died is not
liable for infanticide because of the impossibility to take the
child home. (People v. Bandian) insuperable cause is the
severe dizziness and extreme debility.

OTHER MATTERS
I. In All The Exempting Circumstances, Intent Is Wanting In The Agent
Of The Crime
Intent presupposed the exercise of freedom and the use of
intelligence.

II. Distinction Between Justifying And Exempting Circumstances
Justifying circumstances
o Person does not transgress the law, he does not
commit any crime in the eyes of the law.
o There is nothing unlawful in the act as well as the
intention.
o Act is in itself just and lawful.
o There is neither a crime nor a criminal.
o No civil liability except for par. 4 (causing damage to
another in state of necessity).
Exempting circumstances
o There is a crime but NO criminal liability.
o Act is not justified but the actor is not criminally liable.
o There is civil liability except in pars. 4 and 7(causing
injury by mere accident; failing to perform an act


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required by law when prevented by some lawful or
insuperable cause).

III. Absolute Causes
Definition: Those where the act committed is a crime but for
reasons of public policy and sentiment there is no penalty
imposed.

A. Other Absolutory Causes (Aside From Article 11 And 12)
Article 6 the spontaneous desistance of the person who
commenced the commission of a felony before he could
perform all the acts of execution.
Article 7 Light felony is only attempted or frustrated, and is
not against persons or property.
Article 20 The accessory is a relative of the principal.
Article 124, last paragraph legal grounds for arbitrary
detention.
Article 247, pars. 1 and 2 Death or physical injuries inflicted
under exceptional circumstances.
o Any legally married person who, having surprised his
spouse in the act of committing sexual intercourse with
another person, shall kill any of them or both of them
in the act or immediately thereafter, or shall inflict
upon them any serious physical injury, shall suffer the
penalty of destierro.
o If he shall inflict upon them physical injuries of any
other kind, he shall be exempt from punishment.
Article 280, par. 3 Legal grounds for trespass.
Article 332 The crime of theft, swindling or malicious mischief
is committed against a relative.
Article 344, par. 4 Marriage of the offender with the offended
party when the crime committed is rape, abduction, seduction,
or acts of lasciviousness.

B. Instigation Is An Absolutory Cause


US v. Phelps
o Facts: an internal revenue agent represented himself as
a private individual and asked the accused to lead him
where he could smoke opium. Agent went to the
accused three times and insisted so much, hence the
accused brought him to a place where opium is
available.
o Held: Accused not criminally liable because he was
instigated to commit the crime of smoking opium.
Suppose the agent induced the accused to sell him opium and
accused did sell the agent opium, is the accused liable for illegal
possession of opium? YES, because mere possession of opium is
a crime in itself.

Instigation Must Be Made By Public Officers Or Private Detectives
A sound public policy requires that the courts shall condemn
this practice by directing an acquittal whenever it appears that
the public authorities or private detectives, with their
cognizances, have taken active steps to lead the accused into
the commission of the act.
If the one who made the instigation is a private individual who
is not performing a public function, both he and the one
accused is criminally liable for the crime committed.
Private individual as principal by induction.
Accused as principal by direct participation.

C. Entrapment Is Not An Absolutory Cause
The general rule: no defense to the perpetrator of the crime
that facilities for its commission were purposely placed in his
way, or that the criminal act was done at the decoy
solicitation of persons seeking to expose the criminal, or that
detectives feigning complicity in the act were present and
apparently assisting in its commission. Especially is this true in


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that class of cases where the offense is one of kind habitually


committed, and the solicitation merely furnishes evidence of a
course of conduct.
People v. Lua Chua
o Facts: The accused wrote to his correspondent in
Hongkong to send him a shipment of opium, which had
already been waiting for a ship to Cebu. The Collector
of Customs of Cebu received information regarding the
plan of the accused to land opium in the port. Juan
Samson, a secret servicemen pretended to smooth the
way for the importation, while the Collector of Customs
received P20,000.
o Ruling: It is true that Juan Samson smoothed the way
for the introduction of the prohibited drug, but that
was after the accused had already planned its
importation and had made the order.
o Alternative Scenario: Supposed the accused had not yet
ordered for the opium, but after the assurance of the
Collector of Customs, he made the order.
Ruling: There would be instigation.


D. Entrapment And Instigation Distinguished
Instigation
o Instigator practically induces he would-be accused into
the commission of the offense and instigator becomes
a co-principal.
o Bar to prosecution and conviction of lawbreaker.
o Law enforcer conceives the commission of the crime
and suggests to the accused who adopts the idea and
carries it into execution.
o Exempts the criminal from liability.
o An absolutory cause.
Entrapment

Ways and means are resorted to for the purpose of


trapping and capturing the lawbreaker in the execution
of his criminal plan.
o No bar to prosecution and conviction of lawbreaker.
o Means originate from the mind of the criminal.
o No exemption in liability.
o Not a defense.
There Is Neither Instigation Nor Entrapment When The Violation Of
The Law Is Simply Discovered
People v. Tan Tiong
o Facts: Accused sold a can of powder above the ceiling
price and contended that the government agent
induced him to violate the law by purchasing from him
the specified article.
o Held: agent did not induce the accused. Agent only
knew the price difference when he bought from the
accused. Accused was the one who charged and
collected the price. There was no entrapment.

E. Assurance Of Immunity By A Public Officer Does Not Exempt A
Person From Criminal Liability
Not even the President could give such assurance of immunity
to any violator of the firearm law. His constitutional clemency
can be exercised only after conviction.

IV. Complete Defense In Criminal Cases
1. The prosecution does not prove any of the essential elements
of the crime charged and elements proved do not constitute
any crime.
2. Acts falling under justifying circumstances
3. Acts falling under exempting circumstances
4. Covered by any absolutory causes
5. Guilt of the accused not established beyond reasonable doubt
6. Prescription of crimes
o


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7. Pardon by the offended party before the institution of criminal
action in crime against chastity

CLASS DISCUSSION
What allowance is granted by law to the person who uses a certain
method to defend himself?
Instinct of self-preservation is in play during actual emergencies
that pose danger to life and limb Defendant is not required
to analyze the situation and with mathematical precision and
equality analyze the least harmful way to defend himself. His
instinct, not necessarily his formal reason, is in motion during
self-defense.


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CHAPTER 3: CIRCUMSTANCES WHICH MITIGATE CRIMINAL


LIABILITY

I. Mitigating Circumstances
Definition those which, if present in the commission of the
crime, do not entirely free the actor from criminal liability, but
serve only to reduce the penalty.
Basis on the diminution of either freedom of action,
intelligence, or intent, or on the lesser perversity of the
offender.

II. Classes Of Mitigating Circumstances
Ordinary mitigating those enumerated in subsections 1 to 10
of Article 13; those mentioned in subsection 1 of Article 13, if
Article 69, for instance, is not applicable.
Privileged mitigating
o Article 68
o Article 69
o Article 64
o Privileged mitigating circumstances applicable only to
particular crimes
Article 268, par. 3 - Voluntary release of the
person illegally detained within 3 days without
the offender attaining his purpose and before
the institution of criminal action (penalty is one
degree lower)
Article 333, par. 3 abandonment without
justification of the spouse who committed
adultery (penalty is one degree lower)

III. Distinctions

Ordinary Mitigating Circumstance
Privileged Mitigating
Circumstance

Susceptible of being offset by any Cannot be offset by aggravating


aggravating circumstance.
circumstance.
When not offset by an aggravating Produces the effect of imposing
circumstance, produces only the upon the offender the penalty
effect of applying the penalty lower by one or two degrees than
provided by law for the crime in that provided by law.
its minimum period, in case of
divisible penalty,

IV. Mitigating Circumstances Only Reduce The Penalty, But Do Not
Change The Nature Of The Crime
Accused is charged with murder
o The fact that there is a generic or privileged mitigating
circumstance does not change the felony to homicide.
o If there is an ordinary or generic mitigating
circumstance not offset by any aggravating
circumstance penalty imposed is reduced to the
minimum of the penalty for murder.
o If there is a privileged mitigating circumstance
penalty for murder will be reduced by one or two
degrees lower.
o In every case, the accused should be held guilty of
murder.
o The mitigating circumstance reduces the penalty
provided by law but does not change the nature of the
crime.

Article 13. Mitigating circumstances.
The following are mitigating circumstances:
1. Those mentioned in the preceding chapter, when all the
requisites necessary to justify or to exempt from criminal
liability in the respective cases are not attendant.
2. That the offender is under eighteen years of age or over
seventy years. In the case of the minor, he shall be proceeded


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3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

9.

10.

against in accordance with the provisions of Article 80.


That the offender had no intention to commit so grave a
wrong as that committed.
That sufficient provocation or threat on the part of the
offended party immediately preceded the act.
That the act was committed in the immediate vindication of a
grave offense to the one committing the felony (delito), his
spouse, ascendants, or relatives by affinity within the same
degrees.
That of having acted upon an impulse so powerful as naturally
to have produced passion or obfuscation.
That the offender had voluntarily surrendered himself to a
person in authority or his agents, or that he had voluntarily
confessed his guilt before the court prior to the presentation
of the evidence for the prosecution;
That the offender is deaf and dumb, blind or otherwise
suffering some physical defect which thus restricts his means
of action, defense, or communications with his fellow beings.
Such illness of the offender as would diminish the exercise of
the will-power of the offender without however depriving him
of the consciousness of his acts.
And, finally, any other circumstances of a similar nature and
analogous to those above mentioned.


POINTS

PAR. 1: THOSE MENTIONED IN THE PRECEDING CHAPTER, WHEN ALL
THE REQUISITES NECESSARY TO JUSTIFY OR EXEMPT FROM CRIMINAL
LIABILITY IN THE RESPECTIVE CASES ARE NOT ATTENDANT.

I. Important Words And Phrases
Those mentioned in the preceding chapter
o This clause has reference to (1) justifying circumstances
and (2) exempting circumstances.

Circumstances of justification or exemption which may give


place to mitigation:

Source
Circumstance
Article 11, par. 1
Self-defense
Article 11, par. 2
Defense of relatives
Article 11, par. 3
Defense of stranger
Article 11, par. 4
State of necessity
Article 11, par. 5
Performance of duty
Article 11, par. 6
Obedience to order of superior
Republic Act No. No. Minority above 15 but below 18
9344
years of age
Article 12, par. 4
Causing by mere accident
Article 12, par. 6
Uncontrollable fear

Article 12, par. 1 & 2 cant give place to mitigation because
there is no middle ground between sanity and insanity or
between the absence or presence of intelligence.
Any illness which would diminish will-power, without depriving
the offender of consciousness of his acts are considered to be
within the scope of Article 13, par. 9.


II. When All The Requisites Necessary To Justify An Act Are Not
Attendant
1. Incomplete self-defense, defense of relatives and defense of
stranger.
o Article 13, par. 1 is applicable ONLY when unlawful
aggression is present but the other two requisites (in
the cases referred to in Article 11, par. 1,2,3) are not
present.
If there is no unlawful aggression, there could
be no self-defense or defense of a relative,
whether complete or incomplete.


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When 2 of 3 requisites mentioned are present, the case
should be considered under privileged mitigating
circumstance (Article 69)1.
o People v. Martin When there is unlawful aggression
on the part of the deceased, without sufficient
provocation by the defendant, but the defendant used
means not reasonably necessary, for after having
snatched the rope from the deceased, he should not
have wound it around her neck and tightened it, the
defendant is only entitled to privileged mitigating
circumstance as there is incomplete self-defense.
2. Incomplete justifying circumstance of avoidance of greater evil
or injury
o Avoidance of a greater evil or injury is a justifying
circumstance ONLY if all 3 requisites in Article 11, par.4
are present.
o If any of the last two requisites is absent, there is ONLY
mitigating circumstance.
3. Incomplete justifying circumstance of performance of duty.
o People v. Oanis
Facts: The deceased was killed while asleep, as
he was mistaken to be Balagtas a person who
was to be apprehended dead or alive if there is
resistance. The arresting officers through
impatience or their desire to take no chances
thus killed the deceased.
Issue: Whether or not there is mitigating
circumstance.
o

1 Article 69. Penalty to be imposed when the crime committed is not wholly excusable. A penalty
lower by one or two degrees than that prescribed by law shall be imposed if the deed is not wholly
excusable by reason of the lack of some of the conditions required to justify the same or to
exempt from criminal liability in the several cases mentioned in Article 11 and 12, provided that
the majority of such conditions be present. The courts shall impose the penalty in the period which
may be deemed proper, in view of the number and nature of the conditions of exemption present
or lacking.

Ruling: Appellants are declared guilty of


murder with the mitigating circumstance. The
Supreme Court considered one of the two
requisites as constituting the majority.
4. Incomplete justifying circumstance of obedience to an order.
o People v. Bernal
Facts: Roleda fired at Pilones following the
order of his superior Sgt. Benting. It was found
that Roleda may have acted without
questioning his superior because he had a
feeling of resentment resulting from Pilones
having killed a member of the military police.
Issue: Whether or not the absence of one of
two justifying circumstance requirements
constitutes a mitigating circumstance.
Ruling: The first circumstance (order by
superior) is present, but the second (order is
for some lawful purposes) is wanting.


III. When All The Requisite Necessary To Exempt From Criminal
Liability Are Not Attendant
1. Incomplete exempting circumstance of minority over 15 and
under 18 years of age.
o If the minor is over 15 and under 18, but acted with
discernment, he is entitled only to a mitigating
circumstance.
2. Incomplete exempting circumstance of accident.
o There are 2 requisites for Article 12, par. 4.
o If the 2nd requisite (done with due care) and the first
part of the 4th requisite (no fault) are ABSENT, case will
fall under Article 365, which punishes a felony by
negligence or imprudence mitigating because the
penalty is lower than that which punishes intentional
felony.


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If the 1st requisite (lawful act) and second part of the 4th
requisite (intention of causing harm) are ABSENT, that
is the person committed an unlawful act and had the
intention of causing injury, it will be an intentional
felony no mitigating circumstance at all.
3. Incomplete exempting circumstance of uncontrollable fear.
o If only 1 of 2 requisites of Article 12, par. 6 are present,
there only a mitigating circumstance.
o


PAR. 2: THAT THE OFFENDER IS UNDER EIGHTEEN YEAR OF AGE OR
OVER SEVENTY YEARS. IN THE CASE OF THE MINOR, HE SHALL BE
PROCEEDED AGAINST IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROVISIONS OF
ARTICLE 80.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 2
The diminution of intelligence, a condition of voluntariness.

II. Article 13, Par. 2 Of Revised Penal Code Impliedly Repealed By
Republic Act No. 9344
Under R.A 9344, a child above 15 but below 18 years of age
shall be exempt from criminal liability unless he acted with
discernment.
If the child acted with discernment, he shall undergo diversion
programs.

III. Diversion Programs (Republic Act No. 9344)
If the child acted with discernment, he shall undergo diversion
programs.
o Diversion alternative child-appropriate process of
determining the responsibility and treatment of a child
in conflict with the law on the basis of his/her social,
cultural, economic, psychological, or educational
background without resulting to formal court
proceedings.

Diversion Program refers to the program that the


child in conflict with the law is required to undergo
after he/she is found responsible for an offense
without resorting to formal court proceedings


A. System Of Diversion
Children in conflict with the law shall undergo diversion
programs without undergoing court proceedings

Penalty
Procedure
Imposable penalty Mediation, family conferencing and conciliation
for the crime is not and, where appropriate, adopt indigenous modes
more than 6 years of conflict resolution in accordance with the best
imprisonment.
interest of the child with a view to accomplishing
the objectives of restorative justice.

Involves:
(1) Law enforcement office/Punong Barangay
(2) Local social welfare and development
officer/other members of the Local Councils
for the Protection of Children (LCPC)
(3) Child and his/her family
Victimless crime Develop appropriate diversion and rehabilitation
where imposable program.
penalty is not
more than 6 years Involves:
imprisonment.
(1) Coordinate with Barangay Council for the
Protection of Children (BCPC)
(2) Local social welfare development officer
(3) Child and his/her parents or guardians
Imposable penalty Diversion measure may be resorted only by the
exceeds 6 years court.
imprisonment


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B. Conferencing, Mediation, Conciliation
A child in conflict with the law may undergo conferencing,
mediation or conciliation outside the criminal justice system or
prior to his entry into said system.

C. Contract Of Diversion
If during the conferencing, mediation or conciliation, the child
voluntarily admits the commission of the act a diversion
program shall be developed when appropriate and desirable.
Such admission shall not be used against the child in any
subsequent judicial, quasi-judicial or administrative
proceedings.
Diversion program shall be effective and binding by the written
acceptance signed by authorities and parties concerned.
The local social welfare and development officer shall supervise
the implementation of the diversion.
Diversion proceedings shall be completed in 45 days.
Period of prescription of the offense shall be suspended until
the completion of the diversion.
Child shall present himself/herself to authorities who imposed
diversion program at least once a month for reporting and
evaluation of the effectiveness of the program.
Failure to comply with the program shall give the offended
party the option to institute appropriate legal action.
Where it may be conducted Katarungang Pambarangay
during the investigation phase and during all levels of the
proceedings including judicial level.
Duty of the Punong Barangay or the Law Enforcement Officer
when there is no diversion if the imposable penalty is over 6
years or the child/his parents do not consent to a diversion, the
Punong Barangay shall forward the records of the case to the
law enforcement officer, prosecutor or appropriate court
within 3 days.

IV. That The Offender Is 70 Years Of Age Is Only A Generic Mitigating


Circumstance
Article 68 (privileged mitigating circumstances) does not
include offenders over 70 years old.

PAR. 3: THAT THE OFFENDER HAD NOT INTENTION TO COMMIT SO
GRAVE A WRONG AS THAT COMMITTED

I. Basis Of Paragraph 3
Intent, an element of voluntariness in intentional felony, is
diminished.

II. Rule For Application
This circumstance can be taken into account only when the
facts proven show that there is a notable and evident
disproportion between the means employed to execute the
criminal act and its consequences.
o US v. Bertucio The accused confined himself to
giving a single blow with a bolo on the right arm of the
victim and did not repeat the blow. The death of the
victim was due to neglect and the lack of medical
treatment, his death having resulted from hemorrhage
which those who attended to him did not know how to
stop or control in time.
o NOTE: There is still criminal liability (in consonance
with Article 4). It is simply mitigated.

III. Evidence Of Intention As A Factor For Mitigating Circumstance
A. Intention, Being An Internal State, Must Be Judged By External Acts
The intention, as an internal act is judged not only by the
proportion of the means employed by him to the evil produced
by his act, but also by the fact that the blow was or was not
aimed at a vital part of the body.


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B. How To Determine Intent
The weapon used, the part of the body injured, the injury
inflicted, and the manner it is inflicted may show that the
accused intended the wrong committed
How to determine intent:
o The kind of weapon used.
o The part of the body injured.
o The kind/extent of the injury inflicted.
Intention must be judged by considering the weapon used, the
injury inflicted, and his attitude of the mind when the accused
attacked the deceased (People v. Flores).
When a person stabs another with a lethal weapon upon a vital
part of the body, death could presumably be anticipated and
the accused must be presumed to have intended the natural
consequences of his wrongful act (People v. Reyes).
The weapon used, the force of the blow, the spot where the
blow was directed and landed, and the cold blood in which it
was inflicted, all tend to negative any notion that the plan was
anything less than to finish the victim (People v. Banlos).
Inflicting of five stab wounds in rapid succession negates
pretense of lack of intention to cause so serious an injury. It
brings forth in bold relief the intention of the accused to snuff
out the life of the deceased (People v. Braa).

C. Whose Intention Matters
Article 13, paragraph 3, is not applicable when the offender
employed brute force It is the intention of the offender at the
moment when he is committing the crime which is considered.
o Article 13, par. 3 addresses itself to the intention of
the offender at the particular moment when he
executes or commits the criminal act; not to his
intention during the planning stage.

D. When Appreciated

Lack of intention to commit so grave a wrong, mitigating in


robbery with homicide.
o People v. Abuega it has not be satisfactorily
established that in forcing entrance through the door
which was then closed, with the use of pieces of wood,
the accused were aware that the deceased was behind
the door and would be hurt, and there is not clear
showing that they ever desired to kill the deceased as
they sought to enter the house.
Appreciated in murder qualified by circumstance based on
manner of commission, not on state of mind of accused.
o People v. Enriquez
Facts: Several accused decided to have the
foreman beaten up. Foreman died as a result of
hemorrhage.
Ruling: Murder results from presence of
qualifying circumstances (premeditation and
treachery) based upon the manner of
committing the crime, not in the state of mind
of the accused.
Lack of intent to kill, not mitigating in physical injuries.
o People v. Galacgac In crimes against persons who do
not die as a result of the assault, the absence of the
intent to kill reduces the felony to mere physical
injuries, but it does not constitute a mitigating
circumstance.
Lack of intent to kill, mitigating when the victim dies.
o People v. Pugay
Facts: Accused set the deceaseds clothes on
fire with the intent of causing physical injuries
at the most.
Ruling: Accused is guilty of the resulting death
but he is entitled to the mitigating


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circumstance of no intention to commit so


grave a wrong as that committed.
Applied in malversation of public funds (Perez v. People).
o Facts: Petitioner misappropriated funds because he
was impelled by the genuine love for his brother and
his family. He used the funds to pay off a debut owed
by his brother, while another portion went to his
medications for his debilitating diabetes.
o Ruling: Petitioner is entitled to mitigating circumstance
as petitioner restituted all by P 8,000 of the funds in
less than one month and a half.


E. When Not Appreciated
Not appreciated in murder qualified by treachery.
Not applicable to felonies by negligence.
o The reason is that in felonies through negligence, the
offender acts without intent. The intent in intentional
felonies is replaced by negligence, imprudence, lack of
foresight, or lack of skill in culpable felonies.
Not applicable to felonies like defamation or slander (People v.
Galang de Bautista). Applicable ONLY to offenses resulting in
physical injuries or material harm.

IV. Is Article 13, Par. 3 Applicable To Felonies Where Intention Of The
Offender Is Immaterial?
People v. Cristobal where the resulting abortion was not
intended by the offender, this mitigating circumstance is not
applicable.
People v. Flameo where the accused pulled the hair of the
complainant with the intention to maltreat her, but thus
caused her to fall on her buttocks resulting into unintentional
abortion, mitigating circumstance was given in favor of the
accused.

PAR. 4: THAT SUFFICIENT PROVOCATION OR THREAT ON THE PART OF


THE OFFENDED PARTY IMMEDIATELY PRECEDED THE ACT.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 4
Based on the diminution of intelligence and intent

II. Provocation
Provocation any unjust or improper conduct or act of the
offended party, capable of exciting or inciting or irritating
anyone.

III. Elements Of Provocation
1. That the provocation must be sufficient
2. That it must originate from the offended party
3. That the provocation must be immediate to the act, i.e., to the
commission of the crime by the person who is provoked.

IV. FIRST ELEMENT: The Provocation Must Be Sufficient.
Sufficient means adequate to excite a person to commit the
wrong and must accordingly be proportionate to its gravity.

A. As To Whether A Provocation Is Sufficient Depends Upon The Act
Constituting The Provocation:
1. The social standing of the person provoked.
2. The place and time when the provocation is made.

V. SECOND ELEMENT: Provocation Must Originate From The Offended
Party.
The reason for the requirement is that the law says that the
provocation is on the part of the offended party.
People v. Reyes Where the provocation did not come from
the deceased but from his mother, the same may not be
appreciated in favor of the accused.


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A. Difference Between Sufficient Provocation As Requisite Of
Incomplete Self-Defense And As A Mitigating Circumstance.

Element of self-defense
Mitigating circumstance
Pertains to its absence on the part Pertains to its presence on the
of the person defending himself
part of the offended part.

VI. THIRD ELEMENT: Provocation Must Be Immediate To The
Commission Of The Crime.
There should not be any interval of time between the
provocation of the offended party and the commission of the
crime of the person provoked.
o When there is an interval of time between the
provocation and the commission of the crime, the
conduct of the offended party could not have excited
the accused to the commission of the crime, he having
time to regain his reason and to exercise self-control
People v. Benito
o Facts: The accused had almost a day to mull over the
alleged provocation before he reacted by shooting the
victim.
o Ruling: Inevitable conclusion is he did not feel
sufficiently provoked at the time the alleged
provocation was made. His shooting the victim the next
day was a deliberate act of vengeance and not the
natural reaction of a human being to immediately
retaliate when provoked.
Threat immediately preceded the act
o The threat should not be offensive and positively
strong, because if it is, the threat to inflict real injury is
an unlawful aggression, which may give rise to selfdefense.
o Example: A was threatened by B with bodily harm and
because of the threat, A immediately attacked and

injured B, there was a mitigating circumstance of threat


immediately preceding the act.
Vague threats are insufficient.
o Vague If you do not agree, beware.
o Clear Follow us if you dare and we will kill you.

PAR.5: THAT THE ACT WAS COMMITTED IN THE IMMEDIATE


VINDICATION OF A GRAVE OFFENSE TO THE ONE COMMITTING THE
FELONY (DELITO), HIS SPOUSE, ASCENDANTS, DESCENDANTS,
LEGITIMATE, NATURAL OR ADOPTED BROTHERS OR SISTERS, OR
RELATIVES BY AFFINITY WITHIN THE SAME DEGREES.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 5
Based on the diminution of the conditions of voluntariness.
o Grave offense must be directed to the accused
o Vindication of a grave offense incompatible with
passion or obfuscation.

II. Elements For Vindication Of Grave Offense:
1. That there be a grave offense done to the one committing the
felony, his spouse, ascendants, descendants, legitimate, natural
or adopted brothers or sisters, or relatives by affinity within the
same degrees
2. That the felony is committed in vindication of such grave
offense. A lapse of time is allowed between the vindication and
the doing of the grave offense.

III. Application
Applies to grave offense committed against surviving spouse of
deceased relative.
o If A (surviving husband of B) was killed by C, Bs
brothers would be entitled to the mitigating
circumstance of vindication of grave offense if they


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cause serious physical injuries to C immediately after


learning of As death.
A lapse of time is allowed between the grave offense and the
vindication.
o The Spanish text uses proxima meaning next.
o The fact that the accused was slapped by the deceased
in the presence of many persons a few hours before
the former killed the latter, was considered a mitigating
circumstance that the act was committed in the
immediate vindication of a grave offense (People v.
Parana).
Interval time negating vindication.
o People v. Lumayag 9 months had passed between
the infliction of physical injuries of the deceased on the
accused and the act of the accused of murdering the
deceased.
o People v. Benito At 11:00am, deceased told the
accused in the presence of the latters officemates
hindi ko alam na itong Civil Service pala ay istambayan
ng magnanakaw. Accused killed the deceased at
5:00pm. No mitigating circumstance.
o Mitigating circumstance of immediate vindication of a
grave offense cannot be considered in favor of accused
because he had sufficient time to recover his serenity
(People v. Lopez).


IV. Provocation v. Vindication

Provocation
Vindication
Made directly only to the person The grave offense may be
committing the felony.
committed also against the
offenders relatives.
The cause that brought about the The offended party must have
provocation need not be a grave done a grave offense to the

offense.
Provocation
or
threat
immediately preceded the act i.e.
no interval time in between.

offender or his relatives.


Proximate, which admits an
interval time between the grave
offense time by the offended
party and the commission of the
crime.


Reason for difference This greater leniency in the case of
vindication is due undoubtedly to the fact that it concerns the
honor of a person, an offense which is more worthy of
consideration than mere spite against the one giving the
provocation or threat.


V. Basis To Determine Gravity Of Offense In Vindication
Considerations in determining whether a certain personal
offense was grave:
o Social standing of the person.
o Place where the insult was made.
o Time when the insult was made.
Considered grave offenses:
o Sarcastic remark implying the accused was a petty
tyrant.
o Remark of the injured party before the guests that the
accused lived at the expense of his wife
consideration of place.
o Just after the American forces reoccupied Manila, the
offended party told the accused that the latter was a
Japanese spy consideration of time.
The provocation should be proportionate to the damage
caused by the act and adequate to stir one to its commission.
Grave offense must be directed to the accused.
o The supposed grave offense done by the victim was an
alleged remark made in the presence of the accused
that the Civil Service Commission is a hangout of


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thieves. The remark itself was general and not alluding
to anyone. People in the vicinity would not have known
that the accused was possibly being insulted unless
they were aware that he was facing charges involving
his honesty and integrity (People v. Benito).

PAR. 6: THAT OF HAVING ACTED UPON AN IMPULSE SO POWERFUL AS
NATURALLY TO HAVE PRODUCED PASSION OR OBFUSCATION

I. Basis Of Paragraph 6
Passion or obfuscation is a mitigating circumstance because the
offender who acts with passion or obfuscation suffers a
diminution of his intelligence and intent.

II. Elements For Passion Or Obfuscation:
Paragraph requires that:
o The accused acted upon an impulse.
o The impulse must be so powerful that it naturally
produced passion or obfuscation in him.
Requisites of the mitigating circumstance of passion or
obfuscation:
o That there be an act both unlawful and sufficient to
produce such a condition of mind.
o That said act which produced the obfuscation was not
far removed from the commission of the crime by a
considerable length of time during which the
perpetrator might recover his normal equanimity.

III. Reason Why Passion Or Obfuscation Is Mitigating
When there are causes naturally producing in a person
powerful excitement, he loses his reason and self-control,
thereby diminishing the exercise of his will power.

Passion or obfuscation may constitute a mitigating


circumstance only when the same arose from lawful
sentiments.
o For this reason, even if there is actually passion or
obfuscation on the part of the offender, there is no
mitigating circumstance when:
The act is committed in a spirit of lawlessness.
The act is committed in a spirit of revenge.


IV. FIRST ELEMENT: The Act Of The Offended Party Must Be Both
Unlawful And Sufficient To Produce Such A Condition Of Mind.
Unlawful or unjust act of the offended party
o People v. Ancheta, et al. mitigating circumstance
considered in favor of the owner who, upon seeing the
person who stole his carabao, shoots the supposed
thief.
o People v. Samonte Deceased created trouble during
the wake of the departed father of the defendant.
Considering the trouble created by the accused was
both unlawful and sufficient to infuriate accused, his
guilt is mitigated by passion or obfuscation.
Exercise of a right or fulfillment of a duty is not proper source
of passion or obfuscation.
o People v. Noynay, et al. Where the accused killed
the deceased when the latter was going to take his
carabao to the barrio lieutenant after the accused
refused to pay for the sugar cane destroyed by his
carabao. The deceased was within the rights of the
deceased, and thus there is not mitigating
circumstance.
o US v. Taylor Accused was making a disturbance on a
public street when a policeman came to arrest him. The
anger and indignation of the accused resulting from the


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arrest cannot be considered passion and obfuscation


because the policeman was performing a lawful act.
Act must be sufficient to produce such a condition of mind
o If the cause of the loss of self-control was trivial and
slight, obfuscation is not mitigating.
Passion or obfuscation must arise from lawful sentiments and
not from a spirit of lawlessness or revenge or from anger and
resentment.
o US v. De la Cruz Accused was entitled to mitigating
circumstance of passion or obfuscation because the
impulse was caused by the sudden revelation that she
was untrue to him, and his discovery of her in flagrante
in the arms of a common acquaintance.
in contrast
o US v. Hicks No mitigating circumstance when the
cause of passion or obfuscation of the accused was his
vexation, disappointment and anger engendered by the
refusal of the woman to continue living in illicit
relations with him which she had the perfect right to
do.
o Obfuscation arising from jealousy may be invoked if the
relationship is legitimate. But if it is illegitimate, it is not
mitigating (People. V. Olgado).


V. SECOND ELEMENT: That Said Act Which Produced The Obfuscation
Was Not Far Removed From The Commission Of The Crime By A
Considerable Length Of Time During Which The Perpetrator Might
Recover His Normal Equanimity.
No passion or obfuscation when:
o 24 has elapsed between the alleged insult and the
commission of the felony.
o Several hours passed between the cause of passion or
obfuscation and the commission of the crime.

At least half an hour intervened between the previous


fight and the subsequent killing of the deceased by the
accused.
Period that has lapsed is long enough for pause and reflection.
o


VI. May Passion Or Obfuscation Lawfully Arise From Causes Existing
Only In The Honest Belief Of The Offender? YES
US v. Ferrer belief of the defendant that the deceased had
caused his dismissal from his employment is sufficient to
confuse his reason and impel him to commit the crime.
US v. Macalintal belief entertained in good faith by the
defendants that the deceased cast upon their mother a spell of
withcraft which was the cause of serious illness is sufficient.

VII. Other Notes
Provocation and obfuscation when arising from one and the
same cause should be treated as only one mitigating
circumstance (p.309).
Vindication of grave offense cannot co-exist with passion and
obfuscation.
o Exception: when there are other facts, although closely
connected i.e. where there are other facts, although
closely connected with the fact upon which one
circumstance is premised, the other circumstance may
be appreciated as based on the other fact (People v.
Diokno)
o Example: Two facts which are closely connected
Elopement, which is a grave offense of a family
of old customs vindication as mitigating.
Refusal to deal with him, a stimulus strong
enough to produce in his mind a fit of passion
passion as a mitigating circumstance.
Vindication and obfuscation cannot be considered when the
person attacked is not the one who gave cause therefore.


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Passion or obfuscation compatible with lack of intention to


commit so grave a wrong.
Passion or obfuscation incompatible with treachery.
o While in passion or obfuscation, the offender loses his
reason and self-control, in the aggravating
circumstance of treachery the mode of attack must be
consciously adopted.
Passion and obfuscation cannot co-exist with evident premeditation.


PAR. 7: THAT THE OFFENDER HAD VOLUNTARILY SURRENDERED
HIMSELF TO A PERSON IN AUTHORITY OR HIS AGENTS, OR THAT HE
HAD VOLUNTARILY CONFESSED HIS GUILT BEFORE THE COURT PRIOR
TO THE PRESENTATION OF THE EVIDENCE FOR THE PROSECUTION

I. Basis Of Paragraph 7
Lesser perversity of the offender.

II. Two Mitigating Circumstances In Paragraph:
1. Voluntary surrender to a person in authority or his agents.
2. Voluntary confession of guilt before the court prior to the
presentation of the evidence for the prosecution.
Under Article 13, when both are present, they should have the
effect of mitigating as two independent circumstances.
When they mitigate the penalty, when both are present, they
should produce this effect to a greater extent.

III. Elements For Voluntary Surrender
Requisites for paragraph 7:
o Offender had not been actually arrested
o Offender surrendered himself to a person in authority
of to the latters agent
o Surrender is voluntary
Requisites of voluntariness:

o
o

Same must be spontaneous in such a manner that it


shows the interest of the accused to surrender
unconditionally to the authorities either because he
acknowledges his guilt or that he wants to save the
authorities the trouble and expenses of locating and
capturing him.
Accused must actually surrender in his own person to
the authorities, admitting complicity to the crime
Must indicate a desire on his part to own the
responsibilities for the crime


IV. FIRST ELEMENT: Offender Had Not Been Actually Arrested And
Surrendered Himself.
Cases of voluntary surrender
o People v. Tenorio Upon seeing a policeman, the
accused surrendered and admitted he did the crime.
There was intent and desire on his part to surrender.
o People v. Dayrit Accused hid in the hotel not
because of the police but because of the relatives of
the deceased. Upon seeing policemen, he readily
admitted ownership of the weapon and went with the
policemen.
o People v. Benito Instead of escaping, the accused
called the police, voluntarily approached them when
they came though not revealing his identity, and said
that he will help the police find the suspect. Later on,
he admitted that he was voluntarily surrendering
himself.
o People v. Magpalay Accused made several attempts
to surrender but somehow it got delayed because of
various reasons and so he only got to surrender after a
week. No defiance of law was present.


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People v. Torres The accused had no opportunity to
surrender since the police already came but they
already yielded their weapons at that time.
o People v. Radomes There was no resistance on the
part of the accused and even voluntarily gave his
weapon and gave himself up to the authorities before
his arrest.
o People v. Jereza Accused brought his weapon to the
police but it is unsure if he is also surrendering his
person. He is given the benefit of the doubt of
voluntary surrender.
o People v. Braa Nothing on records to show that a
warrant of arrest was issued and accused surrendered
himself.
Cases not constituting voluntary surrender
o El Pueblo contra Conwi Warrant of arrest showed
that accused was in fact arrested.
o People v. Roldan Accused surrendered only after the
warrant of arrest was served upon him.
o People v.Velez Even if the police used the word
surrender, if the accused surrendered because of his
warrant of arrest.
o People v. Mationg Accused went into hiding and
only surrendered when they realized that the police are
closing in on them.
o People v. Salvilla Accused could no longer refuse to
surrender given the circumstances that they are in and
there was no chance of escaping. Their surrender is
motivated by their intent of insuring their safety.
o People v. Dela Cruz Search for the accused lasted for
4 years, which belies the spontaneity of the surrender.
o People v. Garcia No other evidence was presented
to establish indubitably that he deliberately
surrendered to the police.
o

People v. Trigo Accused only went to the police


station to report wife was stabbed and to protect
himself out of fear.
o People v. Rogales Only went to the headquarters
merely to report the incident which does not evince
any desire to own the responsibility for the killing of
the deceased
o People v. Canoy It does not appear that it was the
idea of the accused to send for the police for the
purpose of giving himself up.
o People v. Canoy Authorities were not looking for
him, and would not have looked for him if he had not
been present at the investigation by the Chief of Police.
o People v. Rubinal Upon being caught, accused
pretended to say that he was on his way to surrender
himself to the authorities.
Voluntarily surrendered himself prior to being arrested
People v. Jose de Ramos
o Facts: After the incident, accused reported it to the
councilor, even stayed in the councilors home for an
hour and submitting the bolo used but not his person
to the authorities.
o Held: The law requires that the offender must have
voluntarily surrendered himself to a person in
authority or his agents.
Surrender of weapons cannot be equated with voluntary
surrender.
Surrender not mitigating when the defendant is arrested.
o People v. Conwi No voluntary surrender when the
warrant of arrest showed that the defendant was in
fact arrested.
o Possible exemption:
People v. Parana When the accused after
committing the offense and having the chance
o


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to escape, voluntarily waited for the authorities
and surrendered himself.
People v. Babiera When the accused helped
in carrying his victim to the hospital where he
was disarmed and arrested. It is tantamount to
voluntary surrender.
When the warrant of arrest had not been served or not
returned unserved because the accused cannot be located the
surrender is mitigating.
o The law does not require that the surrender be prior to
the order of arrest the mere filing of an information
and/or the issuances of a warrant of arrest will not
automatically make the surrender involuntary.

V. SECOND ELEMENT: Offender Surrendered Himself To A Person In
Authority Of To The Latters Agent.
The surrender must be made to a person in authority or his
agent.
o Person in Authority one directly vested with
jurisdiction, that is a public officer who has the power
to govern and execute the laws whether as an
individual or as a member of some court or
governmental corporation, board or commission.
(Article 152 Revised Penal Code as amended by PD no.
299)
o Agent of a Person in Authority person, who, by
direct provision of the law, or by election or by
appointment, by competent authority, is charged with
the maintenance of public order, and the protection
and security of life and property and any person who
comes to the aid of persons in authority.

VI. THIRD ELEMENT: Surrender Is Voluntary
A. When Is Surrender Voluntary?

Must be spontaneous, showing the intent of the accused to


submit himself unconditionally to the authorities, either:
1. Because of acknowledgement of guilt or
2. Because he wished to save the trouble and expenses
necessarily incurred in his search and capture.
None of these 2 reasons and motivated by other intentions: not
voluntary!
The Surrender Must Be Spontaneous
Spontaneous idea of an inner impulse, acting without
external stimulus.
Conduct of the accused after the commission of the offense
determines the spontaneity of the surrender.
Intentions to surrender without actually surrendering, is not
mitigating.
o The law requires that the accused must surrender
himself.
There is spontaneity even if the surrender is induced by fear of
retaliation by the victims relatives
o Does not gainsay the spontaneity of the surrender, nor
alter the fact that by giving himself up, this accused
saved the State the time and trouble of searching for
him until arrested. (People v. Clemente)
When the offender imposed a condition or acted with external
stimulus, his surrender is not voluntary.
A surrender is not voluntary when forced by circumstances.
o Examples: belief that escape is impossible, impossibility
of living in hostility.

B. Voluntary Surrender Does Not Simply Mean Non-Flight
What the law considers as mitigating is the voluntary
surrender of an accused before his arrest, showing either
acknowledgement of his guilt or an intention to save the
authorities from the trouble and expense that his search and
capture.


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Even if accused did not go into hiding and even
accompanied the police to the scene of the crime, such
act is not voluntary surrender if he did not submit
himself or admit complicity to the crime.
Time and place of surrender.
o Revised Penal Code does not make any distinction
among the various moments when the surrender may
occur.
o The law does not require the surrender to be prior to
the order of the arrest.
The surrender must be by reason of the commission of the
crime for which defendant is prosecuted
o Thus, if the defendant surrendered as a Huk to take
advantage of the amnesty, but the crime for which he
was prosecuted was distinct and separate from
rebellion, his surrender is not mitigating (People v
Semaada).
Surrender through an intermediary
o Surrender of an accused through his father who acted
as mediator was appreciated to be mitigating (People v.
De la Cruz).
o


VII. Confession Of Guilt Before A Court Prior To The Presentation Of
Evidence By The Prosecution
A. Plea Of Guilty
Three requisites
a. Offender spontaneously confessed his guilt.
b. Confession made in open court that is, before the
competent court.
c. Confession of guilt made prior to the presentation of
evidence for the prosecution.
When it must be made:
o The plea must be made before trial begins.
o Plea of guilty on appeal, not mitigating when:

Plea of guilty must be made at the first


opportunity.
Municipal Court to Court of First Instance does
not restore the case to its original state: The
law requires a trial de novo, because a trial de
novo necessarily implies the existence of a
previous trial where evidence was presented by
the prosecution.
Philosophy behind the rule:
o Spontaneous willingness of the accused to admit the
commission of the offense charged must be present.
Reason why plea of guilty is mitigating:
o Act of repentance and respect of the law
o Indicates a moral disposition favorable to the accuseds
reform
The confession of guilt must be made in open court.
The extrajudicial confession is not the voluntary confession the
Court contemplates. Such confession was made outside of
courts.
The confession of guilt must be made prior to the presentation
of the evidence for the prosecution
o Third requisite is lacking when plea of guilty is made
after the fiscal had presented evidence.
o Benefit of plea of guilty undeserving by accused who
submits to the law only after the presentation of some
evidence for the prosecution.
o It is not necessary that all the evidence of the
prosecution have been presented.
Plea of guilty should be made prior to presentation of evidence
Plea of not guilty at the preliminary investigation is no plea at
all.
o Plea made in the court of competent jurisdiction is the
one recognized.


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Withdrawal of plea of not guilty and pleading guilty before


presentation of evidence by prosecution is still mitigating.
o All that the law requires is voluntary plea of guilty prior
to the presentation of the evidence by the prosecution.
o The change of plea should be made at the first
opportunity.
o A conditional plea of guilty is not a mitigating
circumstance.
Plea of guilty to amended information
o An entirely new information arises and no evidence
was presented in connection with the charges made
therein before the accused entered his plea of guilty.
The accused is entitled to the mitigating circumstance
of plea of guilty.
Plea of guilty to lesser offense than that charged, not mitigating
o To be voluntary, the plea of guilty must be to the
offense charged.
o If voluntary confession is conditional or qualified, it is
not mitigating.
Plea of guilty to the offense charged in the amended
information, which is lesser than that charged in the original
information, is mitigating.
o People v. Intal
Facts: The accused was charged with double
murder and he pleaded not guilty to it. He then
moved the Court to withdraw his former plea
of not guilty to guilty to the lesser crime of
double homicide. Prosecution also changed its
charge to double homicide.
Held: plea of guilty to the lesser offense
charged in the amended information is
mitigating

When the accused is charged with a grave offense, the


court should take his testimony in spite of his plea of
guilty
Because there is no law prohibiting the taking
of testimony after a plea of guilty, where a
grave offence is charged, the Court has deemed
such taking of testimony the prudent and
proper course to follow for the purpose of
establishing the guilt and the precise degree of
culpability of the defendant.
Death penalty changed to life imprisonment because of plea of
guilty, even if done during the presentation of evidence
o Such an admission of guilt indicates his submission to
the law and a moral disposition on his part to reform,
hence the change in penalty.
Mandatory presentation of evidence in plea of guilty to capital
offense
o Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure (Rule 116, Sec. 3)
Where the accused pleads guilty to a capital
offense, that courts shall conduct a searching
inquiry into the voluntariness and full
comprehension of the consequences of his plea
and shall require the prosecution to prove his
guilt and the precise degree of culpability.
Searching Inquiry
Guidelines:
o Ascertain from the accused himself (a) how he was
brought into the custody of the law; (b) whether he had
the assistance of a competent counsel during the
custodial and preliminary investigations and (c) under
what conditions he was detained and interrogated
during the investigations
o Ask defense counsel a series of questions as to whether
he had conferred with and completely explained to the
o


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accused the meaning and consequences of a plea of
guilty
o Elicit information about the personality profile of the
accused
o Inform the accused of the exact length of
imprisonment or nature of penalty under the law and
the certainty that he will serve such sentence.
o Inquire if the accused knows the crime with which he is
charged and to fully explain to him the elements of the
crime which is the basis of his indictment
o Use language that is known and understood by the
accused
o Trial judge must satisfy himself that the accused in
pleading guilty, is truly guilty.
Plea of guilty is not mitigating in culpable felonies and in crimes
punished by special laws
o Article 365, paragraph 5 of Revised Penal Code: in the
imposition of these penalties, the courts shall exercise
their sound discretion, without regard to the rules
prescribed in Article 64.
o When there is a mitigating circumstance without any
aggravating circumstance, the penalty to be imposed is
the minimum period of the divisible penalty.
o When the crime is punished by a special law, the court
shall also exercise its sound discretion
o Article 64 is applicable only when the penalty has 3
periods.

PAR. 8: THAT THE OFFENDER IS DEAF AND DUMB, BLIND OR
OTHERWISE SUFFERING SOME PHYSICAL DEFECT WHICH THUS
RESTRICTS HIS MEANS OF ACTION, DEFENSE OR COMMUNICATION
WITH HIS FELLOW BEINGS.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 8:

Considers the fact that one suffering from physical defect does
not have complete freedom of action, and therefore there is a
diminution of that element of voluntariness.


II. Physical defect must restrict means of actions, defense, or
communication with fellow beings
Physical defect in this paragraph: armless, cripple, or a
stutterer, whereby his means to act, defend himself or
communicate with his fellow beings are limited.
Paragraph does not distinguish between educated and
uneducated deaf-mute or blind persons. The Code considers
them as being on equal footing.

PAR. 9: SUCH ILLNESS OF THE OFFENDER AS WOULD DIMINISH HIS
EXERCISING OF THE WILL-POWER OF THE OFFENDER WITHOUT
HOWEVER DEPRIVING HIM OF CONSCIOUSNESS OF HIS ACTS.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 9
The circumstance in paragraph 9 of Article 13 is mitigating
because there is a diminution of intelligence and intent.

II. Elements Of Illness That Diminishes Will-Power:
1. That the illness of the offender must diminish the exercise of
his will-power.
2. That such illness should not deprive the offender of
consciousness of his acts.

III. Complete Loss Of Will-Power May Be An Exempting Circumstance.
A person with dementia praecox or manic depressive psychosis
has no control over his acts during periods of excitement.
This may be an exempting circumstance if the accused is
demented at the time he perpetrated the crime.

IV. Illness Of The Mind Is Included


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The foregoing legal provision refers only to diseases of


pathological state that trouble the conscience or will.
People v. Francisco
o It was held that paragraph 9 applies to defendant who
committed the crime while suffering from illness of the
body, the mind, the nerves or the moral faculty.
Illness of the mind may give place to mitigation of punishment.


V. Examples Where Illness Of The Offender Considered Mitigating
People v. Balneg
o The mistaken belief of the accused that the killing of a
witch was for the public good may be considered a
mitigating circumstance for the reason that those who
have obsession (that witches are to be killed) does not
have real control over his will.
People v. Amit
o Although being mentally sane, the appellant is suffering
from a mild behavior disorder, which the court
regarded as a mitigating circumstance.
People v. Carpenter
o One suffering from acute neurosis, which diminished
exercise of will power, is entitled to this mitigating
circumstance.
People v. Formigones
o One who is feebleminded warrants the finding in his
favor of the mitigating circumstance.
People v. Antonio
o One suffering from schizo-affective disorder or
psychosis, which diminishes the exercise of his willpower but does not deprive him of the consciousness
of his acts, may be credited with this mitigating
circumstance.

PAR. 10: AND FINALLY, ANY OTHER CIRCUMSTANCE OF A SIMILAR


NATURE AND ANALOGOUS TO THOSE ABOVE-MENTIONED.

I. Circumstances which are similar in nature and analogous to those
mentioned in paragraphs 1-9 of Article 13:
This paragraph authorizes the court to consider in favor of the
accused any other circumstance of a similar nature and
analogous to those mentioned in par. 1 9.

Similar/Analogous
Article Content
Par.
Extreme poverty
Similar
to
incomplete Par. 1

justification based on state
Ex: People v. Macbul The of necessity
accused, on account of
extreme poverty pilfered 2
sacks of paper valued at 10
pesos and sold it for 2.50.
Such was considered a
mitigating circumstance
Extreme poverty may mitigate a crime against property, such
as theft, but not a crime of violence such as murder.
Over 60 years old with failing Similar to 70 years old of age Par. 2
sight
Outraged feeling of owner of Analogous to vindication of a Par. 5
animal taken for ransom
grave offense

Ex: B took a carabao of the A
and held it for ransom, and
thereafter B failed to fulfill his
promise to give the carabao
back. When A kills B, A is
entitled
to
mitigating
circumstance analogous to
vindication of grave offense.


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Outraged feeling of creditor
Impulse of jealous feeling
Esprit de corps

Ex: People v. Villamora
many of the soldiers who took
part in the killing of the
deceased responded to the
call and appeal of their
lieutenant who urged them to
avenge
the
outrage
committed by the deceased.
Voluntary restitution of stolen
property

Ex: People v. Navasca The
act of testifying for the
prosecution, by one of the
accused, should be considered
in his favor as a mitigating
circumstance analogous to a
plea of guilty.
Testifying for the prosecution
Manifestations of Battered
Wife Syndrome (BWS)

Similar to passion
obfuscation
Similar to passion
obfuscation
Similar to passion
obfuscation

Similar
to
surrender

and Par. 6
and
and

voluntary Par. 7

Analogous to guilty plea


Analogous to an illness that Par. 9
diminished the exercise of
will power


Restitution in malversation case is only a mitigating circumstance
Payment or reimbursement is not a defense for exoneration in
malversation; it may only be considered as a mitigating
circumstance because damage is not an element of
malversation.

Killing the wrong man is not mitigating



II. Not Analogous Mitigating Circumstance
In parricide, the fact that the victim was unworthy, bad or
quarrelsome is not analogous to any of those mentioned in Art
13 a mitigating circumstance.
People v. Dy
o The accused who was charged with falsification,
pleaded guilty and invoked as mitigating circumstance
the lack of irreparable material damage. The court
ruled that this is not recognized as a mitigating
circumstance
Not resisting arrest is not analogous to voluntary surrender.
The condition of running amuck is not mitigating
o People v. Salazar- The defense contended that running
amuck is a cult among the Moros that is age-old and
deeply rooted. Court ruled that the mitigating
circumstances must be applied to all regardless of
religion.

III. Mitigating Circumstances Which Are Personal To The Offenders
The following circumstances shall only serve to mitigate the
liability of the principals, accomplices, and accessories as to
whom such circumstances are attendant:
1. Mitigating circumstances which arise from the moral
attributes of the offender.
2. Mitigating circumstances which arise from the private
relations of the offender with the offended party.
3. Mitigating circumstances which arise from any personal
cause.

IV. Circumstances Which Are Neither Exempting Or Mitigating:
1. Mistake in the blow.
2. Mistake in the identity of the victim.


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3. Entrapment of the accused.
4. The accused is over 18 years of age.
5. Performance of righteous action (i.e. although the accused
saved the lives of a thousand, if he kills a single human being,
he is criminally liable People v. Victoria).


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CHAPTER 4: CIRCUMSTANCE
CRIMINAL LIABILITY

WHICH

AGGRAVATE


Article 14. Aggravating circumstances.
The following are aggravating circumstances:
1. That advantage be taken by the offender of his public
position.
2. That the crime be committed in contempt of or with insult to
the public authorities.
3. That the act be committed with insult or in disregard of the
respect due to the offended party on account of his rank, age,
or sex, or that it be committed in the dwelling of the offended
party, if the latter has not given provocation.
4. That the act be committed with abuse of confidence or
obvious ungratefulness.
5. That the crime be committed in the palace of the Chief
Executive, or in his presence, or where public authorities are
engaged in the discharge of their duties or in a place
dedicated to religious worship.
6. That the crime be committed in the nighttime or in an
uninhabited place, or by a band, whenever such
circumstances may facilitate the commission of the offense.
Whenever more than three armed malefactors shall have
acted together in the commission of an offense, it shall be
deemed to have been committed by a band.
7. That the crime be committed on the occasion of a
conflagration, shipwreck, earthquake, epidemic, or other
calamity or misfortune.
8. That the crime be committed with the aid of armed men or
persons who insure or afford impunity.
9. That the accused is a recidivist.
A recidivist is one who, at the time of his trial for one crime,
shall have been previously convicted by final judgment of
another crime embraced in the same title of his Code.

10. That the offender has been previously punished for an offense
to which the law attaches an equal or greater penalty or for
two or more crimes to which it attaches a lighter penalty.
11. That the crime be committed in consideration of a price,
reward, or promise.
12. That the crime be committed by means of inundation, fire,
poison, explosion, stranding of a vessel or intentional damage
thereto, derailment of a locomotive, or by use of any other
artifice involving great waste and ruin.
13. That the act be committed with evident premeditation.
14. That craft, fraud, or disguise is employed.
15. That the advantage be taken of superior strength, or means
be employed to weaken the defense.
16. That the act be committed with treachery (alevosia).
There is treachery when the offender commits any of the
crimes against the person, employing means, methods, or
forms in the execution thereof which tend directly and
specially to insure its execution, without risk to himself arising
from the defense which the offended party might make.
17. That means be employed or circumstances brought about
which add ignominy to the natural effects of the act.
18. That the crime be committed after an unlawful entry.
There is unlawful entry when an entrance is effected by a way
not intended for the purpose.
19. That as a means to the commission of a crime a wall, roof,
floor, door, or window be broken.
20. That the crime be committed with the aid of persons under
fifteen years of age, or be means of motor vehicle, airships, or
other similar means.
21. That the wrong done in the commission of the crime be
deliberately augmented by causing other wrong not necessary
for its commission.


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POINTS

I. To Be Appreciated, Qualifying And Aggravating Circumstances Must
Be Alleged In The Information.
Every complaint or Information must state not only the
qualifying but also the aggravating circumstances (2000
Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure)
o Rule can be given retroactive effect in the light of the
well-established rule that statutes regulating the
procedure of the courts will be construed as applicable
to actions pending and undetermined at the time of
their passage.
If Not Alleged, They May Still Be Considered In The Award Of
Damages.

II. Exclusive List
Unlike mitigating circumstances, the list in Article 14 is
exclusive. No analogous circumstances.

III. Kinds Of Aggravating Circumstances

Generic
Qualifying
Special or
Inherent
Specific
Circumstance
Aggravating
Applies

Applies to
Element of the
generally to all
particular
felony
crimes
felonies
committed,
thus no longer
Can be offset by Cannot be
Cannot be
considered
an ordinary
offset
offset
against the
mitigating
offender in the
circumstance
determination
Increases the
The penalty
Do not change
penalty to the
does not per se the character of of the penalty.
Example:
max period
increase, but
the offense

the nature of
the crime is
changed (along
with the
corresponding
penalty)

charged but
guides the court
in imposing the
proper penalty

Article 62
abuse of
public position
inherent in
crime of
falsification of
document by
public
authority.

Generally, the ones in Article 14 are generic, but some are


qualifying and even special.
o Where of the aggravating circumstances has been used
as a qualifying circumstance, the others will be deemed
as generic.


IV. Republic Act No. 7692
Republic Act No. 7659 added a new aggravating circumstance
of organized/syndicated group in Article 62 (1a).
o Its a special aggravating circumstance because Art 14
(which are generally generic) was not correspondingly
amended.
o An organized/syndicated crime group means a
group of 2 or more persons collaborating,
confederating or mutually helping one another for
purposes of gain in the commission of any crime (not
exclusive to robbery as long as there is profit, so
estafa, kidnapping for ransom, etc).

PAR 1: THAT ADVANTAGE BE TAKEN BY THE OFFENDER OF HIS PUBLIC
POSITION.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 1:


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Based on the greater perversity of the offender, as shown by


the personal circumstance of the offender and also by means
used to secure the commission of the crime.


II. Applicable Only When The Offender Is A Public Officer
Public position points to a public officer. Paragraph 1 is
applicable only to a public officer who takes advantage of such
public position.

III. Meaning Of Advantage Be Taken By The Offender Of His Public
Position.
Public officer must use the influence, prestige, or ascendancy
which his office gives him as a means to attain his desired
purpose (US v. Rodriguez).
o There must be an intimate connection between the
offense and office of the accused.
TEST: Did the accused abuse his office in order to commit the
crime? question to ask to know the essence of the matter.

A. Examples Where This Aggravating Circumstance Is Present
He could not have maltreated the victim if he was not a
policeman on guard duty. Because of his position, he had
access to the cell where the victim, who was under his custody,
was confined (People v. Ural).
A police officer in the course of investigation of a charge
against him for grave threats shot the complainant in a
treacherous manner (People v. Reyes).
Used their authority as members of the police and constabulary
to disarm the victim before shooting him (People v. Asuncion).
This aggravating circumstance is present when a councilor
collects fines and misappropriates them US v. Torrida:
o Facts: The accused is a councilor of Aparri. After
entering upon his duties, he ordered that deaths of
large animals must be reported to him as a councilman.

Owners of said animals paid him thinking they are


required to do so. Accused in turn spent the fines given
to him.
Held: The fact that the accused was councilor at that
time placed him in a position to commit these crimes.
Because he was a councilor, people believed that he
had a right to impose and ask for fines and this is the
reason why they gave payment. The accused took
advantage of his position to deceive and defraud others
out of the money given to him. (Note: crime committed
here is estafa with deceit.)


B. Examples Where This Aggravating Circumstance Is Not Present
This aggravating circumstance is not present when a
Congressman offered resistance to a peace officer People v.
Veloso
o Reason: Congressman did not take advantage of the
influence or reputation of his office.
When the public officer did not take advantage of the
influence of his position, this aggravating circumstance is not
present US v. Dacuycuy
o Facts: 39 people requested the accused who was a
councilor, to purchase cedulas for them at P39. He only
bought 16, and spent the rest of the money.
o Ruling: When a public officer commits a common crime
independent of his official functions and does acts that
are not connected with the duties of his office, he
should be punished as a private individual without this
aggravating circumstance. (Note: in the case, Dacuycuy
did not use the influence, prestige, or ascendancy of his
position when he committed estafa in the abuse of
confidence. He received the money in his private
capacity.)
Peace officers taking advantage of their public positions.


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o

o
o

Fortuna v. People Being police officers placed them


in a position to perpetrate the offense. It was on
account of their authority that induces people to
comply with what theyre asking for. They could not
have terrified the Montecillos into boarding the mobile
patrol car and forced them to hand over their money.
People v. Madrid Special agent of the military police
who committed robbery with homicide with the gun
which he had been authorized to carry as a peace
officer.
Wearing a uniform is immaterial in certain cases.
People v. Tongco Even if the accused was in civilian
clothes, the victim was aware of his position, and thus
accused used this to impose illegally his authority.
People v. Pantoja Wearing a uniform is not sufficient
to establish that he misused his public position in the
commission of the crime.


C. There Must Be Proof That The Accused Took Advantage Of His
Public Position.
What needs to be proven? Taking advantage of public position
or using the influence, prestige, or ascendancy of said public
position.
In the absence of proof of advantage, the aggravating
circumstance of abuse of public position could not be properly
appreciated.

IV. Failure In Official Duties Is Tantamount To Abusing Of Office.
If it is proven that one has failed in his duties as a public officer,
this circumstance would warrant the aggravation of his penalty.
Examples:
o The fact that the defendant was the vice president of a
town at the time he voluntarily joined a band of
brigands made his liability greater (US v. Cagayan).

When a policeman keeps quiet while his other police


officers were robbing a polio guy and his sister, the
quiet policeman is guilty of abuse of public position. He
could have prevented the others from robbing the
victim, but he didnt. His silence made him liable
(Fortuna v. People).


V. Not Aggravating When
A. It Is An Integral Element Of, Or Inherent In, The Offense.
Where taking advantage is an integral element of the crime:
o Article 217: Malversation
o Article. 171: falsification of document committed by
public officers
o Article. 19, par. 3: Taking advantage of public position
is inherent in the case of accessories and in crimes
committeed by public officers.
o Articles. 203-245: Crimes committed by public officers.

B. If The Accused Could Have Perpetrated The Crime Even Without
Occupying His Position, There Is No Abuse Of Public Position.
Not aggravating if accused could have perpetrated the crime
without occupying police position. People v. Herrera mere
fact that the accused-appellant is a policeman and used his
government issued .38 caliber revolver to kill is not sufficient to
establish that he misused his public position in the commission
of the crime.
The offenders being a public officer does not ipso facto make it
aggravating. If the public officer could have committed the
crime without the use of public position, it is not aggravating.
Thus, using ones service firearm in shooting someone does not
fall under this aggravating circumstance (People v. Villamor).

PAR. 2: THAT THE CRIME BE COMMITTED IN CONTEMPT OF OR WITH
INSULT TO THE PUBLIC AUTHORITIES.


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I. Basis Of Paragraph 2:
On the greater perversity of the offender, as shown by his lack
of respect for the public authorities.

II. Elements:
1. Public authority is engaged in the exercise of his functions
2. He who is engaged in the exercise of said functions is not the
person against whom the crime is committed.
3. Offender knows him to be a public authority.
4. His presence has not prevented the offender from committing
the criminal act.

III. Meaning Of Public Authority
Public authority (sometimes also called a person in authority)
o Public officer who is directly vested with jurisdiction,
that is, a public officer who has the power to govern
and execute the laws.
o Examples: councilor, mayor, governor. Barangay
captain, and barangay chairman (Article 152, as
amended by PD No. 1232).
Agents of persons in authority are not covered.
o Agent of a person in authority any person who, by
direct provision of law or by election or by appointment
by competent authority, is charged with the
maintenance of public order and the protection and
security of life and property, such as barrio councilman,
barrio policeman and barangay leader, and any person
who comes to the aid of persons in authority. (Article
152, as amended by B.P. Blg. 873)
o Thus, if the crime committed in the presence of an
agent of a person in authority, the provision doesnt
apply (People v. Siojo, but Boado says the opposite).

If in the presence of a policeman, not aggravating


because the policeman is only an agent of a person in
authority (People v. Magbueno).
Professors are persons in authority for purposes of
Article 148 (direct assault) and Article 151 (resistance
and disobedience). Hence, a crime committed in their
presence does not call for the application of this
aggravating circumstance.
Exception: Under the Dangerous Drugs Act, a
teacher or professor is a person in authority for
the purpose of the enforcement of the said
law. Thus, if you smoke weed in the presence
of a professor, the professor is a person in a
authority.


IV. FIRST and SECOND ELEMENT: The Crime Should Not Be Committed
Against The Public Authority.
If the crime is committed against a public authority while he is
in the performance of his official duty, the offender commits
direct assault (Article 148) without this aggravating
circumstance, because it is not a crime committed in
contempt of or with insult to him, but a crime directly
committed against him.
People v. Santok did not follow this where it was held that
homicide was committed with this aggravating circumstance
since the deceased was shot while in the performance of his
official duty as barrio lieutenant.
o The accused should have been prosecuted for and
convicted of a complex crime of homicide with direct
assault WITHOUT this aggravating circumstance.

V. THIRD ELEMENT: Knowledge That A Public Authority Is Present Is
Essential.


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Lack of knowledge on the part of the offender that a public
authority is present indicates lack of intention to insult the
public authority.
Thus if A killed B in the presence of the mayor, but A was not
aware of his presence, this circumstance cant be considered.


VI. FOURTH ELEMENT: Presence Of Public Authority Has Not
Prevented Offender From Committing The Crime.
An offense may have been said to be committed in contempt
when the offender proceeds with the criminal act even with the
full knowledge of a public authoritys presence.
Remember: Not applicable when crime is committed in the
presence of an agent only.

PAR. 3: THAT THE ACT BE COMMITTED WITH INSULT OR IN
DISREGARD OF THE RESPECT DUE TO THE OFFENDED PARTY ON
ACCOUNT OF HIS RANK, AGE, OR SEX, OR THAT IT BE COMMITTED IN
THE DWELLING OF THE OFFENDED PARTY, IF THE LATTER HAS NOT
GIVEN PROVOCATION.

I. When All The Four Aggravating Circumstances (Age, Sex, Rank,
Dwelling) Are Present, Must They Be Considered As One?
Can be considered single or together.
If all the 4 circumstances are present, they have the weight of
one aggravating circumstance only.
BUT see People v. Santos in Article 14(6).

II. Basis of Paragraph 3:
On the greater perversity of the offender, as shown by the
personal circumstances of the offended party and the place of
the commission of the crime.

III. Applicable Only To Crimes Against Persons Or Honor, Not Property

In the case of the robbery of a thing belonging to the President,


the aggravating circumstance of disregard of respect due the
offended party cannot be taken into account, because the mere
fact that the thing belongs to the President does not make it
more valuable than the things belonging to a private person.
Disregard of the respect due the offended party on account of
his rank, age or sex may be taken into account only in crimes
against persons or honor, when in the commission of the crime,
there is some insult or disrespect to rank, age or sex.
Robbery with homicide is primarily a crime against property
and not against person. It is a mere incident of the robbery, the
latter being the main purpose and object of the criminal
(People v. Pagal).


IV. Meaning Of With Insult Or In Disregard.
It is necessary to prove the specific fact or circumstance in
order that it may be considered as aggravating circumstance
(People v. Valencia).
There must be evidence that in the commission of the crime,
the accused deliberately intended to offend or insult the sex or
age of the offended party (People v. Mangsant).
The circumstance of old age cannot be considered aggravating.

V. With Insult Or In Disregard Of The Respect Due The Offended Party
On Account Of The
A. Rank Of The Offended Party
Meaning of rank refers to a high social position or standing
as a grade in the armed forces; or to a graded official standing
or social position or station; or to the order or place in which
said officers are placed in the army and navy in relation to
others; or to the designation or title of distinction conferred
upon an officer in order to fix his relative position in reference
to other officers in matters of privileges, precedence, and
sometimes of command or by which to determine his pay and


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emoluments as in the case of army staff officers; or to a grade


or official standing, relative position in civil or social life, or in
any scale of comparison, status, grade, including its grade,
status or scale of comparison within a position.
o Example: Teacher, judge, consul, general, etc.
There must be a difference in the social condition of the
offender and the offended party.
o Examples:
Attempt upon the life of a general of the Army
is committed in disregard of his rank (People v.
Valeriano).
Killing of a staff sergeant by his corporal; the
killing of the Assistant Chief of Personel
Transaction of the Civil Service Commission by
a clerk therein; the murder by a pupil of his
teacher; the murder of a municipal mayor; the
murder of a city chief of police by the chief of
the secret service division; assault upon a 66year old CFI (now RTC) judge by a justice of
peace (now municipal judge); the killing of a
consul by a mere chancellor; the killing of an
army general (People v. Rodil)
Proof of fact of disregard and deliberate intent to insult
required.
o There being no proof of the specific fact or
circumstance that the accused disregarded the respect
due to the offended party, not does it appeal that the
accused deliberately intended to insult the rank of the
victim (People v. Taloy).
o Accused was conversing with the barangays captain
and then suddenly killed him. AC? No. mere fact that
victim was a person with a rank, such as a barangays
captain does not necessarily mean its aggravating,
absent evidence that the killing was deliberately

intended to disregard or insult or threaten to insult the


rank of the victim (People v. Samudio).
Accused raped a 70-year old woman, his teacher in
grade 1. The victim was already retired when the dude
raped her. SC held that the fact that the offended party
was already retired did not diminish the respect due
her rank as his former teacher in grade 1 (People v.
Nerio).


B. Age Of The Offended Party
The circumstance of lack of respect due to age applies in cases
where the victim is of tender age as well as of old age.
Deliberate intent to offend or insult required.
Disregard of old age not aggravating in robbery with homicide.
Robbery with homicide is primarily a crime against property
and not against persons. Homicide is a mere incident of the
robbery.

C. Sex Of The Offended Party
Refers to the female sex.
No disregard of respect due to sex
o Example: A and B (f) were sweethearts. B broke up with
A so A killed her. Held: it was not proved or admitted
by the accused that when he committed the crime, he
had the intention or disregarded the sex of the victim.
Disregard of sex is not aggravating in the absence of evidence
that the accused deliberately intended to offend or insult the
sex of the victim or showed manifest disrespect to her
womanhood.
o Killing a woman is not attended by the aggravating
circumstance if the offender did not manifest any
specific insult or disrespect towards the sex.

VI. Not applicable in certain cases


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1. When the offender acted with passion and obfuscation.
o People v. Ibaez He could not have been conscious
that his act was done with respect to the offended
party.
2. When there exists a relationship between the offended party
and the offender.
o People v. Valencia:
Facts: After a decree of divorce, the wife got
the custody of their daughter. The accused
wanted to visit the kid but the wife didnt
agree. Accused pointed a gun at the wife and
she was injured.
Held: There still existed some relationship
between the accused and his divorced wife.
The accused had to deal with no other person
but with his former wife to visit his daughter.
3. When the condition of being a woman is indispensable in the
commission of the crime.
o Sex is not aggravating in: parricide, rape, abduction, or
seduction.
This is inherent in the crime of rape and
therefore cannot be considered aggravating
(People v. Lopez).

VII. That The Crime Be Committed In The Dwelling Of The Offended
Party
Dwelling must be a building or structure, exclusively used for
rest and comfort, although not necessarily owned by the
offended party.
o Combination of house and store or a market stall
where the victim slept is not dwelling (People v.
Magnaye).

Ones dwelling is a sanctuary worthy of respect and that one


who slanders another in the latters house is guiltier than he
who offends him elsewhere (People v. Balansi).


A. Basis Of This Circumstance
Greater perversity of the offender, as shown by the place of the
commission of the offense and also because of the sanctity of
privacy the law accords to human abode.

B. What Dwelling Includes
When the deceased had two houses where he used to live, the
commission of the crime in any of them is attended by the
aggravating circumstance of dwelling
Includes dependencies, the foot of the staircase and enclosure
under the house.
If victim was only about to step on the first rung of the ladder
when he was assaulted, the aggravating circumstance of
dwelling will not be applicable (People v. Sespene).
Room in a boarding house (People v. Daniel)
Room of stay-in laundrywoman in house of amo (People v.
Sapinoso)
o Compare with People v. Punzalan, where this wasnt
appreciated because accused and victim lived together.
House of a squatter since law does not distinguish validity of
title
Little rooms separated by curtains (e.g. dormitory).

C. What Aggravates The Commission Of The Crime In Ones Dwelling:
1. Abuse of confidence which the offended party reposed in the
offender by opening the door to him;
2. Trespassing therein with violence or against the will of the
owner.

VIII. Offended Party Must Not Give Provocation


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A condition sine qua non of this circumstance is that the


offended party has not given provocation to the offender.


A. Meaning Of Provocation In The Aggravating Circumstance Of
Dwelling
The provocation must be:
a. Given by the owner of the dwelling
b. Sufficient
c. Immediate to the commission of the crime.
If any of these conditions is not present, the offended party is
deemed not to have given provocation, and the fact that the
crime is committed in the dwelling of the offended party is an
aggravating circumstance.

B. There Must Be Close Relation Between Provocation And
Commission Of Crime In The Dwelling
Aggravating circumstance not applicable if provocation given by
the offended party true only when there exists a close
relation between the provocation and the commission of the
crime in the dwelling of the person from whom the provocation
came.
Because the provocation is not immediate, dwelling is
aggravating.
o People v. Dequina
Facts: Defendant learned that the deceased
and defendants house were maintaining illicit
relations. One night, he went to the house of
the deceased and killed him there. During the
trial, defendant claimed that deceased gave
provocation because of the illicit affair with his
wife.
Held: Provocation (illicit relations) not
immediate to the commission of the crime and
hence, dwelling is still aggravating. Provocation

did not take place in the house of the


deceased.
Owner of dwelling gave immediate provocation dwelling not
aggravating
o Having given sufficient provocation, owner of the
house lost his right to the respect and consideration
due to him in his own house.
Prosecution must prove that no provocation was given by the
offended party
o Provocation cannot be assumed, it must be shown by
the evidence of the prosecution.


IX. Even If The Offender Did Not Enter The Dwelling, This
Circumstance Applies
It is enough that the victim was attacked inside his own house,
although the assailant may have devised means to perpetrate
the assault from without.
Even if the killing took place outside the dwelling, it is
aggravating provided that the commission of the crime began
in the dwelling
o The act performed cannot be divided or the unity
resulting from its details be broken up.
Dwelling is aggravating in abduction or illegal detention
o Example: victim was taken from his or her house and
carried away to another place (dwelling is aggravating).
o But not aggravating when deceased was called down
from his house and he was murdered in the vicinity of
the house.

X. Whether Or Not Dwelling Is Aggravating
A. Dwelling Not Aggravating In The Following Cases:
Both offender and offended party are occupants of the same
house; true even if offender is a servant of the house.


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Exception: Adultery where the bad spouse did the deed
in the conjugal dwelling (U.S. v. Ibanez).
o HOWEVER, see case of People v Punzalan where the
house and the servants quarters were separate but
within the same compound. The houseboy went to the
house of the amo and killed him there. SC said no AC
because the servants quarters located in the same
compound, hence part of the dwelling of the offended
party. (Ingles: Sir doesnt agree with this. Basta
separate and distinct places, dapat separate dwellings).
Robbery using force upon things since dwelling is inherent
o Exception: Dwelling is aggravating in robbery with
violence against or intimidation of persons because this
class of robbery can be committed without the
necessity of trespassing the sanctity of the offended
partys house.
o Robbery with homicide dwelling is aggravating
o 2 kinds of robbery: (1) with violence against or
intimidation of persons and (2) with force upon things
in inhabited house.
Crime of trespass to dwelling.
Owner of the dwelling gave sufficient and immediate
provocation.
When the dwelling where the crime was committed did not
belong to the offended party.
Ground floor of a two-storey building where it was not used as
a private place of abode or residence.
o


B. Dwelling Was Found Aggravating In The Following Cases Although
The Crimes Were Committed Not In The Dwelling Of The Victims
Boarding house where victim is a bedspacer.
Paternal home where they were guests at the time and did not
reside there.

House of aunt where victim was living dwelling may mean


temporary dwelling
Sleeping as guests in the house of another person


C. Dwelling Is Aggravating When The Husband Killed His Estranged
Wife In The House Solely Occupied By Her In Case Of Adultery
When adultery is committed in the dwelling of the husband,
even if it is also the dwelling of the unfaithful wife, it is
aggravating because besides the latters breach of the fidelity
she owes her husband, she and her paramour violated the
respect due to the conjugal home and they both thereby
injured and committed a very grave offense against the head of
the house.
Dwelling not aggravating in adultery when paramour also lives
there
o Defendants had a right to be in the house
o Aggravating circumstance present in such case is abuse
of confidence

XI. Treachery
Aggravating circumstance of age, sex and rank are not
absorbed in the crime of treachery.
o People v. Lapaz aggravating circumstances of
disregard of sex and age are not absorbed in treachery
because treachery refers to the manner of the
commission of the crime, while disregard of sex and
age pertains to the relationship of the victim.
o BUT SEE People v. Malolot, where accused hacked to
death an 11-month old child and the SC considered age
absorbed by treachery. Sir doesnt agree with this case,
but its the later case, so it should prevail.
Age, sex, rank and dwelling can be appreciated separately from
treachery.


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o
o

Accused killed a 3-year old child. SC considered


treachery and age of victim separately (People v. Lora).
Dwelling and treachery treated separately, appreciated
together in a case where the accused barged into the
house of the victim and started shooting (People v.
Cachola).



PAR. 4: THAT THE ACT BE COMMITTED WITH (1) ABUSE OF
CONFIDENCE OR (2) OBVIOUS UNGRATEFULNESS

Note: There are 2 aggravating circumstances in this paragraph.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 4:
Greater perversity of the offender, as shown by the means and
ways employed.

II. FIRST AGGRAVATING CIRCUMSTANCE: Abuse Of Confidence
This circumstance exists only when offended party has given
trust to offender who later abuses this trust by committing a
crime.
Abuse of confidence must be a means of facilitating the
commission of the crime. Offender taking advantage of the
offended partys belief that the former would not abuse said
confidence.

A. Elements:
1. Offended party had trusted the offender.
2. Offender abused such trust by committing a crime against the
offended party.
3. Abuse of confidence facilitated the commission of the crime.

B. FIRST ELEMENT: Offended Party Trusted The Offender
Where confidence does not exist

People v. Luchico
Facts: Master made advances to his female
servant. She refused, fled, and the master
caught up with her and committed the crime of
rape. When the master raped the victim, she
had already lost her confidence in him from the
moment he made an indecent proposal and
offended her with a kiss.
Held: The confidence must facilitate the
commission of the crime, the culprit taking
advantage of offended partys belief that the
former would not abuse said confidence. No
aggravating circumstance in this case.
Special relation of confidence between accused and victim
o Betrayal of confidence is not aggravating
People v. Crumb Parents left to the care of
the abused their daughter. One day, accused
led the daughter to an isolated place and
threatened her with a knife to have sexual
intercourse with him. Though accused betrayed
the confidence reposed to him by the parents
of the girl, it did not facilitate the commission
of the crime and hence, its not aggravating.
o Killing of a child by an amah is aggravated by abuse of
confidence
People v. Caliso Killer of the child is the
domestic servant of the family and sometimes
the deceased childs amah. Aggravating
circumstance of abuse of confidence is present.
o Difference between the Crumb and Caliso case
Crumb case: the offended girl could resist,
although unsuccessfully, the commission of the
crime.
o


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Caliso case: the nine-month-old victim could
not resist the commission of the crime.
The confidence between the offender and the offended party
must be immediate and personal
o Not applicable when public officer committed estafa
against his voters.
o Abuse of confidence inherent in some felonies:
Inherent in malversation (Article 217)
Qualified theft (Article 310)
Estafa by conversion or misappropriation
(Article 315)
Qualified seduction (Article 337)


III. SECOND AGGRAVATING CIRCUMSTANCE: Ungratefulness Must Be
Obvious i.e. Manifest And Clear
For obvious ungratefulness, the offended received favors from
the victim but still committed the crime (e.g. kupal).
Examples where this aggravating circumstance is present:
o Accused killed his father-in-law whose house he lived
and who partially supported him (People v. Floresca).
o Accused was living in the house of the victim who
employed him as an overseer and in charge of
carpentry work, and had free access to the house of the
victim who was very kind to him, his family, and who
helped him solve his problems (People v. Lupango).
o Security guard killed a bank officer and robbed the
bank (People v. Nismal).
o Victim was suddenly attacked while in the act of giving
the assailants their bread and coffee for breakfast
(People v. Bautista).
Example where this aggravating circumstance is not present:
o Mere fact that the accused and offended party lived in
the same house is not enough to prove abuse of

confidence where the house was not property of the


offended party (People v. Alqueza).
Contrast:
o Visitor commits robbery or theft in the house of his
host
o Mariano v. People the act of stealing property of the
host is considered as committed with abuse of
confidence.


PAR. 5: THAT THE CRIME BE COMMITTED IN THE PALACE OF THE
CHIEF EXECUTIVE, OR IN HIS PRESENCE, OR WHERE PUBLIC
AUTHORITIES ARE ENGAGED IN THE DISCHARGE OF THEIR DUTIES OR
IN A PLACE DEDICATED TO RELIGIOUS WORSHIP

I. Basis Of Paragraph 5:
Greater perversity of the offender, as shown by the place of the
commission of the crime, which must be respected.

II. Place Where Public Authorities Are Engaged In The Discharge Of
Their Duties (Par. 5), Distinguished From Contempt Or Insult To Public
Authorities (Par.2)

Paragraph 5
Paragraph 2
Public authorities in the performance of their duties
Public authorities in the
Public authorities in the
performance of their duties must performance of their duties
be in their office
outside of their office
Public authority may be the
Public authority should not be the
offended party
offended party

III. Important Words And Phrases
A. That The Crime Be Committed In The Palace Of The Chief
Executive Or In His Presence Official Or Religious Functions, Not
Necessary.


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Place is aggravating, regardless of whether State or official or


religious functions are held, if it is Malacaang palace or a
church.
Chief Executive need not be in Malacaang palace. His
presence alone in any place where the crime is committed is
enough to constitute the aggravating circumstance even if he is
not engaged in the discharge of his duties in the place where
the crime is committed.


B. Where public authorities are engaged in the discharge of their
duties Other public authorities must be actually engaged in the
performance of duty
As regards to the place where the public authorities are
engaged in the discharge of their duties, there must be some
performance of public functions.
This aggravating circumstance was appreciated in a crime of
murder in an electoral precinct during election day as it is a
place where public authorities are engaged in the discharge of
their duties on such day (People v. Canoy)

C. Or in a place dedicated to religious worship
Cemeteries are not such place, however respectable they may
be, as they are not dedicated to the worship of God.
This aggravating circumstance was appreciated in a case where
the accused shot the victim inside the church or in a case of
unjust vexation where the accused kissed a girl inside a church
when a religious service was being solemnized (People v.
Aonuevo).

IV. Offender must have intention to commit a crime when he entered
the place (lack of respect!)
People v. Jaurigue
o Facts: At the time of the commission of the crime, both
deceased and defendant were inside the chapel.

Deceased placed his hand on the thigh of the


defendant, who got her fan knife and stabbed him.
o Held: There is no evidence to show that the defendant
had murder in her heart when she entered the chapel
on the fatal night.
Ruling also applies in cases of crime committed in Malacaang
palace or where public authorities are engaged in the discharge
of their duties.


PAR. 6: THAT THE CRIME BE COMMITTED (1) IN THE NIGHTTIME OR IN
(2) AN UNINHABITED PLACE, OR (3) BY A BAND, WHENEVER SUCH
CIRCUMSTANCES MAY FACILITATE THE COMMISSION OF THE OFFENSE

I. Basis Of Paragraph 6:
On the time and place of the commission of the crime and
means and ways employed.

II. Should These Circumstances Be Considered As One Only Or Three
Separately?
People v. Santos (April 27, 1897) Former ruling of only one
aggravating circumstance not an absolute and general rule
which would exclude the possibility of their being considered
separately when their elements are distinctly perceived and can
subsist independently, revealing a greater degree of perversity.
o People v. Cunanan nighttime and band were
considered separately.
General Rule: If all 3 circumstances are present, you should
consider them as one.
o Exception: When the 3 can be distinctly perceived and
can subsist independently of each other, revealing
greater perversity. (People v. Librando)

III. When Aggravating
Nighttime, uninhabited place or band is aggravating when


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1. When it facilitated the commission of the crime.


2. When especially sought for by the offender to insure
the commission of the crime or for the purpose of
impunity (People v. Pardo).
3. When the offender took advantage thereof for the
purpose of impunity (US v Billedo).
To take advantage of a fact or circumstance in committing a
crime clearly implies an intention to do so. One does not avail
oneself of darkness unless on intended to so (People v.
Matbagon & People v. Apduhan). Thus, aggravating
circumstance of nocturnity should be applied when it appears
that the accused took advantage of the darkness for a more
successful consummation of his plans.


IV. Test to determine when such circumstance may facilitate the
commission of the offense
A. Paragraph 6 Requires Only That Nighttime, Uninhabited Place, Or
Band May Facilitate The Commission Of The Offense
Test fixed by the stature is an objective one.
Nighttime may facilitate the commission of the crime crime
can be perpetrated unmolested, or interference can be avoided
or there would be greater certainty in attaining the ends of the
offender (People v. Matbagon).
Example: Nighttime facilitated the commission of the crime to
such an extent that the defendant was able to consummate it
with all its details without anyone nearby becoming aware of
its occurrence (People v. Villas).

B. Meaning Of Especially Sought For, For The Purpose Of
Impunity, And "Took Advantage Thereof.
These are other tests for the application of this aggravating
circumstance.
Especially sought for

Nighttime not especially sought for, when the notion to


commit the crime was conceived only shortly before its
commission (People v. Pardo) or when the crime was
committed at night upon a mere casual encounter
(People v. Cayabyab).
o Waited for nighttime to commit the crime especially
sought for (People v. Barredo).
o Accused lingered for almost 3 hours in the evening at
the restaurant before robbing it (People v. Lungbos).
o Where it is self-evident that nighttime was sought to
facilitate the commission of the offense when all the
the members of the household was asleep (People v.
Berbal), thereby indicating the desire to carry out the
plot with the least detection or to insure its
consummation with a minimum of resistance from the
inmates of the house (People v. Atencio).
o The accused sought the solitude of the place in order to
better attain their purpose without interference, and to
secure themselves against detection and punishment
(People v. Ong).
Nighttime need not be specifically sought for when (1) it
facilitated the commission of the offense, or (2) the offender
took advantage of the same to commit the crime
o Nocturnity, even though not specially sought, if it
facilitated the commission of the crime and the
accused took advantage thereof to commit it, may be
considered as an aggravating circumstance.
For the purpose of impunity means to prevent his
(accuseds) being recognized, or to secure himself against
detection and punishment.
o The crime was attended by the aggravating
circumstance of nighttime because of the silence and
darkness of the night which enabled the offender to
o


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take away the girl with impunity something which he
could not have done in daytime (US v. Yumul).

V. Nighttime
Period of darkness beginning at end of dusk and ending at
dawn. Nights are from sunset to sunrise (Article 13, Civil Code).

A. Nighttime By And Of Itself Is Not An Aggravating Circumstance.
It becomes so only when it is especially sought for by the
offender or taken advantage of by him to facilitate the
commission of the crime or to insure his immunity from
capture.
The information must allege that nighttime was sought for or
taken advantage of by the accused or that it facilitated he
commission of the crime.
The jurisprudence on this subject is to effect that nocturnity
must have been sought or taken advantage of to improve the
chances of success in the commission of the crime or to provide
impunity for the offenders.
o Other than the time of the crime, nothing else
whatsoever suggests that the aggravating circumstance
of nighttime was deliberately availed of by the
appellants (People v. Boyles).
o Darkness of the night merely incidental to the collision
between 2 vehicles which caused the heated argument
and the eventual stabbing of the victim, nighttime is
not aggravating (People v. Velago).

B. Not Aggravating When The Crime Began At Daytime
Nocturnity is not aggravating where there is no evidence that
the accused had purposely sought the cover of darkness of the
night to commit the crime; nor is there evidence that nighttime
facilitated the commission of the crim aside from the fact that
the scene of the crime was illuminated.

Crime was a result of a succession of acts, which took


place within the period of 2 hours from 5pm to 7pm
without a moment of interruption, it cannot be said
that the thought of nighttime as being the most
favorable occurred to the accused (People v. Luchico).
Commission of the crime must begin and be accomplished in
the nighttime.
o Although the safe was disposed of at nighttime, the
theft of the money was during the daytime (US v.
Dowdell)
The offense must be actually committed in the darkness of the
night.
o Defendants did not intentionally seek nighttime and
they were carrying a light of sufficient brilliance which
made it easy for people nearby to recognize them (US
v. Paraiso)
o No aggravating circumstance when robbery with
homicide was committed at daybreak when they could
be recognized (US v. Tampacan).
When the place of the crime is illuminated by light, nighttime is
not aggravating.
o The fact that the place was illuminated by light negates
the notion that the offenders intentionally sought or
taken advantage the cover of nighttime in order to
facilitate the crime (People v. Joson).
However, The lighting of a matchstick or use of flashlight does
not negate the aggravating circumstance of nighttime (People
v. Rogelio Soriano & People v. Berbal) as it is self-evident that
the nighttime was sought by the appellant when all the
members of the household were asleep.
o


VI. Uninhabited Place (Desplobado)
A. What Is Uninhabited Place?


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Where there are no houses at all, a place at a considerable
distance from town, or where the houses are scattered at a
great distance from each other.

their criminal designs, or (2) to insure concealment of


the offense, that he might thereby be better secured
against detection and punishment.


B. It Is The Nature Of The Place That Is Decisive (People v. Bangug).
Aggravating circumstance should not be considered when the
place where the crime was committed could not be seen and
the voice of the deceased could be heard from a nearby house.
(People v. Laoto)
How aggravating circumstance should be determined: whether
or not in the place of the commission of the offense there was
a reasonable possibility of the victim receiving some help.
o It is not the distance, but the possibility or impossibility
of immediate aid to be obtained (People v. Ostia and
People v. Cabiles). If the distance is not so great, but
you have to climb a hill to reach the house to render
aid, despoblado is considered.
Open sea is considered as uninhabited place as no help can be
expected by the victim from other persons and the offenders
could easily escape punishment (People v. Nulla).
o The purely accidental circumstance that on the day in
question, another banca, namely, that of the witnesses
for the prosecution, was also at see, is not an argument
against the consideration of such aggravating
circumstance (People v. Rubia).
When the victims are the occupants of the only house in the
place, the crime is committed in an uninhabited place.
o A place about a kilometer from the nearest house or
another inhabited place is considered an uninhabited
place (People v. Aguinaldo).
Solitude must be sought to better attain the criminal purpose
o It must appear that the accused sought the solitude.
o The offenders must choose the place as an aid either
(1) to an easy and uninterrupted accomplishment of


VII. By a band
A. What Is A Band?
Whenever more than three armed malefactors shall have acted
together in the commission of an offense (Article 14(6), par.2).
The armed men must act together in the commission of the
crime.
o Stated in the definition of armed men that they shall
act together.
o There must be more than 3 armed men Even if there
are 20 persons, but only 3 are armed, this aggravating
circumstance by a band cannot be considered.
o If one of the four armed persons is a principal by
inducement, they do not form a band.
All the armed men, at least 4 in number, must
take direct part in the execution of the act
constituting the crime (Article. 17, par. 1,
Revised Penal Code).
Stone is included in the term arms
o There is intention to cause death if the accused throws
a stone at the victims (People v. Bautista).

B. When This Aggravating Circumstance Is Applicable:
Abuse of superior strength and use of firearms, absorbed in
aggravating circumstance of by a band.
o Aggravating circumstance of taking advantage of their
superior strength and with the use of firearms is
absorbed by the generic aggravating circumstance of
the commission of the offense by a band.
By a band is aggravating in robbery with homicide


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By a band is aggravating in crimes against property or against


persons or in the crime of illegal detention or treason.
o Considered in crimes against property and in crimes
against persons.
Not applicable to crimes against chastity.
o Not considered in crime of rape by 4 armed persons
(People v. Corpus).
By a band is inherent in brigandage
o Aggravating circumstance of armed men should not be
considered because it is inherent in defining the crime.


VIII. When Nighttime, Uninhabited Place, Or By A Band Did Not
Facilitate The Commission Of The Crime, Was Not Especially Sought
For, Or Was Not Taken Advantage Of.
Facts: 4 armed men casually met another group in an
uninhabited place at nighttime. They quarreled and in the heat
of anger, one from the other group was killed. Nighttime,
uninhabited place, and by a band are not aggravating
circumstances here.
Reason: When the offenders attacked the group of the
deceased in the heat of anger, they could not have taken
advantage of such circumstances, and such circumstances
could not have facilitated the commission of the crime as well.

PAR. 7: THAT THE CRIME BE COMMITTED ON THE OCCASION OF A
CONFLAGRATION, SHIPWRECK, EARTHQUAKE, EPIDEMIC, OR OTHER
CALAMITY OR MISFORTUNE.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 7:
Reference to the time of the commission of the crime, not the
means.

II. Reason For The Aggravation

Debased form of criminality met in one who, in the midst of a


calamity, instead of lending aid to the afflicted, adds to their
suffering by taking advantage of their misfortune to despoil
them.


III. The Offender Must Take Advantage Of The Calamity Or Misfortune
If accused was provoked by the offended party to commit the
crime during the calamity or misfortune, this aggravating
circumstance may not be taken into consideration for the
purpose of increasing the penalty because the accused did not
take advantage of it.

IV. Chaotic Condition As An Aggravating Circumstance
Or other calamity or misfortune conditions of distress
similar to those enumerated, that is conflagration, shipwreck,
earthquake, or epidemic.
Chaotic conditions after liberation is not included in this
paragraph (People v. Corpus). But in the case of People v.
Penjan), the chaotic condition resulting from the liberation of
San Pablo was considered a calamity.
Development of engine trouble at sea is a misfortune but not
within the context of the phrase other calamity or misfortune
(People v. Arpa).

PAR. 8: THAT THE CRIME BE COMMITTED WITH THE AID OF ARMED
MEN OR PERSONS WHO INSURE OR AFFORD IMPUNITY.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 8:
Means and ways of committing the crime.

II. Elements:
1. Armed men or persons took part in the commission of the
crime, directly or indirectly.


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2. Accused availed himself of their aid or relied upon them when
the crime was committed (see US v. Abaigar).

the commission of the crime acted under the same


plan and for the same purpose.


III. Rule For The Application Of This Circumstance
Accused must have availed himself of the aid of armed men.
o Casual presence of armed men near the place where
the crime was committed does not constitute an
aggravating circumstance when it appears that the
accused did not avail himself of their aid or rely upon
them to commit the crime.

A. The Armed Men Must Take Part Directly Or Indirectly.
Accused stabbed the deceased to death alone, without
assistance from anyone, even though there were ten men
armed with daggers, and five without, but these men took no
part, directly or indirectly, in the commission of the crime. The
accused therefore did not avail himself of their aid or rely upon
them to commit the crime (US v. Abaigar).

B. Examples Of With Aid Of Armed Men
A secured the services of 3 armed Moros to kill her husband.
During the act, A held the light and supplied the men with rope
while the 3 men clubbed her husband to death. A was charged
with parricide with the aid of armed men (People v. Hane).
O and L were prosecuted for robbery with rape. They had
companions who were armed when they committed the crime.
It was held that they were guilty of robbery with rape with
aggravating circumstance of aid of armed men (People v. Ortiz).
Exceptions:
o Aggravating circumstance shall not be considered when
both the attacking party and the party attacked were
equally armed.
o Aggravating circumstance not present when the
accused as well as those who cooperated with him in


IV. With The Aid Of Armed Men (Par. 8), Distinguished From By A
Band. (Par. 6)

Paragraph 8 (Aid Of Armed Men)
Paragraph 6 (By A Band)
Aid of armed men is present even By a band requires more than
if one of the offenders merely three armed malefactors have
relied on their aid. Actual aid is acted together in committing the
not necessary.
offense.

A. Aid of armed men is absorbed by employment of a band
It is improper to be separately take into account against the
accused the aggravating circumstance of (1) the aid of armed
men, and (2) employment of a band in appraising the gravity if
the offense, in view of the definition of band which includes
any group of armed men, provided they are at least 4 in
number.

B. Distinguished From Article 62 (Organized Crime Syndicate)


By A Band
Article 62
Aid of Armed Men
Liability
All principals
All principals
Armed men are
accomplices
Number
4 or more
2 or more
2 or more
Specificity Crime not
Crime for GAIN
Crime not
specified
specified
Nature
Generic
Special
Generic
aggravating;
cant be offset

V. Aid Of Armed Men Includes Armed Women


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Aid of armed women is aggravating in kidnapping and serious


illegal detention (People v. Licop).
Some use of arms or show of armed strength is necessary to
guard a kidnap victim to prevent or discourage escape and so in
a sense, it may be justly regarded as included in or absorbed by
the offense itself (People v. Villanueva).


PAR. 9: THAT THE ACCUSED IS A RECIDIVIST.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 9:
Greater perversity of the offender, as shown by his inclination
to crimes.

II. Who Is A Recidivist?
One who, at the time of his trial for one crime, shall have been
previously convicted by final judgment of another crime
embraced in the same title of the Revised Penal Code (Article
14(9), Paragraph 2).
o No requirement that it be consummated. Can be
attempted or frustrated. Law does not distinguish.

III. Elements:
1. Offender is on trial for an offense.
2. He was previously convicted by final judgment of another
crime.
3. Both the first and second offenses are embraced in the same
title of the Code.
4. Offender is convicted of the new offense.

IV. FIRST ELEMENT: At the time of his trial for one crime.
What is controlling is the time of trial, not the time of the
commission of the crime.
o It is not required that at the time of the commission of
the second crime, the accused should have been

previously convicted by final judgment of another


crime.
Meaning of at the time of his trial for one crime It is
employed in its general sense, including the rendering of the
judgment. It is meant to include everything that is done in the
course of the trial, from arraignment until after sentence is
announced by the judge in open court.
o What if judgment is suspended because of RA 9344,
and then accused commits another crime under the
same title, recidivist? No. Decision not promulgated,
hence no final judgment.
No recidivism if the subsequent conviction is for an offense
committed before the offense involved in the prior conviction.
o The accused was prosecuted and tried for theft, estafa
and robbery. Judgments for all three were rendered on
the same day. He is not a recidivist because the
judgment of the first two were not final when he was
tried for the third offense.
o People v. Baldera
Facts: The accused was convicted of robbery
with homicide committed on December 23,
1947. He was previously convicted of theft
committed on December 30, 1947.
Held: The accused was not a recidivist
There is recidivism even if the lapse of time between two
felonies is more than 10 years
o Recidivism must be taken into account as an
aggravating circumstance no matter how many years
have intervened between the first and second felonies.


V. SECOND ELEMENT: Previously Convicted By Final Judgment
Section 7 of Rule 120 of the Revised Rules of Criminal
Procedure except where the death penalty is imposed, a
judgment in a criminal case becomes final.


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a. After the lapse of the period for perfecting an appeal,


or
b. When the sentence has been partially or totally
satisfied or served, or
c. The accused has applied for probation.
Section 6 of Rule 122 of the Revised Rules of Criminal
Procedure an appeal must be taken within 15 days from
promulgation or notice of the judgment or order appealed
from.


VI. THIRD ELEMENT: The Present Crime And The Previous Crime Must
Be Embraced In The Same Title Of This Code.
When one offense is punishable by an ordinance or special law
and the other by the Revised Penal Code, the two offenses are
not embraced in the same title of the Code.
But recidivism was considered aggravating in a usury case
where the accused was previously convicted of the same
offense.
o Article 10 Revised Penal Code as supplementing
special laws of a penal character.

A. Examples Of Crimes Embraced In The Same Title Of The Revised
Penal Code
Robbery and theft (Title 10)
Homicide and physical injuries (Title 8)
The felonies defined and penalized in Book II of Revised Penal
Code are grouped in different titles.

VI. Pardon Does Not Obliterate The Fact That The Accused Was A
Recidivist; But Amnesty Extinguished The Penalty And Its Effects
This is the ruling in the case of US v. Sotelo.
Pardon does not prevent a former conviction form being
considered as an aggravating circumstance.

PAR. 10: THAT THE OFFENDER HAS BEEN PREVIOUSLY PUNISHED FOR
AN OFFENSE TO WHICH THE LAW ATTACHES AN EQUAL OR GREATER
PENALTY OR FOR TWO OR MORE CRIMES TO WHICH IT ATTACHES A
LIGHTER PENALTY.

I. Basis of Paragraph 10:
Same as that of recidivism, i.e, the greater perversity of the
offender as shown by his inclination to crimes.

II. Elements:
1. Accused is on trial for an offense.
2. He previously served sentence for another offense to which the
law attaches an equal or greater penalty, or for two or more
crimes to which it attaches lighter penalty than that for the
new offense.
3. He is convicted of the new offense.

III. Reiteracion or Habituality
In reiteracion or habituality, it is essential that the offender be
previously punished, that is, he has served sentence, for an
offense in which the law attached, or provides for an equal or
greater penalty than that attached by law to the second
offense, or for two or more offenses, in which the law attaches
a lighter penalty.
People v. Villapando The records did not disclose that the
accused has been so previously punished. Reiteracion or
habituality is not attendant.

IV. SECOND ELEMENT: Has been previously punished
Means that the accused previously served sentence for another
offense or sentences for other offenses before his trial for the
new offense.
Second requisite is present:


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o
o
o

When the penalty provided by law for the previous


offense is equal to that for the new offense.
When the penalty provided by law for the previous
offense is greater.
Accused served at least two sentences even if the
penalties provided by law for the crimes are lighter.


A. Punished For An Offense To Which The Law Attaches An Equal X X
X Penalty.
A served sentence for forcible abduction punishable by
reclusion temporal then committed homicide after being
released, which is also punishable by reclusion temporal.

B. Punished For An Offense To Which The Law Attaches X X X Greater
Penalty.
A served sentence for homicide punishable by reclusion
temporal then committed falsification after punishable by a
penalty ranging from 6 years and 1 day to 12 years.
Suppose its falsification first then homicide after? No
habituality, because the penalty for the first offense is less than
that for the second offense. The penalty for the first offense
must at least be equal to that for the second offense.
Homicide before and homicide after? There is recividism,
because the first and the second offenses are embraced in the
same title of the Code.

C. Punished Xxx For Two Or More Crimes To Which It Attaches A
Lighter Penalty.
The previous two offenses, the law provides lesser penalties.

V. It Is The Penalty Attached To The Offense, Not The Penalty Actually
Imposed.
Article 14, Par. 10 speaks of penalty attached to the offense,
which may have several periods.

Even if the accused served the penalty of prision mayor in its


minimum period and is not convicted of an offense for which
the penalty of prision mayor maximum is imposed, there is still
habituality.


VI. Reiteracion Or Habituality, Not Always Aggravating.
If penalty is death and the offenses for which the offender has
been previously convicted are against property and not directly
against persons, courts should exercise its discretion in favor of
the accused by not taking this circumstance into account.

VII. The Four Forms Of Repetition:
1. Recidivism (Article 14, Par. 9)
2. Reiteracion or habituality (Article 14, Par. 10)
3. Multi-recidivism or habitual delinquency (Article 62, par. 5)
4. Quasi-recidivism (Article 160)

A. Recidivism And Reiteracion Distinguished

Recidivism
Reiteracion
Enough that a final judgment has Necessary that the offender shall
been rendered in the first offense have served out his sentence for
the first offense
Requires that the offenses be Previous and subsequent offenses
included in the same title of the must not be embraced in the
Code
same title of the Code.
Always to be taken into Not always an aggravating
consideration in fixing the penalty circumstance
to be imposed upon the accused
No requirement as to penalty Prior crime must have been
imposed on the prior conviction
penalized with an equal or greater
penalty or 2 or more crimes with
lighter penalty


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First 2 generic aggravating circumstances, 3rd is an


extraordinary aggravating circumstance. 4th is a special
aggravating circumstance


B. Habitual Delinquency
There is habitual delinquency when a person, within a period of
10 years from the date of his release or last conviction of the
crimes of serious or less serious physical injuries, robbery,
theft, estafa, or falsification, is found guilty of any of said
crimes a third time of oftener.
o There is a need for 3 convictions, with the third being
committed within 10 years from the second.
In habitual delinquency, he is either a recidivist or punished for
habituality (two or more crimes).
o An offender can be a recidivist and habitual delinquent
at the same time.
He shall suffer an additional penalty for being a habitual
delinquent (special aggravating circumstance).


Recidivism
Habitual Delinquency
Convictions Two are enough
Three are required
Crimes
Must be both under the Serious or less serious
covered
same title of the Code
physical injuries, robbery,
theft,
estafa,
or
falsification
Prescription None as no time limit given Prescribes if the 10-year
by law between the 1st and limit between the second
2nd convictions
and third convictions are
exceeded
Nature
Generic, can be offset
Special, cant be offset
Penalty
Increase is to the max Entails additional penalty,
period
which increases with the
number of convictions

C. Quasi-recidivism
Any person who shall commit a felony after having been
convicted by final judgment, before beginning to serve such
sentence, or while serving the same, shall be punished by the
maximum period of the penalty prescribed by law for the new
felony. (Article 160)
This is a special aggravating circumstance that cant be offset,
and penalizes the offender with the max period of the new
felony committed.
o Example: Accused is serving sentence for homicide.
Then kills someone in prison. Hell get the max period
for his second homicide.

PAR. 11: THAT THE CRIME BE COMMITTED IN CONSIDERATION OF A
PRICE, REWARD, OR PROMISE

I. Basis For Paragraph 11
Greater perversity of the offender, as shown by the motivating
power itself.

II. This Aggravating Circumstance Presupposed The Concurrence Of
Two Or More Offenders
There must be 2 or more principals, the one who gives or offers
the price or promise, and the one who accepts it.
Both of whom are principals to the former, because he
directly induces the latter to commit the crime, the latter
because he actually commits it.

A. Is This Paragraph Applicable To The One Who Gave The Price Or
Reward?
YES. It affects not only the person who received the price of the
reward but also the person who gave it (US v. Parro). The
aggravating circumstance of price, reward or promise thereof


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affects equally the offeror and the acceptor (People v.


Alincastre)
BUT this is contrasted by People v. Talledo and Trimbreza
o But in the case of People v. Talledo and Timbreza, it
was held that this aggravating circumstance cannot be
considered against the other accused for the reason
that it was not she who committed the crime in
consideration of said price or reward.
If the price, reward or promise is alleged in the information as a
qualifying aggravating circumstance, it shall be considered
against all the accused.


III. Application Of This Paragraph: Price Reward Or Promise Must Be
For The Purpose Of Inducing Another To Perform The Deed
For this aggravating circumstance to be considered against the
person, inducement must be primary consideration for the
commission of the of the crime by him (People v. Paredes).
Evidence must show that one of the accused used money or
other valuable consideration for the purpose of inducing
another to perform the deed (US v. Gamao).
o Services can constitute valuable consideration.
If without previous promise it was given voluntarily after the
crime has been committed as an expression of his appreciation
for the sympathy and aid shown by other accused, it should not
be taken into consideration for the purpose of increasing the
penalty (US v. Flores).

A. Effect Of Mistake In Identity Of The Victim
The aggravating circumstance will only be considered for the
case of the acceptor and not the one who made the offer.

PAR. 12: THAT THE CRIME BE COMMITTED BY MEANS OF
INUNDATION, FIRE, POISON, EXPLOSION, STRANDING OF A VESSEL OR
INTENTIONAL DAMAGE THERETO, DERAILMENT OF A LOCOMOTIVE,

OR BY USE OF ANY OTHER ARTIFICE INVOLVING GREAT WASTE AND


RUIN

I. Basis of Paragraph 11:
Reference to means and ways employed.

II. Unless Used By The Offender As A Means To Accomplish A Criminal
Purpose, Any Of The Circumstance In Par. 12 Cannot Be Considered To
Increase The Penalty Or To Change The Nature Of The Offense
As generic aggravating circumstance.
o In a crime of parricide, there is only a generic
aggravating circumstance, because they cannot qualify
the crime.
o When another aggravating circumstance already
qualifies the crime, any of these aggravating
circumstances shall be considered as generic
aggravating circumstance only.
When there is no actual design to kill a person in burning a
house, it is plain arson even if a person is killed.
o When the crime intended to be committed is arson and
somebody dies as a result thereof, the crime is simply
arson and the act resulting in the death of that person
is not even an independent crime of homicide, it being
absorbed (People v. Paterno).
o On the other hand, if the offender had the intent to kill
the victim, burned the house where the latter was, and
the victim dies, the crime is murder, qualified by the
circumstance that the crime was committed by means
of fire. (Article 248)

III. When Used As A Means To Kill Another Person, The Crime Is
Murder
1. By means of fire


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In order to constitute a murder, there should be an
actual design to kill and that the use of fire should be
purposely adopted as a means to that end (US v.
Burns).
o If the purpose of the explosion, inundation, fire or
poison is to kill a predetermined person, this
aggravating circumstance will not be considered as it is
an integral element of the offense. The crime is
murder.
o If the house was set on fire after killing the victim,
there would be two separate crimes of arson and
murder. There is no aggravating circumstance by
means of fire.
2. By means of explosion
o If there is an explosion, and the wall is damaged thus
endangering the lives of the people there, there is
damage of property (Article 324).
o If there an explosion and people died, but there was no
intent to kill, it will be a crime involving destruction but
the penalty will be death.
o If there is intent to kill and explosion is used, there is
murder.
3. By means of derailment of locomotive
o Article 330 defines and penalizes the crime of
damage to means of communication, derailment of
cars, collision or accident must result from damage to
railway, telegraph, or telephone.
o This is without prejudice to criminal liability of other
consequences of criminal act:
Damage to means of communication is
committed if property is damaged as a result of
the derailment of cars.
If death of a person also results without intent
to kill on part of the offender, it is a complex
o

crime of damage to means of communication


with homicide.
If there was intent to kill and the death results,
it is murder because the derailment of cars was
the means used to kill the victim.
If this aggravating circumstance qualifies a
crime to murder, it can no longer raise the
penalty higher. (Article 62, Par.1)
It will be noted that each of the circumstances of fire, explosion
and derailment of locomotive may be a part of the definition of
particular crime. In these cases, they do not serve to increase
the penalty, because they are already included by the law in
defining the crime.


IV. Par. 12 Distinguished From Par. 7

Paragraph 12
Paragraph 7
The crime is committed by means The crime is committed on the
of any of such acts involving great occasion of a calamity or
waste or ruin
misfortune

PAR. 13: THAT THE ACT BE COMMITTED WITH EVIDENT
PREMEDITATION

I. Basis of Paragraph 13
Ways of committing the crime, because it implies a deliberate
planning of the act before executing it.

II. Illustration Of Deliberate Planning
A planned to kill B, where his plan could be deduced from the
following outward circumstances:
o He caused his co-accused, C, to be drunk.
o He remarked that he had a grudge against B.
o He supplied ammunition to C.


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III. Evident premeditation may be considered as to principal by
induction
When A directly induces persons B and C to kill D. The crime, in
so far as A is concerned, was committed with premeditation.

IV. Essence Of Premeditation
Is that the execution of the criminal act must be preceded by
cool thought and reflection upon the resolution to carry out the
criminal intent during the space of time sufficient to arrive at a
calm judgment.
Evident premeditation may NOT be appreciated absent any
proof as to how and when the plan to kill was hatched or what
time elapse before it was carried out.

A. The Premeditation Must Be Evident
There must be evidence showing that the accused meditated
and reflected on his intention between the time (1) when the
crime was conceived and (2) when it was actually perpetrated.
It cannot be merely suspected.

V. Elements Of Evident Premeditation
1. The time when the offender determined to commit the crime;
2. An act manifestly indicating that the culprit has clung to his
determination.
3. A sufficient lapse of time between the determination and
execution to allow him to reflect upon the consequences of his
act and to allow his conscience to overcome the resolution of
his will.
Example: US v. Manalinde (Where 3 requisites were present).
(1st requisite) On a certain date, the accused accepted a
proposition that he would go huramentado and to kill the 2
persons he would meet.

(2nd requisite) He undertook the journey to comply and


provided himself with the weapon, which manifests his
determination to commit the crime.
(3rd requisite) He took a journey for a day and a night before
killing the victims. Such duration is a sufficient lapse of time.


VI. FIRST REQUISITE: The Date And Time When The Offender
Determined To Commit The Crime Essential
This is because the lapse of time for the purpose of the 3rd
requisite is computed from that date and time.

VII. SECOND REQUISITE Necessary: Manifest Indication Of Clinging To
Culprits Determination
The premeditation must be based upon external acts and not
presumed from mere lapse of time.
o The criminal intent must be notorious and manifest and
the purpose and determination must be plain and have
been adopted after mature consideration on the part
of the persons who conceived and resolved upon the
perpetration of the crime, as a result deliberation,
meditation and reflection sometime before
commission.
The rule is that the qualifying circumstance of premeditation is
satisfactorily established only if it is proved that the defendant
had deliberately planned to commit the crime, and had
persistently and continuously followed it, notwithstanding that
he had ample time to allow his conscience to overcome the
determination of his will, if he had so desired after meditation
and reflection (People v. Sarmiento).

A. Second Requisite Exists
It can be said that the offender clung to their determination when:
Was carefully planned by the offenders.


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When the offenders previously prepared the means which they


consider adequate to carry out the plan.
When the grave was prepared at an isolated place.
When the defendants made repeated statements of their
intention and armed themselves accordingly.
When the defendant commenced to prepare his weapon.
When the defendant repeatedly attempted to take the life of
the deceased.
Where the accused repeatedly plotted the commission of
murder.


B. Mere Threats Without The Second Element Does Not Show Evident
Premeditation
A threat to kill, unsupported by other evidence which would
disclose the criminal state of mind of the accused is not a
resolution involved in evident premeditation (People v.
Fernandez).
The mere fact as soon as the accused heard that the deceased
had escaped from stockade he prepared to kill him is
insufficient to establish evident premeditation. The proposition
was nothing but an expression of his own determination to
commit the crime differ from premeditation (People v.
Carillo).
There is no showing that, between the day the threat was given
and the day the killing actually occurred, the appellant made
plans or sought the deceased to accomplish the killing. The
killing happened when the appellant was plowing the field and
the deceased unexpectedly appeared (People v. Sarmiento).

VIII. THIRD REQUISITE: Sufficient Lapse Of Time
Law does not give formula. Case to case basis. (People v. Rodas)
When the act was not prompted by the impulse of the
moment.

When the accused had ample time to make necessary


preparations.
When there was ample time for meditation and reflection and
to allow his conscience to overcome the resolution of his will.
When there was sufficient time for desistance.
When here was sufficient time to reflect upon the
consequences of the contemplated act.


A. Existence Of Ill-Feeling Or Grudge Alone Is Not Proof Of Evident
Premeditation
A grudge or resentment is not a conclusive proof of evident
premeditation.

B. Reason Why Sufficient Time Is Required
To give the offender an opportunity to coolly and serenely
think and deliberate on the meaning and the consequences of
what he planned to do, an interval long enough for his
conscience and better judgment to overcome his evil desire
and scheme.

C. There Must Be Sufficient Time Between The Outward Acts And The
Actual Commission Of The Crime
The mere fact that the accused was lying in wait before the
attack is NOT sufficient to sustain a finding of evident
premeditation, in the absence of proof that he had been lying
in wait for a substantial period of time.

IX. Conspiracy generally presupposes premeditation
When conspiracy is directly established, the existence of
evident premeditation can be taken for granted.
Exception: When conspiracy is only implied, evident
premeditation my not be appreciated (in the absence of proof
as to how and when the plan to kill was hatched).


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X. Evident premeditation and price or reward can co-exist
The aggravating circumstance of price, reward or promise may
be taken into consideration independently of the fact that
premeditation has already been considered .
Premeditation is absorbed by reward or promise (applicable
only to the inductor).
o The mere fact that another executed the act on the
promise of reward does not necessarily mean that he
had sufficient time to reflect on the consequences of
his act.

XI. When Victim Is Different From That Intended, Premeditation Is Not
Aggravating
Evident premeditation may not be properly taken into account
when the person whom the defendant proposed to kill was
different from the one who became his victim.

A. Distinguish The Ruling In The Timbol Case From That In The Guillen
Case
People v. Guillen When the person killed is different from
the one intended to be killed, evident premeditation may NOT
be considered present.
People v. Timbol Evident premeditation MAY BE considered
IF it is shown that the conspirators were determined to kill not
only the intended victim but also any one who may help him
put a violent resistance.
It is not necessary that there is a plan to kill a particular person
When after careful and thoughtful meditation, the accused
decided to kill, at the first opportunity, whatever individual he
should meet. Evident premeditation is still present.
Differences in rulings
1st case: When the offender decides to kill another but kills a
different person instead, it is not aggravating (Guillen).

2nd case: If the offender decides to kill ANY person, it is


aggravating (See People v. Timbol).
3rd case: Where the victim belonged to the SAME CLASS, it is
aggravating (See US v. Zalos and Ragmacm supra).


XII. Evident Premeditation, While Inherent In Robbery, May Be
Aggravating In Robbery With Homicide IF The Premeditation
Included The Killing Of The Victim.
If the killing is only incidental because the original plan was only
to rob, this aggravating circumstance should be disregarded.
Thus:
o If in addition to the crime of robbery, the accused
intended to kill a person (robbery with homicide),
evident premeditation is aggravating.
o But if he had no plan to kill a person, but ends up killing
a person in the house who put up some form of
resistance, no evident premeditation (People v
Curachia).

PAR. 14: THAT (1) CRAFT, (2) FRAUD, OR (3) DISGUISE BE EMPLOYED.

I. Basis of Paragraph 14
Means employed in the commission of the crime

II. Application Of This Paragraph
This circumstance is characterized by the intellectual or mental
rather than the physical means to which the criminal resorts to
carry out his design.
These cannot be appreciated when it did not facilitate the
commission of the crime, or when it was not taken advantage
of by the offender in the course of the assault.
If they were used to insure the commission of the crime against
persons without risk to offender, absorbed by treachery
(usually absorbed by treachery)


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o

But can be appreciated separately if based on different


facts. For example, guy pretends to hire a jeep because
he wants to rob it. Jeepney driver gets loko. While on
the jeep, accused kills accused by hitting him behind
the head. SC considered craft in the plan in the robbery
scheme. Treachery in the killing of the driver. (People v.
San Pedro)


III. Craft (Involves intellectual trickery and cunning on the part of the
accused)
It is chicanery resorted to by the accused to aid in the execution
of the crime.
Example:
o When the accused pretended to be bona fide
passengers in the taxicab driven by the diseased in
order to not arouse his suspicion and then killing him,
there is craft (People v. Daos).
o Accused lures victim out of his house (People v.
Barbosa) or into a false sense of security to make him
unmindful of the tragedy that would befall him (People
v. Rodriguez)
o Craft was used in rape when the accused offered a
drugged but innocent looking chocolate to the victim,
which did not arouse her suspicion, in order to weaken
and prevent her from resisting (People v. Guy, CA).

A. Craft, When Not An Aggravating Circumstance.
Where craft partakes of an element of the offense, the same
may not be appreciated independently for the purpose of
aggravation.
Craft is not clearly established where accused and his
companions did not camouflage their hostile intentions and
even announced their presence with shouts and gunshots
(People v. Cunanan).


IV. Fraud (Insidious words or machinations used to induce the victim to
act in a manner which would enable the offender to carry out his
design)
Example: Where the defendants induced their victims to give
up their arms upon a promise that no harm would befall them
(US v. Abelinde).

A. Hairline Distinction Between Craft And Fraud
There is craft OR fraud (either can be used) when by trickery,
accused gained entrance in the victims house by pretending
they had pacific intentions (People v. Saliling).

B. How Is Craft Distinguished From Fraud?

Craft
Fraud
When the act of the accused was When there is a direct inducement
done in order not to arouse the by
insidious
words
or
suspicion of the victim
machinations

VI. Disguise (Resorting to any device to conceal identity)
Example:
o Defendant blackened his face in order that he should
not be recognized (US v. Cofrada).
o The fact that the mask subsequently fell down thus
paving the way for identification does not render the
aggravating circumstance of disguise inapplicable
(People v. Cabato).
o Use of an assumed name in publication (People v.
Adamos).

A. Disguise, Not Considered
When the disguise was not effective in concealing identity.


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Even though the accused assumed a masquerade his face was


still recognizable due to their distinct features (People v. Reyes)


B. The Purpose Of The Offender In Using Any Device Must Be To
Conceal His Identity
Muslim turbans are not disguises, since it is not intended to
conceal ones identity (US v. Rodriguez).
Disguise did not facilitate the consummation of the killing, nor
taken advantage of by the malefactors in the course of the
assault. Their mode of attack i.e. arriving with shouts and
gunshots counteracted whatever deception might have arisen
from their disguise (People v. Cunanan).

PAR. 15: THAT (1) ADVANTAGE BE TAKEN OF SUPERIOR STRENGTH,
OR (2) MEANS BE EMPLOYED TO WEAKEN THE DEFENSE

I. Meaning Of Advantage Be Taken
Means to use purposely excessive force out of proportion to the
means of defense available to the person attacked.

II. Illustrations
A. Illustrations Of No Advantage Of Superior Strength
One who attacks another with passion and obfuscation does
not take advantage of his superior strength.
When a quarrel arose unexpectedly and the fatal blow was
struck at a time when the aggressor and his victim were
engaged against each other as man to man.
When the attack was made on the victim alternately, there is
no abuse of superior strength (People v. Narciso).

B. Illustrations Of Abuse Of Superior Strength
When a strong man has ill-treated a child, an old decrepit
person, or one weakened by disease or where a persons

physical strength has been overcome by the use of drugs or


intoxicants.
Present where the victim who died was a baby, and the other
wounded victims were children aged 5 and 12, because of the
marked difference of physical strength between the offended
parties and the offender.


C. Abuse Of Superior Strength When A Man Attacks A Woman With A
Weapon
An attack made by a man with a deadly weapon upon an
unarmed and defenseless woman constitutes abuse of
superiority which his sex and the weapon used afforded him,
and which the woman is unable to defend herself.
No abuse of superior strength in parricide against the wife.
That the victim is a woman is inherent in parricide.

III. Evidence Of Relative Physical Strength Necessary
There must be evidence that the accused were physically
stronger and that they abused such superiority.
The mere fact of being a superiority of numbers is not sufficient
to bring the case within aggravating circumstance.

IV. When Abuse Of Superior Strength Is Aggravating
This aggravating circumstance depends on the age, size, and
strength of the parties.
It is considered whenever there is a notorious inequality of
forces between the victim and the aggressor which is taken
advantage of him in the commission of the crime.

A. Number Of Aggressors, If Armed, May Point To Abuse Of Superior
Strength
There is no abuse of superior strength where the accused did
not cooperate in such a way as to secure advantage from their


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combined strength. They did not exploit their superior strength
(People v. Ybaez).
Instances of abuse of superior strength by numerical superiority
When the assailants are armed and outnumber the victim.
When the assailants successively and simultaneously assaulted
the victim and there was marked disparity between the
strength of the victim and the strength of the aggressors.
When the assailants cooperated in such a way as to derive
advantage from their combined strength.

B. There Is Abuse Of Superior Strength When Weapon Used Is Out Of
Proportion To The Defense Available To The Offended Party
Abuse of strength is present not only when (1) the offenders
enjoy numerical superiority or (2) there is a notorious
inequality of force between the victim and the aggressor, but
also (3) when the offender uses a powerful weapon which is
out of proportion to the defense available to the offended
party
Simultaneous attack by two persons with revolvers against a
defenseless person is aggravated by superior strength (US v.
Baagale).

C. There Is No Abuse Of Superior Strength When One Acted As
Principal And The Other Two As Accomplices
It must appear that the accused cooperated together in some
way designed to weaken the defense. This would make them
guilty in the character of principals.

D. When There Is An Allegation Of Treachery, Superior Strength Is
Absorbed
Like nighttime, superior strength is inherent in treachery.

E. Abuse Of The Superior Strength Is Aggravating In Coercion And


Forcible Abduction, When Greatly In Excess Of That Required To
Commit The Offense
Although the commission of the crime of coercion or forcible
abduction presupposes superiority of force on the part of the
offenders, Yet when the strength availed of is greatly in excess
of that required for the realization of the offense, as where the
offenders were very much superior to the complainant

F. Other Crimes In Which Abuse Of Superior Strength Is Aggravating
Illegal detention (Article 267 and 268)
Robbery with rape
Robbery with homicide

V. The Circumstance Of By A Band And That Of Abuse Of Superior
Strength, Distinguished

By A Band
Abuse Of Supreme Strength
Element of band is appreciated In superior strength, what is taken
when the offense is committed by into account is not the number
more than 3 armed malefactors of aggressors nor the fact that
regardless of the comparative they are armed BUT their relative
strength of the victim
physical might vis--vis the
offended party

A. Aggravating Circumstances Absorbing Band
Abuse of superiority absorbs cuadrilla.
The two concepts should NOT be treated separately and
distinct from abuse of superior strength.
The aggravating circumstance of by a band is absorbed in
treachery.

VI. Means Employed To Weaken Defense


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Example: When one suddenly casts sand or dirt upon the


latters eyes and then wounds or kills him (People v. Siaotong).


A. Intoxicating The Victim To Weaken Defense
This is for the purpose of materially weakening the latters
resisting power.
If the state of intoxication is such that the victim cannot put
up any sort of defense, treachery may be considered.

VII. Applicable Only To Crimes Against Persons, Etc.
This circumstance is applicable only to crimes against persons,
and sometimes against person and property, such as robbery
with physical injuries or homicide (i.e. robbery with homicide).

A. Means To Weaken The Defense Absorbed In Treachery
In People v. Guy, employing means to weaken the defense is
not the aggravating circumstance. It is craft.

PAR. 16: THAT THE ACT BE COMMITTED WITH TREACHERY
(ALEVOSIA).

I. Basis Of Paragraph 16
Means and ways employed in the commission of the crime.

II. Meaning Of Treachery
When the offender commits any of the crimes against the
person employing means, methods or forms in the execution
thereof which tend directly and specially to insure its
execution, without risk to himself arising from the defense
which the offended party might make.
It means that the offended party was not given opportunity to
make a defense.
Treachery is present when the attack is:
o Sudden

Unexpected
Without warning
Without giving the victim an opportunity to defend
himself or repel the aggression
o Made when the deceased did not sense any danger as
there was no grudge or misunderstanding
Essence: swiftness and the unexpectedness of the attack
However, the suddenness of the attack must be preconceived
by the accused, unexpected by the victim and without
provocation on the part of the latter.

III. Rules Regarding Treachery
RULE 1: Applicable Only To Crimes Against Persons
Based on the phrase crime against the person.
RULE 2: It Is Not Necessary That The Mode Of Attack Insures The
Consummation Of Offense
It is necessary only to insure its execution NOT
accomplishment.
o It is sufficient that it tends to an intended end.
The treacherous character of the means employed does not
depend upon its consummation otherwise there would be no
attempted or frustrated murder qualified by treachery.
Treacherous character of the offense is dependent on the
MEANS itself, in connection with the aggressors purpose.
Treachery cannot be presumed
o It is necessary that the existence of this qualifying or
aggravating circumstance should be proven as fully as
the crime itself in order to aggravate the liability or
penalty incurred by the culprit.
Illustrations NO treachery in the following cases:
o When no particulars are known to the commission of
the crime as the wound which resulted into the death
of victim could have been accidental (US v. Perdon).
o
o
o


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When the meeting of the victim and the assailant was
only accidental (People v. Velaga).
o Where no witness saw how the deceased was shot
(People v. Tiozon).
o When the witness did not see how it all began and
could not provide details (People v. Narit).
o Where the attack was frontal (People v. Tugba).
Exceptions:
o When the victim was tried even without a witness (U.S.
v. Santos).
o In the killing of a child even if the manner of attack is
not shown (People v. Retubado).
RULE 3: The Mode Of Attack Must Be Consciously Adopted
Based on the words employing, directly and specially.
This means that the accused must make some preparation to
kill the deceased in such a manner as to insure the execution of
the crime or to make it impossible for the person to defend
himself
The mode of attack must be thought of by the offender and
must not spring from the unexpected turn of events
Examples where treachery is PRESENT:
o Act of shooting the victim at a distance, without the
least expectation on his part that he would be
assaulted.
o The accused made a deliberate, surprise attack on the
victim.
o When the victims hands were raised and he was
pleading for mercy with one of the assailants when
another struck him.
o When the assailant strategically placed himself in a
forested area and fired at the unsuspecting victim at a
distance.
o When the victim was tied and gagged before being
stabbed.
o

When the attack was deliberate, sudden, unexpected


from behind.
o When the attack was made without warning.
Examples where treachery is NOT present
o A frontal encounter without deliberate surprise attack.
o When the malefactors have him an ominous warning.
o When the accused did not camouflaged their
intentions.
o When there is nothing in the record to show that the
accused had pondered upon the mode or method to
insure the killing or remove risk to himself.
o When there is no evidence that the accused had, prior
to the moment, resolved to commit the crime or there
is no proof that the death of the victim was the result
of meditation, calculation or reflection.
Mere suddenness of the attack is not enough to constitute
treachery, it must be deliberately chosen too.
That the mode of attack was consciously adopted may be
inferred from the circumstances.
o


IV. Where The Meeting Between The Accused And The Victim Is
Casual And The Attack Impulsively Done, There Is NO Treachery
Treachery cannot be appreciated where there is nothing in the
record to show that the accused had pondered upon the mode
or method to insure the killing of the deceased or remove or
diminish any risk to himself that might arise from the defense
that the deceased might make.
Main characteristics: deliberate, sudden and unexpected
o Mere suddenness of the attack is not enough to
constitute treachery. Such method or form of attack
must be deliberately chosen by the accused.
Where the meeting between the accused and the victim is
casual and the attack impulsively done, there is not treachery


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V. Attacks Showing Intention To Eliminate Risk (See p.447-450)
Victim asleep
Victim half-awake or just awakened
Victim grappling or being held
Attack from behind
o With a firearm
o With a bladed weapon

VI. Elements Of Treachery
1. That at the time of the attack, the victim was not in a position
to defend himself.
2. That the offender consciously adopted the particular means,
method or form of attack employed by him.

A. The Victim Was Not In A Position To Defend Himself
Examples:
o When the victim was made to lie face down with hands
tied at the back (People v. Saquing).
o When the victim was shot from behind (People v.
Berzuela).
o When the victim was shot while blindfolded (People v.
Jakosalem).
o When the victim was ambushed in the dark.
There is treachery when the offenders made a deliberate
surprise or unexpected attack on the victim
There is NO treachery when the victim was already defending
himself when he was attacked by the accused
The fact that advantage was taken of relative confusion, so that
the act and identity of the offender would not be detected, and
so that his escape would be facilitated DOES NOT adequately
establish treachery.

B. Treachery Does Not Connote The Element Of Surprise Alone

Mere sudden and unexpected attack does not necessary give


rise to treachery. It could have been done on impulse, as a
reaction to an actual or imagined provocation offered by the
victim.


VII. Instances where treachery may or may not exist:
When the accused gave the deceased a chance to prepare,
there was no treachery.
No treachery where the attack is preceded by a warning.
o Calling attention of the victim not necessarily a
warning.
o Thus, treachery may be appreciated even when the
victim is warned of the danger to his person, for what is
decisive is that the attack made it impossible for the
victim to defend himself or retaliate
No treachery where shooting is preceded by heated
discussion
o This allows the victim to insure their safety before the
attack of the defendants.
o Killing unarmed victim whose hands are upraised is
committed with treachery.
o Killing a woman asking for mercy is committed with
treachery.
There is treachery in killing a child
o This is so because the weakness of the victim due to his
tender age.
Intent to kill is not necessary in murder with treachery.
o There is no incompatibility, moral or legal, between
aleviosa and the mitigating circumstance of not having
intended to cause so great an injury (Article 13)
o But intent to kill is necessary in murder committed by
means of fire.
Treachery may exist even if the attack is face to face


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This is possible where it appears that the attack was
not preceded by a dispute and the offended party was
unable to prepare himself for defense.
Flashing the beam of a flashlight on the face of victim
o This momentarily blinds the victim and is aggravating
even if the attack was frontal and sudden
If the intervention of the other persons did not directly and
especially insure the execution of the crime without risk to
the accused, there is no treachery

VIII. Treachery Must Be Proved By Clear And Convincing Evidence
Treachery is not to be presumed. There must be a clear
showing from the narration of facts why the attack is said to be
sudden.
Clear and convincing evidence is necessary.
Attack from behind is not always alevosia. It is necessary that
the attack from behind was consciously adopted and
diminished risk to the offender
o General Rule: Frontal attack, no treachery.
o Exception: when attack is sudden and made in such a
manner that insures its execution free from danger and
without risk to oneself on account of what the victim
might make to defend himself
o People v. Base where barangay captain was
suddenly shot in the head after opening the door of his
residence to the accused.

IX. Must treachery be present at the beginning of the assault?
It depends on the circumstances of the case
General Rule: It must be shown that the treacherous acts were
present and preceded the commencement of the attack which
caused the injury complained of.
o Exception: Even though in the inception of the
aggression which ended in the death of the deceased,
o

treachery was not present, if there was a break in the


continuity of the aggression and at the time the fatal
wound was inflicted on the deceased he was
defenseless, the circumstance of treachery must be
taken into account.
Summary of the rules
o When the aggression is continuous, treachery must be
present at the beginning of the assault (People v.
Caete).
o When the assault not continuous, in that there was an
interruption, it is sufficient that treachery was present
at the moment the fatal blow was given (US v. Baluyot).


X. In Treachery, It Makes No Difference Whether Or Not The Victim
Was The Same Person Whom The Accused Intended To Kill
The purely accidental circumstance that as a result of the shots,
a person other than the one intended was killed, does NOT
modify the nature of the crime nor lessen his criminal
responsibility.
Treachery may be taken into account despite mistake in
identity.
The reason for this rule is that when there is treachery, it is
impossible for either the intended victim or the actual victim to
defend himself against the aggression

XI. When Treachery Is Not To Be Considered As To The Principal By
Induction
When it is NOT shown that the principal induced the killer to
adopt the means or methods actually used, because the former
left to the latter the details as to how it was to be
accomplished, treachery CANNOT be taken into consideration
as to the principal by induction.
It shall aggravate the liability of the actual killer ONLY.


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XII. Treachery, Abuse Of Superior Strength, And Means Employed To
Weaken The Defense, Distinguished

Treachery
Abuse of Superior
Means Employed to
Strength
Weaken Defense
Means, methods or The offender does not The offender, like in
forms of attack are employ
means, treachery, employs
employed to make it methods or forms of means but the means
impossible or hard for attack; he only takes employed
only
the offended party to advantage of his weakens the defense
put up any sort of superior strength.
defense

XIII. When There Is Conspiracy, Treachery Is Considered Against All
The Offenders.
Treachery should be considered against all persons
participating or cooperating in the perpetration of the crime,
except when there is no conspiracy among them.
Treachery should be considered against those persons who
had knowledge of the employment of treachery at the time of
the execution of the act or their cooperation therein.

A. The Mastermind Should Have Knowledge Of The Employment Of
Treachery If He Was Not Present When The Crime Was Committed
The rule is that every conspirator is responsible for the acts of
the others in furtherance of the conspiracy
Treachery should be appreciated as a generic aggravating
circumstance against the mastermind even when he was
absent during the crime.

XIV. What Is Absorbed In Treachery?
Treachery absorbs (1) abuse of superior strength, (2) aid of
armed men, (3) by a band (4) nighttime (5) means to weaken
the defense (6) craft (7) murder by poison and (8) Age and sex

When nighttime is not absorbed in treachery


o Since treachery rests upon an independent factual
basis, the circumstance of nighttime is not absorbed
therein, but can be perceived distinctly therefrom.
Craft is included in and absorbed by treachery
o Craft is included in and absorbed by the qualifying
circumstance of treachery, because it was used to
insure the commission of the crime without risk to the
culprits.
o When craft was employed in robbery with homicide,
not with a view to make treachery more effective as
nighttime or abuse of superior strength would in the
killing of the victim, it is NOT absorbed in treachery.
Age and sex are included in treachery
Dwelling is not included in treachery
Defenseless condition of victims is included in abuse of
superior strength, not treachery.
Treachery, evident premeditation and use of superior strength
are absorbed in Treason by killings.
Treachery is inherent in murder by poisoning
Treachery cannot co-exist with passion or obfuscation
o In passion or obfuscation, the offender loses his reason
and self-control.
o In treachery, the mode of attack must be consciously
adopted.


PAR. 17: THAT MEANS BE EMPLOYED OR CIRCUMSTANCES BROUGHT
ABOUT WHICH ADD IGOMINY TO THE NATURAL EFFECTS OR THE ACT.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 17:
Means employed

II. Definition Of Ignominy


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A circumstance pertaining to the moral order, which adds


disgrace and obloquy to the material injury caused by the
crime.
Relates to moral suffering (whereas cruelty refers to physical).


III. Applicability:
1. Crimes against chastity,
2. Less serious physical injuries,
3. Light or grave coercion, and
4. Murder

IV. Important Words And Phrases
A. That Means Be Employed
Example: wrapping the genital with cogon before rape to
increase pain (People v. Torrefiel, et al., CA)

B. That x x x Circumstances Be Brought About.
Example: Where one rapes a married woman in the presence of
her husband (US v. Iglesia) or betrothed (US v. Casaas).

C. Which Add Ignominy To The Natural Effects Of The Act
Means that the means or circumstances make the crime more
humiliating or to put the offended party to shame.
It is incorrect to appreciate adding ignominy to the offence
where the victim is already dead when his body was
dismembered (People v. Carmina).
No ignominy when a man is killed in the presence of his wife.
Because no means was employed nor did any circumstance
surround the act tending to make the effects of the crime more
humiliating (US v. Abaigar).
Rape as ignominy in robbery with homicide.
o Though it is not specifically enumerated in Article 14,
rape, wanton robbery for personal gain, and other
forms of cruelties are condemned and their

perpetration will be regarded as aggravating


circumstances of ignominy.

PAR. 18: THAT THE CRIME BE COMMITTED AFTER AN UNLAWFUL
ENTRY.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 18:
Means and ways employed to commit the crime.

II. Meaning Of Unlawful Entry
There is an unlawful entry when an entrance is effected by a
way not intended for the purpose.

III. To Effect Entrance, Not For Escape
Unlawful entry must be a means to effect the entrance and not
for escape.

IV. Reason For Aggravation
One who acts, not respecting the walls erected by men to
guard their property and provide for their personal safety,
shows a greater perversity.

V. Application Of This Circumstance
Examples: When rape is committed in a house after an entry
through the window.
Unlawful entry is one of the ways of committing robbery with
force upon things.
If the crime charged in the information was only theft, and the
prosecution proved unlawful entry, it is only a generic
aggravating circumstance (not robbery with force upon things).
Dwelling and unlawful entry taken separately in murders
committed in a dwelling
Unlawful entry is not aggravating in trespass to dwelling.
Trespass to dwelling is committed when a private individual


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shall enter the dwelling of another against the will of the latter
and may be committed by means of violence (Art. 280)

PAR. 19: THAT AS A MEANS TO THE COMMISSION OF A CRIME, A
WALL, ROOF, FLOOR, DOOR, OR WINDOW BE BROKEN.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 19:
Means and ways employed to commit the crime.
Aggravating circumstance of forcible entry
o Cutting of the canvas of the tent where soldiers are
sleeping is covered by Paragraph 19 (U.S. v. Matanug).

II. As A Means To The Commission Of A Crime.
It is not necessary that the offender should have entered the
building. What aggravates the liability of the offender is the
breaking of a part of the building as a means to the commission
of the crime.

III. To Effect Entrance Only
The circumstance is aggravating ONLY in those cases where the
offender resorted to any of said means to enter the house. If
the wall is broken in order to get out of the place, it is NOT an
aggravating circumstance.

IV. Where Breaking Of Door Or Window Is Lawful
Rule 113, Section 11 (Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure) An
officer may break into any building in making arrests.
Rule 126, Section 7 (RCP) An officer may break open any outer
or inner door or window to execute a warrant.

PAR. 20: THAT THE CRIME BE COMMITTED (1) WITH THE AID OF
PERSONS UNDER FIFTEEN YEARS OF AGE, OR (2) BY MEANS OF
MOTOR VEHICLES, AIRSHIPS, OR OTHER SIMILAR MEANS.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 20:


Means and ways employed to commit the crime.

II. Two Different Aggravating Circumstances In Paragraph 20
1. First one tends to repress the frequent practice resorted to by
professional criminals to avail themselves of minors taking
advantage of their irresponsibility.
2. Second one is intended to counteract the great facilities found
by modern criminals in said means to commit crime and flee
and abscond once the same is committed.

III. Important Words And Phrases
A. With The Aid Of Persons Under Fifteen Years Of Age
Facts: A caused 14-year-old B to climb the wall of the house of
C, to enter through the window and steal items. B threw them
outside and A retrieved them.
Held: Par. 20 should be taken as an aggravating circumstance.

B. By Means Of Motor Vehicles
Means that the vehicle is used (1) in going to the place of the
crime, (2) in carrying away the effects thereof and (3) in
facilitating their escape.
If the motor vehicle was used ONLY in facilitating the escape, it
should NOT be an aggravating circumstance. It should facilitate
the commission of the crime.
Estafa, which is committed by means of deceit or abuse of
confidence, cannot be committed by means of motor vehicle.
Theft, which is committed by merely talking personal property
which need not be carried away, cannot be committed by
means of motor vehicles.
Examples of crimes committed by means of motor vehicle
o Forcibly taking and carrying away a woman by means of
an automobile is aggravated forcible abduction.


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o

When the accused hires a taxi where he stabs his


victim.


C. Or Other Similar Means
The expression should be understood as referring to motorized
vehicles or other efficient means of transportation similar to
automobile or airplane.
Vehicles that are motorized (bicycles are not included)

PAR. 21: THAT THE WRONG DONE IN THE COMMISSION OF THE
CRIME BE DELIBERATELY AUGMENTED BY CAUSING OTHER WRONG
NOT NECESSARY FOR ITS COMMISSION.

I. Basis Of Paragraph 21:
Ways employed in committing the crime.

II. Cruelty:
When the culprit enjoys and delights in making his victim suffer
slowly and gradually, causing him unnecessary physical pain in
the consummation of the criminal act.
It is essential that the wrong done was intended to prolong the
suffering of the victim.
Test: whether accused deliberately and sadistically augmented
the wrong by causing another wrong not necessary for its
commission or inhumanly increased the victims suffering or
outraged or scoffed at his person or corpse.
o People v. Sitchon where bad common-law dad beat
to death his 2-year old son for spreading his poo
around the floor. The Court did not consider cruelty
because no proof that common-law dad enjoyed the
beating.

III. Elements Of Cruelty:

1. That the injury caused be deliberately increased by causing


other wrong.
2. That the other wrong be unnecessary for the execution of the
purpose of the offender.

IV. FIRST ELEMENT: Be Deliberately Augmented By Causing Other
Wrong.
This phrase means that the accused at the time of the
commission of the crime had deliberate intention to prolong
the suffering of the victim.

V. SECOND ELEMENT: Other Wrong Not Necessary For Its
Commission
Facts: A and B struck C with their guns to make him point the
place where he was keeping his money.
Held: There was other wrong but it necessary for the
commission of the crime of robbery. No cruelty.

VI. Cruelty refers to physical suffering of victim purposely intended by
offender
This requires deliberate prolongation of the physical suffering
of the victim.
Cruelty cannot be presumed.

A. When The Series Of Acts Causing Unnecessary Sufferings Of Victim
Took Place In Rapid Succession, There May Be No Cruelty
The mere fact of inflicting various successive wounds upon a
person in order to cause his death, no appreciable time
intervening between the infliction of one wound and that of
another to show that the offender wanted to prolong the
suffering of the victim, is NOT sufficient for taking this
aggravating circumstance into consideration.
Chopping off the head of the victim is cruelty.


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B. Plurality Of Wounds Alone Does Not Show Cruelty
In the absence of a showing that the other wounds found on
the body of the victim were inflicted to prolong his suffering
before the fatal wound was dealt, it cannot be concluded that
cruelty was duly proven.

C. No Cruelty When Other Wrong Was Done After The Victim Was
Dead
For cruelty to be appreciated, it must be proven that the
wounds were inflicted while the victim was still alive in order to
prolong physical suffering.

VII. Ignominy Distinguished From Cruelty

Ignominy
Cruelty
Moral suffering
Physical suffering

Rapes, Robbery And Other Forms Of Cruelties Are Aggravating
Circumstances Of Ignominy And Cruelty In Treason
Rapes, wanton robbery for personal gain, and other forms of
cruelties are condemned and their perpetration will e regarded
as aggravating circumstances of ignominy and of cruelty.

Aggravating circumstance peculiar to certain felonies.
Nighttime peculiar in violation of domicile (Art 128)
When direct assault is committed with a weapon or by a public
officer or when the offender the offender lays hands upon a
person in authority (Art 148)
Cruelty peculiar in slavery (Art 272)
When grave threats be made in writing or through a
middleman (Art 282)
When robbery with violence against or intimidation of persons
(except robbery with homicide or rape) is committed in an
uninhabited place or by a band (Art 295)

If the robbery with the use of force upon things is committed in


an uninhabited place (Art 300)

CLASS DISCUSSION
Par. 18:
If the entry was gained by unhinging the door the home. Would
that constitute unlawful entry under Par.18? Or would it
constitute forcible entry under Par.19?





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CHAPTER 5: ALTERNATIVE CIRCUMSTANCES



Article 15. Their concept.
Alternative circumstances are those, which must be taken into
consideration as aggravating or mitigating according to the nature and
effects of the crime and the other conditions attending its
commission. They are the relationship, intoxication and the degree of
instruction and education of the offender.

The alternative circumstance of relationship shall be taken into
consideration when the offended party in the spouse, ascendant,
descendant, legitimate, natural, or adopted brother or sister, or
relative by affinity in the same degrees of the offender.

The intoxication of the offender shall be taken into consideration as a
mitigating circumstances when the offender has committed a felony
in a state of intoxication, if the same is not habitual or subsequent to
the plan to commit said felony but when the intoxication is habitual
or intentional, it shall be considered as an aggravating circumstance.

POINTS

I. Alternative Circumstances
Definition: Those which must be taken into consideration as
aggravating or mitigating according to the nature and effects of
the crime and other conditions attending its commission.
Always generic

II. Basis:
The nature and effects of the crime and the other conditions
attending its commission.

III. The Alternative Circumstances Are:
1. Relationship

2. Intoxication
3. Degree of Instruction and education of the offender

FIRST ALTERNATIVE CIRCUMSTANCE: RELATIONSHIP

I. When Considered
The alternative circumstance of relationship shall be taken into
consideration when the offended party is:
1. Spouse
2. Ascendant
3. Descendant
4. Legitimate, natural, or adopted brother or sister, or
5. Relative by affinity in the same degree of the offender
Other relatives included
6. Stepfather or stepmother and stepson or stepdaughter
included by analogy as similar to that of ascendant and
descendant.
o Generally, for a step relationship to exist, the stepparent and the biological parent of the child must be
legally married.
o HOWEVER, Article 266-B includes common-law
spouses. This is but a special qualifying circumstance.
7. Adoptive parent and adopted child similar to ascendant and
descendant.
BUT uncle, niece and cousin are not covered.

II. When Mitigating And When Aggravating
A. Mitigating
General Rule: the relationship is mitigating in crimes against
property:
o Robbery (Article 294-302)
o Usurpation (Article 312)
o Fraudulent insolvency (Article 314)
o Arson (Article 321-322, 325-326)


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Relationship is mitigating in trespass to dwelling


o Where the son-in-law believing his wife to be at her
fathers house attempted to force an entry,
relationship is mitigating.


B. Aggravating
General Rule: It is aggravating in crimes against persons in
cases where the offended party is a relative of a higher degree
than the offender, or when the offender and the offended
party are relatives of the same level, as killing a brother,
brother-in-law, a half-brother, or adopted brother.
In crimes against chastity, relationship is always aggravating.
o In crimes against chastity, like acts of lasciviousness,
relationship is always aggravating, regardless of
whether the offender is a relative of a higher or lower
degree of the offended party.
o This is because of the nature and effect of the crime
committed. However, the rule may differ depending on
attending circumstances.
US v. Ancheta brother-in-law killed due to
his adulterous relationships with the wife of
the accused relationship mitigating although
the general rule is that such relationship is
supposed to be aggravating.
US v. Velarde with the desire to subdue his
brother-in-law who was then suffering an
attack of insanity, accused struck him with a
club and exceeded the limits of his discretion in
the heat of the struggle relationship is
mitigating.
In child abuse cases, relationship is aggravating because of
Section 31(c) of Republic Act No. 7610.

If the crime against persons is any of the serious physical injuries, the
fact that the offended party is a descendant of the offender is NOT
mitigating.
When the crime against the persons is any of the serious
physical injuries (Article 263), even if the offended party is a
descendant of the offender, relationship is aggravating.
o Article 263 provides a higher penalty for the
commission of serious physical injuries against persons
enumerated in Article 264 (father, mother, or child
whether legitimate or illegitimate, any of his
ascendants or descendants, or spouse).
When the crime is less serious physical injuries or slight physical
injuries, the ordinary rule applies.
o Mitigating if the offender is of lower degree.
o Aggravating if the offender is of higher degree.
BUT when the crime against persons is homicide or murder,
relationship is aggravating even if the victim of the crime is a
relative of lower degree.
o Relationship is aggravating when the stepmother killed
her stepdaughter (People v. Portento).
Relationship is neither mitigating nor aggravating, when relationship
is an element of the offense.
Parricide, adultery, concubinage.

C. Exempting
Accessories are exempted (Article 20)
Legally married spouse catching spouse having sex with
another (Article 247)
No criminal but only civil liability shall result from the
commission of the crime of (1) Theft, (2) Swindling (3) Malicious
mischief, if committed or caused mutually by spouses,
ascendants, descendants, or relatives by affinity in the same
line; brothers and sisters and brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law,
if living together (Article 332).


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Relatives who are accessories in the Human Securities Act


except hose who profited (Section 6, Republic Act No. 9372).
Theft with falsification? ABANGAN


SECOND ALTERNATIVE CIRCUMSTANCE: INTOXICATION

I. Reasons For The Alternative Circumstance Of Intoxication
As a mitigating circumstance, it finds its reason in the fact that
when a person is under the influence of liquor, his exercise of
will power is impaired.
As an aggravating circumstance, because it is intentional, the
reason is that the offender resorted to it in order to bolster his
courage to commit a crime.
o It is aggravating when habitual because the constant
use of intoxicating liquor lessens the individual
resistance to evil thoughts and undermines the will
power making himself a potential evildoer against
whose activities, society has the right for its own
protection to impose a more severe penalty.

II. When Mitigating And Aggravating
General Rule:
o Mitigating: (1) if intoxication is not habitual or (2) if
intoxication is not subsequent to the plan to commit
the felony.
Under Republic Act No 9262 (Anti-Violence
Against Women and their Children Act of
2004), intoxication may not be used as a
defense by the accused, but may it be
mitigating?
o Aggravating: (1) if intoxication is habitual; or (2) if it is
intentional (subsequent to the plan to commit a
felony).

III. Important Words And Phrases


A. When The Offender Has Committed A Felony In A State Of
Intoxication
For an accused to be entitled to the mitigating circumstance of
intoxication, it must be shown that (a) at the time of the
commission of the criminal act, he has taken such quantity of
alcoholic drinks as to blur his reason and deprive him of a
certain degree of control and (b) that such intoxication is not
habitual, or subsequent to the plan to commit the felony.
Accuseds state of intoxication must be proved.
o Once intoxication is established by satisfactory
evidence, absent contrary proof it is presumed to be
non-habitual or unintentional.
Drunkenness must affect mental faculties
o The RPC says nothing about the degree of intoxication
needed to mitigate; but obviously to produce such
effect, it must diminish the agents capacity to know
the injustice of his acts,a nd his will to act accordingly.

B. When The Intoxication Is Habitual
A habitual drunkard is one given to intoxication by excessive
use of intoxicating drinks. The habit should be actual and
confirmed.
o Unnecessary that such habit is daily).

C. Or Subsequent To The Plan To Commit A Felony
Even if intoxication is not habitual, it is aggravating when
subsequent to the plan to commit the crime.
Evidence for intoxication to be aggravating
o Evidence that the intoxication was habitual, intentional
or subsequent to the plan to commit the felony must
be proved by the prosecution.


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THIRD ALTERNATIVE CIRCUMSTANCE: DEGREE OF INSTRUCTION AND
EDUCATION OF THE OFFENDER

I. When Mitigating And Aggravating
Low degree of instruction and education or lack f it is generally
mitigating. High degree of instruction and education is
aggravating, when the offender avails himself of his learning in
committing the crime.
If crime is basically wrong, like parricide, robbery or rape, it is
immaterial whether the offender is schooled or not. Its not
mitigating.
o BUT SEE People v. Limaco where dude butchered his
kids and he only finished grade 1. Court considered
mitigating. And People v. Ramos where robbers killed a
96-year-old man. Court considered lack of education
mitigating. Both are unusual cases.

A. Lack Of Instruction As Mitigating
General Rule: Low degree of learning may be mitigating, never
aggravating.
Article 15 applies only to him who really has not received any
instruction.
o It is not illiteracy alone but the lack of intelligence of
the offender that is considered.
Lack of sufficient intelligence is required in illiteracy.
o Lack of sufficient instruction is not mitigating when the
offender is a city resident who knows how to sign his
name (People v. Cabrito).
Lack of instruction must be directly and positively proved by
the defense.
The question of lack of instruction cannot be raised for the first
time in the appellate court.
Ordinarily mitigating in all crimes

Exception: treason, murder, crimes against chastity,


crimes against property such as estafa, theft, robbery,
arson.
The exception to the exception depends on attending
circumstances.
Murder mitigated by low degree of instruction
because it caused accused to believe in
witchcraft (People v. Laolao).


B. High Degree Of Instruction As Aggravating
General Rule: High degree of learning may be aggravating,
never mitigating.
Degree of instruction is aggravating when the offender availed
himself or took advantage of it in committing the crime.
o The high degree of learning should be taken in relation
to the crime committed whether his education puts
him into a better position than the ordinary offenders.
Example:
o Doctor using his knowledge prepared a certain kind of
poison that would avoid detection would make his
education an aggravating circumstance. In contrast, if a
lawyer punches an annoying person, high degree of
learning should not be considered aggravating.
o High degree of learning should also not be considered
aggravating for abortion practiced by a physician or
midwife, since their skills are already inherent in that
crime.

OTHER MATTERS

I. Non-Habitual Intoxication, Lack Of Instruction And Obfuscation Are
Not To Be Taken Separately
As non-habitual intoxication implies a disturbance of the
reasoning powers of the offender, his lack of instruction cannot


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have any influence over him, and obfuscation which has the
same effect on his reasoning powers cannot be considered
independently of non-habitual intoxication.

CLASS DISCUSSION
Situationers
Member of a cultural minority gets coconuts from what he
believes is part of his ancestral domain. However, the land was
titled to someone else. Is low degree of education mitigating?
Accountant took a chance to get more petticash than was
actually asked by his/her boss. Did she take advantage of her
position?
o Possible answer: She wouldnt have been entrusted
with all these things if she wasnt an accountant.
Position of financial adviser could be aggravating.


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TITLE II: PERSONS CRIMINALLY LIABLE FOR


FELONIES

Article 16. Who are criminally liable.
The following are criminally liable for grave and less grave felonies:
1. Principals
2. Accomplices
3. Accessories
The following are criminally liable for light felonies:
1. Principals
2. Accomplices

POINTS

I. Treble Of Division Of Persons Criminally Liable
The treble division of persons criminally liable for an offense
rests upon the very nature of their participation in the
commission of the crime.
When a crime is committed by many, without being equally
shared by all, a different degree of responsibility is imposed
upon each and every one of them. In that case, they are
criminally liable either as principals, accomplices or accessories.

II. Accessories Are Not Liable For Light Felonies
Reason: in the commission of light felonies, the social wrong as
well as the individual prejudice is so small that penal sanction is
deemed not necessary for accessories.

III. Rules Relative To Light Felonies:
1. Light felonies are punishable only hen they have been
consummated (Article 7).
2. But when the light felonies are committed against persons or
property, they are punishable even if they are only in the

attempted or frustrated stage of execution. Only principals and


accomplices are liable for light felonies (Article 7).
3. Only principals and accomplices are liable for light felonies
(Article 16).
4. Accessories are not liable for light felonies even if they are
committed against persons or property (Article 16).

IV. Active Subject And Passive Subject Of Crime
A. Active Subject (Criminal)
Only natural persons can be the active subject of crime because
of the highly personal nature of the criminal responsibility.
o Only natural persons because he along by his act can
set in motion a cause of by his inaction make possible
the completion of a modification of the external world.
o Only natural persons can act with malice.
o Juridical persons cannot commit crimes with willful
purpose or malicious intent.
o Penalties consisting in imprisonment or deprivation of
liberty can only be executed on natural persons
Juridical persons, however, are criminally liable under certain
special laws.
o Officers, not the corporation, are criminally liable.
General Rule: a director or other officer of a
corporation is criminally liable for his acts
though in his official capacity, if he participated
in the unlawful act either directly or as an
aider, abettor or accessory, but is not liable
criminally for the corporate acts performed by
other officers or agents thereof.
It is a settled rule that since a corporation can
only act through its officers and agents, the
president or manager can be held criminally
liable for the violation of a law by the entity.


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However, if the law provides a penalty for the
corporation, it may be punished even though the crime
was perpetrated through its agents.


B. Passive Subject (Injured Party)
The passive subject of a crime is the holder of the injured right:
the man, the juristic person, and the state.
General Rule: Corpse or animal cannot be passive subject. As
such, the dead and animals have no rights that may be injured.
o Exception: Article 353, the crime of defamation may be
committed if the imputation tends to blacken the
memory of one who is dead.

V. Anti-Hazing Law (Republic Act No. 8094)
A. Principals
Those who actually participated in the hazing.
Parent of a frat/sorority member who owned the place where
the hazing occurred, knew of it but still did not do anything to
stop it.
Officers, former officers, alumni who planned it, even if they
werent there.
Fraternity or sorority advisor who was present but didnt stop
it.
Anyone present who did not prevent it.

B. Accomplices
Owner of the place where the hazing occurred and who knew
of the hazing and did not stop it.
School authorities who actually knew and consented to it.

VI. Command Responsibility
A. Philippine Context
General Rule: There is not command responsibility in Philippine
law.

Exception: Under Republic Act No. 9851 (Genocide


Law), the superiors are liable for the acts of their
subordinates.
Exception: The Anti-Torture Act contains a similar
provision. Under it, senior officers who give order to
their minions to torture people are liable as principals.


Article 17. Principals.
The following are considered principals:
1. Those who take a direct part in the execution of the act;
2. Those who directly force or induce others to commit it;
3. Those who cooperate in the commission of the offense by
another act without which it would not have been
accomplished.

POINTS

I. Two Or More Persons Participating In The Crime
Single individual committing a crime is always a principal by
direct participation (take direct part in the execution of the
act).
(Par 1.) Principal by direct participation
(Par 2.) Principal by induction
(Par 3.) Principal by indispensible cooperation

II. Difference Between A Principal Under Any Of The Three Categories
Enumerated In Article 17 And A Co-Conspirator
Principal in Article 17: criminal liability is limited to his own acts
Co-conspirator: (His) responsibility includes the acts of his
fellow conspirators (People v. Peralta)

PAR 1: THOSE WHO TAKE A DIRECT PART IN THE EXECUTION OF THE
ACT. (PRINCIPALS BY DIRECT PARTICIPATION.)


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I. Take A Direct Part In The Execution Of The Act.
Principal by direct participation personally takes part in the
execution of the act constituting the crime.
o Example: One who shoots at and kills another
(homicide) or one who burns the house of another
(arson) personally executes the act of killing another or
the act of burning the house of another.
The one who orders or induces another to commit a crime is a
principal by induction while the other who follows the order
and executes the act constituting the crime is a principal by
direct participation. (People v. Lao)
Two or more offenders as principals by direct participation.
Two or more persons may take direct part in the execution of
the acts constituting crime principals by direct participation.

II. Elements For Two Or More Persons To Be Considered As Principals
By Direct Participation: (co-principals)
1. That they participated in the criminal resolution;
2. That they carried out their plan and personally took part in its
execution by acts which directly tended to the same end.

III. FIRST ELEMENT: Participation In The Criminal Resolution.
Usually, this points to a conspiracy. BUT it is also possible that
there is no conspiracy between the actors.
o They will only be liable for their own/individual actions.
Two ore more persons are said to have participated in the
criminal resolution when they were in conspiracy at the time of
the commission of the crime.
o When there has been conspiracy or unity of purpose
and intention in the commission of the crime a
person may be convicted for the criminal act of
another.

A. Conspiracy.

A conspiracy exists when two or more persons come to an


agreement concerning the commission of a felony and decide
to commit it (Article 8, Paragraph 2).
The conspiracy in this first requisite is not a felony but only a
manner of incurring criminal liability.
To be a party to a conspiracy, one must have the intention to
participate in the transaction with a view to the furtherance
of the common design and purpose.
o To hold an accused guilty as co-principal by reason of
conspiracy: it must be established that he performed
an overt act in furtherance of the conspiracy either by
actively participating in the actual commission of the
crime or by lending moral assistance to his coconspirators by his presence at the scene of the crime
or by exerting moral ascendancy over the rest of the
conspirators to move them into executing the
conspiracy. (People v. Cortez)
o Mere knowledge, acquiescence or approval of the act
without cooperation or agreement to cooperate not
enough to constitute one party to a conspiracy there
must be intentional participation in the transaction
with a view to the furtherance of the common design
and purpose. (People v. Izon)
Silence does not make one a conspirator.
o Silence is not a circumstance indicating participation in
the same criminal design. (People v. Gensola)
Conspiracy transcends companionship.
o The fact that the two accused may have happened to
leave together, and one of them left a closing warning
to the victim, cannot instantly prove a finding of
conspiracy. (People v. Padrones)
Participation in the criminal resolution essential.
o It is not enough that a person participated in the
assault made by another in order to consider him a co-


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principal in the crime committed. He must also


participate in the criminal resolution of the other.
Cooperation which the law punishes: assistance which
is knowingly or intentionally given and which is not
possible without previous knowledge of the criminal
purpose (People v. Cruz)
People v. Ortiz and Zausa
Facts: Bancoyo (deceased) and Ortiz
have known each other for a long time
because their wives were sisters. After
gathering corn from the fields, Bancoyo
asked Ortiz from outside his house for
some water but Ortiz said that they
couldnt give him water because they
had none. Bancoyo asked again to
which Ortiz replied that they had no
water so he cannot compel them to
give him some water and immediately
descended from his house carrying a
shotgun and pointed it at Bancoyo.
Bancoyo, seeing the aggressive attitude
of Ortiz, flung himself over Ortiz and
they struggled for the weapon. Zausa,
when she saw this, was inside the
house and grabbed her spear and
rushed outside and attacked Bancoyo
by stabbing him on the left side of his
abdomen and his intestines protruded.
Bancoyo died of peritonitis that night.
Held: Ortiz should be acquitted
because he did not take part in the
attack of Zausa because it appears that
there was no plan or agreement
between them to carry out the attach

that caused Bancoyos death. Also,


barely a few seconds elapsed which
interval in insufficient to give rise to
the criminal agreement.
In the absence of a previous plan or agreement to commit a
crime, the criminal responsibility arising from different acts
directed against the same person is individual and not
collective each of the participants is liable only for the acts he
committed.
o United States v. Reyes and Javier There was no
concerted action between Javier and Reyes even
though Javier was holding the offended party and
Reyes suddenly and unexpectedly inflicted mortal
wounds on said offended party. It was held that Javier
was neither a principal nor an accomplice of the crime
of homicide convicted of Reyes because he had no
reason to believe that Reyes would do a homicidal
attack and that in holding the off. Party he was
voluntarily cooperating therein
o In cases above: no anterior conspiracy = no unity of
purpose and intention immediately before the
commission of the crime; their criminal responsibility is
individual
In the absence of concerted action pursuant to a common
criminal design, each of the accused responsible only for the
consequences of his own acts.
o Araneta, Jr. v. Court of Appeals The accused who
inflicted the mortal wound was held guilty of murder
while the other assailants are only guilty of slight
physical injuries/less serious physical injuries.


B. Existence Of Conspiracy
Existence of conspiracy does not require an agreement for an
appreciable length of time prior to the execution of its purpose.


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From the legal viewpoint, conspiracy exists if at the
time of the commission of tzhe offense the accused
had the same purpose and were united in its execution
(People v. Binasing).
Conspiracy arises on the very instant that the plotters agree
expressly or impliedly to commit the felony and forthwith
decide to pursue it. each and everyone of the conspirators is
made criminally liable for the crime actually committed by
anyone of them (People v. Monroy).
o


C. Proof Of Conspiracy
Direct evidence of conspiracy: interlocking judicial confessions
of several accused and the testimony of one accused who is
discharged and made a witness against his co-accused who did
not make any confession.
o In the absence of any collusion among the declarants,
their confessions may form a complete picture of the
whole situation and may be considered collectively as
corroborative and/or confirmatory of the evidence
independent therefrom (People v. Castelo)
o Two or more extrajudicial confessions given separately,
untainted by collusion, and which tally with one
another in all material respects, are admissible as
evidence of the conspiracy of the declarants. (People v.
bernardo)
o To establish conspiracy, it is not essential that there be
proofs to the previous agreement and decision to
commit the crime it is sufficient that the malefactors
shall have acted in concert pursuant to the same
objective. (People v. San Luis)
Formal agreement or previous acquaintance among several
persons not necessary in conspiracy.
o In conspiracy, no formal agreement among the
conspirators is necessary, not even previous

acquaintance among themselves sufficient that their


minds meet understandingly to bring about an
intelligent and deliberate agreement to commit the
offense charged.
Sufficient that at the time of the aggression all accused
manifested in their acts a common intent or desire to
attack to so that the act of one becomes the act of all
(People v. Gupo).
Conspiracy need not be proved by direct evidence
(need not be shown that the parties actually came
together and agreed in express terms to enter into and
pursue a common design) can be inferred from proof
of facts and circumstances when taken together
indicate they are parts of a complete whole
Examples:
Two or more persons aimed at the
accomplishment of the same unlawful object,
each doing a part so that their acts even
though apparently independent were
connected and cooperative, showing a
closeness of personal assoc. and concurrence
of sentiment a conspiracy may be inferred
though no actual meeting among them is
proved (People v. Mateo)
People v. Garduque All the accused were
already armed when they met, they went
together in a jeep to the house where they
robbed the offended party and raped his maids
their conspiracy is implied even though some
of the accused were only there to show the
location of the house
People v. Catubig Offenders were all present
at the scene of the crime, acted in concert in
attacking, assaulting, beating, chasing, and


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stabbing the victims and robbing them then


fleeing going to their separate ways they
showed through their concerted actions that
they acted in unison and cooperated with each
other to accomplish a common felonious
purpose (to rob victims)
Conspiracy must be established by positive and conclusive
evidence.
o While conspiracy may be implied from circumstances
attending the commission of the crime, it is
nevertheless a rule that conspiracy must be established
by positive and conclusive evidence (People v. Ancheta)
o Proof beyond reasonable doubt = degree of proof to
prove conspiracy (same as degree of proof to establish
the crime); it must be established by positive and
conclusive evidence; conspiracy cannot be appreciated
when facts are consistent with the non-participation of
the accused in the fancied cabal (People v. Furugganan)
o Mere presence at the scene of the crime at the time of
its commission is not by itself sufficient to establish
conspiracy (People v. Tacca)
No conspiracy, as shown by the acts of the defendant.
o People v. Quiosay Appellant stabbed the deceased
once on the arm and ran away and his brother was the
one who cut off the deceaseds head. Appellant is
answerable only for his individual act there was no
conspiracy because he didnt stay to liquidate the
deceased with his brother.
o People v. Lacao Spontaneity of respective reactions
of several accused, resulting in an attack where they all
participated, rules out the existence of conspiracy.
Respective liabilities shall be determined by the nature
of their individual participations in the felonious act.
(Two of which are only liable as accomplices.)

People v. Madera Two appellants not co-principals


nor accomplices they were not armed, did nothing to
help co-appellant, mere passive presence at scene of
the crime (they were just standing behind co-appellant
when he shot victim)
Conspiracy shown by circumstances.
o People v. Vinas Brothers Nelson and Norman Vinas
conspired to carry out the killing even though it was
only Norman who had a grudge against the deceased
because Nelson assaulted the deceased and they both
told Sumpay their plan to kill Varela.
o People v. Manzano A community of design to kill:
three brothers and nephew avenged their father (or
grandfather) showing concerted actions in committing
the crime
o People v. Saliling The four appellants were linked to
each other by friendship or some sort of relationship =
conspiracy (They all had a specific role in the
commission of the crime)
o People v. Umbrero Conspiracy may be shown by the
appellants actuations immediately prior to, during, and
right after the shooting of the victim
o People v. Timbol Three accused arrived together at
the Pasudeco offices. They menacingly demanded
approval of their 60-40 share of the mill denied by the
Board of Directors of Pasudeco. They shot Pres. De Leo,
Gonzales (of Pasudeco) and Capt. Olivas (peace officer)
and fled the scene together. The Supreme Court held
that circumstances demonstrate conspiracy when the
accused have all met together days before the crime.
Conspiracy is implied when the accused had a common
purpose and were united in its execution.
o People v. Damaso Facts: The deceased slapped the
face of one of the three appellants in front of a
o


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carinderia. The appellants boarded a taxi and borrowed
a gun of a security guard at Greenhills and came back
to the carinderia where the deceased was shot by one
of the appellants from inside the taxi. Afterwards, the
three returned the weapon and proceeded to the
headquarters of the Rizal Security and Protective
Agency. Held: There is unity of purpose and unity of
execution establishing conspiracy.
People v. Delgado Community of purpose on part of
three accused inferable from the circumstances: they
came together to the scene of the occurrence and they
each acted against the victim then left together to the
house of another person, leaving the victim
unconscious on the ground.


D. Unity Of Purpose And Intention In The Commission Of The Crime Is
Shown In The Following Cases: (Evidences Of Joint Responsibility)
1. Spontaneous agreement at the moment of the commission of
the crime sufficient to create joint responsibility.
o Example: Acceptance of two accused of the challenge
posted by the deceased and their concert attack on the
same clearly showed a community of purpose and
design. (People v. Ibanez)
2. Active cooperation by all the offenders in the perpetration of
the crime.
o Example: A struck deceased, B whipped lips of
deceased, C seized deceaseds left hand while D held
the right, E stabbed deceased with knife.
Held: No proof of anterior conspiracy but the manner
in which accused cooperated in the perpetration of the
homicide shows they were moved by a common motive
and their intention was to kill deceased
Dissenting: Only individual responsibility in this case for
only E gave the fatal blow

No participation in the criminal design when the act of


one came so close upon the heels of that of the other.
Reason: He had no time to see that the other
intended to case the deceased the wound he
did (People v. Manalo)
Simultaneity per se is not a badge of conspiracy
if the requisite concurrence of wills is absent. It
is not sufficient that the attack is joint and
simultaneous; it is necessary that the assailants
are animated by one and the same purpose.
in situations where assaults are not
simultaneous but instead successive, greater
proof is needed to establish concert of criminal
design (People v. Tividad)
Examples:
People v. Macabuhay Facts: A, B, C, D, and E
were in Fs house. Someone threw a stone at
that house. All 5 went to Gs house 40 yards
away to avenge the stone-throwing. They
suspected the deceased who was in Gs house
to be the stone-thrower and they seized him
and E stabbed him. Held: A, B, C, D, E all liable
as principals by direct participation for death of
deceased same motive: avenge stonethrowing.
People v. Cruz, Jr. Conspiracy was wellestablished: one of the appellants companions
announced the holdup while the appellant and
his other companions proceeded to rob the
victims.
People v. Carpio Conspiracy manifested in
the coordinated acts of the assailants: one held
hand of victim, another stabbed him, third gave


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fist blows and the first one finally shoots
deceased
3. Contributing by positive acts to the realization of a common
criminal intent.
o People v. Agbuya Facts: Family feud between Palisoc
(family of C = deceased) and Agbuya (family of A and D
= accused)
Held: Homicide was committed by the act of the one of
the two accused in shooting the deceased with a gun
which was given by the co-accused, his father, and
where it also appeared that the latter contributed to
the commission of the homicide by various other
significant acts both father and son were properly
convicted as principals in the crime. There was
common criminal intent in the case because father and
son took common cause (family feud)
o People v. Mancao Wounds which caused deceaseds
death were not inflicted by Mancao himself but by coaccused Aguilar but Mancao having been the instigator
and aggressor by calling his harvesters to his aid (one of
which was Aguilar) and wanting them to carry out the
criminal act started by him Mancao is not only liable
for his own acts but also for the acts of those who
aided him. Mancao contributed the following positive
acts: Being the instigator, the aggressor and calling his
harvesters.
4. Presence during the commission of the crime by a band and
lending moral support thereto, also create joint responsibility
with the material executors.
o U.S. v. Ancheta There were 7 defendants in this
case. Held: All of them previously concerted action,
met together and witnessed the capture and later, the
violent killing of the deceased. Some took a direct part
in the actual commission of the crime, others were

determined instigators who induced the former to


commit it, while the remainder cooperated in the same
by their presence and lending their moral support. all
are thus directly responsible for the consequences and
incidents of the same
U.S. v. Santos Facts: A band of 25 men captured
American soldiers and detained them somewhere. The
soldiers were killed by some of the members of the
band in front of the accused.
Held: It is if no importance that the accused did not
himself strike the blow or blows by which the prisoners
were killed. It is sufficient that he was present at the
place of the commission of the act, augmenting with his
arms and presence the power of the band, thus aiding
the common act of all he was considered as a
principal by direct participation in the crime
prosecuted.
Conspiracy is presumed when the crime is committed
by a band. A band raises the presumption of a previous
understanding between one offender and the others
who formed the band; accused lent his thought and
action for the realization of the criminal object
increasing the offensive strength of said band.
U.S. v. Asilo Accused was a member of a
band that went to the house of the deceased to
kill him. Even if there was no evidence that the
accused fired a shot at the deceased, he is still
liable for homicide.
People v. Bazar Robbery was committed by
a band: all the members of the band are
presumed to be conspirators or co-principals
also in the assaults committed by the band in
the absence of a showing that appellants
attempted to prevent the killing of the victim


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they are equally guilty of his death at the hands
of their companions.
o Exception: U.S. v. Fresnido When at the start of the
encounter the accused fled from the scene of the fight
between the constabulary and the insurgent band he
is not criminally liable
5. Where one of the accused knew of the plan of the others to
kill the two victims and he accepted the role assigned to him,
which was to shoot one of the victims, and he actually
performed that role, he is a co-principal by direct participation
in the double murder (People v. De La Cruz).

E. There May Be Conspiracy Even If There Is No Evident Premeditation
On The Part Of The Accused
Even if appellants were unarmed, which may indicate lack of
evident premeditation, this does not necessarily negate the
existence of conspiracy because conspiracy does not
necessarily require an agreement for an appreciable time prior
to the occurrence.
o See People v. Binasing.

F. When There Is No Conspiracy, Each Of The Offenders Is Liable Only
For The Act Performed By Him
People v. Castillo
o Facts: Guarino was quarreling with Terencia and
policeman Machica tried to stop them. Guarino
stabbed Machica instead. Then Policeman Campos was
able to bring Guarino to the municipal building where
another Policeman Boco hit Guarino. Chief of Police
Castillo came and shot to death Guarino in front of the
three policemen Machica, Campos, and Boco (who all
had inflicted serious physical injuries to Guarino)
o Held: Only Chief Castillo was guilty of murder qualified
by treachery. Machica, Campos, and Boco were liable

for serious physical injuries only because there was no


competent proof that the three policemen intended to
kill Guarino no conspiracy or unity of purpose and
intention among them plus Chief Castillo. The three did
not participate in the shooting by Castillo and could not
have stopped it even if they wanted to because Chief
Castillo just drew out his gun and fired.
In homicide, immediate participation in the criminal design
entertained by the slayer, is essential to the responsibility of
one who is alleged to have taken a direct part in the killing even
if he has not himself inflicted an injury materially contributing
to the death (People v. Tamayo)


G. Liability Of Participants Where There Is Conspiracy
When there is conspiracy, the act of one is the act of all.
Collective criminal responsibility
U.S. v. Bundal Defendants after conspiring together to kill
deceased, went to his house for purposes of carrying out their
intent and prepared to cooperate to that end (even though
having different roles in the commission) all will be held equally
guilty as principals irrespective of the individual participation of
each in the material act of the murder
Conspiracy adequately proven = all conspirators liable as coprincipals. The degree of actual participation by each of the
conspirators is immaterial. As conspirators, each is equally
responsible for the acts of their co-conspirators. (People v. De
la Cruz)
Where there is conspiracy to commit a felony, all the
conspirators are liable for its consequences.
o People v. Villamora There was no conspiracy to kill
deceased and Barauel only hit him with an iron bar.
Held: Since there was conspiracy to punish Acuna, with
resulted to his death, ALL the conspirators are
responsible for the consequences that arose from the


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punishment. Note: The ruling is in accordance with the


provision of Article 4, paragraph 1, of the RPC.
Conspiracy may cover persons previously undetermined.
o If it appears that there was a general plan to kill anyone
who might put up violent resistance, then the accused
are liable for all the natural and inherent consequences
of such plan (People v. Timbol)


H. Liability Of A Conspirator For Another Conspirators Acts Which
Differ Radically And Substantially From That Which They Intended To
Commit.
Conspirator should necessarily be liable for the acts of another
conspirator even though such acts differ radically or
substantially from that which they intended to commit. (People
v. Enriquez)
Boyd v. U.S. Wound made with the knife on leg of person
assaulted was the primary cause of death and the author of this
injury has not been identified (the attorneys of the accused
defended that the infliction of injury by means of a cutting
instrument was not within the scope of the agreement and that
the one who should be held liable is the one who inflicted the
wound). Held: The Court did not agree. Accused had
undoubtedly conspired to do so grave personal injury to the
deceased which have resulted in death, the accused cannot
escape from the legal effects of their acts that a wound was
inflicted in a different way from that which they intended.
As has been said by the U.S. Supreme Court: If a number of
persons agree to commit, and enter upon the commission of a
crime which will probably endanger human life such as robbery,
all of them are responsible for the death of a person that
ensues as a consequence
o U.S. v. Patten Conspirators who join in a criminal
attack on a defenseless man with dangerous weapons
victim knocked down tries to escape pursues him

with increased numbers continue the assault are


liable for manslaughter when the victim is killed by a
knife wound inflicted by one of them during the
beating, although in the beginning they did not
contemplate the use of a knife
o People v. Espiritu Four assailants acted in
conspiracy, pretended to look for a lost carabao in
Bernardos house and then killed him. As conspirators,
they are each liable for the attack on Bernardo,
regardless of who actually pulled the trigger or wielded
the club that killed him
Liability of offenders in robbery if committed by a band: any
member of a band (at least four armed men) is liable for any
assault committed by the other member of the band, unless it
be shown that he attempted to prevent the same. (Article 296
of Revised Penal Code)
A conspirator is not liable for anothers crime which is not an object of
the conspiracy or which is not a necessary and logical consequence
thereof.
People v. Umali Only the Huks (allies of defendant Umali)
committed robbery which was NOT an object of the conspiracy.
Held: Defendant Umali not liable for robbery BUT liable for
sedition, arson, and murder the objects of the conspiracy
Other defendants not held liable for the killings of persons not covered
by the conspiracy.
People v. De la Cerna Appellant cannot be held liable for the
killing od the deceased (Cabizares) even though there was a
conspiracy between him and his co-conspirator because the
conspiracy was to kill Rafael only and no one else.
The rule has always been that co-conspirators are liable only
for acts done pursuant to the conspiracy.
For other acts done outside the contemplation of the coconspirators or which are not necessary and logical


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consequences of the intended crime, only the actual
perpetrators are liable.
When the conspirators selected a particular victim and another
person was killed by one of them, only that conspirator who
killed another person is liable.
Versus People v. Enriquez & People v. Rosario Conspirators
are liable for the acts of another conspirator even though such
acts differ radically and substantially from that which they
intend to commit (in accordance to provision of Article 4
paragraph 1 of RPC)
A person in conspiracy with others, who had desisted before the crime
was committed by the others, is not criminally liable.
People v. Timbol Appellant was a member of the conspiracy
but desisted before the crimes were committed (left the
Pasudeco offices long before killings took place)
Held: Appellant Dalmacio Timbol is not criminally liable.
Conspiracy alone without the execution of its purpose is not a
crime punishable by law except in special instances (Article 8)
People v. Mappala An act of a conspirator who ran away as
soon as the aggression was started by his co-conspirators, and
called for help of other people who responded is an act of
desistance which removes the case from the established rule
that the act of one is the act of all.
When there is conspiracy, it is not necessary to ascertain the specific
act of each conspirator.
It is not necessary to ascertain the specific acts of aggression
committed by each of the culprits since having participated in
the criminal resolution the act of one is the act of all. (People v.
Mendoza)
Conspiracy having been established: it is immaterial who of the
conspirators fired the fatal shot (People v. Canoy)
All persons taking part in the crime shall be held guilty as
principals. (Even though not all accused took part in actual
commission of every act constituting the crime each is

responsible for all the acts of others done in furtherance of the


conspiracy) The degree of actual participation is immaterial.
(People v. Maranion)
When there is conspiracy, the fact that an element of the offense is
not present as regards one of the conspirators is immaterial.
U.S v. Hernandez Complex crime of seduction by means of
usurpation of official functions; One of the accused pretended
to be a minister and fake-married the other accused with a girl
in order for the girl to have marital relations with the other
accused
Held: Element of performance of official functions was present
with accused only. But the other accused was sentenced to the
penalty for and the same crime complexed with seduction
which he actually committed.

All are liable for the crime of abduction, even if only one acted with
lewd designs.
Essential element of the crime of abduction: lewd designs on
the part of the offender (Article 342 forcible abduction;
Article 343 consented abduction)
People v. Loyola Canaria conspired with Loyola to forcibly
abduct Caridad and Canaria made positive over acts necessary
to the realization of the abduction
Held: Even though Loyola alone acted with lewd designs,
Canaria was still liable for abduction because in a conspiracy
the act of one is the act of all
In multiple rape, each rapist is equally liable for the other rapes.
Each defendant is responsible not only for rape personally
committed by him but also for the rape committed by the
others because they cooperated in the commission of rape
perpetration by the others, by acts without which would not
have been accomplished

I. Exceptions: (from equal liability)


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1. Crime of parricide element of relationship must be present as
regards all the offenders
Ex. Wife and son of deceased conspired and did kill latter
both are guilty of parricide BUT if wife and a stranger conspired
and killed deceased, only the wife is guilty of parricide and the
stranger will be guilty of homicide or murder
Reason for exception: Article 62 paragraph 3 provides that
aggravating circumstances which arise from private relations of
offender with offended party shall serve to aggravate only
liability of principals, accomplices, and accessories to whom
such circumstances are attendant. Provision applies when
element of felony arises from private relation of offender with
offended party.
2. Crime of murder where treachery is an element of the crime
all offenders must at least have knowledge of the employment
of treachery at time of execution of act or their cooperation
therein
o Ex. A and B conspired to kill C but carried out their plan
without previously considering the means, methods, or
forms, in killing C; only A employed treachery but since
B was present when A employed treachery both are
liable for murder BUT if B remained outside so that he
did not know that A employed treachery only A is
liable for murder and B is liable for homicide
o Reason for exception: Article 62 par 4. Provides that
circumstances which consist in the material execution
of the ac, or in the means employed to accomplish it,
shall serve to aggravate the liability of only those
persons who had knowledge of them at the time of the
execution of the act or their cooperation therein

I. Participation in anothers criminal resolution must either precede or
be coetaneous with the criminal act. (Coetaneous: of the same age or
duration) People v. Tan Diong

Facts: Diong in order to avoid an execution of judgment against


him in a civil case transferred his properties by conveyance to
Baranda who only participated by falsely testifying in court that
he acquired said properties with sufficient consideration
Held: Barandas alleged participation in the fraud only consists
of his assertion of ownership in the properties conveyed which
does not justify his conviction as a participant in the fraud. His
resolution to accept the benefit of the fraudulent conveyances
may have been formed only after the act of Diong. His guilt as
co-conspirator in the fraud is, therefore not proved.
Note: Baranda would be liable as co-principal if he concurred
with Diong at the time or before the execution of the deeds of
conveyance.


There could be no conspiracy to commit an offense through
negligence.
Conspiracy presupposes an agreement and a decision to
commit a felony, when it appears that the injuries inflicted on
the offended party were due to the reckless imprudence of two
or more persons, it is not proper to consider conspiracy
between or among them.
In cases of criminal negligence or crimes punishable by special law,
allowing or failing to prevent an act to be performed by another,
makes one a co-principal.
People v. Santos professional driver of passenger truck let
his conductor drive the truck and they had an accident with a
jeepney which resulted to the death of one its passengers
Held: Both the driver and the conductor were held liable as coprincipals of homicide and damage to property through
reckless imprudence under Act. No 3992 and Article 365 of
RPC.
U.S. v. Siy Cong Bieng and Co Kong a storeowners employee
sold adulterated coffee and the storeowner did not know that
the coffee was sold by his employee


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Held: Both the storeowner and the employee were held liable
as principals (criminally liable under the Pure Food and Drugs
Act)

IV. SECOND ELEMENT: That The Culprits Carried Out Their Plan And
Personally Took Part In Its Execution By Acts Which Directly Tended
To The Same End.

A. The Principals By Direct Participation Must Be At The Scene Of The
Crime, Personally Taking Part In Its Execution.
General Rule: Principal by direct participation must personally
take part in executing the criminal plan to be carried out. This
means that he must be at the scene of the commission of the
crime, personally taking part in its execution.
o People v. Ong Chiat Lay Held that one of the accused
not a principal by direct participation because he was
absent from the scene of the fire when the crime of
arson was committed by other accused
Exception: For as long as the conspirators perform specific acts
that were coordinated pursuant to the conspiracy, they are all
principals. Even if their acts are performed in different places.
o People v. Santos There was conspiracy to kidnap
and kill the victim and only one of the conspirators
kidnapped the victim and after turning him over to his
co-conspirators for execution, left the spot where the
victim was killed. Held: The one who kidnapped the
victim was liable for murder committed by the others
because he already performed his part and the killing
was done by his co-conspirators in pursuance of the
conspiracy.

B. The Acts Of Each Offender Must Directly Tend To The Same End.
While principals by direct participation personally take part in
the execution of their common purpose, it is not necessary that

each of them should perform a positive act directly


contributing to the accomplishment of their common purpose.
o People v. Mandagay Murder case where offenders
previously agreed to commit said crime, not only the
one who inflicts the fatal wound is considered a
principal but also the others to held the victim or stood
guard outside. The acts of each and every one of the
offenders are all directed to the same end, which is the
killing of the victim. Criminal responsibility in such a
case is collective.
Only serving as guard pursuant to the conspiracy is a principal
by direct participation.
o People v. Canumay Appellants were part of plan to
rob victim. At time of robbery they stood guard outside
the house. Held: They are equally liable as the others.
o U.S. v. Reogilon One who stands guard outside the
house to keep others away or warning fellow
conspirators while the latter are murdering the
occupant takes direct part in commission of crime of
murder and is guilty as a principal by direct
participation. He is in fact present, aiding, and abetting
in the commission of the crime.
Exception: People v. Samano
o Facts: Accused jointly tried for murder of three
persons. They were members of a guerilla unit and
were being charged of taking the deceased to their
headquarters and beating him to death while
investigating him on charges of espionage. Accused
Samano and Alcantara acted as guards at place of crime
but did so in obedience to superior orders and without
knowledge that the deceased under investigation
would be killed. There was no evidence that there was
conspiracy between those who pleaded guilty and the
present appellants.


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Held: When there is no conspiracy or unity of criminal
purpose and intention indicating participation in the
criminal resolution, mere passive presence at the scene
of anothers crime does not constitute complicity.
BUT SEE People v. Masagnay The Supreme Court held that a
person could be held liable as a conspirator even though he
does not know every single detail of the crime, for as long as he
knows his role.
o


C. When The Second Requisite Is Lacking, There Is Only Conspiracy To
Commit A Crime
IF this 2nd requisite is lacking: there is, at most, only conspiracy
among several defendants who participated in criminal
resolution; if the crime they agreed and decided to commit is
not treason, rebellion or sedition, they are not criminally liable.
Example:
o People v. Asaad Four accused merely attended
conferences and assented out of respect and fear and
after commission of murders they joined other accused
in celebrating with a fiesta, by way of custom, they
were neither co-principals nor accomplices
o People v. Timbol Dalmacio Timbol was acquitted of
the charge of murder because he merely conspired
with his co-accused to kill deceased but left the place
before they began shooting him.
o People v. Pelagio Gs participation in the first
meeting involved him in the conspiracy because he told
the other the location of the house to be robbed, this
however is inadequate to make him criminally liable as
a conspirator. This because conspiracy alone without
execution of its purpose is not a crime punishable by
law except in special instances which does not include
robbery. (Article 8)

PAR 2: THOSE WHO DIRECTLY FORCE OR INDUCE OTHERS TO


COMMIT IT. (Principals By Induction)

I. Those Who Directly Force Or Induce Others To Commit [The Act].
Those who directly induce others to commit the act are called
principals by inducement or principals by induction from
the Spanish autores por induccion.
Inducement comprises price, promise of reward, command
and pacto (opinion of Viada and SC of Spain).

II. The Principal By Induction Becomes Liable Only When The Principal
By Direct Participation Committed The Act Induced.
People v. Ong Chiat Lay One cannot be held guilty of having
instigated the commission of the crime without first being
shown that the crime was actually committed by another.
The qualifying circumstance of price, reward or promise in
Article 14 is considered for both the principal by inducement
and principal by direct participation.

III. Two Ways Of Becoming Principal By Induction
Under Article 17, paragraph 2:
1. By directly forcing another to commit a crime, and
2. By directly inducing another to commit a crime.

A. By Directly Forcing Another To Commit A Crime
Two ways of directly forcing another to commit a crime:
1. By using irresistible force.
2. By causing uncontrollable fear.
In these cases (using force or causing fear), there is no
conspiracy, not even a unity of criminal purpose and intention.
Only the one using force or causing fear is criminally liable. The
material executor is not criminally liable because of Article 12,
paragraph 5 and 6.


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B. By Directly Inducing Another To Commit A Crime
Two ways of directly inducing another to commit a crime:
1. By giving price, or offering reward or promise.
o Both the one giving the price or offering reward or
promise and the one committing the crime in
consideration thereof are principals (former by
inducement and latter by direct participation). There is
collective criminal responsibility.
o This applies even if the inducer does not pay the
principal by direct participation after the commission of
the crime.
2. By using words of command.
o Both the person who used the words of command and
the persons who commits the crime (because of the
words of command) are equally liable. There is also
collective responsibility.

C. The Inducement May Be By Acts Of Command, Advice, Or Through
Influence, Or Agreement For Consideration
Inducement and the commission of the crime wherein the
inducer becomes the principal (with same extent and effect as
if he had physically committed the crime) may exist in acts of
command, of advice, agreement for a consideration, or through
an influence so effective that it alone determines the
commission of the crime
1. The promise of love can be sufficient inducement.
o Example: A has a paramour B, who loved C. A told D to
kill B with the promise that he does, he will possess her
entirely. D killed B. A is a principal by inducement
(People v. Ramos).
2. The words of advice or the influence must have actually
moved the hands of the principal by direct participation.

An inexperienced boy of tender age was persuaded by


a person to steal the jewels of his grandmother; the
person was found guilty of theft by inducement
o Minors under 15 are easily susceptible to suggestions
of inducer because they have no discernment or
judgment of their own so when they are induced to
commit a crime, the influence of the inducer is the
determining cause of the commission of the crime
o Words of command of a father may induce his son to
commit a crime. Moral influence of the words of a
father (his words of command) may determine the
course of conduct of a son (because of the obedience
due to him). Compare With: same words coming from
a stranger which would make no impression
People v. Bautista The accused (exercising
dominance and ascendancy) compelled his 3year old son to throw a stone at another boy
which caused injury to the latters eye was a
principal by inducement.
3. By using words of command.
o People v. Gensola The command given must be the
moving cause of the offense. The evidence showed that
the accused would have acted on his own volition even
without the words of command (Rufino, strike him!)
o People v. Agapinay An utterer will not be liable as
principal by inducement if the imprudent utterance
was said in the excitement of the hour or in heat of
anger (and not in a nature of a command that had to be
obeyed)
o It must appear that the inducement was of such nature
and was made in such a way as to become the
determining cause of the crime and that such
inducement was uttered with the intention of
producing the result. (People v. Castillo)
o


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o

The inciting words must have great dominance and


influence over the person who act; they ought to be
direct and as efficacious or powerful as physical or
moral coercion or violence itself. (People v. Canial)


D. Elements To Hold Person Liable As Principal By Inducement
Through The Use Of Commands
All five requisites must be present in order that a person using
words of command be held liable as principal by inducement:
1. That the one uttering the words of command must have the
intention of procuring the commission of the crime.
2. That the one who made the command must have an
ascendancy or influence over the person who acted.
o U.S. v. Ganao When B (a very influential figure in
their community) selected A (his nephew who was poor
and depended on him) to commit the crime the
influence exercised by B over A was so great and
powerful that the latter could not resist it.
3. That the words used must be so direct, so efficacious, so
powerful as to amount to physical or moral coercion.
o Efficacious a person who makes accused believe that
the person to be killed was the one who stole the
accuseds property = guilty as principal by inducement;
even though the accused seem to have a personal
reason, it was the inductor who made him believe so.
o Powerful U.S. v. Ganao.
4. The words of command must be uttered prior to the
commission of the crime.
o This requisite is lacking when the commission of the
crime has already been commenced when the words of
inducement are uttered.
o A son who was already in combat with another was
told by the father Hit him the father was not
responsible for the injuries inflicted after advice given

5. The material executor of the crime has no personal reason to


commit the crime.
o If the principal by direct participation has a personal
reason to commit the crime, the supposed words of
inducement cannot be the determining cause.
o People v. Kiichi Omine Facts: Omine shouted
pegale y matale to Autor and he struck the deceased
on the breast but before the utterance he had already
struck the deceased with a fist blow on the right eye
Held: Omine was not a principal by induction because
Autor had already struck beforehand and the utterance
was not sufficient because it doesnt show that Omine
has any particular influence over Autor. Autor = guilty
of serious physical injuries and Omine was acwuitted.

IV. Elements To Be Considered A Principal By Inducement
1. That the inducement be made directly with the intention of
procuring the commission of the crime; and
2. That such inducement be the determining cause of the
commission of the crime by the material executor.
U.S. v. Idanan To constitute inducement, there must be on
the part of the inducer the most positive resolution and the
most persistent effort to secure the commission of the crime
together with the presentation to the person induced of the
very strongest kind of temptation to commit the crime.

A. Examples
People v. Otadora
o (First requisite) It was clear that she had the intention
of procuring the commission of the crime when she
furnished her co-accused the gun to kill the deceased
o (Second requisite) The accused promised her coaccused pecuniary gain which was the determining
cause of the commission of the crime


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People v. Alcontin
o (First requisite) A married woman suggested to her
paramour that he kill her husband; Held: the
proposition of the woman constituted something more
than mere counsel or advice that her co-defendant was
entirely free to accept or not.
o (Second requisite) The married womans promise of
being able to freely live together with the paramour
was the determining cause of the commission of the
crime
People v. Caimbre
o Facts: Appellant was being prosecuted for uttering you
had better kill him when his co-accused was attacking
the victim.
o Held: Appellant was acquitted because he lacked the
first requisite because there was nothing to show that
appellant had any reason to have Olipmo killed; lacked
second requisite because he had no sufficient moral
influence over co-accused to make him obey blindly;
and fourth requisite was lacking because his co-accused
had already boloed the victim before he uttered the
words


VI. FIRST ELEMENT: That The Inducement Be Made Directly With The
Intention Of Procuring The Commission Of The Crime
The principal by inducement should be obeyed.

A. A Thoughtless Expression Without Intention To Produce The Result
Is Not An Inducement To Commit A Crime
A chance word spoken without reflection/ a wrong
appreciation of a situation/ an ironical phrase/ a thoughtless
act may give birth to a thought or resolution to commit a crime
in the mind of one without the one who spoke the word or
performed the act having any expectation that his suggestion

would be followed or any real intention that it produce the


result. In such a case, the one who spoke the word or
performed the act would not be guilty of the crime committed
by the other. (U.S. v. Idanan)
Example:
o A decision of the Supreme Court of Spain (cited in U.S.
v. Idanan) held that a woman who robbed her husband
because a person told her that thats the only thing to
do to him because he was stingy and treated her badly
the person was not guilty of the crime committed of
the crime of robbery by inducement because an
imprudent and ill-conceived advice is not sufficient; the
person did not have the intention of procuring the
commission of the crime.


VIII. SECOND ELEMENT: That Such Inducement Be The Determining
Cause Of The Commission Of The Crime By The Material Executor
The inducement must precede the act induced and must be so
influential in producing the criminal act that without it, the
act would not have been performed.
o It is necessary that the inducement be the determining
cause of the commission of the crime by the principal
by direct participation that, without such inducement
the crime would not have been committed (Decision of
SC of Spain).
o Inducement exists if the nature of the command or
advice is that without its concurrence the crime
would not have materialized (People v. Cruz).
Price given to the principal by direct participation after the
commission of the crime, without prior promise to give a price
or reward, could not be an inducement.


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A. The one charged of inducing the commission of the crime is not
liable if the person who actually committed a crime had a reason of
his own to commit the crime.
People v. Castillo
o Facts: Marincho Castillo (son) was slapped on the face
by the deceased Vargas. After 2 months, appellant
Castillo (father) was talking to Vargas while holding a
revolver (but not pointed to him). Suddenly, Marincho
came from behind and hacked the head of Vargas.
When he was about to hack him the second time, his
father told him You kill him and then they
surrendered to the authorities.
o Held: Castillo is not guilty of being a co-principal by
inducement because Marincho has already given
Vargas a fatal blow on the head before Castillo
allegedly said You kill him because the utterances
must be sufficient enough to be the determining cause
of committing the crime
Can a person who is present during a homicide but has no
direct part in the act can be held criminally liable for inciting
and encouraging another with expressions like go ahead, hit
him, there you have him, now is the time?
o It depends upon whether these words were spoken
under conditions that give them a direct and
determinative influence upon the mind of the principal
actor. (People v. Tamayo)

B. Ascendancy Or Influence As To Amount To Moral Coercion Is Not
Necessary When There Is Conspiracy
To consider as principal by induction one who advises or incites
another to perpetrate an offense, it is essential to show that
the advisor had so great an ascendancy or influence that his
words were so efficacious and powerful as to amount to moral
coercion.

Proof of such extremes is usually required to justify such


conclusion.
Proof in unnecessary where the principal actor admits being
impelled and that he acted pursuant to a previous plan or
conspiracy to kill and promise to condone his indebtedness
(People v. Ulip)
There is collective criminal responsibility when words of
inducement were used.


C. One Who Planned The Crime Committed By Another Is A Principal
By Inducement
Persons who planned the crime committed by other persons
are guilty as authors by inducement.
If The Crime Committed Is Not Contemplated In The Order
Given, The Inducement Is Not Material And Not The
Determining Cause Thereof. People v. Lawas
o Facts: Accused Lawas was head of the home guards in a
barrio in Lanao and he orderd his men to shoot at
Moros suspected of having killed 11 Christian residents.
Some of the home guards fired at women and children
at the second floor of the house.
o Held: Lawas is not guilty of murder for the killing of the
women and children as principal by induction because
his order was to fire at Moros on the ground and
clearly did not intend for women and children to be
fired at.

IX. Principal By Induction In Falsification
People v. Po Giok To The employee did the overt act of
entering false facts on the residence certificate of the accused
because the accused induced him to do so by supplying him
those facts. Held: Accused was a principal by inducement. The
employee was a mere innocent agent of performing the act
constituting the crime hence employee was not criminally liable


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because he had no knowledge of the falsity of the facts
supplied by the accused.

X. Principal By Inducement v. Offender Who Made Proposal To
Commit A Felony

Principal By Inducement
Offender Who Proposed To
Commit A Felony
There is inducement to commit a There is inducement to commit a
crime
crime
Liable only when crime is Mere proposal to commit a felony
committed by principal by direct is punishable in treason or
participation
rebellion; person to whom
proposal is made should NOT
commit the crime
Inducement involves ANY crime
Must involve ONLY treason and
rebellion to be punishable

XI. Effects Of Acquittal Of Principal By Direct Participation Upon The
Liability Of Principal By Inducement
1. Conspiracy is negative by acquittal of co-defendant.
2. It must be shown that another has actually committed the
crime; otherwise one cannot be guilty of instigating the crime.
o If the one charged as principal by direct participation
was acquitted because he acted without criminal intent
or malice his acquittal is not ground for acquitting the
principal by inducement.
o Reason for rule: In exempting circumstances, when the
act is not voluntary because of lack of intent there is a
crime committed but no criminal; in intentional
felonies, act of a person does not make him criminal
unless his mind be criminal.
Mistake of identity of the victim committed by the principal by
direct participation. The principal by inducement is not liable.

The crime committed by the principal by direct


participation must be that commanded by the principal
by inducement.
A principal by inducement may still be held liable even if the
principal by direct participation is exempt (Article 332).
o Example: falsification of documents, when the criminal
induces an 8-year-old to commit the crime.
Where the principal by inducement instructs the principal by
direct participation to do something without necessarily
thinking of the possible consequences both will be liable for
the proximate result. In short, Article 4 applies.
o Example: A told B to punch C in the back. C dies. Both
are liable for the resulting death of C.
o


XII. Possessor Of Recently Stolen Property Is A Principal
Possessor of a recently stolen article is considered a principal,
not an accessory or accomplice, unless he proves otherwise
satisfactorily and that another person who gave him the article
was the one who stole it (Section 5(j), Rule 131, Rules of Court)

PAR. 3: THOSE WHO COOPERATE IN THE COMMISSION OF THE
OFFENSE BY ANOTHER ACT WITHOUT WHICH IT WOULD NOT HAVE
BEEN ACCOMPLISHED. (Principals By Indispensible Cooperation)

I. Meaning Of The Term Cooperate
To cooperate means to desire or wish in common a thing. The
common will or purpose does not necessarily mean pervious
understanding because it can be explained or inferred from the
circumstances of each case (People v. Apelgido).

II. Elements To Be Liable As Principal By Indispensable Cooperation:
1. Participation in the criminal resolution.


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2. Cooperation in the commission of the offense by performing
another act, without which it would not have been
accomplished.

III. FIRST ELEMENT: Participation In The Criminal Resolution
The participation of a principal by indispensable cooperation is
different from the overt act committed by a principal by direct
participation.

A. Being A Co-Conspirator Is Not Necessary
A principal by indispensable cooperation need not be a party in
the planning stage of the conspiracy for he may become a
principal at the moment of the execution of the crime with the
other principals, if his act was indispensable to the crime.
o Hence, even if he was absent at the meeting where the
planning occurred, if his act showed that it was
indispensable to the criminal design of the principal by
direct participation, he will be liable as a principal by
indispensable cooperation.

B. May There Be Cooperation By Acts Of Negligence?
A person becomes a co-principal through acts of negligence
cooperates in the commission of estafa through falsification or
malversation through falsification (without which the
commission of the crime could not have been accomplished).
The one who cooperated in the commission of the crime was
held guilty of the same crime through reckless imprudence
(Samson v. Court of Appeals).

C. The Principal By Indispensable Cooperation Need Not Be In The
Scene Of The Crime
Example: A, who lives in the U.S., gives B poison to kill C. B used
the poison to kill C here in the Philippines. A is Principal by

Indispensable Cooperation. B is Principal by Direct


Participation.

IV. SECOND REQUISITE: Cooperation must be indispensible without
which the commission of the crime would not have been
accomplished.
If the cooperation is not indispensible, the offender is only an
accomplice.

A. Cooperate X X X By Another Act
Act of the principal by indispensible cooperation should be
different from the act of the principal by direct participation.
Law says by another act which means it should not be the act
of one who would be classified as principal by direct
participation.
Examples:
o U.S. v. Javier Facts: C was the one who forced and
dragged the girl to the back of the house where J was
waiting to perpetrate the crime. C had a previous
agreement with J. After delivering the girl, C left so that
J can consummate the prearranged rape. Held: C
cooperated in the perpetration of the crime by acts
without which its commission would not have been
accomplished.
Act of cooperation: forcible taking of the girl to
the place of commission of rape by other
accused.
Act of execution: sexual intercourse with the
woman against her will.
o U.S. v. Lim Buanco Facts: R, employee of a bank,
indorsed upon a check drawn by B so that B, even
without sufficient funds in the bank, may still draw the
amount of the check when he presents it to the cashier
of the bank. The endorsement of R was in connivance


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with B knowing he didnt have funds but indorsed it


still. Held: R was a principal by indispensible
cooperation.
Act of cooperation: Certification that the check
was entitled to payment
Act of execution: Crime of estafa by B
committed as principal by direct participation
the fraudulent cashing of the cash that
damaged the bank
o In the 2 cases, the cooperation of the other accused
was the performance of an act different from the act of
execution of the crime committed by the other
accused.
If cooperation of one accused consists in doing an act necessary
in the execution of the crime, he is a principal by direct
participation.
o Example: In a homicide case one of the offenders held
the victim while the other was stabbing him. The one
who held victim was principal by direct participation,
BUT there are cases where the Supreme Court
considered such accused as a principal by indispensible
cooperation


B. Liability Of Conspirators Who Took Turns In Raping A Girl.
People v. Villa Four persons took turns in raping a girl; others
held her while one had intercourse with her.
Held: Each of them is responsible for his own act of rape and
also for the acts of the others. Four sentences were imposed on
each accused.

V. A Principal By Indispensable Cooperation May Commit A Crime
Different From A Principal By Direct Participation
Example:

Malversation through falsification of public documents


committed by a public officer in conspiracy with a
private individual. Private individual may be liable for
malversation (People v. Sandaydiego).
Husband gives poison to friend to kill wife. Friend is
liable for homicide, and husband for parricide.


OTHER MATTERS
To be liable as principals, the offender must fall under any of the
three concepts defined in Article 17.
A person who assists one who commits the crime of arson and
who knows the latters purpose (but whose participation in the
arson is not known) may not be considered as a principal
because his acts were neither direct nor absolutely necessary
for the commission of the offense nor did it induce the said
commission (SC of Spain decision)

Collective criminal responsibility.
Present when offenders are criminally liable in the same
manner and to same extent; penalty imposed must be same for
all.
Who has collective criminal responsibility?
o Principals by direct participation.
o Principal by induction with the principal by direct
participation (EXCEPT the principal by induction who
directly forced another to commit a crime).
o Principal by indispensible cooperation with the
principal by direct participation.

Individual Criminal responsibility.
If there is no previous conspiracy/ unity of criminal purpose and
intention immediately before commission of crime/ community
of criminal design = criminal responsibility arising from different


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acts directed against one and the same person is individual and
not collective.
Each of the participants is liable only for the act committed by
him.
Example of individual responsibility. cited in People v. Martinez
Facts: Deceased assaulted a group of three individuals, in their
(incomplete) self-defense, two of them caused less serious
physical injuries on the assailant deceased while one inflicted a
fatal wound.
Held: Only the one who gave the fatal wound would be
principally liable for homicide and the others liable only for less
serious physical injuries.

Article 18. Accomplices.
Accomplices are those persons who, not being included in Article 17,
cooperate in the execution of the offense by previous or simultaneous
acts.

POINTS

I. Quasi-Collective Criminal Responsibility
Between collective and individual criminal responsibility
quasi-collective criminal responsibility.
In quasi-collective responsibility, some are principals and others
are accomplices.

A. Liability Of Accomplice Based On Principal
May one be charged and convicted as accomplice/accessory
even before the principal is charged or convicted? Should the
PDP first be convicted before the accomplice/accessory be
charged or convicted?
o As long as the commission of the crime is proven
beyond reasonable doubt, determination of criminal
responsibility of accessory/accomplice may be

determined independently of and separately from


liability of principal by direct participation (People v.
Rafael).
Dismissal of case against principal: If the case is dismissed
against the principal by direct participation, the case against
the accessory/accomplice must also be dismissed because the
liability of the accomplice/accessory is subordinate to that of
the principal by direct participation. The accomplice/accessory
is like a shadow that follows the principal by direct participation
and not the other way around (PCGG v. Desierto).
o Principal by direct participation acquitted because
crime was not committed at all. What happens to
accomplice/accessory? They cant be charged. Crime
was not committed.
o Dismissal of the case against the accomplice/accessory
does not result to the dismissal of the case against the
principal by direct participation.
Exemption of principal from criminal liability: BUT if the
principal by direct participation is exempted from the crime, it
does not follow that the accomplice/accessory is exempted, or
that the case against the accomplice/accessory should be
dismissed as well.
Principal by direct participation is dead. Can accomplice/
accessory still be charged? Yes, they can still be prosecuted.


II. The Participation Of An Accomplice Presupposes The Commission
Of The Crime By The Principal By Direct Participation
Principal element of complicity: concurrence of will of
accomplice with the will of the author of the crime (principal).
o He is not a principal (so he must not be part of the
conspiracy), but he supplies material or moral aid to
the principal in an efficacious way.
The accomplice cooperates by previous or simultaneous acts in
the execution of the offense by the principal.


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o
o

He intends to, and does, take part in the crime.


BUT, his cooperation is not indispensable to the crime.


III. Not being included in Article 17.
An accomplice does not fall under any of the three concepts
defined in Article 17.
Those who cooperated by previous or simultaneous acts cannot
be held liable as principals but as accomplices.

A. In Case Of Doubt As To Whether Principal Or Accomplice
In case of DOUBT participation of offender is considered as
accomplice rather than principal.
o Quantum of proof lacking = milder form of criminal
liability: as accomplice.
o People v. Celemente eyewitness unable to assert if
appellants hit the fallen man (uncertain participation in
homicide) and there was no conspiracy shown. Held:
appellants declared accomplices only.
Mere presence at scene, knowledge of plan, and acquiescence
is insufficient ground to hold a person as conspirator therefore
will be held liable only as accomplice.

B. When The Participation Of An Accused Is Not Disclosed, He Is Only
As Accomplice
In criminal cases, the participation of accused must be proved
by positive and competent evidence (beyond reasonable
doubt) BY the prosecution. It can't be presumed.
People v. Ubina: If a person assists in arson because he knows
the purpose of the principal, but his participation is
undisclosed. Held: His actions are neither direct nor absolutely
necessary for the commission of the offense nor induce the
crime.

IV. An Accomplice Does Not Have Previous Agreement Of


Understanding Or Is Not In Conspiracy With The Principal By Direct
Participation.
Accomplice does not enter into conspiracy with principal by
direct participation nor does he have a previous agreement or
understanding with him to commit a crime BUT he participates
to a certain point in the common criminal design.
Accomplices come to know of the criminal resolution of the
principals after the latter have reached a decision to commit a
crime. The accomplice does not decide the commission of a
crime. The accomplice just agrees after the criminal resolution
is accomplished, he does not conspire. But if the accomplice
commits an act of execution, he becomes a PDP.
NOTE: An accomplice gets a penalty one degree lower than that
provided for the principal in a consummated felony (Article 52).

A. Accomplice v Conspirator

Conspirator
Accomplice
Knowing and agreeing with criminal design
Knowledge of the criminal Gets knowledge of the criminal intent
intention is because they after principals have reached the
decided the specific course of decision and then they agree to
action
cooperate in its execution
Decide that a crime should be Merely concurs to do the crime;
committed
merely assent to the plan and
cooperate in its accomplishment
Authors of a crime
Instruments who perform acts not
essential to perpetration of offense

B. May A Co-Conspirator Be Held Liable As An Accomplice Only?
If technically the accused are co-conspirators BUT their
participation was not absolutely indispensible to the


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consummation of the murder court should favor milder form


of liability = accomplice.
Example:
o People v. Anin Even with knowledge of criminal
intent but the overt acts of co-accused was still not
indispensible to the crime of homicide = accomplice.
o People v. Nierra Even with community of design but
role in homicide or murder was of a minor character =
accomplice.
o BUT SEE People v. Manzano and People v. Mendoza
Once proved that accused had conspired with others
accused, liability only as accomplice is untenable; the
act of one is the act of all


Community of Design

Participation in the Criminal


Resolution
Does not necessarily mean that Implies conspiracy
there is conspiracy but it may
develop into one
Mere concurrence with criminal Entering into an agreement and
purpose
deciding to commit a felony

V. Elements To Be Liable As Accomplices:
1. There be community of design: knowing the criminal design of
the principal by direct participation and concurs with him/her in
that purpose.
2. That he cooperates in the execution of the offense by previous
or simultaneous acts by supplying material or moral aid in the
execution of the crime in an efficacious way.
3. There be a relation between the acts by the principal and the
accomplice.

VI. FIRST ELEMENT: Community Of Design

There must be a principal by direct participation before there


could be an accomplice.
o The principal originates the design and the accomplice
merely concurs with it.
Cooperation which the law punishes: assistance knowingly or
intentionally given and which is not possible without previous
knowledge of the criminal purpose.
o People v. Lingad Taxi driver knowing that co-accused
were going to make a hold-up lets them use his cab to
where the crime will be staged and waited for them
after. Held: taxi driver is an accomplice
o U.S. v. Bello Sentry permitted some convicts to go
out of jail accompanies by guard then the convicts
committed robbery. Held: Sentry not liable as
accomplice because he had no knowledge of their
intention to commit robbery when he let them out


A. Community of design.
The accomplice intends by his acts, to commit or take part in
the execution of the crime Carino v. People
o Facts: Appellant was the close friend of Dr. Lava (the
accused in crime of rebellion). Lava has been helping
appellants family in terms of health services and in
return when accused Dr. Lava asked for shelter and
food from appellant, he provided the same for Lava not
knowing that he was helping a rebel. Lava was part of
the Huks and appellant helped Lava open bank
accounts and assisted them with money matters.
Held: Appellant was not considered an accomplice to
rebellion because his acts of helping did not fall under
the definition of rebellion in RPC nor does he fall under
Art 18s definition of accomplice because his intent to
rebel against the government was not proven and his


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assistance was not efficacious enough to make


insurrection or rebellion successful.
o People v. Maliao Accused facilitated commission of
crime by providing his house as the venue of the crime.
Even though he had no direct participation in the
crimes execution, he was present throughout it, and
he did not do anything to stop the malefactors nor help
the victim therefore he is guilty as accomplice in crime
of rape with homicide
The community of design need not be to commit the crime
actually committed. It is sufficient if there was a common
purpose to commit a particular crime and that the crime
actually committed was a natural or probable consequences
of the intended crime.
o People v. Largo Verzo caused Salazar and Largo to
load a time bomb in a plane which killed the deceased
and others. Held: Salazar and Largo were accomplices
in the crime of Verzo who was the principal
o U.S. v. De Jesus Three men entered Osetes house to
abduct his daughter but instead they ended up killing
Osete. Two other men were stationed outside by the
carriage, which brought them there to be lookouts.
Held: The two are accomplices because even if the
homicide was not part of the original plan, it was a
possibility to carry out the abduction.


B. How An Accomplice Acquires Knowledge Of The Criminal Design Of
The Principal.
1. Principal informs or tells the accomplice of the formers
criminal purpose.
o U.S. v. Sotto Master told his servant that he would
abduct the a girl under 18 years and he prompted said
servant to induce the girl to leave her home and the
servant did.

Held: Servant was an accomplice and master was a


principal by direct participation.
2. When the accomplice saw the criminal acts of the principal.
o People v. Tamayo Ramon was choking the deceased
then Jose delivered a blow on the head of the deceased
which Ramon saw but he still continued with choking
the deceased.
Held: Ramon is an accomplice; showed that Ramon
approved/participated with the criminal design of Jose
because he continued choking deceased after the blow.
o People v. Cagalingan A. Cagalingan stabbed the
deceased first then J. Cagalingan and Romina Jr.
stabbed the deceased after.
Held: Even if there shows a community of design with
the principal, the stabbing of J Cagalingan and Romina
Jr. were not indispensible to the commission of the
crime because A Cagalingans stabbing was fatal
already, therefore the two are only accomplices.
o People v. Manansala: Even after the first knife thrust
delivered to the deceased, the accused did not try to
stop the other accused either by word or overt act
Held: Accused is an accomplice because even if his
initial intent was free from guilt, it became tainted after
he saw the first knife thrust delivered.
In case there is no conspiracy or unity of criminal
purpose/intention among accused, what should be considered
is the criminal design/intent entertained by the accused that
inflicted the more or most serious wound on the victim. This
can be inferred from the nature of the weapon or the body part
injured.
No knowledge of the criminal design of the principal not an
accomplice.
o People v. Ibanez Even if the act of the accused
(holding deceaseds neck from behind) coincided with


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the other accuseds act of stabbing, simultaneousness


does not itself demonstrate the concurrence of will nor
the unity of action and purpose which are the bases of
the responsibility of two or more individuals
U.S. v. Flores Limbo was employee of the Bureau of
Printing and stole bank certificates for cattle
registration and sold to co-defendant Flores. Flores
used these to sell horses, which they got through theft.
Limbo had no part nor knowledge nor share in the sale
of the stolen horses.
Held: Limbo liable only for theft of bank certificates but
was neither a principal nor an accomplice nor an
accessory of the theft committed by the other
defendants


C. Concurrence With The Criminal Purpose Of Another May Make One
A Co-Principal
Even if only one of the accused originated the criminal design
and the other merely concurred BUT BEFORE the actual
commission of the crime BOTH of them agreed and decided to
commit it, then the other will now be held a principal and not
an accomplice because he has become a co-conspirator.
o BASICALLY, you are an accomplice if the original person
will commit the crime with or without your help. You
are dispensable! Replaceable!

VII. SECOND ELEMENT: Cooperates In The Execution Of The Offense
The accomplice cooperates with the principal by direct
participation BUT his cooperation is only necessary and not
indispensable.
However if there is conspiracy: the nature of the cooperation
becomes immaterial.

A. Examples Of Cooperation By Accomplice

1. By previous acts.
o Lending of a dagger or pistol to murderer knowing his
criminal purpose.
o U.S. v. Flores Pharmacist (knowing the criminal
purpose) furnishes the accused with the drug which he
used in order to help him rape the victim.
o When the owner of the gun knew that it would be
used to kill a particular person, and the principal used
it to kill another person, the owner of the gun is not
an accomplice as to the killing of the victim.
People v. De la Cerna Serapio borrowed the
rifle of Sulpicio in order to kill Rafael (as per
their agreement) but then Serapio used it to kill
Casiano. There was no evidence that Sulipicio
was aware that Serapio would do so. Held:
Sulpicio acquitted for the killing of Casiano
2. By simultaneous acts.
o People v. Escarro No previous agreement or
understanding with co-defendant but defendant held
hand of victim and tried to take away his revolver while
co-defendant attacked victim.
o People v. Crisostomo No conspiracy among the 6
persons three detained offended woman were
principals in crime of illegal detention and three others
held victims companion to prevent latter from helping
victim were accomplices.

A. The Cooperation Of An Accomplice Is Not Due To A Conspiracy
People v. Francisco Facts: Francisco (then Mayor in Isabela)
was accompanied by Berganio, Badua, Dasalla, and Tagasa
when he brought Corpus from the municipal building to the
constabulary and wanted the Corporal to detain him there. But
Corporal refused because they didnt have a detention cell and


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so they brought Corpus to another Barrio and Corpus
disappeared and was not seen anymore.
Held: Companions of Francisco were held as accomplices
because even if there was no conspiracy, they helped Francisco
being Corpus around in a jeep. Their acts constitute
cooperation by simultaneous or previous acts.

B. When The Acts Of The Accused Are Not Indispensable In The Killing,
They Are Merely Accomplices
People v. Villegas Nature of the killing was an offshoot of a
spontaneous turn of events not a previously conceived
ambush as seen by the use of stones of the accused. Held as
accomplices because they cooperated by simultaneous acts
which were not indispensable.
People v. Resayaga Acts of blocking the people who tried to
help victim is one of help and cooperation to assailants but not
indispensable to stabbing of victim. Held as accomplice
People v. Parcon No conspiracy but one acted as look-out or
guard in crime of robbery with homicide held as accomplice

C. The Accomplice Merely Supplies The Principal With Material Or
Moral Aid Without Conspiracy With The Latter
Being present and giving moral support when a crime is being
committed will make a person responsible only as accomplice
in the crime committed.
o If knowledge of criminal purpose of principal is absent =
giving aid or encouragement either morally or
materially in commission of crime or mere presence at
scene of crime does not make one an accomplice
(People v. Toling).
The moral aid may be through advice, encouragement, or
agreement.
o Material aid: external acts.

Moral aid: through advice, encouragement, or


agreement.
But the advice, encouragement, or agreement
should not be the determining cause of the
commission of the crime by the principal by
direct participation or else the one who gave it
would be a principal by inducement.
Example:
o People v. Ubina Ubina conspired with five persons to
kill Carag because he lost in an election to him and he
was also insulted by Carag. The five persons brought 3
others where Carag was killed but they did not
participate in the act of killing itself. Held: The 3 others
presence and company was not indispensable and
essential to the perpetration of the murder but they
were present and they gave moral support =
accomplices.
o People v. Balili No proof appellant conspired with
malefactors but he went with them, knew of criminal
intent, and stayed outside of house while other robbed
and killed victim. Held: Appellant is an accomplice
because he supplied material and moral aid
o People v. Vicente Inflicting stab wounds to victim
only after victim fell on ground and only because he
wanted to show a feeling of camaraderie with other
accused or a show-off or an expression of sympathy
guilty only as accomplice because his act was not
necessary and indispensable for the criminal assault
o


D. Wounds Inflicted By An Accomplice In Crimes Against Persons
Should Not Have Caused The Death Of The Victim
Accomplice should not have inflicted a mortal wound (or else
liable as principal).


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U.S. v. Zalsos Both were liable as co-principals because both
inflicted a mortal wound on the neck of the victim even if R
originated the intention to assault deceased and Z just assisted
action of initiator of the crime
Following cases other accused were held as accomplices
only wound inflicted by them were not the cause of death:
o People v. Azcona wounds inflicted did not materially
contribute to death of deceased.
o People v. Tamayo wound inflicted not of a character
that would result to death of deceased.
o People v. Cortes accused armed with clubs struck
victim, AS he fell by fatal blow made by principal, and
he did not cause serious injuries on deceased.
o People v. Antonio stoning victim already mortally
wounded by other accused.
In These Cases, The Following Rules Are Indicated:
1. One who had the original criminal design is the person who
committed resulting crime.
2. The accomplice, after concurring in criminal purpose of
principal, cooperates by previous or simultaneous acts.
If by simultaneous act accomplice acts while crime is being
committed by principal by direct participation or immediately
thereafter (ex. Principal already attacked the victim).
3. Accomplice in crimes against persons does not inflict the more
or most serious wounds.
o Example: C stabbed B first, and as B was in dying
condition, A gave a fist blow on Bs face A is an
accomplice.
o Reason: When A gave a fist blow after C gave a mortal
wound, it shows that A concurred in the criminal
purpose of C.


VIII. THIRD ELEMENT: Relation Between The Acts

There must be a relation between the criminal act of the


principal and the act of the one charged as accomplice.
o Not enough that a person entertains an identical
criminal design as that of the principal there must be
a relation between the criminal act of principal by
direct participation and of person charged as
accomplice.
o People v. De la Cruz Reyes attacked and passed his
hand over his girlfriends body and their families
decided that the father of Reyes would punish him.
Brother of the girl planned to avenge the honor of his
sister armed himself with a pistol. When he was about
to attack Reyes, Reyes was stabbed by his sister and
died. Brother was accused as accomplice. Held: No
liability by reason of participation if there is no relation
between criminal act of principal by direct participation
(girl) and of the person charged as accomplice
(brother).


A. An Accomplice May Be Liable For A Crime Different From That
Which The Principal Committed
People v. Babiera It was not shown that C and D knew of the
manner A attacked B but they knew that A had unlawfully
attacked B. Held: C and D were guilty as accomplices in crime of
homicide (A was guilty of murder qualified by treachery)
People v. Valdellon NARIC guard A asked C to help him (A)
get some sacks of rice from the NARIC warehouse then A sold
them to D. Held: C is only guilty as accomplice in commission of
simple theft. A guilty of qualified theft because of the qualifying
circumstance of grave abuse of confidence (this did not apply
to C because he wasnt affiliated with NARIC).
People v. Doble Appellants joined in plan to rob by providing
banca for the robbery but there was killing committed in the
course of the robbery by the principals (others). Held:


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Appellants only accomplices because they couldnt have
prevented the killing because they were left at the banca

IX. Accomplice v. Principal
A. In General, An Accomplice:
Does not take direct part in commission of act.
Does not force nor induce others to commit it.
Does not cooperate in the commission of the crime by another
act without which it would not have been accomplished.
Cooperates in the execution of the act by previous or
simultaneous actions.

As to
Principals
Accomplices
Inducement
Without
such Inducement or utterance is
inducement, crime not indispensable with or
would
not
be without such, the crime would
committed
still be committed (since
principal already determined
to commit the crime)
Cooperation
Indispensable
Minor
When acts are Act before or during the commission of the crime
committed
Conspiracy
Decide the crimes Merely concurs with the plan
commission
already decided
Authors of the crime Mere
instruments
who
perform acts not essential to
the perpetration

Mere knowledge and participation therefore do not suffice to
make one a conspirator, for such are elements also of an
accomplice, especially if even without his participation (like a
look-out), the crime could have been accomplished.
o However, where the acts of the accused show that he
shared in the community of purpose with the principals

and their acts collectively demonstrate the existence of


a common design, conspiracy becomes evident and all
will be liable as principals.
Principals and accomplices both know and agree with the
criminal design. They have that in common. Difference lies in
the fact that conspirators know the criminal intention because
they themselves have decided to commit the crime;
accomplices just come to know about it after.


B. Accomplice v. Principal by Indispensable Cooperation

Accomplice
Principal by Indispensable Cooperation
Participation of offender in a Case of a co-principal by cooperation
case of complicity indispensible.
necessary only.


Examples: One lends dagger or pistol knowing borrower is
going to commit murder cooperation with a previous act but
not indispensable cause offender could have borrowed or
gotten weapon from someone/somewhere else
People v. Templonuevo Accused (with knowledge of
intention of other accused to kill the deceased) struck deceased
on forehead with piece of wood facilitating subsequent slaying
of deceased because it made him unconscious. Held: Accused is
guilty as accomplice
People v. Geronimo Romeo held the victim while the others
boloed him (without conspiracy among them) Held: Romeo is
only an accomplice because others could have hacked
deceased even without him holding

C. Accomplice v. Principal By Direct Participation

Accomplice
Principal By Direct Participation
Person entertained owner of a If the person was in the same


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house (some distance away from place talking to the owner of the
the said place) while robbers were house (distracting him and serving
assaulting it so that owner will as guard to warn companions
not return until after robbery has robbing the place) he is a
been consummated an principal by direct participation.
accomplice in the crime because
he cooperated by a simultaneous
act but not indispensable (U.S. v.
Diris).
No conspiracy with principals
In conspiracy with other principals

X. Liability Of Accomplices Under Special Laws
Anti-Piracy and Anti-Highway Robbery Law (Presidential
Decree 532) anyone who aids or abets piracy or robbery in
the highway is considered an accomplice, not an accessory.
Human Securities Act (Republic Act No. 9372) an
accomplice basically follows the same definition of the Revised
Penal Code.
Genocide Law (Republic Act No. 9851) an accomplice is one
who facilitates the commission of the crime.
Anti-Torture Act (Republic Act No. 9745) there is no
definition of an accomplice. (So I guess follow the Revised Penal
Code for having suppletory effect?)
Are there accomplices in bigamy? A, a married man, marries B
who knew of As subsisting marriage.
o One case (Cant find the citation which J-Call
mentioned") said A is a PDP, while B is an accomplice.
o Another case (People v. Nepomuceno, G.R. No. L40624, June 27, 1975) said A is a PDP, while B is a PIC.

Article 19. Accessories.
Accessories are those who, having knowledge of the commission of
the crime, and without having participated therein, either as
principals or accomplices, take part subsequent to its commission in

any of the following manners:


1. By profiting themselves or assisting the offender to profit by
the effects of the crime.
2. By concealing or destroying the body of the crime, or the
effects or instruments thereof, in order to prevent its
discovery.
3. By harboring, concealing, or assisting in the escape of the
principals of the crime, provided the accessory acts with
abuse of his public functions or whenever the author of the
crime is guilty of treason, parricide, murder, or an attempt to
take the life of the Chief Executive, or is known to be
habitually guilty of some other crime.

POINTS

I. Definition
An accessory does not participate in the criminal design, nor
cooperate in the commission of the felony, but with knowledge
of the commission of the crime he subsequently takes part in
three ways mentioned in the article.

II. Important Words And Phrases In Article 19
A. Having Knowledge
An accessory must have knowledge of the crime, and with that
knowledge took part in subsequent to its commission.
o In the absence of the purchasers knowledge at the
time of transaction that such goods were of illegal
origin, the customer who purchases such goods cannot
be held criminally responsible as accessory (People v.
Labrador).
Mere possession of stolen property does not make the accused
an accessory where the thief was already convicted.
o Rational: It is within the real of possibilities that the
individual received the stolen property honestly, in the


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legal course of transaction without knowing that it was


stolen (People v. Racimo).
Entertaining suspicion that a crime has been committed is not
enough.
o Knowledge and suspicion are not synonymous terms:
Suspicion being the imagination of the
existence of something without proof, or upon
very slight evidence or upon no evidence at all.
Knowledge known actual facts.
Knowledge of the commission of a crime may be acquired
subsequence to the acquisition of stolen property.
o U.S. v. Montano
Facts: Robbers took and carried away a
carabao. These were found in the possession of
A who acquired them without knowing they
had been illegally taken. Owners informed A
that they were stolen and agreed to pay half of
what A had paid for them. When the owners
returned with the payment, A said the
carabaos were returned to the seller.
Issue: Is A liable as an accessory?
Held: Yes. To declare the accused guilty as
accessory, it is not necessary that he should
have acquired the property knowing at that
time that it had been stolen. It is sufficient that
after acquiring that knowledge, he concealed
or disposed of the property, thereby depriving
the owner thereof.
Knowledge of the commission of the crime may be established
by circumstantial evidence.
o People v. Dalena When a person knew his coaccused had no legitimate business and there was no
rational reason for the accused to believe that his coaccuseds possession of said goods were legitimate, the

conclusion is that he had knowledge of their illegal


source.

B. Commission Of The Crime
The crime committed by the principal must be proved beyond
reasonable doubt.
People v. Pardito where there is doubt as to whether the
woman committed the crime of parricide or not (i.e. not
conclusively proven), the fact that the servant helped bury the
body does not make him an accessory in parricide.

C. Without Having Participated Therein Either As Principals Or
Accomplices
Facts: A attacked B, and B fell. C and D then each hit B with a
piece of wood. B died and was buried by all three.
Issue: Can anyone be held as an accessory?
Held: No. A is principal by direct participation. C and D are
accomplices.

D. Take part subsequent to its commission
The accessory takes part after the crime has been committed.

PAR 1: BY PROFITING THEMSELVES OR ASSISTING THE OFFENDER TO
PROFIT BY THE EFFECTS OF THE CRIME.

I. Note:
The crime committed by the principal in this paragraph may be
any crime, but it must not be a light felony.

II. Important Words And Phrases
A. By Profiting Themselves By The Effects Of The Crime
Intent to gain is not enough, there must have been actual gain
or material benefit.
Examples:


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One who received a property knowing it was stolen,
and used it (People v. Tanchoco).
o One who shared the reward for the commission of the
crime profited through it (U.S. v. Empainado).
The accessory should not take the property without the
consent of the principal otherwise it would be theft.
When is profiting by the effects of the crime punished as the
act of principal and not the act of accessory?
o When a person knowingly acquired or received
property taken by the brigands (Article 307).
o Anti-Fencing Law (Presidential Decree No. 1612) a
person is liable as principal if he buys, sells, possesses
or profits from the commission of robbery or theft.
BUT they may also be charted as accessories to
the crime of robbery or theft. Its up to the
prosecution what the charge will be.
o


B. Assisting The Offender To Profit By The Effects Of The Crime
Examples:
o A person knowing the item was stolen, sells it for the
thief (U.S. v. Galanco).
o Those who acted as runner or couriers in kidnapping
for ransom (People v. Magsino).
An accessory should not be in conspiracy with the principal
(otherwise he would also be punished as principal).
o U.S. v. Tan Tiap Co
o Facts: A conspired with others to steal goods, and
agreed to pay upon delivery of goods.
o Held: A is guilty of the crime of theft as principal, not
just accessory.

PAR. 2: BY CONCEALING OR DESTROYING THE BODY OF THE CRIME TO
PREVENT ITS DISCOVERY

I. Note:
The crime committed by the principal in this paragraph may be
any crime, but it must not be a light felony.

II. Important Words And Phrases
A. Body Of The Crime
Corpus Delicti the body/substance of the offense or crime.
o This is proof that a specific offense was in fact
committed by someone.
o Made up of 2 things: (1) Existence of a certain act or
result forming the basis of the criminal charge (criminal
event), and (2) Existence of a criminal agency as the
cause of this actor result (criminal responsibility).
There must be an attempt to hide the body of the crime.
o People v. De la Cruz Facts: Accused was ordered to
board the jeep not knowing or even suspecting the
reason for it. He did not take part in the killing, nor
profit, nor try to help conceal it as the bodies were
merely thrown in the ditch. Held: Accused must be
acquitted.
Concealing or destroying the effects or instruments of the
crime to prevent its discovery.
o Accused is an accessory has he helped hide the weapon
used to kill. The pistol or knife is the instrument of the
crime.
Examples:
o Assisting in the burial of the victim (U.S. v. Leal).
o Making it appear that the victim had to be killed
because he resisted by placing a gun in his hand when
already dead (U.S. v. Cuison).
o The mere act of carrying the cadaver of one unlawfully
killed when it was buried to prevent the discovery of
the crime, is sufficient to make him responsible as an
accessory (People v. Galleto)


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B. To Prevent Its Discovery
Its refers to the crime.
What is being concealed is the body of the crime, the effects or
instruments NOT the principal who committed the crime. There
must be an effort to prevent the discovery of the crime.

PAR. 3: BY HARBORING, CONCEALING OR ASSISTING IN THE ESCAPE
OF THE PRINCIPAL OF THE CRIME

I. Two Classes Of Accessories Contemplated In Paragraph 3
A. Public Officers
1. The accessory is a public officer.
2. He harbors, conceals or assists in the escape of the principal.
3. The public officer acts with abuse of his public functions.
4. The crime committed by the principal is any crime, provided it
is not a light felony.

B. Private Persons
1. That the accessory is a private person
2. That he harbors, conceals or assists in the escape of the author
of the crime.
3. That the crime committed by the principal is either:
a. Treason
b. Parricide
c. Murder
d. Attempt on the life of the President
e. That the principal is known to be habitually guilty of
some other crime.

II. Habitually guilty of some other crime
Example: A person who previously punished for less physical
injuries three times, and then commits estafa is a habitually
guilty, and whoever helps in his escape becomes an accessory.

REQUISITE: The accessory must have knowledge of the


principal being habitually guilty of some other crime.
A mayor who refused to prosecute the offender is an accessory.
U.S. v. Yacat Mayor of the town of Cabiao refused to
prosecute the crime of homicide thus making it possible for the
offender to escape.
Accused policemen witnessed the killing of the victim by coaccused. Policeman failed to arrest culprit and even told coaccused not to tell the other policeman. Was policeman an
accessory? Damn right he was, under 3rd paragraph. It was his
duty to arrest culprit and not to conceal commission of crime
by silence or misleading authorities that accused was really
culprit. By his acts, he abused his public position (People v.
Antonio).
One who kept silent with regard to the crime he witnessed is
not an accessory.
o U.S. v. Caballeros Person who saw the commission
of murder and kept silent and does not report to
authorities, is not liable for anything.
o U.S. v. Romulo Person who volunteers false
information tended to deceive the prosecution and
assist in concealing the guilty party is liable.
A policeman who aids a murderer escape prison is liable for
infidelity, while the latter is liable for evasion of sentence.
o May the policeman be held liable as accessory for
evasion of sentence of the murderer?
Justice Callejo: YES.
But isnt the policeman a PDP or PIC?
Leviste couldnt have escaped were it
not for the actions of the policeman.
(ewan.)
Boado: Those who assist the principal to escape
maybe prosecuted under Presidential Decree
No. 1829 for obstruction of justice not as
o


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accessory but as a principal, provided that a
separate information shall be prepared for the
crime of obstruction.

III. Accessories Liability Is Subordinate And Subsequent
Reason: The accessorys participation therein is subsequent to
the crimes commission, and his guilt is directly related to that
of the principal.
o If the facts alleged are not proven in the prosecution
instituted or do not constitute a crime, no legal
grounds exist for convicting a defendant as an
accessory since no crime has been perpetrated (U.S. v.
Mendoza).
Is conviction of accessory possible even if principal is acquitted?
o YES, if the crime was in fact committed, but the
principal was acquitted because of Article 12.
o See p. 590 591 for examples.
Apprehension and conviction of the principal is not necessary
for the accessory to be held criminally liable.
o So long as the requisites for the existence of the crime
are present and that someone committed them, the
accessory may be held criminally liable.
o In the same way, the trial of the accessory may be
resolved prior to that of the principal so long as the
above is satisfied.
o The accessory may be prosecuted and convicted even if
the principal is not yet apprehended, so long as the
crime has been proved to exist.
The accused cannot be held liable as accessory if the principal
charged with murder died before trial because had he been
alive, he might have been found guilty of only homicide.

IV. Accessory Distinguished From Principal And From Accomplice.

Principal
Accomplice
Takes direct part or cooperate or
induce in the commission of the
crime
Cooperates in the commission of
the offense prior, during or after.

Accessory
Does not take direct part or
cooperate in or induce the
commission of the crime
Does not cooperate in the
commission of the offense by
acts either prior thereto or
simultaneous therewith.
Participation takes place prior, Participation always takes place
during and after
AFTER the commission of the
crime.
Knows the criminal design of the Knows the commission of the
principal
offense
No exemption
Exempted under Article 20 and
for light felonies under Article 16
Provides direct or Provides
Acts in the 3 ways enumerated
indispensable
material
or under Article 19
participation, or moral aid in an
was liable for efficacious way
inducement.
but not in a
manner
indispensable
to the offense
Full penalty
1 degree lower 2 degrees lower than principal

Article 20. Accessories who are exempt from criminal liability.
The penalties prescribed for accessories shall not be imposed upon
those who are such with respect to their spouses, ascendants,
descendants, legitimate, natural, and adopted brothers and sisters, or
relatives by affinity within the same degrees, with the single
exception of accessories falling within the provisions of paragraph 1 of
the next preceding article.

POINTS


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I. Basis For Exemption
Based on ties of blood, and preservation of the cleanliness of
ones name, which compels one to conceal crimes committed
by relatives so near as those mentioned in this article.

II. Principals Related To Accessories Exempt From Criminal Liability
When principal is his:
o Spouse
o Descendant
o Ascendant
o Legitimate, natural or adopted brother, sister or
relative by affinity within the same degree.

III. Extent Of Coverage
Exemption applies even if the accessory is related to only two
of found principals guilty of murder (U.S. v. Abanzado).
Relationship by affinity between surviving spouse and blood
relatives of the deceased spouse survives even after the death
of the deceased spouse.
Nephew or niece is not included among such relatives.

IV. Accessory Is Not Exempt From Criminal Liability Even If The
Principal Is Related To Him If Such Accessory (1) Profited By The
Effects Of The Crime, Or (2) Assisted The Offender To Profit By The
Effects Of The Crime
If the accessory performs the two acts mentioned, he is liable
even if the principal falls within the listed relatives because
such acts are prompted not by affection but be detestable
greed.
o Does concealing of the effects of the crime, not to
prevent its discovery, but to obtain gain, fall under
Article 19(2)?

Facts: Husband conceals the property stolen by


his wife to profit from it later.
Held: Husband is liable as an accessory since he
is driven not by affection for his wife, but
profit.
Only accessories under paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 19 are
exempt from criminal liability if they are related to the
principals.
o Examples of exemptions:
A son who helps his father bury the body of the
murdered victim.
Grandson who having knowledge of the
robbery by his grandfather destroys the body
of the crime.
Person who helps his brother escape after the
latter committed treason.
Liability of a public officer when related to the principal
o Facts: Public officer abused his office in order to assist
the escape of his brother who had committed murder.
o Issue: Is he liable as an accessory?
o Held: He is an accessory BUT does not have criminal
liability. Ties of blood or relationship constitutes a more
powerful incentive than the call of duty.


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TITLE III: PENALTIES


CHAPTER 1: PENALTIES IN GENERAL



POINTS

I. Definitions
Penalty is the suffering that is inflicted by the State for the
transgression of a law.
o Signifies pain i.e. suffering undergone because of the
action of human society, by one who commits a crime.

II. Different Juridical Conditions Of Penalty (acc. to classical school)
1. Must be productive suffering without affecting the integrity
of the human personality.
2. Must be commensurate with the offense different crimes
must be punished with different penalties.
3. Must be personal no one should be punished for the crime of
another.
4. Must be legal it is the consequence of a judgment according
to law.
5. Must be certain.
6. Must be equal for all.
7. Must be correctional.

III. States Purpose For Punishing Crime
To secure justice The state has
o An existence of its own to maintain.
o A conscience of its own to assert.
o Moral principles to be vindicated.

IV. Theories Justifying Penalty
1. Prevention and suppress the danger to the State arising
from the criminal acts of the offender.

2. Self-defense measure of such to protect society from the


threat and wrong inflicted by the criminal.
3. Reformation object of punishment is to correct offender.
4. Exemplarity to deter others from committing crimes.
5. Justice retributive justice, a vindication of absolute right and
moral law violated by the criminal.
Social defense and exemplarity justify the penalty of death.
When a person has proved to be a dangerous enemy of society,
it must protect itself by taking the life in retribution for the
offense, and to serve as an example and warning to others.

V. Three-fold purpose of penalties under RPC
1. Retribution or expiation commensurate with the gravity of
the offense.
2. Correction or reformation shown by the rules that regulate
the execution of penalties consisting in deprivation of liberty.
3. Social defense shown by inflexible severity to recidivists and
habitual delinquents.

VI. Constitutional restriction on penalties
Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel punishment
inflicted
o Cruel and unusual punishment that is so
disproportionate to the offense so as to shock the
moral sense of all reasonable men.
o Constitutional stricture refers to penalties which are
inhuman and barbarous, or shocking to the conscience
(Weems v. U.S.), and fines and imprisonment are not in
this category (People v. Dionisio).

Article 21. Penalties that may be imposed.
No felony shall be punishable by any penalty not prescribed by law
prior to its commission.


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POINTS

I. State Policy About Punishing Crimes
This article prohibits the government from punishing any
person for any felony with any penalty, which has not been
prescribed by the law.
o Has no application to the Revised Penal Code, because
all felonies defined in the Revised Penal Code has a
prescribed penalty.
o May only be invoked when a person is being tried for
an act or omission for which no penalty has been
prescribed by law.
This is a guarantee to the citizen of this country that no act of
his will be considered criminal until the government has made
it so by law and has provided a penalty.
o No imprisonment at the discretion of the court. There
must be limits imposed by the law.
o In Batas Pambansa Blg. 22 and libel, the Supreme Court
issued admin orders giving preference to fine over
imprisonment. This doesnt mean that the SC abolished
imprisonment.
The favorable judgment by the appellate court on an accused
will be applied to his co-accused if it is favorable and applicable
to the latter.
Court can impose either fine or imprisonment. But it can never
imposed fine and/or imprisonment. Accused cant choose
how he wants to serve his sentence.

II. Reason For The Provision
A law cannot be rationally obeyed unless it is first shown.
Man cannot be expected to obey an order that has not been
given.

III. Examples

No Penalty Prescribed By Law Prior To Its Commission


U.S. v. Yam Tung Way
o Facts: A allegedly reproduced and sold fraudulent
copies of anothers literary work. No copyright law.
o Held: A cannot be punished because at that time no
law defined and penalized such act.
Subsidiary penalty for a crime cant be imposed if not prescribed by
law prior to its commission
U.S. v. Macasaet
o Facts: Macasaet was charted and convicted for
violating Act No. 1189 punishable by a fine. At that
time, no law provided for imprisonment for failure to
pay fine by reason of insolvency. Act No. 1732 which
provides such penalty, and took effect during trial. The
court imposed subsidiary imprisonment.
o Held: Subsidiary imprisonment cannot be imposed
because it took effect AFTER the commission of the
crime.

Article 22. Retroactive effect of penal laws.
Penal laws shall have a retroactive effect in so far as they favor the
person guilty of a felony, who is not a habitual criminal, as this term is
defined in Rule 5 of Article 62 of this Code, although at the time of the
publication of such laws a final sentence has been pronounced and
the convict is serving the same.

POINTS

I. Article 22 Not Applicable To Provisions Of Revised Penal Code
Application to Revised Penal Code may only be invoked where
some former or subsequent law is under consideration.
Article 10 doesnt bar application of Article 22 to special laws.


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o

If by amendment to the Revised Penal Code or special


law, the punishment is made less severe than provided
for in this Code, the accused may invoke Article 22.


A. Must Necessarily Relate:
1. To penal laws existing prior to the Revised Penal Code, in which
the penalty was less severe than those of the code OR
2. To laws enacted subsequent to the Revised Penal Code, in
which the penalty is more favorable to the accused.

B. Courts Can Apply This Provision, Even If Not Invoked By The
Accused

II. Rule
General Rule: Give criminal laws prospective effect.
o People v. Changco Facts: Before Article 365 (RPC)
was amended, slight physical injuries through reckless
imprudence was not punishable. On September 21,
1954, accused committed such act. On June 21, 1957,
RA 1790 was approved thus making the amendments.
Issue: Can accused be punished?
Held: The amended Article 365 punishing the act
cannot be given retroactive effect such as to punish the
accused.
o Giving a law retroactive effect, if unfavorable to the
accused will violate the constitutional inhibition as to
ex post facto law. (See Criminal Law in General)
Exception: To give criminal laws retroactive effect when
favorable to the accused.
o Lapuz v. Court of Appeals Facts: Bus driver convicted
separately of (1) homicide with serious physical injuries
through reckless imprudence and (2) damage to
property through reckless imprudence for the
destruction caused to the other bus. RA 587 amending

the Motor Vehicle law took effect after the incident,


which made the driver liable for only one complex
crime under the RPC instead of two separate crimes.
Issue: Can RA 587 be used?
Held: Even though RA 587 took effect after the
incident, it can be given retroactive effect.
Exception applies to a law dealing with prescription of
crime.


III. Reason For The Exception
The sovereign in enacting a subsequent penal law more
favorable to the accused has recognized that the greater
severity of the former law is unjust.
However, the new law may provide otherwise
o Republic Act No. 4661 decreasing the prescription of
libel from 2 years to 1 year provides that it shall not
apply to cases of libel already filed in court at the time
of its approval.
o Republic Act No. 9346 prevents the imposition of the
death penalty, and could be apply retroactively
because it favors the accused.
Even if no more death penalty, the
classification of heinous crimes still remains
because of the possibility that it will once again
be revived. Moreover, civil liability is still
dependent on the nature of heinous crimes
(People v Bon).
Even if the offender is a habitual delinquent,
this law will still benefit him. Congress intended
it to benefit even the habitual delinquent.

IV. Revised Penal Code Was Not Given Retroactive Effect


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Thus, acts committed in violation of a conditional pardon (a


violation of RPC) prior to the effectivity of the RPC cannot be
punished (Peope v. Carballo).


V. Important Words And Phrases
A. Although At The Time Of The Publication Of Such Laws A Final
Sentence Has Been Pronounced And The Convict Is Serving The Same
Provision of Article 22 that penal laws shall have retroactive
effect insofar as they favor the person guilty of a felony is
applicable even if the accused has already started or is serving
his sentence.
The favorable retroactive effect of a new law may find the
defendant in one of these three situations:
o The crime has been committed and prosecution begins.
o Sentence has been passed but service has not begun.
o The sentence is being carried out.
In any case, the favorable new statute benefits him and should
apply to him.
Example: case of Robin Padilla where his sentence was
shortened after the passing of a new law that decreased the
penalty of illegal possession of firearms.

B. Who Is Not A Habitual Criminal?
Habitual criminals are not entitled to benefit of the provisions
of the new favorable statute.
A person shall be deemed to be a habitual delinquent if within
a period of ten years from the date of his release or last
conviction of the crimes of serious or less serious physical
injuries, robbery, theft, estafa, or falsification, he is found guilty
of any said crimes a third time or oftener (Rule 5, Article 62)

VI. In Connection To Civil Liability
A. Retroactive Effect Not Applicable To Civil Liability

The principle that criminal statutes are retroactive so far as


they favor the culprit does not apply to the latters civil liability
because the rights of the offended party or innocent third
parties are not within the gift of arbitrary disposal of the State.


B. A New Law Increasing Civil Liability Cannot Be Retroactive
Thus, Commonwealth Act No. 284 which increased the
minimum indemnity for the death of a person by reason of the
commission of a crime from P1,000 to P2,000 was not given
retroactive effect (People v. Panaligan).

VII. Article 22 v. Article 3661
The two articles mean that while felonies and misdemeanors
committed prior to the date of effectiveness of the Revised
Penal Code shall be punished in accordance with the Code or
Acts in force at the time of their commission, the same should
not be the case IF such Code or Acts are unfavorable to the
guilty party for the general principle on the retroactivity of
favorable penal laws, recognized in Article 22, should then
apply.

VIII. Repeal Of Laws
A. Lagrimas Case v. Tamayo Case


Lagrimas
Tamayo
Facts Petitioner convicted for Accused was convicted for
assault upon a public official violating
a
municipal
and penalized under Article ordinance.
251 of the old penal code.
Pending his appeal, the

Article 366. Application of laws enacted prior to this Code. Without


prejudice to the provisions contained in Article 22 of this Code, felonies and
misdemeanors, committed prior to the date of effectiveness of this Code shall
be punished in accordance with the Code or Acts in force at the time of their
commission.


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Held

Ratio

Article 149 of the RPC


does not prescribe a penalty
for the same crime.
Petition denied. The intent
of the RPC was to insure
elimination
of
crimes
penalized by former acts
before its enforcement. It
should not have the effect of
pardoning the guilty.
Legislature re-enacted the
provision of Article 251 of
the old Penal Code in the
Revised Penal Code, but
does not punish an assault
upon a public school teacher
anymore. Article 149 of the
Revised Penal Code did not
absolutely repeal.
Where the repeal is by
reenactment, the court has
jurisdiction to try and punish
an accused person under the
old law.

ordinance was repealed and


the act complained of was no
longer a crime.
Case dismissed. A person
cannot
be
prosecuted,
convicted and punished for
acts no longer criminal.

The
repeal
(completely
eliminating the section of the
ordinance under which the
accused was being prosecuted)
was absolute.

The repeal in this case is


absolute, not a reenactment or
repeal by implication. No
saving clause too.


B. Criminal Liability Under Repealed Law Subsists:
1. When the provisions of the former law are reenacted; or
2. When the repeal is by implication; or
3. When there is a saving clause
Right to punish offenses committed under an old penal law is
not extinguished if the offenses are still punished in the
repealing law.

C. Repeal Of Penal Law Which Impliedly Repealed An Old Penal Law


Revives The Old Law
Thus, when Act 1697, which repealed provisions of the old
Penal Code, was itself repealed by old Administrative Code, the
penalty of the Old Penal Code which was lighter than Act 1697
was imposed (U.S. v. Soliman).

D. No Retroactive Effect Of Penal Laws As Regards Jurisdiction Of
Court
The jurisdiction of a court to try a criminal action is to be
determined by the law in force at the time of instituting the
action, not at the time of the commission of the crime.
Jurisdiction of courts in criminal cases is determined by the
allegations of the complaint or information, not by the findings
the court may make after trial.

IX. What Penalty May Be Imposed For The Commission Of A Felony?
Only the penalty prescribed by law prior to the commission of
the felony may be imposed (Article 21).
Felonies are punishable under the laws in force at the time of
their commission (Article 366).
But the penalty prescribed by a law enacted after the
commission of the felony may be imposed, if it is favorable to
the offender (Article 22).

Article 23. Effect of pardon by the offended party.
A pardon of the offended party does not extinguish criminal action
except as provided in Article 344 of this Code; but civil liability with
regard to the interest of the injured party is extinguished by his
express waiver.
INGLES SAYS THIS IS AMENDED BY RA 8353
POINTS

I. Important Words And Phrases


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A. A Pardon By The Offended Party Does Not Extinguish Criminal
Action
Crime committed is an offense against the state. In criminal
cases, the intervention of the aggrieved parties is limited to
being witnesses for the prosecution.
Only the Chief Executive can pardon offenders (Article 36).
Compromise does not extinguish criminal liability
There may be a compromise upon the civil liability arising from
an offense, but such compromise shall not extinguish the public
action for the imposition of the legal penalty (Article 2034, Civil
Code).
A contract stipulating for the renunciation of the right to
prosecute an offense or waiving the criminal liability is void.
The consideration or subject-matter is illegal.

B. Except As Provided In Article 344 Of This Code
The offended party in the crimes of adultery and concubinage
CANNOT institute criminal prosecution IF he shall have
consented or pardoned the offenders.
o In case of pardon, BOTH offenders must be pardoned.
o The pardon may be IMPLIED through continued
inaction of the offended party after learning the
offense.
In the crimes of seduction, abduction, rape or acts of
lasciviousness, there shall be no criminal prosecution if the
offender has been EXPRESSLY pardoned by the offended party
or her parents, grandparents, or guardian.
Pardon under Article 344 must be made before start of prosecution
When complaint for the above crimes have been filed in court,
a motion to dismiss based solely on pardon by the offended
party given after the filing of the complaint will be denied by
court.

The ONLY act that can extinguish the penal action after
institution of criminal action is marriage between offender and
offended party.
Pardon under Article 344 is only a bar to criminal prosecution
Article 89 providing for the total extinction of criminal liability
does not mention pardon by the offended party as one of the
causes of totally extinguishing criminal liability.

C. But Civil Liability With Regard To The Interest Of The Injured Party
Is Extinguished By His Express Waiver
Two classes of injury:
o Social injury disturbance and alarm resulting from
the offense.
o Personal injury caused to the victim who suffered
damage either to his person, property, honor or her
chastity.
Social injury is sought to be repaired by imposition of penalty.
The state has an interest and therefore cannot be extinguished
by pardon of offended party.
Personal injury is repaired through indemnity, which is civil in
nature, and can thus be EXPRESSLY waived. The State has not
reason to insist on its payment.

Article 24. Measures of prevention or safety which are nor
considered penalties.
The following shall not be considered as penalties:
1. The arrest and temporary detention of accused persons, as
well as their detention by reason of insanity or imbecility, or
illness requiring their confinement in a hospital.
2. The commitment of a minor to any of the institutions
mentioned in Article 80 and for the purposes specified
therein.
3. Suspension from the employment of public office during the
trial or in order to institute proceedings.


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4. Fines and other corrective measures which, in the exercise of
their administrative disciplinary powers, superior officials may
impose upon their subordinates.
5. Deprivation of rights and the reparations which the civil laws
may establish in penal form.

Plunder Act (Republic Act No. 7080) - suspension of public


official after filing of a valid information.
VAWC (Republic Act No. 9262) offended party entitled to
protection orders, or accused must file a bond to.


POINTS

I. As Well As Their Detention By Reason Of Insanity Or Imbecility
Refers to accused persons who are detained by reason of
insanity or imbecility.
THEIR in the second clause of paragraph 1 refers to accused
persons.

II. They are not considered penalties
Because they are not imposed as a result of judicial
proceedings
Paragraphs 1, 3 and 4 are preventive measures.
Paragraph 2 is not a penalty because it is not imposed by the
court. The imposition of the sentence in such case is
suspended.
o Note: This has been repealed by the Juvenile Justice
Act.
Fines mentioned in Paragraph 4 should not be imposed by the
court, or else they will constitute a penalty.
Paragraph 5 is illustrate in the case of parents who are stripped
of their parental authority if found guilty of the crime of
corruption of their minor children.

III. Relevant Special Penal Laws
PNP Act (Republic Act No. 6975) preventive suspension of
policemen during criminal trials (Sections 41 and 47).
Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act (Republic Act No. 3019)
suspension of public official after filing of a valid information.


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CHAPTER 2: CLASSIFICATION OF PENALTIES



Article 25. Penalties which may be imposed.
The penalties which may be imposed according to this Code, and their
different classes, are those included in the following:

SCALE
PRINCIPAL PENALTIES
Capital punishment:
Death.

Afflictive penalties:
Reclusion perpetua,
Reclusion temporal,
Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification,
Perpetual or temporary special disqualification,
Prision mayor.

Correctional penalties:
Prision correccional,
Arresto mayor,
Suspension,
Destierro.

Light penalties:
Arresto menor,
Public censure.

Penalties common to the three preceding classes:
Fine, and
Bond to keep the peace.

ACCESSORY PENALTIES
Perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification,

Perpetual or temporary special disqualification,


Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted
for, the profession or calling.
Civil interdiction,
Indemnification,
Forfeiture or confiscation of instruments and proceeds of the
offense,
Payment of costs.

POINTS

I. The Penalties Which May Be Imposed According To This Code x x x
Are Those Included in Article 25 only
The Revised Penal Code does not prescribe the penalty of life
imprisonment for any of the felonies therein defined, that
penalty being invariably imposed for serious offenses penalized
not by the Revised Penal Code but by special law.
Examples:
o Sentence of five years in Bilibid is defective because it
does not specify the exact penalty prescribed in the
RPC (US v. Avillar)
o Penalty of life imprisonment or cadena perpetua is
erroneous as it has been abolished. The correct term is
reclusion perpetua. (People v. Abletes).
Reclusion perpetua is not the same as life imprisonment as the
Code does not prescribe life imprisonment as a penalty. It is a
penalty used by special laws. Reclusion perpetua entailed
imprisonment for at least 30 years after which the convict
becomes eligible for parole. It also carried with accessory
penalties such as perpetual special disqualification.

II. R.A. 9346 Prohibited The Imposition Of The Death Penalty
Signed into law on June 24, 2006 and provided for the
imposition of penalty of reclusion perpetua in lieu of death


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when the law violated makes use of the nomenclature of the
penalties of the RPC.

III. Classifications Of Penalties
A. Principal v. Accessory Penalties
Two classifications
o Principal Penalties those expressly imposed by the
court in the judgment of conviction.
o Accessory Penalties those that are deemed included
in the imposition of the principal penalties.
Principal Penalties according to their divisibility
o Divisible Penalties are those that have fixed
duration and are divisible into three periods
o Indivisible Penalties those which have no fixed
duration.
Death
Reclusion Perpetua
Perpetual absolute or special disqualification
Public censure
Penalties are either principal or accessory
o Perpetual
or
temporary
absolute/special
disqualification and suspensions may be principal or
accessory penalties, because they are formed in two
general classes.
o Article 236 punishes the crime of anticipation of
duties of public office through suspension as principal
penalty.
o Article 226, 227 and 228 punishing infidelity of
public officers in the custody of documents, provide for
temporary special disqualification as a principal
penalty.

B. Classification Of Penalties According To Subject-Matter
1. Corporal (death)

2.
3.
4.
5.

Deprivation of freedom (reclusion, prision, arresto)


Restriction of freedom (destierro)
Deprivation of rights (disqualification and suspension)
Pecuniary (fine)


C. Classification Of Penalties According To Their Gravity
1. Capital
2. Afflictive
3. Correctional
4. Light
Corresponds to Article 9: Grave, less grave, light felony

D. Public Censure Is A Penalty
Being a penalty, not properly imposed in acquittal.
The court may only impose a penalty if the accused is found
guilty. The power to mete out punishments; a finding of guilt
must precede the punishment.

IV. Court Acquitting The Accused May Criticize His Acts Or Conduct
The court, while acquitting an accused, may permit itself
nevertheless to criticize or reprehend his acts or conduct in
connection with the transaction out of which the accusation
arose.

V. Reclusion Perpetua
Court should use proper Revised Penal Code nomenclature
Indivisible penalty (Reclusion Perpetua, Perpetual absolute or
special disqualification, public censure)
o Not affected by mitigating or aggravating
circumstances. The penalty is imposed in its entirety,
even if there is special aggravating or two mitigating, it
will not be affected.
o But if PRIVILEGED mitigating, it may be reduced by 1 or
2 degrees.


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After imprisonment of 30 years, eligible for pardon.


o Court may not impose 30 years of reclusion perpetua,
they should just impose reclusion perpetua.
o The 30 years does not refer to the duration of reclusion
perpetua, but to the eligibility of parole and for
purposes of computing the three-fold rule.
Different from life imprisonment
o Exception: In Presidential Decree No. 818 (Syndicated
Estafa), imprisonment is a maximum of 30 years with
accessory penalties provided by Revised Penal Code for
30 years.


VI. Disqualification And Suspension
A. Dual Personality Of Disqualification And Suspension
It can be a principal penalty
o Temporary disqualification 6years, 1 day to 12 years.
o Suspension 6 months, 1 day to 6 years.
It can also be an accessory penalty
o Follow the period of the principal penalty.
o Court cannot extend the disqualification or suspension
if it merely follows the principal penalty, cant extend
beyond principal penalty.

B. Suspension
All prisoners whether under preventive detention or serving
final sentence, cannot practice their profession or engage in
any business or occupation, or hold office, elective or
appointive, while in detention.

VII. Bond To Keep The Peace
Bond to keep the peace is a principal penalty yet there is no
crime in Book II that imposes it. No occasion to mete this
penalty on a convict.

Compare with bond for good behavior (Article 248 for grave
and light threats only). Failure to post bond for good behavior
means destierro for accused. Failure to post bond to keep the
peace.


VIII. Instances When Lesser Offense Absorbs Graver Offense
Rebellion (RT) absorbs murder (RP)
Forcible abduction (RT) absorbs illegal detention of a woman
(RP)
Slavery involving kidnapping of a person (PM) absorbs
kidnapping (RP)

Article 26. When afflictive, correctional, or light penalty.
A fine, whether imposed as a single of as an alternative penalty, shall
be considered an afflictive penalty, if it exceeds 6,000 pesos; a
correctional penalty, if it does not exceed 6,000 pesos but is not less
than 200 pesos; and a light penalty if it less than 200 pesos.

POINTS

I. Whether Imposed As A Single Or As An Alternative Penalty
Example: Article 144 punishing disturbance of proceedings, the
penalty is arresto mayor or a fine ranging from P200 to P1,000.

A. Penalties Cannot Be Imposed In The Alternative
The law does not permit any court to impose a sentence in the
alternative, its duty being to indicate the penalty imposed
definitely and positively.
Fine is not a substitute for imprisonment. Its completely
independent.

II. Article 26 Merely Classifies Fines And Has Nothing To Do With The
Definition Of Light Felony


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If the fine prescribed by the law for a felony is exactly P200, it is


a light felony because Article 9, Paragraph 3 which defines light
felonies should prevail.
What if exactly P200, how do you reconcile Article 9 and Article
26?
o Article 9 should prevail when the issue is prescription of
crime. Its considered a light felony and prescribes in 2
months.
o Article 26 should prevail when the issue is prescription
of penalty. Its considered correctional, and prescribes
in 10 years.


A. Fine Is:
1. Afflictive over P6,000
2. Correction P200 to P6,000
3. Light penalty less than P200

B. Bond To Keep The Peace Is By Analogy:
1. Afflictive over P6,000
2. Correctional P200 to P6,000
3. Light penalty less than P200

III. Who Receives The Fines
Fine is not given to the complainant; it is given to the State.
Fine is for vindication!
Accused can use his cash bail bond to pay his fine, if he is
convicted. Law does not prohibit him from using his cash bail
bond to pay his fine. It is only meant to ensure his attendance
during the process.


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CHAPTER 3: DURATION AND EFFECT OF PENALTIES


SECTION 1 DURATION OF PENALTIES



Article 27.
Reclusion perpetua. Any person sentenced to any of the perpetual
penalties shall be pardoned after undergoing the penalty for thirty
years, unless such person by reason of his conduct or some other
serious cause shall be considered by the Chief Executive as unworthy
of pardon.

Reclusion temporal. The penalty of reclusion temporal shall be
from twelve years and one day to twenty years.

Prision mayor and temporary disqualification. The duration of the
penalties of prision mayor and temporary disqualification shall be
from six years and one day to twelve years, except when the penalty
of disqualification is imposed as an accessory penalty, in which case
its duration shall be that of the principal penalty.

Prision correccional, suspension, and destierro. The duration of the
penalties of prision correccional, suspension and destierro shall be
from six months and one day to six years, except when suspension is
imposed as an accessory penalty, in which case, its duration shall be
that of the principal penalty.

Arresto mayor. The duration of the penalty of arresto mayor shall
be from one month and one day to six months.

Arresto menor. The duration of the penalty of arresto menor shall
be from one day to thirty days.

Bond to keep the peace. The bond to keep the peace shall be
required to cover such period of time as the court may determine.


POINTS

I. Duration Of Each Different Penalties
1. Reclusion perpetua 20 yrs. and 1 day to 40 yrs.
2. Reclusion temporal 12 yrs. and 1 day to 20 yrs.
3. Prision mayor and temporary disqualification 6 years. and 1
day to 12 yrs, except when disqualification is accessory penalty,
in which case its duration is that of the principal penalty.
4. Prision correctional, suspension, and destierro 6 months and
1 day to 6 yrs, except when suspension is an accessory penalty
in which case its duration is that of the principal penalty.
5. Arresto mayor 1 month and 1 day to 6 months.
6. Arresto menor 1 day to 30 days
7. Bond to keep the peace the period during which the bond
shall be effective is discretionary on the court.

II. Temporary Disqualification And Suspension When Imposed As
Accessory Penalties, Have Different Durations They Follow The
Duration Of The Principal Penalty.

III. In What Cases Is Destierro Imposed?
1. Serious physical injuries or death under exceptional
circumstances (Article 247).
2. In case of failure to give bond for good behavior (Article 284).
3. As a penalty for the concubine in concubinage (Article 334).
4. In cases where after reducing the penalty by one or more
degrees, destierro is the proper penalty.

IV. Bond To Keep The Peace Is Not Specifically Provided So As A
Penalty For Any Felony And Therefore Cannot Be Imposed By The
Court.


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Bond for good behavior under Article 284 of the Code is only
required of a person making a grave or light threat, and not in
other cases or crimes.


Article 28. Computation of penalties.
If the offender shall be in prison, the term of the duration of the
temporary penalties shall be computed from the day on which the
judgment of conviction shall have become final.

If the offender be not in prison, the term of the duration of the
penalty consisting of deprivation of liberty shall be computed from
the day that the offender is placed at the disposal of the judicial
authorities for the enforcement of the penalty. The duration of the
other penalties shall be computed only from the day on which the
defendant commences to serve his sentence.

POINTS

I. Rules In Computation Of Penalties:
1. When the offender is in prison: the duration of temporary
penalties is from the day on which the judgment of conviction
becomes final.
o Reason for Rule 1 Computation begins from the date
conviction becomes final and not from the day of his
detention, because under Article 24 the arrest and
temporary detention is not considered a penalty.
o An accused who appealed will commence serving his
sentence from the date the appellate court
promulgated its decision, NOT when the trial court
promulgated it (Ocampo v. Court of Appeals).
2. When the offender is not in prison: the duration of penalties
consisting in deprivation of liberty, is from the day that the
offender is placed at the disposal of judicial authorities for the
enforcement of the penalty.

3. The duration of other penalties: the duration is from the day


on which the offender commences to serve his sentence.

II. Rules In Cases Of Temporary Penalties:
If under detention Rule 1 applies
If not detained Rule 3 applies
Examples of temporary penalties:
1. Temporary absolute disqualification
2. Temporary special disqualification
3. Suspension

III. Rules In Cases Of Penalties Consisting Of Deprivation Of Liberty
Not in prison Rule 2 applies.
In prison (e.g. preventive imprisonment) Rule 3 applies
Exemption: offender is entitled to deduction of full time or 4/5
of the time of his detention (See Article 29).
Examples of penalties consisting in deprivation of liberty:
1. Imprisonment
2. Destierro

Article 29. Period of preventive imprisonment deducted from term
of imprisonment.
Offenders or accused who have undergone preventive imprisonment
shall be credited in the service of their sentence consisting of
deprivation of liberty, with the full time during which they have
undergone preventive imprisonment if the detention prisoner agrees
voluntarily in writing to abide by the same disciplinary rules imposed
upon convicted prisoners, except in the following cases:
1. When they are recidivists, or have been convicted previously
twice or more times of any crime; and
2. When upon being summoned for the execution of their
sentence they have failed to surrender voluntarily.

If the detention prisoner does not agree to abide by the same


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disciplinary rules imposed upon convicted prisoners, he shall be
credited in the service of his sentence with four-fifths of the time
during which he has undergone preventive imprisonment. (As
amended by Republic Act No. 6127, June 17, 1970).

Whenever an accused has undergone preventive imprisonment for a
period equal to or more than the possible maximum imprisonment of
the offense charged to which he may be sentenced and his case is not
yet terminated, he shall be released immediately without prejudice to
the continuation of the trial thereof or the proceeding on appeal, if
the same is under review. In case the maximum penalty to which the
accused may be sentenced is destierro, he shall be released after
thirty (30) days of preventive imprisonment. (As amended by Republic
Act No. 6127, and further amended by E.O. No. 214, prom. July 10,
1987.)
When is there preventive imprisonment?

POINTS

I. When Is There Preventive Imprisonment?
The accused undergoes preventive imprisonment when the
offense charged is non-bailable, or even if bailable, he cannot
furnish the required bail.
Preventive penalties are considered even in the case of
perpetual punishments. This article does not make any
distinction between temporal and perpetual penalties.

II. The Full Time Or Four-Fifths Of The Time During Which The
Offenders Have Undergone Preventive Imprisonment Shall Be
Deducted From The Penalty Imposed
Full Time if the detention prisoner agrees voluntarily in
writing to abide by the same disciplinary rules imposed upon
convicted prisoners.

Exception: Youthful offenders shall be credited in the


service of his sentence with the full time he spent in
actual confinement and detention. The written consent
to abide by the disciplinary rules is not necessary.
(Article 197, Presidential Decree No. 603).
o Exception: Section 41, Juvenile Justice Act states that
any form of physical restraint imposed on a child in
conflict with the law including his community service or
commitment to a rehab center shall be considered as
preventive imprisonment. Thus:
If the minor juvy is imprisoned pending trial, he
shall be credited with the service of the
sentence with the full time in which the child
was preventively imprisoned.
If the child has served the full time, director can
determine if child still has to stay in rehab.
4/5 Time if the detention prisoner does not agree to abide
by said disciplinary rules.
o


III. The Credit Is Given In The Service Of Sentences Consisting Of
Deprivation Of Liberty
Destierro constitutes deprivation of liberty.
o Although destierro is not imprisonment, a person
penalized with such may still be credited with the time
he underwent preventive imprisonment.
o If destierro is the maximum penalty to which the
accused may be sentenced, he must still be released
after serving whatever prison sentence (for example
arresto menor) is required, since destierro is not served
in prison (See p.634).

A. Credit When Punished Only With A Fine
If the offense for which the offender is undergoing preventive
imprisonment is punishable by imprisonment or a fine, and


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upon conviction the court imposed on him only a fine, there is


no credit to be given.
The fine imposed cannot be lessened in light of ones
preventive imprisonment.


B. Credit When Punished With Imprisonment
1. The convict is to be released immediately if the penalty
imposed after trial is less than the full time or four-fifths of the
time of the preventive imprisonment.
o The accused is to be released immediately whenever
he has undergone preventive imprisonment for a
period equal to or more than the possible maximum
imprisonment for the offenses charged.
o In such case, file a petition for habeas corpus to secure
your release if youre not released.
2. Offenders not entitled to the full time or four-fifths of the time
of preventive imprisonment:
a. Recidivists or those previously convicted twice or more
of any crime (Habitual delinquent is included).
b. Those who, upon being summoned for the execution of
their sentence, failed voluntarily to surrender.

C. Credit When Punished With Imprisonment And Fine
What if the accused is detained, then sentenced to
imprisonment and fine, and he has already served his sentence
but has not yet paid the fine, may he be released? No. He has
to pay the fine first.


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SECTION 2 EFFECTS OF PENALTIES ACCORDING TO THEIR


RESPECTIVE NATURE

Article 30. Effects of the penalties of perpetual or temporary
absolute disqualification.
The penalties of perpetual or temporary absolute disqualification for
public office shall produce the following effects:
1. The deprivation of the public offices and employments which
the offender may have held even if conferred by popular
election.
2. The deprivation of the right to vote in any election for any
popular elective office or to be elected to such office.
3. The disqualification for the offices or public employments and
for the exercise of any of the rights mentioned.
In case of temporary disqualification, such disqualification as is
comprised in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article shall last during
the term of the sentence.
4. The loss of all rights to retirement pay or other pension for any
office formerly held.

Article 31. Effect of the penalties of perpetual or temporary special
disqualification.
The penalties of perpetual or temporary special disqualification for
public office, profession or calling shall produce the following effects:
1. The deprivation of the office, employment, profession or
calling affected;
2. The disqualification for holding similar offices or employments
either perpetually or during the term of the sentence,
according to the extent of such disqualification.

Article 32. Effects of the penalties of perpetual or temporary special
disqualification for the exercise of the right of suffrage.
The perpetual or temporary special disqualification for the exercise of
the right of suffrage shall deprive the offender perpetually or during

the term of the sentence, according to the nature of said penalty, of


the right to vote in any popular election for any public office or to be
elected to such office. Moreover, the offender shall not be permitted
to hold any public office during the period of his disqualification.

Article 33. Effects of the penalties of suspension from any public
office, profession or calling, or the right of suffrage.
The suspension from public office, profession or calling, and the
exercise of the right of suffrage shall disqualify the offender from
holding such office or exercising such profession or calling or right of
suffrage during the term of the sentence.

The person suspended from holding public office shall not hold
another having similar functions during the period of his suspension.

Article 34. Civil interdiction.
Civil interdiction shall deprive the offender during the time of his
sentence of the rights of parental authority, or guardianship, either as
to the person or property of any ward, of marital authority, of the
right to manage his property and of the right to dispose of such
property by any act or any conveyance inter vivos.

Article 35. Effects of bond to keep the peace.
It shall be the duty of any person sentenced to give bond to keep the
peace, to present two sufficient sureties who shall undertake that such
person will not commit the offense sought to be prevented, and that
in case such offense be committed they will pay the amount
determined by the court in its judgment, or otherwise to deposit such
amount in the office of the clerk of the court to guarantee said
undertaking.

The court shall determine, according to its discretion, the period of
duration of the bond. (Read also Art. 284)


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Should the person sentenced fail to give the bond as required he shall
be detained for a period which shall in no case exceed six months, if he
shall have prosecuted for a grave or less grave felony, and shall not
exceed thirty days, if for a light felony.

POINTS

I. Perpetual v. Temporary
Perpetual effective during the lifetime of the convict even
after serving his sentence.
Temporary lasts during the term of the sentence and
removed after service of the same
o Exception: (1) Deprivation of public office or
employment, and (2) loss of all rights to retirement pay
or other pension for any office formerly held.

II. Outline Of The Effects Of Penalties Under Articles 30-35
1. The penalties of perpetual or temporary absolute
disqualification for public office produce the following effects:
a. Deprivation of public offices and employments,
even if by election.
b. Deprivation of right to vote or to be elected.
c. Disqualification for the offices or public
employments and for the exercise of any of the
rights mentioned.
d. Loss of right to retirement pay or pension for any
office formerly held.
2. The penalties of perpetual or temporary special Disqualification
for public office, profession or calling produce the following
effects:
a. Deprivation of the office, employment, profession or
calling affected.

3.

4.

5.

6.

b. Disqualification for holding similar offices or


employments perpetually or during the term of the
sentence.
The penalties of perpetual or temporary special disqualification
for the exercise of the right to suffrage produce the following
effects:
a. Deprivation of the right to vote or to be elected to any
public office.
b. Cannot hold any public office during the period of
disqualification.
The penalties of suspension from public office, profession or
calling or the right to suffrage produce the following effects:
a. Disqualification from holding such office or exercising
such profession or calling or right of suffrage during the
term of the sentence.
b. If suspended from public office, the offender cannot
hold another office having similar functions during the
period of suspension.
Civil interdiction shall produce the following effects:
a. Deprivation of the rights of parental authority or
guardianship of any ward.
b. Deprivation of marital authority.
c. Deprivation of the right to manage his property and of
the right to dispose of such property by any act or any
conveyance inter vivos.
Note: A convict can prepare a will because its not a
donation inter vivos.
Bonds to keep the peace:
a. The offender must present two sureties who shall
undertake that the offender will not commit the offense
sought to be prevented, and in that case that such
offense be committed they will pay the amount
determined by the court.


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b. The offender must deposit such amount with the clerk
of court to guarantee said undertaking.
c. The offender may be detained, if he cannot give the
bond, for a perios not less than 6 months if prosecuted
for grave or less grave felony, or for a period not to
exceed 30 days, if for a light felony.

II. Disqualification Is WITHHOLDING Of A Privilege, NOT Denial Of A
Right
Manifest purpose of the restrictions is to preserve the purity of
elections. One rendered infamous by conviction of a felony, or
other base offense indicative of moral turpitude, is unfit to
exercise the privilege of suffrage or to hold office.

III. What Suspension From Exercise Of Profession Covers
Suspension, which deprives the offender of the right of
exercising any kind of profession or calling covers such calling or
trade as for instance that of broker, master plumber, etc.

IV. Bond To Keep Peace Is Not Bail Bond
Bond to keep the peace or for good behavior is imposed as a
penalty in threats (Article 284).
This differs from bail bond which aims to secure provisional
release pending final judgment.

Article 36. Pardon; its effect.
A pardon shall not work the restoration of the right to hold public
office, or the right of suffrage, unless such rights be expressly restored
by the terms of the pardon.

A pardon shall in no case exempt the culprit from the payment of the
civil indemnity imposed upon him by the sentence.

POINTS


I. Effects Of Pardon By The President
1. A pardon shall not restore the right to hold public office or the
right of suffrage.
2. It shall not exempt the culprit from the payment of the civil
indemnity. The pardon cannot make an exception to this rule.

II. Limitation Upon The Exercise Of The Pardoning Power:
1. That the power can be exercised only after conviction.
o Any application of pardon should not be accepted until
the appeal is withdrawn.
o Agencies and instrumentalities of the govt. must require
proof (e.g. certification of the court regarding
withdrawal of such appeal).
2. That such power does not extend to cases of impeachment

III. Pardon Granted In General Terms Does Not Include Accessory
Penalties
Only the effect of the principal penalty is extinguished.
Exception: Where facts show that the purpose of the Chief
Executive is precisely to restore lost rights.
o When an absolute pardon is granted AFTER the term of
imprisonment has expired it removes all that is left of
the consequences of conviction.
Suppose a pardon is granted after the convict served 30 years of
imprisonment. Does it also pardon the perpetual absolute
disqualification?
o No, because Article 30 is silent about the length and
Article 36 requires that such restoration be EXPRESS.

IV. Pardon Of Chief Executive v. Pardon Of Offended Party

Chief Executive
Offended Party
Extinguishes criminal liability
Doesnt extinguish criminal liability


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Doesnt include civil liability
Civil liability can be waived
Pardon should be AFTER Pardon should be BEFORE
conviction and to any of the institution of criminal prosecution
offenders.
and to both offenders.

Article 37. Cost. What are included.
Costs shall include fees and indemnities in the course of the judicial
proceedings, whether they be fixed or unalterable amounts previously
determined by law or regulations in force, or amounts not subject to
schedule.

POINTS

I. The Following Are Included In Costs:
1. Fees
2. Indemnities in the course of judicial proceedings

II. Rules:
1. Costs are chargeable to the accused in case of conviction.
o Thus in case of acquittal, the costs are de oficio, each
party bearing his own expenses.
1. No costs against the Republic, unless the law provides the
contrary (Sec. 1, Rule 142, Rules of Court)
2. Payment of costs is discretionary (of the courts)
o Whether the costs should be assessed against the
accused lie within the discretion of the court. The
government may request the court to assess costs
against the accused, but not as a right. No attorneys
fees shall be taxed as a cost against the adverse party.

Article 38. Pecuniary liabilities. Order of payment.
In case the property of the offender should not be sufficient for the
payment of all his pecuniary liabilities, the same shall be met in the
following order:

1.
2.
3.
4.

The reparation of the damage caused.


Indemnification of consequential damages.
The fine.
The costs of the proceedings.


POINTS

I. Order For Pecuniary Liability
1. The reparation of the damage caused
2. Indemnification of the consequential damages
3. Fine (a pecuniary penalty under Article 25)
4. Cost of proceedings
Note: 1 and 2 pertain to the offended party. 3 and 4 pertain to the
government.

A. What If Guilty Of Several Offenses?
Follow the chronological order of the dates of final judgment
rendered against the convict, beginning with the first final
judgment.

II. When Is Article 38 Applicable?
It is applicable in case the property of the offender should not
be sufficient for the payment of all his pecuniary liabilities. The
order of payment is provided in this article, and must be
observed.
There is reparation in the crime of rape when the dress of the
woman was torn. This is distinct from indemnity (U.S. v.
Yambao).

Article 39. Subsidiary penalty.
If the convict has no property with which to meet the fine mentioned
in paragraph 3 of the next preceding article, he shall be subject to a
subsidiary personal liability at the rate of one day for each eight pesos,
subject to the following rules:


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1. If the principal penalty imposed be prision correccional or
arresto and fine, he shall remain under confinement until his
fine referred in the preceding paragraph is satisfied, but his
subsidiary imprisonment shall not exceed one-third of the
term of the sentence, and in no case shall it continue for more
than one year, and no fraction or part of a day shall be
counted against the prisoner.
2. When the principal penalty imposed be only a fine, the
subsidiary imprisonment shall not exceed six months, if the
culprit shall have been prosecuted for a grave or less grave
felony, and shall not exceed fifteen days, if for a light felony.
3. When the principal penalty imposed is higher than prision
correccional no subsidiary imprisonment shall be imposed
upon the culprit.
4. If the principal penalty imposed is not to be executed by
confinement in a penal institution, but such penalty is of fixed
duration, the convict, during the period of time established in
the preceding rules, shall continue to suffer the same
deprivation as those of which the principal penalty consists.
5. The subsidiary personal liability which the convict may have
suffered by reason of his insolvency shall not relieve him from
the fine in case his financial circumstances should improve. (As
amended by Republic Act No. 5465, April 21, 1969.)

POINTS

I. What Is Subsidiary Penalty?
It is a subsidiary personal liability to be suffered by the convict
who has NO property with which to meet the fine he is
penalized with, at the rate of one day for each eight pesos.
o Retroactive application of Republic Act No. 5465: An act
amending Article 29 of Revised Penal Code increasing
the rate per day of subsidiary penalty from two pesos
and fifty centavos to eight pesos.

There is no subsidiary penalty for nonpayment of (1) reparation


of the damage caused, (2) indemnity, and (3) costs of
proceedings.
o He cant be ordered to serve subsidiary imprisonment
for failure to pay pecuniary liability (reparations), but he
can serve for pecuniary penalty (fine).
It is the penalty prescribed or imposed by the court, not the
penalty provided for the Code which should be considered in
determining whether or not subsidiary penalty should be
imposed.
Subsidiary imprisonment is not imprisonment for debt since it
does not arise from an obligation to pay a sum of money arising
from a contract.


II. Judgment of conviction must impose subsidiary imprisonment
That the accused will undergo subsidiary imprisonment in case
of insolvency can only be imposed if specifically imposed in the
judgment of conviction.
Subsidiary imprisonment is not an accessory penalty.
The decision need not state that there should not be any
subsidiary imprisonment when the law forbids it.

III. If Accused Has No Property With Which To Meet The Fine
Article 39 applies only when the accused has no property with
which to meet the fine. If the accused has enough property, he
cannot choose subsidiary imprisonment instead of paying.

IV. The Word Principal Should Be Omitted
Spanish: cuando la pena impuesta when the penalty imposed
Spanish text should be controlling.

V. Rules:
1. Prision Correcional or arresto and fine Subsidiary
imprisonment not to exceed 1/3 of the term of the sentence


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2.

3.
4.

5.

and in no case to continue for more than one year. Fraction or


part of a day not counted.
Fine only Subsidiary imprisonment not to exceed 6 months, if
the culprit is prosecuted for a grave or less grave felony, and not
to exceed 15 days if for a light felony
Higher than Prision Correcional NO subsidiary imprisonment
Penalty is not to be executed by confinement but of fixed
duration Subsidiary penalty shall consist in the same
deprivations as those of the principal penalty, under the same
rules as in numbers 1, 2 and 3.
In case the financial circumstances improve He shall pay the
fine notwithstanding the fact the convict suffered subsidiary
personal liability therefor.


VI. The Penalty Imposed Must Be (1) Prision Correccional, (2) Arresto
Mayor, (3) Arresto Menor, (4) Suspension, (5) Destierro Or (6) Fine
Only
If the penalty imposed by the court is not one of them,
subsidiary penalty cannot be imposed. There is no subsidiary
penalty, if the penalty imposed by the court is prision mayor,
reclusion temporal, or reclusion perpetua.
o If imprisonment is 6 years and 1 day, it is prision mayor,
and therefore no subsidiary imprisonment can be
imposed.
Penalty not to be executed by confinement, but has a fixed
duration (e.g. suspension, destierro) can impose subsidiary.
Penalty not to be executed by confinement, but has no fixed
duration (e.g. public censure) cannot impose subsidiary.

VII. Additional Penalty For Habitual Delinquency Should Be Included In
Determining Whether Or No Subsidiary Penalty Should Be Imposed
Even if the penalty imposed is not higher than prision
correctional, if the accused is a habitual delinquent who

deserves an additional penalty of 12 years and 1 day of


reclusion temporal, there is no subsidiary imprisonment.

VIII. The Subsidiary Penalty Is The Same Deprivation As Those Of
Which The Principal Penalty Consists
If the principal penalty is imprisonment, the subsidiary penalty
must also be imprisonment.
If the principal penalty is suspension, the subsidiary penalty
must also be suspension.

IX. The Convict Who Served Subsidiary Penalty May Still Be Required
To Pay The Fine
See Article 39, paragraph 5.

X. No Subsidiary Penalty In The Following Cases:
1. When the penalty imposed is higher than Prision Correcional
2. For failure to pay the reparation of the damage caused,
indemnification and the costs of the proceedings
3. When the penalty imposed is fine and a penalty not to be
executed by confinement in a penal institution which has NO
fixed duration

XI. Subsidiary Imprisonment Under Special Laws
Persons convicted of violation of special laws are liable to
subsidiary imprisonment in case of insolvency in the payment of
indemnity, except where the indemnity consists in unpaid
internal revenue tax.
Act No. 1732 (Rules in case the court shall impose a fine as a
whole or as part of the punishment for any criminal offense
made punishable by any special law.)
o These provisions are applicable to offense made
punishable by acts of the Philippine Legislature.
Rules


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a. When the court merely imposes a fine, the subsidiary


liability shall not exceed 6 months, at the ate of one day
of imprisonment for every P2.50
b. In case both fine and imprisonment are imposed, the
subsidiary liability shall not exceed 1/3 of the term of
the imprisonment, and in no case shall it exceed 1 year.
c. In case the imprisonment is for more than 6 years in
addition to a tine, there shall be no subsidiary
imprisonment.
d. When a fine is imposed for violation of any municipal
ordinance or ordinances of the City of Manila, the rate is
one day for ever P1.00, until the fine is satisfied,
Provided, that the total subsidiary imprisonment does
not exceed 6 months if the penalty imposed is fine
alone; and not more than 1/3 of the principal penalty, if
the it is imposed together with imprisonment.
Since the Tax Code does not provide for the imposition of a
subsidiary penalty in case of insolvency, no subsidiary
imprisonment can be imposed.


XII. Subsidiary Imprisonment, Like Accessory Penalties, Not Essential In
Determining Jurisdiction
What determines jurisdiction of the Court in criminal cases is
the extent of the penalty, which the law imposes for the crime
charged in the information or complaint.
It is settled rule that subsidiary imprisonment, like accessory
penalties, is not essential in the determination of the criminal
jurisdiction of a court.


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SECTION 3 PENALTIES IN WHICH OTHER ACCESSORY


PENALTIES ARE INHERENT

Article 40. Death Its accessory penalties.
The death penalty, when it is not executed by reason of commutation
or pardon shall carry with it that of perpetual absolute
disqualification and that of civil interdiction during thirty years
following the date of sentence, unless such accessory penalties have
been expressly remitted in the pardon.

Article 41. Reclusion perpetua and reclusion temporal. Their
accessory penalties.
The penalties of reclusion perpetua and reclusion temporal shall carry
with them that of civil interdiction for life or during the period of the
sentence as the case may be, and that of perpetual absolute
disqualification which the offender shall suffer even though pardoned
as to the principal penalty, unless the same shall have been expressly
remitted in the pardon.

Article 42. Prision mayor. Its accessory penalties.
The penalty of prision mayor shall carry with it that of temporary
absolute disqualification and that of perpetual special disqualification
from the right of suffrage which the offender shall suffer although
pardoned as to the principal penalty, unless the same shall have been
expressly remitted in the pardon.

Article 43. Prision correccional. Its accessory penalties.
The penalty of prision correccional shall carry with it that of
suspension from public office, from the right to follow a profession or
calling, and that of perpetual special disqualification from the right of
suffrage, if the duration of said imprisonment shall exceed eighteen
months. The offender shall suffer the disqualification provided in this
article although pardoned as to the principal penalty, unless the same
shall have been expressly remitted in the pardon.


Article 44. Arresto. Its accessory penalties.
The penalty of arresto shall carry with it that of suspension of the
right to hold office and the right of suffrage during the term of the
sentence.

POINTS

I. Outline Of Accessory Penalties INHERENT In Principal Penalties:
1. Death, when not executed by reason of commutation or
pardon (a) Perpetual absolute disqualification, (b) Civil
Interdiction for 30 years
2. Reclusion Perpetua and Reclusion Temporal (a) Civil
Interdiction for life or during the sentence, (b) Perpetual
absolute disqualification
3. Prision Mayor (a) Temporary absolute disqualification, (b)
perpetual special disqualification from suffrage
4. Prision Correcional (a) Suspension fro Public office,
profession or calling, (b) perpetual disqualification from
suffrage if the duration of the imprisonment exceeds 18
months
5. Arresto (a) suspension of the right to hold public office and
the right of suffrage during the term of the sentence
6. Destierro has no accessory penalty

When the penalty imposed is reclusion perpetua as a penalty
next higher in degree, the accessory penalty shall be that under
Article 40 but the offender shall not be given the benefit of the
provision of Article 27 until 40 years have elapsed, otherwise,
there could be no difference at all between reclusion perpetua
when imposed as a penalty next higher in degree and when it is
imposed as a penalty fixed by law (People v. Bago).

II. Unless Expressly Remitted In The Pardon


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The accessory penalties in Article 40-43 must be suffered by


the offender, although pardoned as to the principal penalties.
To be relieved of them, it must be EXPRESSLY REMITTED in
pardon.


III. Persons Who Served Out The Penalty May Not Have The Right To
Exercise The Right To Suffrage:
General Rule:
o Absolute pardon for any crime for which one-year
imprisonment or more was meted out restores the
prisoner his political rights.
o Where the penalty is less than one year, the
disqualification does not attach, except when the crime
committed is one against property.
A was prosecuted for physical injuries and
condemned to 10 months imprisonment.
Though not pardoned, he is not disqualified.
B was convicted of theft and served 10 months.
Unless given an absolute pardon, B cant vote.
C was sentenced to 4 years imprisonment for
physical injuries or estafa. Unless pardoned, he
cannot exercise the right to suffrage.
Nature of the crime is immaterial when the penalty imposed is
one-year imprisonment or more.

IV. Accessory Penalties Are Deemed Imposed
Accessory penalties are understood to be ALWAYS imposed
upon the offender by the mere fact that the law fixes a certain
penalty for a given crime (See Article 73).

Article 45. Confiscation and forfeiture of the proceeds or
instruments of the crime.
Every penalty imposed for the commission of a felony shall carry with
it the forfeiture of the proceeds of the crime and the instruments or

tools with which it was committed.



Such proceeds and instruments or tools shall be confiscated and
forfeited in favor of the Government, unless they be the property of a
third person not liable for the offense, but those articles which are
not subject of lawful commerce shall be destroyed.

POINTS

I. Outline Of The Provision Of This Article
1. Every penalty imposed carries with it the forfeiture of the
proceeds of the crime and the instruments or tools used in the
commission of the crime
2. The proceeds and instruments or tools are confiscated and
forfeited in favor of the government.
3. Property of a third person not liable for the offense is not
subject to confiscation and forfeiture.
4. Property not subject of lawful commerce shall be destroyed.

II. No Forfeiture Where There Is No Criminal Case
Although seizure may be made, the seized items cannot be
disposed or destroyed until after conviction (Philips v.
Municipal Mayor).
o The ruling is based on the phrase every penalty
imposed. A penalty cannot be imposed unless there is
a criminal case filed, tried and the accused convicted.
Forfeiture cannot be ordered if the accused is acquitted,
because no penalty is imposed.
Courts cannot order the confiscation of property belonging to a
third person if the latter is not indicted.
o Instruments of the crime belonging to innocent third
person may be recovered.
Confiscation can be ordered only if the property is submitted in
evidence or placed at the disposal of the court.


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o

US v. Filart
Facts: The accused planned to sell 450 tickets
for an automobile raffle. The court ordered the
confiscation of the automobile and the money
obtained from selling the tickets. None of these
were in the possession of the parties or the
court that the time the order of confiscation
was made.
Held: The court had not jurisdiction to order
the confiscation of the property not in the
possession of either the court itself or the
parties involved.


III. Articles Which Are Forfeited When The Order Of Forfeiture Is
Already Final, Cannot Be Returned Even In Case Of An Acquittal
Commissioner of Customs v. Encarnacion
o Facts: Article brought by a crew member of PAL were
confiscated by Customs for not having declared it. The
order of forfeiture became final while the crew
member was charged with violation of the RPC. The
crew member was later acquitted, and the court
ordered the return of the articles.
o Held: The court erred in ordering the release of the
articles because such articles already belong to the
government.

IV. Confiscation And Forfeiture Are Additional Penalties
Where the penalty imposed did not include the confiscation of
the dollars involved, the confiscation and forfeiture sought
would be an additional penalty and would amount to an
increase of the penalty already imposed thereby placing the
accused in double jeopardy. Thus, it cannot be allowed (People
v. Alejandro Paet y Velasco).

V. Where The Accused Has Appealed, Confiscation And Forfeiture Not


Ordered By The Trial Court May Be Imposed By The Appellate Court

VI. Summary of Rules:
1. No forfeiture where there is no criminal case.
2. Courts cannot order the confiscation of property belonging to a
third person is the latter is not indicted.
3. Confiscation can be ordered only if the property is submitted in
evidence or placed at the disposal of the court.
4. Articles which are forfeited, when the order of forfeiture is
already final, cannot be returned even in case of an acquittal.
5. Confiscation and forfeiture are additional penalties.
6. Applicable to Special Penal Laws as well.


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CHAPTER 4: APPLICATION OF PENALTIES


SECTION 1 RULES FOR THE APPLICATION OF PENALTIES
TO THE PERSONS CRIMINALLY LIABLE AND FOR THE
GRADUATION OF THE SAME.
Article 46. Penalty to be imposed upon principals in general.
The penalty prescribed by law for the commission of a felony shall be
imposed upon the principals in the commission of such felony.
Whenever the law prescribes a penalty for a felony in general terms it
shall be understood as applicable to the consummated felony.
POINTS
I. Rule
A. General Rule: Penalty Prescribed In General Terms
The penalty prescribed by law in general terms shall be
imposed:
o Upon the principals
o For consummated felony
B. Exception: When The Law Fixes A Penalty For Frustrated Or
Attempted Felony
The exception is when the penalty to be imposed upon the
principal in frustrated or attempted felony is fixed by law.
II. Graduation Of Penalties By Degrees Or By Periods
The graduation of penalties by degrees refers to stages of
execution (consummated, frustrated, attempted) and to the
degree of the criminal participation of the offender (principal,
accomplice or accessory).

The division of a divisible penalty refers to the proper period of


the penalty which should be imposed when aggravating or
mitigating circumstances attend the commission of the crime.
Article 47. In what cases the death penalty shall not be imposed;
Automatic review of death penalty cases.
The death penalty shall be imposed in all cases in which it must be
imposed under existing laws, except when the guilty person is below
18 years of age at the time of the commission of the crime or is more
than seventy years of age or when upon appeal or automatic review
of the case by the Supreme Court, the required majority vote is not
obtained for the imposition of the death penalty, in which cases the
penalty shall be reclusion perpetua.
In all cases where the death penalty is imposed by the Court for
automatic review and judgment by the court en banc, within 20 days
but not earlier than 15 days after promulgation of the judgment or
notice of denial of any motion for new trial or reconsideration. The
transcript shall also be forwarded within 10 days after the filing therof
by the stenographic reporter (As amended by Republic Act No. 2659)
POINTS
I. Duty Of The Courts
A. Majority Vote Of The Supreme Court Is Required For The
Imposition Of Death
The vote of 8 members is required (Article VIII, Section4(1),
1987 Constitution).
o Republic Act No. 296 can be given retroactive effect.
This provides that 8 justices must concur in the
imposition of death penalty. It is procedural and not
substantive and applicable to cases pending at the time
of its approval.

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The records of all cases imposing the penalty of death, reclusion
perpetua or life imprisonment shall be forwarded by the Court
of Appeals to the Supreme Court for review
B. Court Of Appeals To Review Death Penalty Cases
People v. Mateo
The Court now deems it wise and
compelling to provide in death penalty cases a review by the
Court of Appeals before it is elevated to the Supreme Court to
minimize the possibility of error in judgment (particularly of
factual issues).
C. The Trial Court Must Require The Prosecution To Present Evidence,
Despite Plea Of Guilty, When The Crime Charged Is Punished With
Death
The essence of judicial review is that while society allows
violent retribution for heinous crimes, it always must make
certain that the blood of the innocent is not spilled or the guilty
made to suffer more than their just measure of punishment.
A sentence of death is valid only if it is susceptible of a fair and
reasonable examination by the court.
II. Suspension Of The Imposition Of The Death Penalty
A. The 1987 Constitution Merely Suspended The Imposition Of Death
Penalty
Article III, Section 19, 1987 Constitution does not expressly
declare the abolition of the death penalty.
It merely suspended the imposition of death penalty.
B. Republic Act No. 7659 v. Republic Act No. 9346
December 31, 1993
Republic Act No. 7659 restored the
death penalty.
June 24, 2006
Republic Act No. 9346 prohibited the
imposition of death penalty, and in lieu of it, reclusion perpetua
was imposed.

Where the penalty of reclusion perpetua is imposed, in lieu of


the death penalty, there is a need to perfect an appeal.
o Perfecting an appeal means doing all the acts necessary
to place the case on the court's calendar.1
III. Imposition Of Death Penalty
A. Death Penalty Is Not Imposed In The Following Cases:
1. When the guilty person is below 18 years of age at the time of
the commission of the crime.
2. When the guilty person is more than 70 years of age.
o Death penalty shall not be imposed when guilty person
is over 70 years. This refers to the time when the final
decision is rendered.
o People v. Alcantara: Even if accused was 64 at the start
of trial, he was past 70 when the final decision was
rendered. Death cant be imposed.
3. When upon appeal or automatic review of the case by the
Supreme Court, the vote of 8 members is not obtained for the
imposition of the death penalty.
B. Exceptional Cases In Which Death Penalty Was Not Imposed
People v. Dela Cruz
Considering that the circumstances
under which the offense was perpetrated in light of the
deplorable conditions existing in the national penitentiary.
People v. Marcos
When the facts of the case tend to show
that the crime was NOT the result of any deliberate and wellformed nefarious conspiracy of a criminal group. Appellant
obviously did not fully realize the gravity of the crime.
IV. Justification For Death Penalty
1. Social defense
2. Exemplarity
Supreme Court of the State of New York,
http://www.courts.state.ny.us/courts/ad2/faqs.shtml
1

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V. Death Penalty Not Cruel And Unusual


Death penalty is not excessive, unjust or cruel. Punishments are
cruel when they involve torture or lingering death. Cruelty
implies something inhuman and barbarous, that is more than
the extinguishment of life.
VI. Death penalty shall be imposed in all cases in which it must be
imposed under existing law.
As long as death penalty remains in the statute books, it is the
duty of the judicial officers to respect and apply the law
regardless of private opinion (People v. Limaco).
A. Crimes Where Death Penalty Is Imposed
1. Treason
2. Piracy
3. Qualified piracy
4. Qualified bribery
5. Parricide
6. Murder
7. Infanticide
8. Kidnapping and serious illegal detention
9. Robbery with homicide
10. Destructive arson
11. Rape with homicide
12. Plunder
13. Certain violations of the Dangerous Drugs Act
14. Carnapping
Article 48. Penalty for complex crimes.
When a single act constitutes 2 or more grave or less grave felonies,
or when an offense is a necessary means for committing the other,
the penalty for the most serious crime shall be imposed, the same to
be applied in its maximum period.

POINTS
I. At Least Two Crimes Must Be Committed
The commission of at least two crimes. But two or more grave
or less grave felonies must be the result of a single act, or an
offense must be a necessary means for committing the other.
In Complex Crime, When The Offender Executes Various Acts,
He Must Have A Single Purpose
o People v. Gallardo
to commit estafa, the accused
had to commit 17 falsifications.
o Gonzalez v. City Fiscal 27 vouchers were falsified not
for the single purpose of estafa. One or more offenses
not necessary means for committing others.
II. A Complex Crime Is Only One Crime
Although two or more crimes are committed, they constitute
only one crime in the eyes of the law one criminal intent.
This is actually for the benefit of the offender since even if two
crimes are committed, the law only punished the offender for
one, although it is in the maximum. In the eyes of the law, the
two crimes stem from one criminal intent this is less perverse
in the crimes of the law compared to punishing him for two
crimes. This applies to both compound crimes and complex
crime proper.
o The reason for the single penalty is that the basis of the
felony is the singularity of the act.
Only one information must be filed charging the complex
felony.
o If you want to charge someone with forcible abduction
with rape, you have to allege the elements of both
forcible abduction and rape.
o If one is not proven, then the accused can be convicted
of the other (Boado).

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III. Two Kinds of Complex Crime:


1. Compound Crime When a single act constitutes two or more
grave or less grave felonies.
2. Complex Crime Proper
When an offense is a necessary
means for committing the other.
IV. No Complex Crime:
When two or more crimes are committed but (1) not by a single
act and (2) one is not a necessary means for committing the
other.
When in the definition of a felony one offense is an
indispensable means to commit the other, there is no complex
crime.
o Example: No complex crime when trespass to dwelling
is a direct means to commit a grave offense like rape,
homicide or murder.
When one offense is committed to conceal the other
o After committing homicide, the accused set the house
where it was perpetrated on fire.
o The amount appropriated to himself was in the
possession and at the disposal of the accused and he
could have appropriated it to himself without the
necessity of the falsified document. Two crimes were
committed. The falsification was a means to conceal,
not to commit malversation (US v. Geta).
In the crime of rebellion with murder, arson, robbery or other
common crimes. Murder, arson and robbery are ingredients in
the crime of rebellion and are absorbed and inherent in it.
V. When Two Crimes Produced By A Single Act Are Respectively
Within The Exclusive Jurisdiction Of Two Courts Of Different
Jurisdiction, The Court Of Higher Jurisdiction Shall Try The Complex
Crime

An accused should not be harassed with various prosecutions


based on the same act by splitting it into various charges.
VI. Article 48 Is Intended To Favor The Culprit
It could have no better purpose than to prescribe a penalty
lower than the aggregate of the penalties for each offense, if
imposed separately.
When two or more crimes are the result of a single act, the
offender is deemed less perverse than when he commits said
crimes through separate and distinct acts.
VII. The Penalty For Complex Crime Is The Penalty For The Most
Serious Crime, The Same Is To Be Applied In Its Maximum Period
The same rule observed when an offense is a necessary means
for committing the other.
But when one of the offenses, as a means to commit the other,
was committed by one of the accused by reckless imprudence,
that the accused who committed the offense by reckless
imprudence is liable for his act only.
When the homicide, physical injuries, and the burning of the
house are the result of one single act of negligence, there is
only one penalty, but there are three civil liabilities.
When two felonies constituting a complex crime are punishable by
imprisonment and fine, respectively, only the penalty of imprisonment
should be imposed.
VIII. Article 48 Applies Only To Cases Where The Code Does Not
Provide A Definite Specific Penalty For A Complex Crime
COMPOUND CRIME
I. When a single act constitutes two or more grave or less grave
felonies
II. Elements Of Compound Crime:
1. That only a single act is performed by the offender.

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2. That the single act produces
a. Two or more grave felonies or
b. One or more grave and one or more less grave
c. Two or more less grave felonies
d. If a light felony likewise resulted, the light felony shall
be treated as a separate offense. A separate
information must be filed for them.
III. Examples:
A. Single Act
The single act of throwing a hand grenade producing murder
and multiple attempted murder (People v. Guillen).
Placing a time bomb in a plane which caused it to explode midair killing 13 persons is a complex crime of multiple murder and
destruction of property (People v. Largo).
When in obedience to an order several accused simultaneously
shot many persons, without evidence how many each killed,
there is only one single offense, there being a single criminal
impulse (People v. Lawas)
o Note: This rule is applicable only when there is no
evidence at all to show the number of persons killed
by each of several defendants. The single criminal
impulse has no legal basis but is acceptable when it is
not certain who among the accused killed or injured
each of the several victims. The ruling in People v.
Lawas is not applicable when there was conspiracy to
perpetuate the killings.
When it is within the scope of possibility that the two victims
were killed by one and the same missile. Absent showing that
the victims died from more than one bullet, the crime should
be classified as a complex crime (People v. Bersamin).
o Ruling in the Bersamin case is applicable only when
there is no evidence as to how many wounds the

victims received and there is a possibility that they


were killed by one and the same missile.
B. No Single Act
Several shots from Thompson sub-machine gun causing several
deaths, although caused by a single act of pressing the trigger
are considered several acts (People v. Desierto)
o It is not the act of pressing the trigger which should be
considered as producing several felonies, but the
number of bullets which actually produced them.
Act directed against two different persons even though
resulting from one criminal impulse are distinct crimes (People
v. Alfindo).
Two victims each received more than one bullet wound. They
were standing far apart from each other. Accused liable for two
separate murders (People v. Basarain).
IV. Crimes Not Covered By Article 48
A. Felonies
Take note of the word felonies. This precludes application to
ordinances and Special Penal Laws.
The felonies resulting from the single act must be felonies in
the Revised Penal Code.
o If punishable under the Revised Penal Code and a
Special Penal Law (or an ordinance), Article 48 will not
apply. The offender may be charged and convicted for
both crimes, separately without double jeopardy.
B. Examples:
Estafa and illegal recruitment
Estafa and B.P. Blg. 22
Rape and sexual assault (SPL)

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Accused inserted his fingers, and then his penis to victims
vagina. NOT complex crime. One count rape, one count sexual
assault. Not a complex crime. (People v Nequia).
Rape with homicide is a special complex crime not covered by
Article 48. Article 266-B punishes rape with homicide
specifically.
No complex crime of arson with homicide under Article 48.
Article 320 as amended by Republic Act No. No.7659 provides
a penalty.
Theft of firearm and illegal possession of same firearm do not
form a complex crime they are two distinct crimes. Illegal
possession requires intent to use not just own, which is not the
case in every theft (People v. Estoista).
What if only one victim, will Article 48 apply? Yes. Governor
was performing duties and was killed by accused. Complex
crime of direct assault with homicide.
Supposing one wants to kill another with treachery, but there
abberatio ictus or error in personae, can the crime committed
by the accused be a complex crime? Yes. Homicide with
attempted homicide.
Dude stabbed victim with a bolo, the bolo hit both the victim
and the person behind him. Complex crime of murder and
serious physical injuries (People v. Patrolla).
Accused forcibly inserted his penis into the vagina of the
woman. She sustained less serious physical injuries in her
vagina. Complex crime of rape with less serious physical
injuries. (Ingles: cant find the citation by J-Call! Lets trust his
lecture!)
What if there was no intent to kill, but two people died because
of the acts of the accused, will Article 48 apply? Yes. Article 48
applies even to praeter intentionem.
o Example: dude stabbed wife who was 7 months
pregnant. Both wife and baby died. Complex crime of

parricide with unintentional abortion (People v.


Paycana).
V. Light Felonies Produced By The Same Act Should Be Treated And
Punished As Separate Offenses Or May Be Absorbed By The Grave
Felony
1. Several light felonies resulting from one single act not
complex
o Collision between two automobiles resulting into
damage of property and slight physical injuries.
2. When the crime is committed by force or violence, slight
physical injuries are absorbed.
o Slight physical injuries absorbed in rape.
VI. Applicable To Crimes Through Negligence
Article 48 speaks of felonies which make it applicable to Article
365 which defines and penalizes criminal negligence (fault).
Municipal mayor who accidentally discharges a gun in a school
program killing a girl and injuring a boy is liable for a complex
crime of homicide with less serious physical injuries through
reckless imprudence (People v. Castro).
COMPOUND COMPLEX CRIME PROPER
I. When an offense is a necessary means for committing the other
Complex crimes do not exist when the two crimes are punished
under different statutes.
II. Elements Of Compound Complex Crime Proper
1. That at least two offenses are committed.
2. That one or some of the offenses must be necessary to commit
the other.
3. That both or all the offenses must be punished under the same
statute.

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III. FIRST ELEMENT: That At Least Two Offenses Committed
People v. Barbas
The falsification of the cedula certificate
which is a crime under Article 171 was necessary to commit the
crime of malversation under Article 217, because the accused
had to falsify the duplicate of the cedulas to obtain from the
taxpayers the money which he later misappropriated.
People v. Manguiat
The crime of forcible abduction was a
necessary means for committing the crime of rape.
IV. SECOND ELEMENT: Necessary To Commit The Other
The first crime committed is to insure and facilitate the
commission of the next crime.
o The first is necessary but not indispensable because if
it is indispensable, then it is an element of the crime.
The phrase merely signified that, for instance, a crime such as
simple estafa can be and ordinarily is committed in the manner
defined in the Revised Penal Code, but if the estafador resorts
to or employs falsification, merely to facilitate and insure his
committing estafa, then he is guilty of the complex crime of
estafa through falsification.
V. THIRD ELEMENT: Punished Under The Same Statute
Homicide and illegal possession of firearms are punished under
different statutes.
Republic Act No. No. 8294 made the use of unlicensed firearm
in murder or homicide not as a separate crime but as a special
aggravating circumstance.
PLURALITY OF CRIMES
I. Definition
Consists in the successive execution by the same individual of
different criminal acts upon any of which no conviction has yet
been declared.

II. Kinds Of Plurality Of Crimes


1. Formal or Ideal one criminal liability
o 3 Groups Of Formal Or Ideal Type
a. When the offender commits complex crimes (Article
48)
b. Composite Crimes, that is when the law specially fixes a
single penalty for two or more offenses committed.
c. When the offender commits continued (delito
continuado) or continuing crime (transitory crime).
Ingles: Justice Callejo did not distinguish
between continued crimes and continuing
crimes, he lumped them together as delito
continuado. Boado, however, distinguished
between the two. The distinction it seems is
academic, the effect being the same that only
one crime is considered committed.
2. Real or material there are different crimes in the law as well
as in the conscience of the offender. In such case, the offender
will be punished for each and ever offense he committed.
o Example: A stabbed B with a knife. A also stabbed C.
There are two acts, two crimes.
III. Plurality Of Crimes v. Recidivism
Recidivism
Plurality
There must be conviction by final No conviction of any of the crimes
judgment of the first or prior committed
offense
COMPOSITE CRIMES
I. Definition
Those which in the eyes of the law are treated as single
indivisible offenses although in reality are made up of more
than one crime.

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II. Composite v. Complex Crime
Composite Crime
Complex Crime
Combo of offenses is fixed Combo is not specified but generalized.
by law.
Penalty is specific.
Not specific, but for the most serious
offense in the max period.
Even if there are more than If more than one count of the crime
one
count
of
the forming part of the complex crime, the
component crime (like first shall be complexed, while the other
several rapes), still just one counts are treated as separate crimes
composite crime to be (forcible abduction with rape, with
charged.
subsequent rapes charged separately).
If light felony accompanies Light felonies are not absorbed, they
the commission of the have to be filed separately.
composite offence, such is
absorbed.
CONTINUED CRIME
I. Definition
A principle wherein a single crime consisting of series of acts
but all arising from one criminal resolution.
o Impelled by a single criminal impulse but committed by
a series of overt acts at about the same time in about
the same place and all the overt acts violate one and
the same provision of law.
o When two acts are deemed distinct from one another
although proceeding from the same criminal impulse.
Although there are a series of acts, there is only one crime
committed. One penalty should be imposed.
o When the actor, there being unity of purpose and of
right violated, commits diverse acts, each of which,
although of a delictual character, merely constitutes a
partial execution of a single particular delict, such

concurrence or delictual acts is called a delito


continuado.
The series of acts born of a single criminal impulse may be
perpetrated during a long period of time.
II. A Continued Crime Is Not A Complex Crime
In continued crimes, one offense is not a necessary means for
committing another. As such, penalty imposed not in max.
The principle is applied in connection with two or more crimes
committed with a single intent.
III. Continued Crime v. Transitory Crime
Transitory crime moving crime like kidnapping a person for
the purpose of ransom.
When a transitory crime is committed, the criminal action may
be instituted and tried in the court of the municipality, city or
province wherein any of the essential ingredients thereof took
place. The singleness of the crime, committed by executing tow
or more acts is not considered.
IV. Continued Crime v. Real Or Material Plurality
Real or material
Continued crime
Series of acts performed by the offender
Each act is a separate crime Different acts constitute only one
generated by different criminal crime because all the acts arise
impulses.
from one criminal impulse.
V. Test: Single Criminal Impulse Test
A. Applies To:
Theft of 13 cows at same place and time.
Theft of 6 roosters belonging to 2 different owners from the
same coop and at the same time
Also see Mallari v. People, wherein the accused falsified two
documents over two parcels of land as security for loans from

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two people. He made it appear that the owners of the land
mortgaged the property to the two people from whence he got
the loan. The Supreme Court considered it as only one crime
because they were done in only one occasion (same date, place
and time). There was only one deceit practiced by petitioner on
the two victims.
B. Does Not Apply:
To formal/instantaneous crimes. Adultery is not a delito
continuado. Each sexual act is an offense. It is consummated
and exhausted (like the accused) at the time of carnal union.
CONTINUING CRIME
I. Definition
One where any of the elements of the offense was committed
in different localities such that the accused may be indicted in
any of those localities.
II. Only Considered As One Crime
May also refer to any offense which is continuing in time
o Rebellion
o Squatting
o Violation of B.P. Blg. 22
o Abduction, kidnapping, illegal detention
Applicable to Special Penal Laws? Yes. See Santiago v.
Garchitorena where Court said that Miriams signing the order
to allow 32 aliens to stay was a continuing crime. She was
charged only once.
Article 49. Penalty to be imposed upon the principals when the
crime committed is different from that intended.
In cases in which the felony committed is different from that which
the offender intended to commit, the following rules shall be
observed:

1. If the penalty prescribed for the felony committed be higher


than that corresponding to the offense which the accused
intended to commit, the penalty corresponding to the latter
shall be imposed in its maximum period.
2. If the penalty prescribed for the felony committed be lower
than that corresponding to the one which the accused
intended to commit, the penalty for the former shall be
imposed in its maximum period.
3. The rule established by the next preceding paragraph shall not
be applicable if the acts committed by the guilty person shall
also constitute an attempt or frustration of another crime, if
the law prescribes a higher penalty for either of the latter
offenses, in which case the penalty provided for the attempt
or the frustrated crime shall be imposed in the maximum
period.
POINTS
I. Article 14 Has Reference To The Provision Of The 1st Paragraph Of
Article 4
When the crime actually committed is different from that
intended, the penalty to be imposed must be governed by this
article.
II. Article 14 Applies Only When There Is Mistake In Identity Of The
Victim Of The Crime, And The Penalty For The Crime Committed Is
Different From That For The Crime Intended To Be Committed
Paragraph 1 of Article 4 covers
1. Aberratio Ictus (Mistake in the Blow)
A fired his gun at his
father, with intent to kill him, but he missed) and hit C, killing
the latter.
2. Error in Personae (Mistake in Identity)
A, thinking that a
person was B, fired at the person who turned out to be C, the
father of A.

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3. Praeter intentionem (More serious consequence not intended)
A, without intent to kill, boxed B, who fell and hit the
pavement. B died due to the fracture of the skull.
The rules stated in paragraphs 1 and 2 of Article 49 CANNOT
apply to cases involving (1) aberratio ictus (covered by Article
48) and (3) praeter intentionem (covered by Article 13).
It is only applicable to (2) error in personae
since only one
crime is produced by the act of the offender, there could be no
complex crime (Article 38) which presupposes the commission
of at least two crimes.
III. Article 49 Is Applicable Only When The Intended Crime And The
Crime Actually Committed Are Punished With Different Penalties
If the intended crime and the crime actually committed are
punished with the same or equal penalties. Article 49 is NOT
applicable.
IV. Article 49 v. Article 48
Article 49
The lesser penalty is to be
imposed
To be applied in the maximum
period

Article 48
The penalty for the more or most
serious crime shall be imposed
The same to be applied in its
maximum period

V. Rule 3 In Article 49 Is Not Necessary


Because the cases contemplated in that paragraph may well be
covered by Article 48, in view of the fact that the same act
committed by the guilty person, which gives rise to one crime,
also constitutes an attempt or a frustration of another crime.
Article 50. Penalty to be imposed upon principals of a frustrated
crime.
The penalty lower in degree than that prescribed by law for the
consummated felony shall be imposed upon the principals in a

frustrated felony.
Article 51. Penalty to be imposed upon principals of attempted
crime.
The penalty lower by two degrees than that prescribed by law for the
consummated felony shall be imposed upon the principals in an
attempt to commit a felony.
Article 52. Penalty to be imposed upon accomplices in a
consummated crime.
The penalty next lower in degree than that prescribed by law for the
consummated felony shall be imposed upon the accomplices in the
commission of a consummated felony.
Article 53. Penalty to be imposed upon accessories to the
commission of a consummated felony.
The penalty lower by two degrees than that prescribed by law for the
consummated felony shall be imposed upon the accessories to the
commission of a consummated felony.
Article 54. Penalty to be imposed upon accomplices in a frustrated
crime.
The penalty next lower in degree than that prescribed by law for the
frustrated felony shall be imposed upon the accessories to the
commission of a frustrated felony.
Article 55. Penalty to be imposed upon accessories of a frustrated
crime.
The penalty lower by two degrees than that prescribed by law for the
frustrated felony shall be imposed upon the accessories to the
commission of a frustrated felony.
Article 56. Penalty to be imposed upon accomplices in an attempted
crime.

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The penalty next lower in degree than that prescribed by law for an
attempt to commit a felony shall be imposed upon the accomplices in
an attempt to commit the felony.
Article 57. Penalty to be imposed upon accessories of an attempted
crime.
The penalty lower by two degrees than that prescribed by law for the
attempt shall be imposed upon the accessories to the attempt to
commit a felony.
POINTS
I. Diagram Of The Application Of Articles 50 To 57
Consummated
Frustrated
Attempted
Principals
0
1
2
Accomplices
1
2
3
Accessories
2
3
4
0
penalty prescribed by law imposed on the principal in a
consummated offense (according to provisions of Article 46)
Other figures
degrees to which penalty must be lowered to
meet different situations anticipated by law.
For Articles 50, 51, 52, 53
Basis for reduction of penalty by
one or two degrees: the penalty prescribed by law for
consummated crime.
For Articles 54-55
Basis for reduction: penalty prescribed by
law for frustrated felony.
For Articles 56-57 basic penalty used for reduction by one or
two degrees: for attempted felony.
In making any reduction by one or two degrees: basis used is
that already prescribed NOT as already reduced.
Under Article 51: penalty for attempted crime is that for
consummated felony reduced by two degrees NOT penalty for
the frustrated felony reduced by one degree (De los Angeles v.
People)

A. Examples:
1. Facts: A convicted of attempted homicide A shot B with intent
to kill but without inflicting a mortal wound.
o Penalty for consummated homicide: reclusion
temporal.
o To find the penalty that is lower by one or more
degrees: look in Scale No. 1 of Article 71.
Held: Because A only committed attempted homicide: penalty
to be imposed is that which is lower by two degrees than
reclusion temporal which is prision correccional.
o Penalty for frustrated homicide: one degree lower than
reclusion temporal
which is prision mayor in the
same Scale No. 1 of Article 71
2. Facts: A (principal), B (accomplice), C (accessory) convicted of
consummated homicide.
Held:
o As penalty reclusion temporal (as principal)
o Bs penalty prision mayor (as accomplice: penalty
next lower in degree than prescribed for consummated
homicide)
o Cs penalty prision correccional (as accessory: two
degrees lower than that prescribed for consummated
homicide)
In the examples, penalties shall be imposed in the proper
period and shall be subject to the provisions of the
Indeterminate Sentence Law.
II. Exceptions To The Rules Established In Articles 50 To 57
Article 60
Articles 50-57 shall not apply to cases where the
law expressly prescribes the penalty for a frustrated or

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attempted felony, or to be imposed upon accomplices or
accessories.
The penalty for frustrated parricide, murder, or homicide, may
be two degrees lower; and the penalty for attempted parricide,
murder, or homicide may be three degrees lower.
o Article 250
The courts (in view of facts of case) may
impose upon person guilty of frustrated crime of
parricide, murder, or homicide penalty lower by one
degree than that which should be imposed under
Article 50; Courts may reduce by one degree penalty
under Article 51 imposed for an attempt to commit any
of said crimes.
IV. What Are The Bases For The Determination Of The Extent Of
Penalty To Be Imposed Under The Revised Penal Code?
1. Stage reached by the crime in its development
(attempted/frustrated/consummated).
2. Participations therein of the persons liable.
3. Aggravating or mitigating circumstances which attended the
commission of the crime.
For 1 (stages of execution) and 2 (participation of persons
liable) penalty is graduated by degree.
V. What Is A Degree In Relation To Penalty?
DEGREE: one entire/whole penalty; one unit of the penalties
enumerated in the graduates scales found in Article 71.
o Each of the penalties of reclusion perpetua, reclusion
remporal, prision mayor etc. IS a degree
When there is mitigating or aggravating circumstance: penalty
is lowered or increased by period only EXCEPT when penalty is
divisible and there are two ore more mitigating without
aggravating circumstances if this happens, penalty is lowered
by a degree.

VI. What Is A Period Of Penalty?


PERIOD: one of the three equal portions (either minimum/
medium/ maximum) of a divisible penalty (Article 65).
A period of a divisible penalty, when prescribed by the Code as
a penalty for a felony, is in itself a degree.
o Example: In Article 140, the penalty for leader of a
sedition is prision mayor in its minimum period and fine
o It (minimum period) being a degree penalty lower
than that penalty is prision correcional in its maximum
period
Article 58. Additional penalty to be imposed upon certain
accessories.
Those accessories falling within the terms of paragraph 3 of Article 19
of this Code who should act with abuse of their public functions. Shall
suffer the additional penalty of absolute perpetual disqualification if
the principal offender shall be guilty of a grave felony, and that of
absolute temporary disqualification if he shall be guilty of a less grave
felony.
POINTS
I. Additional Penalties For Public Officers Who Are Guilty As
Accessories Under Paragraph 3 Of Article 19
Public officers who help the author of a crime by misusing their
office and duties shall suffer the additional penalties of:
1. Absolute perpetual disqualification if principal offended guilty
of grave felony.
2. Absolute temporary disqualification if principal offender
guilty of less grave felony.
Article 58 limits its provisions to grave or less grave felonies
because it is not possible to have accessories liable for light
felonies (Article 16).

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II. This Article Applies Only To Public Officers Who Abused Their Public
Functions
Accessories referred to in Article 58 those falling within the
term of paragraph 3 of Article 19 (recall: harboring, concealing,
or assisting in the escape).
Additional penalty in Article 58 imposed only on accessories
that misused his public office or authority in participating in
crime (who should act with abuse of their public functions).
Article 59. Penalty to be imposed in case of failure to commit the
crime because the means employed or the aims sought are
impossible.
When the person intending to commit an offense has already
performed the acts for the execution of the same but nevertheless the
crime was not produced by reason of the fact that the act intended
was by its nature one of impossible accomplishment or because the
means employed by such person are essentially inadequate to
produce the result desired by him, the court, having in mind the social
danger and the degree of criminality shown by the offender, shall
imposed upon him the penalty of arresto mayor or a fine ranging from
200-500 pesos.
POINTS
I. Penalty For Impossible Crime
Penalty for impossible crime is arresto mayor or a fine ranging
from 200 to 500 pesos.

According to Positivist theory: such person should not be


punished there is neither social danger nor degree of
criminality shown by him; act is absolutely harmless; no
common sense.
But one who discharged shotgun at another from 200 yards
away guilty of discharge of firearm (Article 254) not of
impossible crime no proof of intent to kill on part of offender
and it was possible of accomplishing the evil intent of offender
(to frighten offended party) (People v. Agbuya).
III. Is The Penalty For Impossible Crime Proper?
Penalty of arresto mayor or fine of P200-500 subject to
criticism because article uses words offense and crime
which include light felony.
One who attempt to commit light felony of impossible
materialization may be punished by penalty of arresto mayor
(higher than the prescribed for consummated light felony or
arresto menor).
Provision of Article 59 limited to cases where act performed
would be grave felonies or less grave felonies.
Article 60. Exceptions to the rules established in Articles 50 to 57.
The provisions contained in Articles 50 to 57, inclusive, of this Code
shall not be applicable to cases in which the law expressly prescribes
the penalty provided for a frustrated or attempted felony, or to be
imposed upon accomplices or accessories.
POINTS

II. Basis For Imposition Of Proper Penalty: (1) Social Danger; And (2)
Degree Of Criminality Shown By The Offender
Court must take into consideration the social danger and the
degree of criminality shown by the offender (Article 59).
o Example: Person fired revolver upon enemy 1 kilometer
away shows stupidity rather than dangerousness.

I. Articles 50 To 57 Do Not Apply When The Law Expressly Prescribes


The Penalty For A Frustrated Or Attempted Felony Or To Be Imposed
Upon Accomplices Or Accessories
On the occasion or in consequence of an attempted or
frustrated robbery, the offender commits a homicide law

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provides in Article 297: the special penalty of reclusion
temporal in its maximum period to reclusion perpetua shall be
imposed upon the offender.
If not for this provision in Article 60, the penalty to be imposed
is reclusion temporal: penalty next lower in degree than
reclusion perpetua to death which is the penalty for
consummated offense of robbery with homicide.
Reason: enormity of the offense of attempted or frustrated
robbery with homicide; law provides special penalty therefore.
II. Accomplice, Punished As Principal
General Rule: Accomplice punished by penalty one degree
lower than penalty imposed upon principal.
Exception: 2 CASES that the Code punishes accomplice with
same penalty upon principal are:
o Article 346
Ascendants, guardians, curators,
teachers, and any person who by abuse of authority or
confidential relationship, shall cooperate as
accomplices in the crimes of rape, acts of lasciviousness
seduction, corruption of minors, white slave trade or
abduction.
o Article 268
One who furnished the place for the
perpetration of the crime of slight illegal detention.
Furnishing the place for the perpetration of the
crime is ordinarily the act of an accomplice.
III. Accessory Punished As Principal
Article 142 knowingly concealing certain evil acts are usually
acts of the accessory but under this article is punished as act of
the principal.
A. Certain Accessories Are Punished With A Penalty One Degree
Lower Instead Of Two Degrees

Article 162
Knowingly using counterfeited seal or forged
signature or stamp of the President.
Article 168 Illegal possession and use of a false treasury note
or bank note.
Article 173(3) Using a falsified document.
Article 173(2) Using a falsified dispatch.
Article 61. Rules for graduating penalties.
For the purpose of graduating the penalties which, according to the
provisions of Articles 50 to 57, inclusive, of this Code, are to be
imposed upon persons guilty as principals of any frustrated or
attempted felony, or as accomplices or accessories, the following
rules shall be observed:
1. When the penalty prescribed for the felony is single and
indivisible, the penalty next lower in degrees shall be that
immediately following that indivisible penalty in the
respective graduated scale prescribed in Article 71 of this
Code.
2. When the penalty prescribed for the crime is composed of
two indivisible penalties, or of one or more divisible penalties
to be impose to their full extent, the penalty next lower in
degree shall be that immediately following the lesser of the
penalties prescribed in the respective graduated scale.
3. When the penalty prescribed for the crime is composed of one
or two indivisible penalties and the maximum period of
another divisible penalty, the penalty next lower in degree
shall be composed of the medium and minimum periods of
the proper divisible penalty and the maximum periods of the
proper divisible penalty and the maximum period of that
immediately following in said respective graduated scale.
4. When the penalty prescribed for the crime is composed of
several periods, corresponding to different divisible penalties,
the penalty next lower in degree shall be composed of the
period immediately following the minimum prescribed and of

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the two next following, which shall be taken from the penalty
prescribed, if possible; otherwise from the penalty
immediately following in the above mentioned respective
graduated scale.
5. When the law prescribes a penalty for a crime in some
manner not especially provided for in the four preceding
rules, the courts, proceeding by analogy, shall impose
corresponding penalties upon those guilty as principals of the
frustrated felony, or of attempt to commit the same, and
upon accomplices and accessories.
POINTS
I. Article 61 provides for the rules to be observed in lowering the
penalty by one or two degrees
Article 46 provides that penalty prescribed by law in general
terms shall be imposed upon principal in consummated felony
Articles 50-57 provides that penalty prescribed by law for the
felony shall be lowered one or two degrees:
a. Principal in frustrated felony one degree lower;
b. Principal in attempted felony two degrees lower;
c. Accomplice in consummated felony one degree
lower; and
d. Accessory in consummated felony two degrees lower.
Rules in Article 61 also applies in determining minimum of the
indeterminate penalty under the Indeterminate Sentence Law
o Minimum of the indeterminate penalty is within the
range of penalty next lower than prescribed by Revised
Penal Code for the offense
Rules also apply in lowering penalty by one or two degrees by
reason of presence of privileged mitigating circumstance
(Article 68 & 69), or when the penalty is divisible and there are
2 or more generic mitigating circumstances and NO
aggravating circumstance (Article 64).

II. The Lower Penalty Shall Be Taken From The Graduated Scale In
Article 71.
Scale No. 1 in Article 71 (penalties in order):
a. Death
b. Reclusion perpetua,
c. Reclusion temporal,
d. Prision mayor,
e. Prision correccional,
f. Arresto mayor,
g. Destierro,
h. Arresto menor,
i. Public censure,
j. Fine.
Indivisible penalties: (1) death, (2) reclusion perpetua, (3) public
censure
Divisible penalties: reclusion temporal down to arresto menor
Divisible penalties divided into 3 periods: (1) minimum, (2)
medium, (3) maximum
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE RULES
I. FIRST RULE: When the penalty is single and indivisible.
Ex. Reclusion perpetua penalty for kidnapping and failing to
return a minor (Article 270)
In Scale No. 1 of Article 71 penalty immediately following
reclusion perpetua is reclusion temporal (therefore it is the
penalty next lower in degree).
II. SECOND RULE:
A. Penalty is composed of two indivisible penalties.
Indivisible penalties: reclusion perpetua to death
They are the penalties for parricide (Article 246)
Penalty immediately following lesser of the penalties (or
reclusion perpetua) reclusion temporal

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B. When the penalty is composed of one or more divisible penalties to
be imposed to their full extent.
Divisible penalty imposed to full extent reclusion temporal
o Penalty immediately following divisible penalty of
reclusion temporal prision mayor
Two divisible penalties imposed to full extent
prision
correccional to prision mayor.
o Penalty immediately following the lesser penalty
between prision correccional to prision mayor
arresto mayor (Scale No. 1 Article 71)
III. THIRD RULE:
A. When the penalty is composed of two indivisible penalties and the
maximum period of a divisible penalty.
Penalty for murder (Article 248)
reclusion temporal in
maximum period to death.
Relcusion perpetua (= in between reclusion temporal & death)
included in penalty
Penalty for murder has: 2 indivisible penalties (reclusion
perpetua death) and 1 divisible penalty (reclusion temporal in
max period)
Proper divisible penalty: reclusion temporal penalty
immediately following it: prision mayor
Under third rule: penalty next lower composed of medium &
minimum periods of reclusion temporal and max period of
prision mayor
(This the same penalty computed in People v. Ong Ta)

Prision Mayor

3. Minimum
1. Maximum

accomplice;
or
penalty
for
the
principal in frustrated
felony.

2. Medium
3. Minimum
B. When the penalty is composed of one indivisible penalty and the
maximum period of a divisible penalty.
Ex: Reclusion temporal in max period to reclusion perpetua
Same rule observed in lowering penalty by 1-2 degrees
IV. FOURTH RULE: When the penalty is composed of several periods.
Several mean consisting in more than 2 periods
Fourth rule: contemplates penalty composed of at least 3
periods.
Several periods MUST correspond to different divisible
penalties
Penalty composed of several periods corresponding to different
divisible penalties
prision mayor (medium period) TO
reclusion temporal (minimum period)
Period immediately following minimum (= prision mayor in
medium period) is prision mayor in minimum period
Two periods next following are: max and med periods of prision
correccional (=penalty next following scale in Article 71 since it
cannot be taken from penalty prescribed)
Illustration:

Illustration:
DEATH
Reclusion Perpetua

Reclusion temporal
1. Maximum

Reclusion Temporal
2. Medium

(1) Penalty for the


principal
in
consummated felony.
(2)
Penalty
for

Prision mayor

1. Maximum
2. Medium
3. Minimum
1. Maximum
2. Medium
3. Minimum

(1) Penalty for the


principal
in
consummated felony.
(2)
Penalty
for

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Prision correccional

1. Maximum
2. Medium

accomplice;
or
penalty
for
the
principal in frustrated
felony.

3. Minimum
V. FIFTH RULE: By analogy, because not specifically provided for in
the four preceding rules
A. When the penalty has two periods.
Certain offenses in Revised Penal Code: punished with penalty
composed of two periods:
o Either of same penalty: For abduction (Article 343)
prision correccional in its minimum and medium
periods.
o Or of different penalties: For physical injuries (Article
263, subsec. 4) arresto mayor in max period to
prision correccional in minimum period
In these cases: penalty lower by one degree
is formed by 2
periods taken from the same penalty prescribed (if possible) OR
from periods of penalty numerically following the lesser of the
penalties prescribed
These cases not covered by fourth rule (cause penalty
contemplated in 4th rule must contain at least 3 periods)
Penalty under fifth rule (by analogy) contains 1 or 2 periods
only

Example:
Penalty next lower than prision correccional in its min and med
periods is arresto mayor in its med and max periods
Maximum
Prision correccional
Medium
Penalty prescribed for
the felony
Minimum
Maximum
Penalty next lower

Arresto mayor

Medium
Minimum

B. When the penalty has one period.


If penalty is any one of the 3 periods of a divisible penalty
penalty next lower in degree = is the period next following the
given penalty.
Ex. Penalty immediately inferior to prision mayor in maximum
period is prision mayor in medium period
If penalty is reclusion temporal in medium period penalty
next lower in degree = reclusion temporal in minimum period
Penalty prescribed by Code for a felony is a degree
If penalty prescribed for felony is 1 of 3 periods of divisible
penalty
that period becomes a degree & the period
immediately below is the penalty next lower in degree
VI. Simplified Rules: (for rules in Par. 4 and 5 of Article 61)
1. If penalty prescribed by Code consists in 3 periods
(corresponding to different divisible penalties)
penalty next
lower in degree is penalty consisting in 3 periods down the
scale
2. If penalty prescribed by Code consists in 2 periods
penalty
next lower in degree is the penalty consisting in 2 periods down
the scale
3. If penalty prescribed by Code consists in only 1 period
penalty next lower in degree is the next period down in the
scale
If the given penalty is composed of 1/2/3 periods
penalty
next lower in degree should begin where the given penalty
ends (because otherwise if it were to skip over intermediate
ones it would be lower but not NEXT lower in degree (People v.
Haloot)

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U.S. v. Fuentes
Held: Penalty next lower in degree to prision
correccional in medium period = is arresto mayor in medium
period.
Reason for ruling: a degree consists in 1 whole or 1 unit of the
penalties enumerated in the graduated scales in Article 71. To
lower a penalty by 1 degree its necessary to keep a distance
of one whole penalty or one unit of penalties in Article 71
between one degree and another
People v. Co Pao & People v. Gayrama
there is a distance of
only 1/3 of a degree (ruling in Fuentes case was superseded by
the rulings in these cases).
VII. Mitigating And Aggravating Circumstances Are Disregarded In The
Application Of The Rules For Graduating Penalties
NOTE: Each paragraph of Article 61 begins with When the
penalty prescribed for the felony or crime.
In lowering the penalty penalty prescribed by the Revised
Penal Code for the crime is the basis (w/o regard to the
mitigating or aggravating circumstances w/c attended the
commission of the crime)
It is only after the penalty next lower in degree is already
determined that the mitigating and/or aggravating
circumstances should be considered.

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SECTION 2 RULES FOR THE APPLICATION OF PENALTIES


WITH REGARD TO MITIGATING AND AGGRAVATING
CIRCUMSTANCES, AND HABITUAL DELINQUENCY
Article 62. Effects of the attendance of mitigating or aggravating
circumstances and of habitual delinquency.
Mitigating or aggravating circumstances and habitual delinquency
shall be taken into account for the purpose of diminishing or
increasing the penalty in conformity with the following rules:
1. Aggravating circumstances which in themselves constitute a
crime specially punishable by law or which are included by the
law in defining a crime and prescribing the penalty therefor
shall not be taken into account for the purpose of increasing
the penalty.
1(a). When in the commission of the crime, advantage was
taken by the offender of his public position, the penalty to be
imposed shall be in its maximum regardless of mitigating
circumstances.
The maximum penalty shall be imposed if the offense was
committed by any person who belongs to an
organized/syndicated crime group.
An organized/syndicated crime group means a group of two or
more persons collaborating, confederating or mutually helping
one another for purposes of gain in the commission of the
crime.
2. The same rule shall apply with respect to any aggravating
circumstances inherent in the crime to such a degree that it
must of necessity accompany the commission thereof.
3. Aggravating or mitigating circumstances which arise from the
moral attributes of the offender, or from his private relations
with the offended party, or from any other personal cause,
shall only serve to aggravate or mitigate the liability of the
principals, accomplices, and accessories as to whom such
circumstances are attendant.

4. The circumstances which consist in the material execution of


the act, or in the means employed to accomplish it, shall serve
to aggravate or mitigate the liability of those persons only who
had knowledge of them at the time of the execution of the act
or their cooperation therein.
5. Habitual delinquency shall have the following effects:
(a) Upon a third conviction, the culprit shall be sentenced to
the penalty provided by law for the last crime of which he
be found guilty and to the additional penalty of prision
correccional in its medium and maximum periods;
(b) Upon a fourth conviction, the culprit shall be sentenced to
the penalty provided for the last crime of which he be
found guilty and to the additional penalty of prision mayor
in its minimum and medium periods; and
(c) Upon a fifth or additional conviction, the culprit shall be
sentenced to the penalty provided for the last crime of
which he be found guilty and to the additional penalty of
prision mayor in its maximum period to reclusion temporal
in its minimum period.
Notwithstanding the provisions of this article, the total of the two
penalties to be imposed upon the offender, in conformity herewith,
shall in no case exceed 30 years.
For the purposes of this article, a person shall be deemed to be
habitual delinquent, if within a period of ten years from the date of his
release or last conviction of the crimes of serious or less serious
physical injuries, robo, hurto, estafa, or falsification, he is found guilty
of any of said crimes a third time or oftener. (As amended by Republic
Act No. 7659.)
POINTS

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I. Effects Of The Attendance Of Aggravating Or Mitigating
Circumstances Or Of Habitual Delinquency
1. Aggravating circumstances (generic and specific) have effect of
increasing penalty (w/o exceeding the max provided by law).
2. Mitigating circumstances have effect of
diminishing the
penalty.
3. Habitual delinquency has effect
increasing penalty (cause of
recidivism that is implied in habitual delinquency) PLUS
imposing an additional penalty.
PARAGRAPH 1:
I. When Aggravating Circumstances Are Not To Be Taken Account In
Increasing The Penalty To Be Imposed
1. (Inherent in the crime) If the circumstance constitutes a crime
especially punished by law; or
2. (Element of the crime) If it is included by the law in defining a
crime and prescribing the penalty therefor.
II. Examples:
A. Which In Themselves Constitute A Crime:
That crime be committed by means of fire (Article 14,
paragraph 2) NOT considered as aggravating in arson.
That crime be committed by means of derailment of a
locomotive (Article 14, paragraph 12)
NOT considered as
aggravating in crime known as Damages and obstruction to
means of communication (Article 330 which punishes the act
of damaging any railway resulting in derailment of cars).
B. Which Are Included By Law In Defining A Crime:
That crime was committed in the dwelling of offended party
NOT aggravating in robbery with force upon things (Article 299).
Abuse of confidence is not aggravating in qualified theft
committed with grave abuse of confidence (Article 310).

That crime was committed by means of poison (Article 14,


paragraph 12)
Not aggravating in crime of murder by means
of poison (since using poison to kill victim included by law in
defining the crime of murder Article 248, paragraph 3).
III. When Maximum Of The Penalty Shall Be Imposed (Special
Aggravating Circumstance That Cant Be Offset By A Generic Mitigating
Circumstance)
1. When in the commission of the crime, advantage was taken by
the offender of his public position;
2. If the offense was committed by any person who belongs to an
organized/syndicated crime group.
IV. What Is An Organized/Syndicated Crime Group?
Means a group of 2 or more persons collaborating
confederating or mutually helping one another for purposes of
gain in the commission of any crime
PARAGRAPH 2:
The same rule applies with respect to aggravating circumstances
which are inherent in the crime.
o Example: Evident premeditation is inherent in robbery
and theft (U.S. Castroverde)
PARAGRAPH 3:
I. Aggravating Or Mitigating Which Arise From:
1. Moral attributes of offender
2. From his private relations with offended party
3. From any other personal cause
These serve to aggravate or mitigate liability of: principals,
accomplices, accessories
as to whom such circumstances are
attendant.
II. Examples

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A. Moral Attributes Of Offender:
A + B killed C. A acted w/ evident premeditation; B w/ passion
and obfuscation.
Circumstances of evident premeditation + passion &
obfuscation
arises from moral attributes of offenders.
Evident premeditation should only affect and aggravate only
penalty for A & passion and obfuscation mitigates only Bs
liability.
B. From His Private Relations With The Offended Party:
A and C inflicted slight physical injuries on B.
o A son of B.
o C father of B.
Alternative circumstance of relationship as aggravating will only
be against A (lower degree relative of B).
Alternative circumstance of relationship as mitigating will only
be for C (higher degree relative of B).
This ruling holds true even if there was conspiracy.
o The rule that in conspiracy the act of one is the act of all
does not mean that the crime of one is the crime of all
C. From Any Other Personal Cause:
A and B committed a crime.
o A was 16 i.e. minor
o B was a recidivist
Each will carry the corresponding additional/mitigated penalty
PARAGRAPH 4:
The circumstances which consist of (1) and (2) shall serve only
to aggravate or mitigate the liability of those persons only who
had KNOWLEDGE of them AT THE TIME of the execution.

A induced B and C to kill D. B and C killed D using treachery not


previously agreed with A.
As liability is not aggravated by treachery.
BUT if A was present or had knowledge of the treachery used,
then A is also liable for murder qualified by treachery.
B. Means To Accomplish The Crime
A ordered B to kill C. B used poison without knowledge of A.
Only B will suffer the aggravating circumstance.
II. There Is No Mitigating Circumstance Relating To The Means
Employed In The Execution Of The Crime
It is impossible to conceive of any mitigating circumstance
which can properly be considered as to one of the defendants,
but is not equally applicable to the rest, EVEN to those who had
no knowledge of the same at the time of the commission of the
crime, or their cooperation therein.
III. Difference Between (1) Circumstances Relating To Persons
Participation In The Same And (2) Circumstances Consisting In The
Material Execution Of The Means Employed
Persons Participation
Material Execution / Means Employed
Do not affect all the Have a direct bearing upon the criminal
participants in the crime but liability of all the defendants who had
only those to whom they knowledge thereof at the time of the
particularly apply.
commission of the crime, or of their
cooperation therein.
Example: People v. Villanueva
Defendants though forming of the conspiracy of kidnapping,
were not the ones who actually kidnapped the victim.
Thus, they are not bound or affected by the aggravating
circumstance of nighttime UNLESS THEY KNEW about it prior.

I. Examples:
A. Material Execution Of The Crime

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IV. Is It Necessary That There Be Proof Of Cooperation Or Participation
With Regard To The Act Of Cruelty?
Two views:
o People v. Vocales
Although it may be considered as
aggravating against one accused, it may not be so
against another UNLESS there is proof of conspiracy in
the commission of the main act, or there is proof of
cooperation or participation on the part of the latter.
o In accordance with Article 62(4)
if cruelty is a means
employed to accomplish the act, only knowledge is
required for one to be liable for it.
Note: Article 14 states that cruelty is that which is not necessary
for the commission of the crime.
o If so, it cannot be part of the material execution nor
means employed to accomplish it.
o Therefore, People v. Vocales would be ruling.
PARAGRAPH 5:
I. Habitual Delinquent
A person who within a period of 10 years from the date of his
(last) release or last conviction of the crimes of
1. Serious or less serious physical injuries (Article263 & 265)
2. Robbery (Article 193-303)
3. Theft (Article 308-311)
4. Estafa (Article 315-318)
5. Falsification (Article 170-174)
He is found guilty of any of said crimes a 3rd time or oftener.
II. Elements
1. That the offender had been convicted of any of the abovementioned crimes.
2. That after the conviction or after serving his sentence, he
against committed, and within 10 years, from his release or

prior conviction, he was again convicted of any of the said


crimes for the second time.
3. That after his conviction or after serving sentence, for the
second offense, he again committed, and within 10 years from
his last release or last conviction, he was again convicted of said
offenses, the third time or oftener.
III. Computation Of The 10-Year Period
NOTE: Defendants last conviction OR last release should be the starting
point from which the 10-year period is to be counted.
Rational: If the starting point is only the date of last conviction,
there will be a case where the offender cannot be considered a
habitual delinquent.
Crimes Committed
Theft
Swindling
Attempted Robbery
Theft
Crime charged

Date of Conviction
June 1915
May 1920
July 1928
August 1937
October 1946

Date of Release
July 1916
October 1922
August 1930
September 1940

Explanation:
The 10-year period should be counted from the date of LAST
conviction or release from the crime charged, which is August
1937 (conviction) or September 1940 (release).
o Note: Regardless of the gap between the first and
second crimes, the accused will be considered a
habitual delinquent if between the second and third
crimes, there is a gap or 10 years or below.
In the accusation of theft, only attempted robbery (conviction:
July 1928, release: August 1930) can be taken into consideration
for the determination of habitual delinquency since it is the last
crime for which he was convicted for.

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o

A would not be a habitual delinquent since swindling is


not one of the crimes listed.

IV. Subsequence Crime Must Be Committed AFTER CONVICTION Of


Former Crime
If (1) the second crime was committed before his first conviction
and (2) the fourth before his third conviction, and (3) the fifth
and sixth were committed on the same day, the six convictions
(although different in dates) are equivalent to only three.
V. The culprit shall be sentenced to the penalty provided by law for
the last crime of which he be found guilty
If the accused is tried for robbery and previously convicted of
theft and estafa, robbery is the last crime and if found guilty the
penalty for robbery shall be imposed, while also be declared a
habitual delinquent.
A. Additional Penalty For Habitual Delinquency
1. Upon 3rd conviction
additional penalty of prision correctional
in its medium and maximum periods.
2. Upon 4th conviction
additional penalty of prision mayor in its
minimum and medium periods.
3. Upon 5th conviction
additional penalty of prision mayor in is
maximum period to reclusion temporal in its minimum period.
B. Rational:
If after undergoing punishment for his previous crimes, he
continuous to commit said crimes, he is deemed to have shown
a dangerous propensity to crimes. Hence, he is punished with a
severer penalty for committing any of those crimes the third
time or oftener.
Purpose of the law: to render more effective social defense and
the reformation of multi-recidivists.

VI. Total Penalties Should Not Exceed 30 Years


Total
(1) the penalty for the last crime which is found guilty
and (2) the additional penalty for being a habitual delinquent.
VII. What Must Be Alleged In The Information
1. The dates of the commission of the previous crimes.
2. The dates of the last conviction or release
3. The dates of the other previous conviction or releases.
A. Effect Of Plea Of Guilty When Allegations Are Insufficient
A plea of guilty to an information which fails to allege the dates
of commission of previous offenses, of convictions and of
releases is not an admission that the offender is a habitual
delinquent but only a recidivist (People v. Masonson).
B. Date Of Release Not Absolutely Necessary
If preceding conviction is less than 10 years from date of
conviction of the offense complained of (People v. Tolentino).
VIII. See Rulings on Habitual Delinquency (p.739-744, Reyes Book)
IX. Habitual Delinquency v. Recidivism
Habitual Delinquency Recidivism
As to crimes The
crimes
are Sufficient that on date of trial,
committed
specified.
accused shall have been
previously
convicted
of
another crime in the same
title.
As to period Conviction must be 10 No period of time necessary
of commission years from each other.
As to number Conviction must be 3rd That subsequent crime is
of
crimes time or oftener.
embraced in the same title is
committed
sufficient.
As to their Additional
penalty If not offset by mitigating, will

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effects

prescribed by law is increase penalty to maximum


imposed.
only.
A convict can be a habitual delinquent without being a recidivist
if no two of the crimes committed are embraced in the same
title.
The imposition of additional penalty is constitutional as it is
simply punishment for future crimes, the penalty enhanced on
account of criminal propensities of the accused.

Article 63. Rules for the application of indivisible penalties.


In all cases in which the law prescribes a single indivisible penalty, it
shall be applied by the courts regardless of any mitigating or
aggravating circumstances that may have attended the commission of
the deed.
In all cases in which the law prescribes a penalty composed of two
indivisible penalties the following rules shall be observed in the
application thereof:
1. When in the commission of the deed there is present only one
aggravating circumstance, the greater penalty shall be applied.
2. When there are neither mitigating nor aggravating
circumstances in the commission of the deed, the lesser
penalty shall be applied.
3. When the commission of the act is attended by some
mitigating circumstance and there is no aggravating
circumstance, the lesser penalty shall be applied.
4. When both mitigating and aggravating circumstances attended
the commission of the act, the courts shall reasonably allow
them to offset one another in consideration of their number
and importance, for the purpose of applying the penalty in
accordance with the preceding rules, according to the result of
such compensation.

POINTS
I. Inoperative Because Of Republic Act No. 9346
In light of this only reclusion perpetua is indivisible.
Cannot be affected by generic mitigating circumstances BUT it
can be affected by privileged mitigating circumstances (like
Article 68 & 69).
o Privileged mitigating always considered whether
divisible or indivisible penalty.
II. Outline Of The Rules
1. When penalty consists of 1 indivisible: applied regardless of any
mitigating or aggravating circumstances
2. When penalty is composed of 2 indivisible penalties:
a. Only 1 aggravating greater penalty shall be imposed
b. No aggravating nor mitigating lesser penalty imposed
c. A mitigating and no aggravating
lesser penalty
imposed.
d. Both mitigating and aggravating
court will allow
them to offset one another.
III. Article 63 Applies Only When The Penalty Prescribed By The Code Is
Either One Indivisible Penalty Or Two Indivisible Penalties
Article 63 does NOT apply if penalty prescribed: reclusion
temporal in max period to death (Because even if it includes 2
indivisible penalties = it has 3 periods of reclusion temporal
max-min, reclusion perpetua-med, Death-max)
Article 64
shall apply in this case)
A. Example Of Single And Indivisible Penalty
Reclusion Perpetua for:
o Kidnapping and failure to return a minor (Article 270)
o Rape (Article 266-B)
Death for:

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o

Kidnapping and serious illegal detention when purpose


of offender is to extort ransom (Article 267 as amended
by Republic Act No. 7659).
Rape with homicide (Article 266-B)

B. Example Of Two Indivisible Penalties


Reclusion perpetua to Death for:
o Parricide (Article 246)
o Robbery with homicide (Article 294, paragraph 1)
o Kidnapping and serious illegal detention without
intention to extort ransom (Article 267)
o Rape committed with the use of a deadly weapon or by
two or more persons (Article 266-B)
IV. When The Penalty Is Composed Of Two Indivisible Penalties, The
Penalty Cannot Be Lowered By One Degree, No Matter How Many
Mitigating Circumstances Are Present
A. General Rule:
When there are 2 or more mitigating and NO aggravating
court cannot proceed by analogy to provisions of subsection 5
Article 64 (imposition of one degree lower penalty)
US v. Relador: Commission of crime of parricide punishable of
RP to Death but attended by two mitigating (illiteracy and lack
of intention to commit so grave a wrong) and NO aggravating
court imposed one degree lower penalty (Article 64 subsection
5)
HELD: Wrong penalty imposed it should be Article 63 applied
B. Exception: When a privileged mitigating circumstance under Article
68 or Article 69 is present.
If circumstance present is a privileged mitigating circumstance
under Article 68 or Article 69 offender may get a penalty one
or two degrees lower

Woman boxed by her husband stabbed him with knife in chest


entitled to penalty one degree lower from RP to Death = RT
People v. Galang: Imposable penalty for rape: RP. Accused had
privileged mitigating circumstance of minority imposable
penalty = RT in medium period (absent other mitigating or
aggravating circumstance)
V. Moral value, not numerical weight of circumstances should prevail.
This is as regards paragraph 4 of Article 63
VI. Mitigating Circumstance Is Not Necessary To Impose Reclusion
Perpetua When The Crime Is Punishable With Two Indivisible Penalties
Of Reclusion Perpetua To Death.
Reason: under Article 63 when crime is penalized with 2
indivisible penalties (reclusion perpetua to death) lesser
penalty should be imposed even when there is no mitigating
circumstance present.
Article 64. Rules for the application of penalties which contain three
periods.
In cases in which the penalties prescribed by law contain three
periods, whether it be a single divisible enalty or composed of three
different penalties, each one of which forms a period in accordance
with the provisions of Articles 76 and 77, the courts shall observe for
the application of the penalty the following rules, according to
whether there are or are no mitigating or aggravating circumstances:
1. When there are neither aggravating nor mitigating
circumstances, they shall impose the penalty prescribed by law
in its medium period.
2. When only a mitigating circumstance is present in the
commission of the act, they shall impose the penalty in its
minimum period.
3. When only an aggravating circumstance is present in the
commission of the act, they shall impose the penalty in its

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4.

5.

6.

7.

maximum period.
When both mitigating and aggravating circumstances are
present, the court shall reasonably offset those of one class
against the other according to their relative weight.
When there are two or more mitigating circumstances and no
aggravating circumstances are present, the court shall impose
the penalty next lower to that prescribed by law, in the period
that it may deem applicable, according to the number and
nature of such circumstances.
Whatever may be the number and nature of the aggravating
circumstances, the courts shall not impose a greater penalty
than that prescribed by law, in its maximum period.
Within the limits of each period, the courts shall determine the
extent of the penalty according to the number and nature of
the aggravating and mitigating circumstances and the greater
or lesser extent of the evil produced by the crime.

II. Outline Of The Rules:


1. No aggravating and no mitigating medium period
2. Only a mitigating minimum period
3. Only an aggravating maximum period
People v. Toling: No generic aggravating nor mitigating
circumstances were proven = penalty for murder imposed in
medium period or RP. Death penalty imposed by trial court was
not warranted.
Illustrations of Nos. 2 and 3: A is convicted of homicide
punishable by reclusion temporal (min, med, max).
o No mitigating nor aggravating medium
o A pleaded guilty, no aggravating minimum
o Committed the crime in the dwelling, no mitigating
maximum
o 2 aggravating, no mitigating still only maximum.

POINTS
I. Article 64 applies only when the penalty has 3 periods.
Article 64 applies when penalty prescribed by law for offense
RT, PM, PC, AM, Am, PC to RT, etc. = because theyre divisible
into 3 periods (minimum, medium, maximum).
When law prescribes single divisible penalty (ex. RT for
homicide) as in Article 76 is distributed in 3 equal parts each
part forms a period called min, med and max.
If penalty made up of 3 diff penalties: PC to RT
Each forms a period according to Article 77
PC = min
PM = med
RT = max
PM is included bec. Its between PC and RT in Scale No. 1 Article
71

4. When there are aggravating and mitigating offset those of


one class against the other according to relative weight.
Note: The mitigating circumstances must be ordinary not
privileged. The aggravating circumstances must be generic or
specific and not qualifying or inherent.
Illustration of No. 4: A committed homicide in nighttime on
purpose. He surrendered to the mayor of the town and pleaded
guilty.
o Held:
o One mitigating circumstance (surrender or guilty plead)
will offset aggravating circumstance of nighttime.
o Remaining mitigating will result in imposition of
minimum period.

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5. Two or more mitigating and no aggravating penalty next
lower, in the period applicable, according to the number and
nature of such circumstances.
Penalty by law: reclusion temporal max to reclusion perpetua
Max of ISL: prision mayor max to reclusion tempora med.
Min of ISL: prisio correctional max to prisio mayor med.
In determining the proper period applicable, the mitigating
circumstance can no longer be considered since it already
lowered the degree of the penalty.
6. No penalty greater than the maximum period of the penalty
prescribed by law shall be imposed, no matter how many
aggravating circumstances are present.
Thus, even if there are 4 generic aggravating circumstances, the
maximum penalty for homicide is still reclusion temporal.
7. The court can determine the extent of the penalty within the
limits of each period, according to the number and nature
of the aggravating and mitigating circumstances and the
greater or lesser extent of the evil produced by the crime.
A committed a crime punished by arresto mayor with two
aggravating and one mitigating circumstance.
Steps:
o Apply Rule 4 and offset = 1 aggravating left
o Remaining aggravating will make the imposed penalty
arresto mayor in its maximum period (4 months and 1
day to 6 months).
Rule 7: the court can impose any length from 4 months and 1
day, 5 months or 6 months.
Extent of the evil produced
o Court has the discretion to impose the penalty within
the limits fixed by law.
o Taking into consideration the amount of damage caused
on the economic life of a banking institution, it is proper

for the court to impose the maximum of the medium


degree of the penalty (People v. Velazco).
III. Cases Where Mitigating And Aggravating Circumstances Are Not
Considered In The Imposition Of The Penalty
1. When the penalty is single and indivisible (Article 63)
2. In felonies through negligence such as reckless imprudence
(Article365).
3. Penalty to be imposed upon a Moro or other non-Christian
inhabitant (Section 6, Administrative Code of Mindanao and
Sulu)
4. When the penalty is only a fine impose by an ordinance.
5. When the penalties are prescribed by special laws.
If there are a lot of aggravating but no mitigating, can the courts
increase the penalty to one greater than that prescribed by law?
NO.
If after offsetting (meaning there was aggravating and
mitigating), there are 2 mitigating left, can the penalty be
lowered by one degree? NO. As long as there was aggravating,
cant lower penalty by degree.
If there are four mitigating circumstances, you use two to lower
the penalty by one degree. The remaining two are used to find
the period. You cant use the remaining two to lower the
penalty by another degree.
Imposed by law: RT. 4 mitigating.
Lower to prision mayor. Then use the 2 remaining mitigating to
find the period. So prision mayor minimum.
Article 64 is important in the ISL because the modifying
circumstances are first considered in the determination of the
maximum penalty in the ISL. (sir wont ask to compute ISL)
Article 64 is not considered in the determination of the
minimum penalty in the ISL. The minimum penalty in the ISL

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must be within the whole range of the penalty next lower in
degree.
If the accused is sentenced to reclusion perpetua and has two
generic mitigating circumstances (and no aggravating
circumstances), penalty CANNOT be lowered by one degree
since its an indivisible penalty. (Only a privileged mitigating can
give a penalty lower for an indivisible penalty)
This article doesnt apply to Article 365 because modifying
circumstances dont apply to quasi-offenses.
Article 65. Rules in cases in which the penalty is not composed of
three periods.
In cases in which the penalty prescribed by law is not composed of
three periods, the courts shall apply the rules contained in the
foregoing articles, dividing into three equal portions the time included
in the penalty prescribed, and forming one period of each of the three
portions.
POINTS
I. Purpose Of The Rule
This is applied when the law prescribes a penalty not composed
of three periods (like robbery in an uninhabited place whose
penalty is PC in medium to maximum.)
Just divide the period given by 3 to get the min, med and max.
II. Meaning Of The Rule
1. Compute and determine first the 3 periods of the entire
penalty.
2. Time included in penalty prescribed divided into 3 equal
portions after subtracting minimum (eliminate 1 day) from
maximum of penalty
3. Min or minimum period should be the minimum of the given
penalty (including 1 day)

4. Quotient added to minimum prescribed (eliminate 1 day) = total


represents max of minimum period.
II. Illustration: (See p.756-757 Reyes Book For Detailed Computation)
(1) Duration is 6 months and 1 day to 6 years
(2) Subtract minimum (disregarding 1 day) from the maximum
6 years 6 months = 5 years and 6 months
(3) Divide difference by 3
5 years and 6 months
3

.= 1 year and 10 months

(4) Minimum added with quotient = minimum period


6 months (+) 1 year and 10 months = 2 years and 4 months
(5) Maximum of minimum added with quotient = medium period
2 years and 4 months (+) 1 year and 10 months = 4 years and 2 months
(6) Maximum of medium added with quotient = maximum period
4 years and 2 months (+) 1 year and 10 months = 6 years
Final:
Minimum: 6 months and 1 day to 2 years and 4 months
Medium: 2 years, 4 months and 1 day to 4 years and 2 months
Maximum: 4 years, 2 months and 1 day to 6 years.
Article 66. Imposition of fines.
In imposing fines the courts may fix any amount within the limits
established by law; in fixing the amount in each case attention shall be
given, not only to the mitigating and aggravating circumstances, but
more particularly to the wealth or means of the culprit.

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POINTS
I. Outline Of This Provision:
1. The court can fix any amount of the fine within the limits
established by law.
2. The court must consider
a. The mitigating and aggravating circumstances; and
b. More particularly, the wealth or means of the culprit.
II. General Points
Study with Article 75.
The LAW can prescribe the following:
o Fine only
o Fine AND imprisonment o Fine OR imprisonment o
Youre so FINE
o The court cant give the accused a penalty of fine OR
imprisonment. The court has to make a choice, it cant
leave to the accused the choice on what penalty he
wants to serve.
If the law states fine of P50k to 150k, the court can choose
between those bounds.
If the law states fine of P15k, thats it, court must impose the
definite fine.
If the law states fine not less than P15k, court must be
judicious. They cant just fine the accused for P1 million.
Increase or reduction in the degree of the fine. (See Article 75)
Fine cannot be used as substitute penalty to imprisonment.
Penalty of fine is independent from penalty of imprisonment.
If the accused drew and issued a check but it bounced, and
during trial he pays the value of the check, should he still be
convicted for a fine? Yes. Penalty of the fine goes to the State,
not the offended party.

When the law does not fix minimum of the fine


determination of amount of fine to be imposed: left to the
sound discretion of the court (provided it shall not exceed
maximum authorized by law) (People v. Quinto).
IV. Fines Are Not Divided Into Three Equal Portions
The courts are not bound to divide the amount of fine
prescribed by law into 3 equal portions (as in case of
imprisonment imposed in relation to a divisible penalty).
V. Considerations In Imposing Fines
A. Wealth Or Means Of Culprit Is Main Consideration In Fine
Wealth or means of culprit is emphasized because fixed amount
of fine for ALL offenders of particular crime
result to
inequality (ex. P100 for rich versus poor man)
o Example: Laborer earning P208/month who has to pay
P20 versus Office worker with P800/month who has to
pay P50 fine for laborer more severe if ever.
To impose same amount of fine for same offense upon persons
differently circumstances
penalty of unequal severity =
unjustly discriminatory (People v. Ching Kuan).
B. But Mitigating And Aggravating Circumstances Are Not Entirely
Disregarded. Factors Other Than Financial Condition Of Accused May
Be Considered By Court.
Article 66 says mitigating and aggravating circumstances may
also be considered by court.
Also other factors such as:
o Gravity or seriousness of crime committed
o Heinousness of its perpetration
o Magnitude of its effects on victim(s) (People v. Manuel)
o Position and standing of accused considered
aggravating in gambling.

III. When The Minimum Of The Fine Is Not Fixed

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U.S. v. Salaveria
Person found guilty of
violating Gambling Law with high standing in
community = maximum penalty imposed
U.S. v. Mercader
Accused in gambling case
was municipal treasurer = Court imposed fine of
P500 and 1 year imprisonment (max penalty
provided by law)
Article 67. Penalty to be imposed when not all the requisites of
exemption of the fourth circumstance of Article 12 are present.
When all the conditions required in the circumstance number 4 of
Article 12 of this Code to exempt from criminal liability are not
present, the penalty of arresto mayor in its maximum period to prision
correccional in its minimum period shall be imposed upon the culprit,
if he shall have been guilty of a grave felony, and arresto mayor in its
minimum and medium periods, if of a less grave felony.
POINTS
I. Article 67 Applies Only When All The Requisites Of The Exempting
Circumstance Of Accident Are Not Present
Article 12(4) Exempting circumstance of accident.
Four conditions necessary to exempt from liability under
Subsection 4 of Article 12:
a. Act causing the injury be lawful; permitted not only by
law but also by regulations.
b. Performed with due care.
c. Injury is caused by mere accident (example: by an
unforeseen event)
d. There be no fault or intention to cause the injury.
Lack of requisites in performance of lawful act AM max to PC
minimum (if grave), AM min to med (if less grave)
II. If All These Conditions Are Not Present:

(Act considered as) reckless imprudence if act is executed


without taking precautions or measure that most common
prudence would requires
(Act considered as) simple imprudence if its a mere lack of
precaution where either the threatened harm is not imminent
or danger is not openly visible
this case will fall under Article
365, paragraph 1.
Penalty provided in Article 67, same as in Article 365.
Article 68. Penalty to be imposed upon a person under eighteen
years of age.
When the offender is a minor under eighteen years and his case is one
coming under the provisions of the paragraph next to the last of
Article 80 of this Code, the following rules shall be observed:
1. Upon a person under fifteen but over nine years of age, who is
not exempted from liability by reason of the court having
declared that he acted with discernment, a discretionary
penalty shall be imposed, but always lower by two degrees at
least than that prescribed by law for the crime which he
committed.
2. Upon a person over fifteen and under eighteen years of age
the penalty next lower than that prescribed by law shall be
imposed, but always in the proper period.
POINTS
I. Article 68 Has Been Partly Repealed By Juvenile Justice Act
Article 68 of the Revised Penal Code (penalty for person under
18 years old) is partly repealed by Republic Act 9344, which
provides that:
a. Child 15 years and below
exempt from criminal
responsibility (paragraph 1 repealed).
b. Child 15-18 years old
exempt from criminal liability
UNLESS acted with discernment (paragraph 2 modified).

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c. A child above 12 up to 15 who commits a serious crime
(Parricide, Murder, Infanticide, Kidnapping, Serious
illegal detention where the victim is killed or raped,
robbery with homicide or rape, destructive arson, Rape,
carnapping where the driver or occupant is killed or
raped, or offenses under the DDA punishable by more
than 12 years), or an offense for the second time or
oftener:
i. Shall be deemed a neglected child under
Presidential Decree 603, and
ii. Shall be mandatorily placed in a special facility
for the youth (Republic Act No. 10630).
Under Article 68
Offender over 9 yrs. but under 15
yrs. acting with discernment = NOT
exempt from criminal liability
(discretionary penalty shall be
imposed 2 degrees lower than
prescribed by law for crime
committed)
Offender over 15 but under 18
penalty next lower than prescribed
by law imposed

Under Republic Act 9344


9-15 year olds = exempt from
criminal liability
No penalty
imposed

15-18 year olds = exempt from


criminal liability UNLESS acted
with discernment
will undergo
diversion programs under Chap 2
of Republic Act 9344

If court sees that objective of disposition measures imposed


upon child in conflict with the law was NOT fulfilled or child in
conflict with the law willfully failed to comply with conditions of
his/her disposition or rehab program child in conflict with the
law will be brought to court for execution of judgment. The
child shall enjoy the privileged mitigating circumstance under

Article 68 but shall nevertheless be entitled to suspension of


sentence whether or not he is no longer a minor.
o Penalty imposed on child in conflict with the law is
provided in paragraph 2 of Article 68 (or penalty next
lower than prescribed by law)
II. Suspension Of Sentence
As long as child was under 18 when he did the crime,
suspension of sentence will apply.
o Suspension can apply until he reaches 21, upon
discretion of court.
o Even if minor is charged with a heinous crime, he is still
entitled to suspension of conviction. Republic Act No.
9344 does not distinguish.
What if Special Penal Law which does not follow nomenclature
of Revised Penal Code? Minor will not be entitled to privileged
mitigating circumstance.
o Example: Penalty of life imprisonment in illegal
recruitment cannot be lowered by 1 or 2 degrees.
Recommendation of social worker not binding on the court.
(People v. Candelario).
III. Probation As An Alternative To Imprisonment
The court may place a child in conflict with the law on probation
in lieu of service of a sentence taking into consideration the best
interest of the child.
After the suspension, child may serve his sentence in
agricultural camps or other training facilities.
o After the suspension, he can also be granted probation.
Remember: even if minor criminally exempt, he is still civilly
liable.
Article 69. Penalty to be imposed when the crime committed is not
wholly excusable.

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A penalty lower by one or two degrees than that prescribed by law
shall be imposed if the deed is not wholly excusable by reason of the
lack of some of the conditions required to justify the same or to
exempt from criminal liability in the several cases mentioned in
Articles 11 and 12, provided that the majority of such conditions be
present. The courts shall impose the penalty in the period which may
be deemed proper, in view of the number and nature of the conditions
of exemption present or lacking.
POINTS
I. Unlawful Aggression Is Indispensable In Self-Defense, Defense Of
Relatives And Defense Of Stranger
Unlawful aggression must be present (first circumstance in selfdefense under Subsections 1, 2, 3 of Article11)
Example: B was challenged by A to a fight. B attacked first with a
knife and A retaliated by stabbing B. In the struggle, B killed A.
Can B be given one or two degrees lower penalty than
prescribed for homicide?
Even though conditions to justify the deed is present
(Reasonableness of means employed and Lack of sufficient
provocation), the essential element of unlawful aggression was
absent because there was agreement to fight. As such, NOT
entitled to reduction (U.S. v. Navarro).
II. Important Words And Phrases
A. In the several cases mentioned in Article 11 and 12.
Privileged mitigating circumstances in Article 69 include:
incomplete justifying and incomplete exempting circumstances
BUT majority of the conditions must be present

part BUT means employed by accused was not reasonable and


accused provoked aggression.
Homicide case where provocation and unlawful aggression
came from deceased + means employed by offender = not
reasonable:
o More than one of the requisites of self-defense are
present
o When 2 of the essential requisites for justification are
present
penalty lower by 2 degrees may be imposed
(People v. Dorado)
o Only unlawful aggression
1 penalty lower imposed
(People v. Cabellon) BUT this decision is contrary to
Article 69 that provides that majority of conditions must
be present.
What if not majority of requisites, just one? Ordinary mitigating
only; lower to minimum period.
C. A penalty lower by one or two degrees than that prescribed by law
shall be imposed x x x in the period which may be deemed proper, in
view of the number and nature of the conditions of exemption present
or lacking.
Court has discretion to impose 1 or 2 degrees lower than
prescribed by law for offense.
o In determining proper period of penalty that is 1 or 2
degrees lower, the court must consider number and
nature of conditions of exemption or justification
present or lacking.
Article 69 makes it privileged mitigating because the penalty is
lowered by one or two degrees.
o Hence, incomplete self-defense (for example) cannot be
offset by any aggravating circumstances.

B. Provided the majority of such conditions be present.


People v. Alvarez: Court of Appeals refused to apply Article 69
because only unlawful aggression was present on the victims

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V. When The Majority Of The Requisites Of Self-Defense And Two
Mitigating Without Aggravating Circumstances Are Present, The
Penalty Is Three Degrees Lower.
If accused charged with homicide (punishable by reclusion
temporal) proved unlawful aggression by the deceased and
another requisite of self-defense PLUS 2 mitigating
circumstances (surrender and obfuscation) with NO aggravating,
the proper penalty is arresto mayor medium (2 months, 1 day to
4 months).
Article 70. Successive service of sentences.
When the culprit has to serve two or more penalties, he shall serve
them simultaneously if the nature of the penalties will so permit;
otherwise, the following rules shall be observed:
In the imposition of the penalties, the order of their respective
severity shall be followed so that they may be executed successively or
as nearly as may be possible, should a pardon have been granted as to
the penalty of penalties first imposed, or should they have been
served out.
For the purpose of applying the provisions of the next preceding
paragraph the respective severity of the penalties shall be determined
in accordance with the following scale:
1. Death,
2. Reclusion perpetua,
3. Reclusion temporal,
4. Prision mayor,
5. Prision correccional,
6. Arresto mayor,
7. Arresto menor,
8. Destierro,
9. Perpetual absolute disqualification,
10. Temporary absolute disqualification,

11. Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted
for, the right to follow profession or calling, and
12. Public censure.
Notwithstanding the provisions of the rule next preceding, the
maximum duration of the convicts sentence shall not be more than
threefold the length of time corresponding to the most severe of the
penalties imposed upon him. No other penalty to which he may be
liable shall be inflicted after the sum of those imposed equals the said
maximum period.
Such maximum period shall in no case exceed forty years.
In applying the provisions of this rule the duration of perpetual
penalties (pena perpetua) shall be computed at thirty years. (As
amended by Com. Act No. 217.)
POINTS
I. Outline Of The Provisions Of This Article:
1. When culprit has to serve 2 or more penalties
serve them
simultaneously (if nature of penalties permit).
2. Otherwise, order of their respective severity shall be followed.
3. Respective severity of penalties is as follows:
a. Death
b. Reclusion Perpetua
c. Reclusion Temporal
d. Prision Mayor
e. Prision Correccional
f. Arresto Mayor
g. Arresto menor
h. Destierro
i. Perpetual absolute disqualification
j. Temporary absolute disqualification

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k. Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be
voted for, the right to follow profession or calling, and
l. Public censure.
A. The Penalties Which Can Be Simultaneously Served Are:
1. PAD
2. PSD
3. TAD
4. TSD
5. Suspension
6. Destierro
7. Public censure
8. Fine and bond to keep the peace
9. Civil Interdiction, and
10. Confiscation and payment of costs.
Above penalties (except destierro) can be served simultaneously
with imprisonment.
Penalties consisting in deprivation of liberty cannot be served
simultaneously by reason of the nature of such penalties.
II. The Order Of The Respective Severity Of The Penalties Shall Be
Followed So That They May Be Executed Successively
Time of the second sentence does not commence to run until
the expiration of the first (Gordon v. Wolfe).
Imprisonment must be served before destierro. Thus, arresto
menor must be served before destierro (People v. Misa).
III. Limitation On Service Of Sentence: Three-Fold Rule
The maximum duration of the convicts sentence shall not be
more than three times the length of time corresponding to the
most severe of the penalties imposed upon him.
o If the sum of the penalties does not exceed the most
severe multiplied by 3, three-fold rule doesnt apply.

The maximum penalty is three times the most severe or the


total of the penalties imposed, whichever is lower.
o Such max period shall not exceed 40 years. Whatever is
lower between the total penalties and 3x the most
sever, it shall not be more than 40 years.
The three-fold rule applies even if different courts rendered the
penalties at different times.
o The Rules of Court provide that an information must not
charge more than one offense. Necessarily, the various
offenses punished with different penalties must be
charged under different information which may be filed
in the same court or in different courts at the same time
or at different times.
The three-fold rule applies only when the convict has to serve at
least 4 sentences.
If the penalty is complex, the three-fold penalty is three times
the indeterminate sentence also (see Boado for example).
o If an indeterminate sentence is imposed, use the
maximum period in computing because the max period
is the most severe.
o
A. Computation
Step 1: get the most severe penalty meted out as listed in
Article 70
Step 2: Multiply the duration of that by 3
Step 3: Add the duration of all the different sentences
Step 4: Compare the results of 2 and 3
Step 5: Accused to serve the lesser period, unless it is in excess
of 40 years in which case the culprit shall serve only 40 years.
B. The Phrase The Most Severe Of Penalties Includes Equal Penalties
Fact: Sentenced for 6 cases of estafa. Each of which is 3 months
and 11 days of arresto mayor.

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Held: Accused cannot be made to suffer more than 9 months
and 33 days.
IV. The judge should NOT refrain from imposing the correct penalties
even if these would exceed the limitation of penalties in this article.
This article deals with SERVICE of sentence, not with imposition.
The court should impose the correct penalties even if these will
amount to more than the lifetime of the prisoner.
Why? Because when the convict is pardoned, he should still
serve the other sentences meted on him.
V. Duration Of The Convicts Sentence Refers To Several Penalties For
Different Offenses, Not Yet Served Out.
If the convict already served sentence for one offense prior to
the commission and/or conviction for another offense, the
former will not be considered in the three-fold rule.
The second sentence should only commence after the 1st.
Successive nga eh.
Accused is convicted for 10 counts of rape, all reclusion
perpetua. How long should he remain in jail? 40 years.
o What sentence should accuse serve first? Parepareho
lang naman eh. Justice Callejo: Follow order of docket
numbers. Article 70 doesnt strictly apply (People v.
Conte).
VI. Subsidiary Imprisonment Forms Part Of The Penalty
The result from the three-fold rule will be the aggregate
principal penalty which the principal has to serve. IN ADDITION,
he will have to pay all indemnities with or without subsidiary
imprisonment PROVIDED the principal penalty does not
exceed/is not higher than 6 years.
Bagtas v. Director of Prisons
o Facts: A guilty of 17 crimes. Most severe is 6 months
and 1 day PLUS a fine of P1,000.

Three-fold rule: 18 months and 3 days max.


Held: If the petitioner would not be able to pay the
finem the maximum duration of his imprisonment shall
be 18 months and 3 days of the principal penalty PLUS 6
months and 1 day subsidiary imprisonment.
Exception: Do not include subsidiary imprisonment penalty in
the computation of the 40 years because subsidiary liability is
uncertain if it will even happen (Bagtas v. Director of Prisons).
o

VII. Different Systems Of Penalty


Material accumulation system
no limitation; all penalties for
all violations were imposed even if they reached beyond the
natural span of human life.
o Article 70, Par. 1,2,3 follow this.
Juridical accumulation system
Service of several penalties is
limited to not more than three-fold the max and will not exceed
40 years.
o Article 70, Par. 4,5,6 follow this.
Absorption system Observed in the imposition of the penalty
in complex crimes (Article 48), continuing crimes, and specific
crimes like robbery with homicide, etc.
Article 71. Graduated Scales.
In cases in which the law prescribes a penalty lower or higher by one
or more degrees than another given penalty, the rules prescribed in
Article 61 shall be observed in graduating such penalty.
The lower or higher penalty shall be taken from the graduated scale in
which is comprised of the given penalty.
The courts, in applying such lower or higher penalty shall observe the
following graduated scales:
SCALE NO. 1 (Scale for personal penalties)

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

penalties attached to death by reason of graduated


scale under Article 71.

Death
Reclusion perpetua
Reclusion temporal
Prision mayor
Prision correccional
Arresto mayor
Destierro
Arresto menor
Public censure
Fine

SCALE NO. 2 (Scale for penalties depriving political rights)


1. Perpetual absolute disqualification
2. Temporary absolute disqualification
3. Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted
for, and the right to follow a profession or calling
4. Public censure
5. Fine

II. Position of Destierro in Article 70 v. Article 71


Note that in Art 71, the penalty next lower than arresto mayor is
destierro, not arresto menor. But in Art 70, destierro follows
arresto menor in the degree of severity. Why?
o Arresto mayor is imprisonment or complete deprivation
of liberty. Destierro means banishment for a specified
length of time. They must not be judged by the duration
of each of these penalties, but by degree of deprivation
of liberty involved. Destierro is considered lighter than
arresto mayor.
A. Destierro Next Lower In Degree From Arresto Mayor
The scale, which places destierro below arresto mayor, cannot
be disregarded.
Their respective severities is judged not by duration but by the
degree of deprivation of liberty

POINTS
I. Death Shall No Longer Form Part Of The Equation In Article 71
Pursuant to Republic Act No. 9346
o This has the effect of appropriately downgrading the
proper penalties attaching to accomplices, accessories,
frustrated and attempted felonies to the level
consistent with the rest of the penal laws.
Since this law bars the application of the death penalty, such
effect necessarily extends to its relevance to the graduated
scale of penalties under Article 71.
o There can be no harmony between Republic Act No.
9346 and the Revised Penal Code unless the later
statute is construed as having downgraded those

B. Who May Impose Destierro?


The metropolitan and municipal trial courts shall exercise
exclusive original jurisdiction over all offenses punishable with
imprisonment not exceeding 6 years.
C. Must Destierro Be Applied Only When It Is Specifically Imposed By
Law?
No. It may be imposed when it is the penalty next lower.
III. Articles 25, 70, 71 Compared:
Article 25
Article 70
Classification classifies
classifies penalties
of penalties
penalties into according to
principal and severity. (For the

Article 71
provides for the
scales which
should be

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accessory

purpose of the
successive service
of sentences)

observed in
graduating
penalties in Article
61
Location of Destierro
is Destierro is below Destierro is above
Destierro
above arresto arresto menor
arresto menor
menor

Article 72. Preference in the payment of the civil liabilities.


The civil liabilities of a person found guilty of 2 or more offenses shall
be satisfied by following the chronological order of the dates of the
final judgments rendered against him, beginning with the first in order
of time.
POINTS
I. Applicability
This article applies when the offender who is found guilty of 2 or
more offenses is required to pay civil liabilities resulting from
the same.
II. Order Of Payment Of Civil Liabilities
The order is not based on the dates of the commission.
It is based on the dates of the final judgment.
CLASS DISCUSSION
Is it possible for the payment of civil liabilities to differ from how
the criminal liabilities are served?
Is civil liability imposed/specified or considered as an attached
like accessory penalties? Or must it be expressly imposed?

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SECTION 3 PROVISION COMMON TO THE LAST TWO


PRECEDING SECTIONS
Article 73. Presumption in regard to the imposition of accessory
penalties.
Whenever the courts shall impose a penalty which by provision of
law, carries with it other penalties, according to Article 40, 41, 42, 43,
44, and 45 of this Code, it must be understood that the accessory
penalties are also imposed upon the convict.
POINTS
I. Accessory Penalties Are Deemed Imposed
Means that a judgment need not make an express
pronouncement of the imposition of accessory penalties.
II. Subsidiary Imprisonment, Not An Accessory Penalty
Means that the judgment of conviction must expressly state
that subsidiary penalty would be imposed.
Article 74. Penalty higher than reclusion perpetua in certain cases.
In cases in which the law prescribes a penalty higher than another
given penalty, without specifically designating the name of the
former, if such higher penalty should be that of death, the same
penalty and the accessory penalties of Article 40, shall be considered
as the next higher penalty.
POINTS
I. Death Cannot Be The Penalty Next Higher In Degree When Not
Provided By Law
When a given penalty has to be raised and the resulting penalty
is death, it cannot be imposed.

The given penalty and the accessory penalties of death (Article


40) shall be imposed.
Death must be specifically imposed by law.
II. Application Of This Article
What is meant to here is that the judgment should not provide
that the convict should not be given the benefit of Article 27
(that he should be pardoned after undergoing the penalty for
30 years) until 40 years have elapsed; otherwise there would be
no difference at all between reclusion perpetua when imposed
as a penalty next higher in degree and when it is imposed as
the penalty fixed by law.
Article 75. Increasing or reducing the penalty of fine by one or more
degrees. Whenever it may be necessary to increase or reduce the
penalty of fine by one or more degrees, it shall be increased or
reduced, respectively, for each degree, by one-fourth of the maximum
amount prescribed by law, without however, changing the minimum.
The same rules shall be observed with regard to fines that do not
consist of a fixed amount, but are made proportional.
POINTS
I. Fines Are Graduated Into Degrees
For the accomplices and accessories
For principals in frustrated and attempted felonies
II. To Get The Lower Degree:
MAXIMUM prescribed by law reduce by 1/4 for each degree.
MINIMUM remains the same.
A. Illustration
Fine is from P200 to P2,000

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To lower by one degree:
o 2,000 / 4 = 500
o 2,000 500 = 1,500
III. Without Changing The Minimum
The fine must have a minimum and a maximum fixed by law
This article does NOT apply when the law does not fix the
minimum of fine.
IV. When The Minimum Is Not Fixed By Law
When only the maximum is fixed, the determination of the
minimum is left to the sound discretion of the courts, without
exceeding the maximum authorized by law.
V. Distinctions Between Fine With A Minimum And Fine Without A
Minimum.
In both, the law fixes the maximum.
When the law fixes the minimum, the court cannot change that
minimum; when the law does not state the minimum, the court
can impose any amount not exceeding the maximum.
When the law fixes both minimum and maximum, the court can
impose an amount higher than the maximum; when only the
maximum is fixed, it cannot impose an amount higher than the
maximum.
VI. As To Fines That Do Not Consist Of A Fixed Amount, But Are
Made Proportional
This clause speaks of fines which are not of fixed amount but
are made proportional
o Example: (Article 365, negligence causing damage)
Where the fine shall be from an amount equal to the
value of the damage up to 3 times such value, but shall
in no case be less than 25 pesos.
Article 210 Direct Bribery

o
o
o

Facts: Bribe was P2,300.


Maximum: 2,300 x 3 = P6,900
P6,900 should be the basis for lowering the penalty by
two degrees (penalty for attempted bribery).

Article 76. Legal period of duration of divisible penalties. The legal


period of duration of divisible penalties shall be considered as divided
into three parts, forming 3 periods, the minimum, the medium and
the maximum in the manner shown in the following table.
Table 1. Duration of divisible penalties and the time included in each
period.
Penalties
Whole
Min
Med
Max
Penalty
Reclusion
12 years +
12 years + 1 14 years, 8
17 years
Temporal
1 day to
day to
months and and 4
20 years
14 years + 8 1 day to
months and
months
17 years
1 day to
and 4
20 years
months
(1) PM
6 years + 1 6 years + 1
8 years + 1
10 years + 1
(2)Ab. Disq.
day to
day to
day to
day to
(3)S. Temp.
12 years
8 years
10 years
12 years
Disq.
(1) PC,
6 months + 6 months + 2 years + 4
4 years, 2
(2)Suspension 1 day to
1 day to
months + 1 months + 1
(3) Destierro
6 years
2 years + 4
day to
day to
months.
4 years +
6 years
2mos
Arresto Mayor 1 mo. + 1
1 to 2
2 months + 4 months +
day to
months.
1 day to
1 day to
6 months
4 months.
6 months.
Arresto Menor 1 to
1 to
11 to
21 to
30 days
10 days
20 days
30 days

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POINTS

lightest of them shall be the minimum, the next the medium, and the
most severe the maximum period.

I. Article 76 Shows The Manner Divisible Penalties Are Divided Into 3


Periods
Refer to Article 65 supra for the process

Whenever the penalty prescribed does not have one of the forms
specially provided for in this Code, the periods shall be distributed,
applying by analogy the prescribed rules

II. When The Penalty Is Composed Of 3 Periods Corresponding To


Different Divisible Penalties
It is clear that the duration of each of the periods of the
divisible penalties as fixed in the table is NOT controlling when
the penalty prescribed is composed of 3 periods corresponding
to different divisible penalties.
Article 76 provides that divisible penalties shall be considered
as divided into three parts, forming three periods, without
stating that the three parts must be three equal portions of
time included in the divisible penalties, but the time included in
each of the divisible penalties mentioned in the table in that
article, except that of arresto mayor, is divided into three equal
portions.

POINTS

III. Distinction Between Period And Degree


Period 3 equal parts of a divisible penalty.
If you forget the periods, just follow the steps:
o Step 1: get the duration of each period
o Step 2: divide that by 3
o Step 3: add the quotient to the beginning of each
period starting with the minimum
Degree
diverse penalties mentioned by name in the Revised
Penal Code.

I. Complex Penalty
Penalty composed of 3 distinct penalties, each forming a
period.
Example:
o Reclusion temporal to death (Article 114)
Maximum - Death
Medium - Reclusion Perpetua
Minimum - Reclusion Temporal
II. Application By Analogy Of Rules
1. Article 114(3), provides a penalty of prision mayor to death.
a. Max death (because its indivisible)
b. Medium reclusion perpetua (because its indivisible)
c. Minimum prision mayor to reclusion temporal
2. Article 294(2), provides penalty of reclusion temporal in its
medium period to reclusion perpetua.
a. Max reclusion perpetua (being indivisible)
b. Medium reclusion temporal in its maximum period
c. Minimum reclusion temporal in its medium period.

Article 77. When the penalty is a complex one composed of three


distinct penalties. In cases in which the law prescribes a penalty
composed of 3 distinct penalties, each one shall form a period; the

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CHAPTER 5: EXECUTION AND SERVICE OF PENALTIES


SECTION 1 GENERAL PROVISIONS
Article 78. When and how a penalty is to be executed.
No penalty shall be executed except by virtue of a final judgment.
A penalty shall not be executed in any other form than that
prescribed by law, nor with any other circumstances or incidents than
those expressly authorized thereby.
In addition to the provisions of the law, the special regulations
prescribed for the government of the institutions in which the
penalties are to be suffered shall be observed with regard to the
character of the work to be performed, the time of its performance,
and other incidents connected therewith, the relations of the convicts
among themselves and other persons, the relief which they may
receive, and their diet.
The regulations shall make provision for the separation of the sexes in
different institutions, or at least into different departments, and also
for the correction and reform of the convicts.
POINTS
I. Only Penalty By Final Judgment Can Be Executed
The judgment must be final before it can be executed, because
the accused may still appeal within 15 days from its
promulgation, but if he waives by writing his right to appeal,
the judgment becomes immediately final.
If the judgment does not confer subsidiary imprisonment in
case of insolvency, the accused cannot be required to suffer the
same in case of inability to pay the fine imposed on him.

If the person is acquitted, he cant be subjected to public


censure (People v. Abellera).
If the judge sentence accused to 25 years of reclusion perpetua,
he cannot be compelled to serve sentence because there is no
such thing. Remedy is writ of habeas corpus.
Article 79. Suspension of the execution and service of the penalties
in case of insanity.
When a convict shall become insane or an imbecile after final
sentence has been pronounced, the execution of said sentence shall
be suspended only with regard to the personal penalty, the provisions
of the second paragraph of circumstance number 1 of article 12 being
observed in the corresponding cases.
If at any time the convict shall recover his reason, his sentence shall
be executed, unless the penalty shall have prescribed in accordance
with the provisions of this Code.
The respective provisions of this section shall also be observed if the
insanity or imbecility occurs while the convict is serving his sentence.
POINTS
I. Rules Regarding The Execution Of Penalties In Case Of Insanity
1. Convict becomes insane/imbecile after final judgment
sentence is suspended only as regards the personal penalty.
2. If he recovers his reason sentence shall be executed unless it
has prescribed.
3. Even while serving sentence, the convict becomes insane/an
imbecile, Article 79 shall be observed.
4. Civil or pecuniary liabilities shall not be suspended.

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II. Only Execution Of Personal Penalty Is Suspended In Case Of
Insanity; Civil Liability May Be Executed Even In Case Of Insanity Of
Convict.
Guardian can be appointed to administer the property, so civil
liability can be imposed.

The court, in committing said minor as provided above, shall take into
consideration the religion of such minor, his parents or next of kin, in
order to avoid his commitment to any private institution not under
the control and supervision of the religious sect or denomination to
which they belong.

III. An Accused Person May Become Insane (With Effects):


1. At the time of the commission of the offense
o Exempted from criminal liability (Article 12.1)
2. At the time of trial
o Trial suspended until he recovers reason (Article 12.1)
3. At the time of final judgment
o Personal penalty is suspended.
4. While serving sentence
o Personal penalty is suspended.

The Director of Public Welfare or his duly authorized representatives


or agents, the superintendent of public schools or his representatives,
or the person to whose custody or care the minor has been
committed, shall submit to the court every four months and as often
as required in special cases, a written report on the good or bad
conduct of said minor and the moral and intellectual progress made
by him.
The suspension of the proceedings against a minor may be extended
or shortened by the court on the recommendation of the Director of
Public Welfare or his authorized representatives or agents, or the
superintendent of public schools or his representatives, according as
to whether the conduct of such minor has been good or not and
whether he has complied with the conditions imposed upon him, or
not. The provisions of the first paragraph of this article shall not,
however, be affected by those contained herein.

Article 80. Suspension of sentence of minor delinquents.


Whenever a minor of either sex, under sixteen years of age at the
date of the commission of a grave or less grave felony, is accused
thereof, the court, after hearing the evidence in the proper
proceedings, instead of pronouncing judgment of conviction, shall
suspend all further proceedings and shall commit such minor to the
custody or care of a public or private, benevolent or charitable
institution, established under the law for the care, correction or
education of orphaned, homeless, defective, and delinquent children,
or to the custody or care of any other responsible person in any other
place subject to visitation and supervision by the Director of Public
Welfare or any of his agents or representatives, if there be any, or
otherwise by the superintendent of public schools or his
representatives, subject to such conditions as are prescribed
hereinbelow until such minor shall have reached his majority or for
such less period as the court may deem proper.(As amended by
Republic Act No. 47.)

If the minor has been committed to the custody or care of any of the
institutions mentioned in the first paragraph of this article, with the
approval of the Director of Public Welfare and subject to such
conditions as this official in accordance with law may deem proper to
impose, such minor may be allowed to stay elsewhere under the care
of a responsible person.
If the minor has behaved properly and has complied with the
conditions imposed upon him during his confinement, in accordance
with the provisions of this article, he shall be returned to the court in
order that the same may order his final release.

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o
o

In case the minor fails to behave properly or to comply with the


regulations of the institution to which he has been committed or with
the conditions imposed upon him when he was committed to the care
of a responsible person, or in case he should be found incorrigible or
his continued stay in such institution should be inadvisable, he shall
be returned to the court in order that the same may render the
judgment corresponding to the crime committed by him.

Child below 18
Child in Conflict with the Law
alleged/accused
of/adjudged as having committed an offense under
Philippine Laws.
Presidential Decree No. 603
o Youthful Offender
child/minor/youth, above 9 but
below 18, at the time of the commission of the offense.

The expenses for the maintenance of a minor delinquent confined in


the institution to which he has been committed, shall be borne totally
or partially by his parents or relatives or those persons liable to
support him, if they are able to do so, in the discretion of the court:
Provided, That in case his parents or relatives or those persons liable
to support him have not been ordered to pay said expenses or are
found indigent and cannot pay said expenses, the municipality in
which the offense was committed shall pay one-third of said
expenses; the province to which the municipality belongs shall pay
one-third; and the remaining one-third shall be borne by the National
Government: Provided, however, That whenever the Secretary of
Finance certifies that a municipality is not able to pay its share in the
expenses above mentioned, such share which is not paid by said
municipality shall be borne by the National Government. Chartered
cities shall pay two-thirds of said expenses; and in case a chartered
city cannot pay said expenses, the internal revenue allotments which
may be due to said city shall be withheld and applied in settlement of
said indebtedness in accordance with section five hundred and eightyeight of the Administrative Code. (As amended by Com. Act No. 99)

II. Minimum Age Of Criminal Responsibility


15 years old and below exempt from criminal liability.
Above 15, below 18
exempt from criminal liability but with
intervention program (but if acted with discernment, he will be
subjected to a diversion program).
III. Intervention Program (Presidential Decree No. 603)
Custody
child must be released to parents, guardian or
nearest relative. Absence thereof, duly registered
nongovernmental or religious organizations, barangay official
or a member of the Barangay Council for the Protection of
Children, Department of Social Welfare and Development.
Appropriate programs
Created in cooperation with the local
social and welfare development officer.
Involuntary commitment
if the child is abandoned,
neglected or abused.

POINTS

IV. Diversion Programs For Children Above 15 And Below 18 Who


Acted With Discernment (Article 13.2)
The child will undergo trial pursuant to the provisions of the
Rules of Court.

I. The Provisions Of Article 80 Have Been Repealed By Chapter 3 Of


Presidential Decree No. 603, As Amended By The Provisions Of
Republic Act No. 9344
Republic Act No. 9344:

A. Automatic Suspension Of Sentence Under Republic Act No. 9344


When a child under 18 at the time of the commission of the
crime is found guilty of the offense, the court will determine
any civil liability, which may have resulted from the offense.

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o

However, instead of pronouncing judgment of conviction, the


court will place the child under a suspended sentence, without
need of application.
Provided that suspension of sentence shall be applied even if
the juvenile is already 18 or more at the time of the
promulgation of the sentence.
Even if minor is charged with a heinous crime, he is still entitled
to suspension of conviction. Republic Act No. 9344 does not
distinguish.

4.

B. Suspension Of Sentence Lasts Only Until The Child In Conflict With


The Law Reaches 21 Years Old
Max age 21 years old.
Involves Restoration, Rehabilitation, Reintegration
What matters is that the offender committed the offense when
he/she was still of tender age, not his/her age during
conviction. Thus, a 25-year-old man may still be sentenced to a
diversion program if he acted with discernment when he
committed the crime when he was 17 years old.

5.

V. COURT PROCEEDINGS
1. Bail
o Consider the privileged mitigating circumstance of
minority (Article 68).
2. Release on Recognizance
o Detained child:
Released on recognizance to parents
Release of Child in Conflict with Law with bail
Transfer of youth to rehab center
3. Detention of the Child Pending Trial
o May be released on BAIL or RECOGNIZANCE
o Institutionalization/Detention
last resort and with
the shortest possible time.

6.

7.
8.

Youth detention home if detention is necessary


absent, Department of Social Welfare and
Development or local rehabilitation center within court
jurisdiction.
Diversion Measures
o If max is imprisonment of not more than 12 years
(regardless of fine if any)
court will determine
whether or not diversion is appropriate even before
arraignment. This usually applies when the child has
committed a heinous crime.
o If the parents cannot afford to pay for a diversion
program, the government will shoulder the expenses
(1/3 each for the local or municipal, provincial, and
national government).
Discharge of the Child in Conflict with the Law
o Upon recommendation of social worker, the court shall
dismiss the case against the child.
o Final discharge of the child ordered if the objective of
the disposition measures have been fulfilled.
o These will not affect the civil liability of the child.
Return of the Child in Conflict with the Law to Court
o If disposition measures not fulfilled or child didnt want
to comply, child returned to Court for judgment.
o If child has reached 18, Court will determine
Discharge
Execute sentence
Suspend sentence for a time or until child turns
21.
o In turn, the child can appeal the case to a higher court.
Credit in Service of Sentence
o Full time spent in actual commitment and detention.
Probation as an Alternative to Imprisonment
o After conviction and sentence a child in conflict with
the law, the court may place the child under probation

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in lieu of service of the sentence taking into


consideration the best interests of the child.
Probation Law of 1976 is amended accordingly.

VI. Rehabilitation & Reintegration


1. Objective of Rehabilitation & Reintegration
o Intervention, approaches, strategies to improve their
social functioning
Reintegration into families,
productive members of the community.
2. Court Order required before receiving a child in a
rehabilitation facility
o Details shall be entered into a register
o Must be complied with strictly
3. Separate facilities from adults
o Separated from adults unless from same family
o Home environment simulated for comfort
4. Female children
o Personal needs and problems attended to by female
doctors, officers, and social workers
5. Care and maintenance of the Child in Conflict with the Law
o See paragraph 8
o Flow of financial responsibility:
o Parents/people liable for support (whole or in part)
o If #1 cannot pay:
Municipality (1/3)
Province where municipality is located (1/3)
National Government (1/3)
o Note:
If Secretary of Finance says the municipality
cant pay, the National Government shall pay
(2/3)
Chartered cities shall pay (2/3) of the expenses.
If it cannot pay, then the internal revenue
allotments for that city shall be suspended and

6.

7.

8.

9.

the money to be paid to the city shall be used


for the citys payments for the maintenance of
the confinement of the Child in Conflict with
the Law, pursuant to Section 588 of the AC.
Confinement of convicted children in agricultural camps and
other training facilities
o Confinement to such may be done by the court in lieu
of confinement in a regular penal institution
o Such to be maintained by the Bureau of Corrections in
coordination with the Department of Social Welfare
and Development.
Rehabilitation of Children in Conflict with the Law
o Children in conflict with the law whose sentences are
suspended, my undergo any or a combination of
disposition measures best suited to the rehab and
welfare of the child (SC Rule on Juveniles in Conflict
with the Law)
o Community-based rehab
child shall be released to
parents. Guardians, relatives, or any other responsible
person in the community. Under the supervision and
guidance of the local social welfare and development
officer (and in coordination with the abovementioned
people), the child in conflict with the law shall
participate in community-based programs
o Based on progress, a final report shall be forwarded to
the local social welfare and development to be
assessed by the court for final disposition of the case
Youth Rehabilitation Center
o 24-hour group care with trained staff.
o Final report to be mdade, as well
Civil liability of Youthful Offenders
o Automatic:
Father, if not
Mother, if not

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Guardian
Voluntary:
Relative
Family friend
10. Liability of parents or guardian or any person in the
commission of delinquent acts by their children or wards
o A person whether the parent/guardian of the child or
not, knowingly or willfully,
Aids, causes, abets, or connives with the
commission by a child of a delinquency
Does any act producing, promoting, or
contributing to a childs being or becoming a
juvenile delinquent
P 500 / imprisonment <
2 years OR both at courts discretion
11. Confidentiality of records and proceedings
o Privileged and confidential.
o Public shall be excluded during the proceedings.
o Records shall not be disclosed directly or indirectly to
anyone by any of the parties/participants for any
purpose EXCEPT to determine the possible suspension
of the child in conflict with the law may have pursuant
to the Probation Law of 1976.
o Component authorities shall undertake all measures to
protect the confidentiality of proceedings.
o Separate police blotter for cases involving children in
conflict with the law.
o Adoption of a system of coding to conceal material info
leading to childs identity.
o A person who has been in conflict with the law as a
child shall not be held under any provision of law, to be
guilty of perjury or of concealment or
misrepresentation by reason of his/her failure to
acknowledge the case or recite any fact related in
o

response to any inquiry made to him/her for any


purpose.
Presidential Decree No. 1179 shall not apply to those
convicted of an offense punishable by death or life
imprisonment.

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CRIMINAL LAW 1 REVIEWER

SECTION 2 EXECUTION OF PRINCIPAL PENALTIES


Article 81. When and how the death penalty is to be executed.
The death sentence shall be executed with preference to any other
and shall consist in putting the person under sentence to death by
electrocution. The death sentence shall be executed under the
authority of the Director of Prisons, endeavoring so far as possible to
mitigate the sufferings of the persons under sentence during
electrocution as well as during the proceedings prior to the execution.
If the person under sentence so desires, he shall be anaesthetized at
the moment of the execution.
As soon as facilities are provided by the Bureau of Prisons, the
method of carrying out the sentence shall be changed to gas
poisoning.
The death sentence shall be carried out not later than one (1) year
after the judgment has become final. (As amended by Sec. 24,
Republic Act No. 7659.)
POINTS
I. Republic Act No. 9346 Expressly Repealed Republic Act No. 8177,
Which Prescribed Death By Lethal Injection
According to Section 1 of Republic Act No. 9346, the imposition
of the death penalty is prohibited.
II. Because The Death Penalty May Not Be Imposed Anymore, Articles
81-85 Have No Application
Article 81 When and how the death penalty is to be executed.
Article 82 Notification and execution of the sentence and
assistance to the culprit.
Article 83 Suspension of the execution of the death sentence.

Article 84 Place of execution and persons who may witness


the same.
Article 85 Provisions relative to the corpse of the person
executed and its burial.
III. Death Sentence Shall Be Executed With Preference To Any Other
Penalty
In accordance with Article 70 providing for successive service of
sentences.
IV. Death Sentence By Lethal Injection
This is in accordance with Republic Act No. 8177. Prior to the
enactment of said Republic Act No., the death penalty was
carried out by electrocution.
V. When Death Sentence Shall Be Carried Out
Not earlier than 1 year nor later than 18 months after the
judgment becomes final and executory, without prejudice to
the Presidents exercise of pardon.
Article 82. Notification and execution of the sentence and assistance
to the culprit.
The court shall designate a working day for the execution, but not the
hour thereof; and such designation shall not be communicated to the
offender before sunrise of said day, and the execution shall not take
place until after the expiration of at least eight hours following the
notification, but before sunset. During the interval between the
notification and the execution, the culprit shall, in so far as possible,
be furnished such assistance as he may request in order to be
attended in his last moments by priests or ministers of the religion he
professes and to consult lawyers, as well as in order to make a will
and confer with members of his family or persons in charge of the
management of his business, of the administration of his property, or
of the care of his descendants.

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CRIMINAL LAW 1 REVIEWER

POINTS
I. A convict sentenced to death may make a will.
He has the right to consult a lawyer and make a will for the
disposition of his property.
To know if the convict sentenced to death may dispose of his
property inter vivos, it must first be ascertained if the death
penalty was not executed by reason of commutation or pardon
(Article 40).
o Thus, if the death penalty is not executed because of
commutation or pardon, civil interdiction as an
accessory penalty of Article 40 can be applied, and
according to Article 34, shall deprive the offender to
dispose of his property by any act or conveyance inter
vivos.
Article 83. Suspension of the execution of the death sentence.
The death sentence shall not be inflicted upon a woman while she is
pregnant or within one (1) year after delivery, nor upon any person
over seventy years of age. In this last case, the death sentence shall
be commuted to the penalty of reclusion perpetua with the accessory
penalty provided in article 40.
In all cases where the death sentence has become final, the records of
the case shall be forwarded immediately by the Supreme Court to the
Office of the President for possible exercise of the pardoning power.
(As amended by Sec. 25, Republic Act No. 7659.)
POINTS
I. Death Sentence Shall Be Suspended When The Accused Is:
1. Woman, while pregnant
2. Woman, within one year after delivery (Republic Act No. 7