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exam maximiser teacher’s book Poe Answer key UNIT 1 Grammar Exam Preparation p.& | tasted 2 is having 3 was ust thinking 4 is just being 5 are having 6 really feel 7 Do you want 8 imagine 1e) 26) 3b) 4g) 5h) 6d) 7a) Bf) s 1 the burglar had made off 2. since her parents chucked 3 used to go swimming/went swimming/swam 4 I've known Gary sv 6 Once I'd/\ had finished work 7 Last year, Nell spent av have been, started arrived, were leaving hhave been thinking was going, forgot agreed, had been nagging had originally expected hhad been snowing, set off ' 2 3 4 5 6 7 Exam Practice p.9 lc 2d 3c 425d 6c 7a Bb 9c 10d Ib 124 13b I4c 15b 16b I7d Vocabulary Exam Preparation p.|0 & off the record through thick and thin ata push high and low by leaps and bounds under a cloud ‘out of the blue black and blue ak | sparks 2had 3 thing 4 got 5 throw 6 go 7 spread Smake 9 pull 10 taken = Ib 2b3a4a 5b 6a7b 8a 9b 10b IIb 12a Exam Practice p.!| le 2b 3b 4a Sb 6c 7aBd 9b Ic Ile Ia I3c I4b 15a 16a I7¢ Cloze Exam Preparation p.12 E Mini text 1 The irony described is that famous people are rarely appreciated in their own home. le 2d 3b 4e BE Mini coxt 2 Ib 2b3d4b5¢ Exam Practice p.13 Ib 2c 3d 4a Sc 6d 7c Bc 9a 1c Ha I2b 13 14d 15a 6a I7d 184 194 20¢ Reading Exam Preparation p.14 =e Paragraph |b Paragraph 2a Paragraph 3b Paragraph 4b Exam Practice p.15 Ib 2c3e4d 5a unit 2 Grammar Exam Preparation p.16 te) 2b) 34) 40) 5a) 6f) 7h) 8g) 1 wish | were/was better at languages. 211 wish | spoke Spanish 3 | wish they would change the date of our next exam but they won't 4 | wish John hadn't argued with the professor yesterday sv 6 | wish the bus would come! 7 Lwish she would tell me what's wrong By 91 wish you would hurry up! 10 | wish | were/was a bit taller | you didn’t make 2 time you went 3 you not to tell 4 drrather you 5d prefer 6 rather have 7 you did 8 prefer not | IF 'd worked hard/harder, | would have done ‘well/better in my exams. 2. I wish Sarah didn’t disagree/wouldn’t disagree/would stop disagreeing with me all the time. 3 IF Td handed my composition in on time, I wouldn't have had to stay late at school. 4 I'l have to work during the holidays unless my parents lend me some money. 5. I wouldn't have got into trouble with my head of department if! hadn't been late for her class. 6 I wish the bus would come! 7 I could have made it to school yesterday if my mother hadn't been sick 8 I wish you were coming back to school next semester. Exam Practice p.|7 le 2b 3d 4b Sd 6a 7d 8b 9b 10c Id 2b [Ba 14b 15b 6c I7¢ ANSWER KEY Vocabulary Exam Preparation p.18 | poverty 2honorably 3 safety 4 peaceably/peacefully 5 bled 6 misheard 7 antisocial 8 deafening | getting on 2 comes into it/came into it 3 think through 4 light upon 5 come up with 6 find out 7 pick up = | a) practical __b) practicable 2 a) fauk ) mistake 3 a) grade b) level 4 a) mind b) brains 5 a) continuous) continual 6 a) childish b) childlike 7 a)illegile ——_&) iterate 8 a) regretful _b) regrettable 9 a) drops ») passes 10.a) natural b) ecological Exam Practice p.|9 la 2c 3b 4d Sc 6b 7b 8a 9b I0d Ie Ie I3e 14b 15a 6c I7a Cloze Exam Preparation p.20 | mixed 2 grasp 3 plunge 4 low 5 waste 6 kindly Tbed Bhand 9 eye 10 fit 1b 2a3b 4a 5b 6b Ib 2c3a4c5b6c Exam Practice p.2 Id 2b 3b 4d Sc 6c 7d 8a9%b Wa IIc 126 I3b I4d ISc 16b 17d 182 19b 20a Reading Exam Preparation p.22 Text 1 sniper = someone who shoots at unprotected people from a hidden position escalated = became much worse flee = escape/run away dounting = frightening in a way that makes you fee! less confident Text 2 encompassing = including foster = help to develop cchafed at = become annoyed at ‘emblematic = symbolic downplaying = making something seem less important ‘meritocracy = social system that gives the most power and the highest social positions to people with the most ability Exam Practice p.23 Id 2c3d4bS5a UNIT 3 Grammar Exam Preparation p.24 | having been an extra While resting, the director Having taken a break Not having bought tickets Being a brave man ‘The weather being perfect Storrning onto the set Having finished filming | should you 2 anyone remembers 3 have I seen 4 do | believe 5'm taking 6 did I realize 7 will the producer 8 did it become | have I seen such stunning photography. 2 only was he great to look at but he was also a gifted actor. 3 had the audience recovered from their shock when the next chilling scene took place. 4 by sheer determination did the producer rescue the project. account should young children see this movie. did the flm crew realize what would happen next. | was a child have I enjoyed a movie so much. could the painting be called a masterpiece. Exam Practice p.25 Ib 2c3b 4b 5a 6c 7a 8d 9c 10b Id 12d 13a l4c ISb l6b Vocabulary Exam Preparation p.26 la) draw b) make 2) put b) pull 3 a) senses b) head 4) aflaw b) an error 5 a) snatch b) spot 6 a) glow b) heat I ray 2load Fstab 4 stroke 5 put 6 nick 7 spur 8 grain 9 Spare 10 trouble 1a) reliant ) adept, hopeless 6) curious 2 a) efficent b) anxious, characteristic ©) Contrary 3a) similar ») distinct, intent ©) typical 4 a) skilled b) wary ©) optimistic, hard Exam Practice p.27 Ib 2a3d 4c 5c 6b 7a 8d 9c I0b llc 12d 13a I4b 15a léc I7¢ Cloze Exam Preparation p.28 1b 2a3b 4b 5a 6b 7b Ba 9b 10a bim = Lumigre Lumigre’s achievement = invention of motion picture this creative period = the Silent Era it = flm footage his invention = a motion picture camera b) Exam Practice p.29 Ib 2d 3a 4c 5a 6d 7b 8c 9d 10b IIb [2c I3c 14d 15a I6c I7d 18a 19d 20d Reading Exam Preparation p.30 | a) Movie producers tend to .. ) Movie producers always ... = they always do this. 2a)... could well be ... = it may be b) ... will undoubtedly be 's sure to be they often do this. 3a)... is perhaps one b) ... is certainly one 4 a)... is arguably may be. b) ... fs indisputably ... = it definitely is. he may be one. 5a) Movie bufis believe ... = they all believe it. ) Some movie buffs believe ... = only some of them believe it. 6 a)... are invariably ... = they are always tal b) ... are frequently ... = they are sometimes tall | Paragraph one: b Paragraph two: a Paragraph three: a Paragraph four: b Exam Practice p.31 le2a3b4a5a UNIT 4 Grammar Exam Preparation p.32 2 itto our 3. tas annoying 4 it very interesting to 5 it prohibitively expensive to 6 itis indefensible to | tewas a very good idea to pass a law banning unfair advertising. 2. Itis more important to have talent than to have influence in the fashion industry. 3. Its crucial for a successful business that it makes the existence of goods known through effective advertising 4 Itis a good sales ploy to package goods in an attractive way. 5. Ie takes a child a long time to appreciate what commercial is trying to do. 6 Itis the responsibilty of parents to monitor what children do, I. it's no good reading 2 has just dawned on me 3. shoped 4 isa good job (that) they ran 5 is up to you (to choose) 6 strikes me that | The introduction of a code of practice in advertising te would be a good idea. 2 [find it amazing that the company don’t do any advertising, Parents may find it irritating that their children are the main targets of some advertisers. ag v 6 Itis essential that an advertiser €e-repeat repeat the name of a product as many times as possible. Exam Practice p.33 Ib 2d 3c 4b Sd 6c 7a Bc 9c 10b Ha 12d 13¢ ta I5c 16b Vocabulary Exam Preparation p.34 I rule 2 scenes 3 roof 4 roaring 5 spiral 6 fix 7 impulse 8 stare 9 handy 10 faling | were falling over themselves 2 keep in with 3 dawned on me 4 getting at 5 brought about 6 come up with 7 pan out 8 crop up a) Vg) 2e) 3h) 4b) Sc) 61) 71) Ba) 9) 10d) b) Vtake 2 provoke 3 set 4 perform 5 drive 6 put Tstart 8 promote 9 seek 10 raise 11 draw 12 make Exam Practice p.35 la 2c 3b 4b Sd 6a 7c Bc 9a 1c IIb 12d 13b I4c 15a 6b 17d Reading Exam Preparation p.36 Text | 1 The style is critical 2. ‘Eight-year-olds are sitting ducks.’ Metaphors make the text more vivid To give an opinion. Not very formal. ‘The general reader. ‘A magazine/ newspaper article, possibly, or a book ‘on advertising aimed at the lay person. Text 2 | The text is primarily factual, although phrases such as “homes are invaded! (by advertising) sound rather critical 2. There are no metaphors in the text. 3. The writer is mainly stating the fact that advertising is everywhere. 4 Not very formal 5. The textis probably aimed at someone studying advertising/the media or at the general reader. 6 The passage comes from a text book on media studies. Exam Practice p37 Ib2a3d4e5b Writing Exam Preparation p.38 A Describe ... holiday ... disappointment. What ... learn ...7 Describe the holiday. Say what you learnt. Past tenses. c UNIT S Grammar Exam Preparation p.40 must be shoplifting can’t have seen should stop must have been could just as well be going can’t have been might have been trying Someone must have taken it! Ie can't have been John. you shouldn't have been driving v can’t have left yet You must be joking! v ‘might come/might be coming = ‘must have broken in shouldn’t have done can't have found can't have been must have got could/would have caught should ring can't be Exam Practice p41 Ib 2c 3d 4c 5d 6c7d 8a 9c 10d Id I2b 13a [4d 15b 6b Vocabulary Exam Preparation p.42 | adopt 2 convicted 3 lack 4 out and out 5 odds 6 caution 7 enforce 8 deterrent 9 infringement 10 implement | broke into 2 slipped into 3 crack down ... on 4 set up 5 get in 6 carried out 7 wore out 8 take ... out on | procedure 2 offense 3 unmanageable 4 inaccuracies 5 vandalism 6 incidence 7 error 8 uncertainty a) Th 2f 3g 4i Sc 6a7e 8) 9d 10b b) lc 2g 3a 4f 5h 6e 7b 8d Exam Practice p.43 tb 2d3a4c¢5b 6d 7b 8a 9c 10b Ila !2a 13¢ [4a ISb 16d I7b Listening Exam Preparation p.44 |) They're friends. b) They're roommates. ©) The woman is the girfriend of the man's brother, Peter. 2. a) The interview the woman has just had. ) They're discussing whose turn itis to cook the evening meal. ©) They're discussing whether Peter and the woman will make up after an argument. | a) Girlfriend and boyfriend. b) Friends, partners, husband and wife. ©) Alibrary assistant and a student. 2 a) Whether the boyfriend was at a disco last night. b) They're wondering what to do if the bus doesn’t come. 0) The assistant is informing the student that all the computers are booked. Exam Practice Part | p.45 le 2a3b 4b 5a 6c 7b 8c 9c 10b Ila I2b 13b I4c 15a 16b I7a I8c Tapescript Exam Preparation Part | = a) F: One of my fiends said she could have sworn she saw you in the disco lastnight. M: She couldn't have seen me — it might have been my brother, though. People are always getting us mixed up. | don’t think so, somehow. Is there something going on? You'd better not be two-timing me, you know. ANSWER KEY ») M: We've been waiting for half an hour now! F: I know. Maybe we've missed it If it doesn't come soon, we'l have to give up and walk. But i's realy long hike home and it’s pitch dark Hang on. | think can hear it coming now. Ym sorry but I'm going to have to ask you to go now. Someone's already booked that computer. M: But they can’t have done. I rang this morning and asked for three hours. Fl go back and check but | don't think we can do anything about it now. Ifthe worst comes to the worst, 1 have to book you in for tomorrow. Exam Practice The first part of the final examination is listening comprehension test that will assess your understanding of spoken English. The listening test has three pars. There ore fifty multiple-choice questions. Mark cll your answers on the separate answer sheet. Do not make any stray marks on the answer sheet. If you change your mind about an answer, erase your first answer completely. Part | In ths part of the test, you wil hear short conversation. From the three answer choices given, choose the answer which means the same thing as what you hear, or that is true based upon what you hear. For example, listen to the conversation, Example M: Let's eat out, F: You're on! I feel lazy tonight. The correct answer is €. They both want to eat out. For problems | through 18, mark your answers an the separate answer sheet. No problem can be repeated. Please listen careflly. Do you have any questions? Did the doctor warn you about taking those tablets? He did advise me not to drive if they made me fee! sleepy. Wel he's the expert m™z- Tom promised me he wouldn’t go out with Sarah again. I: Well, he would say that, wouldn’t he? | suppose so Have you rung the travel agency to book the holiday yet? tried several times but | couldn't get through. I'll have ‘nother go later. No need. | can callin there on my way home from work. : You could have if they didn’t close early today. In that case we might es well leave it’! tomorrow. xzme mzne xz man 4 M: | really ought to give my brother a ring and check how his interview went. F: Don’t you think he would've called you if the news was good? M: You would've thought so, wouldn't you? Maybe I! leave well olone. 5 M: Just wake me up when the class starts, wil you? F: What time cid the party finish lastnight? M: Don't ask! F: Well, you'r only young once, or so they say. M: Try telling that to my parents! 6 M: | was wondering if you'd come round and baby-sit tomorrow. F: Actually, | was going to the movies with some friends. It'd ‘mean letting them down at the last minute. M: | wouldn't ask but it’s 0 bit of an emergency. We thought we were fixed up but our other baby-siter let us down. F: Well I'l try and put my fiends off for another day. 7 M: I've just had my car serviced but it’s stil playing up. F: That's the trouble with buying an old jalopy. Why don't you save up and get something a bit newer? M: I've been thinking that myself. Would that had enough ‘money! F: {'m sure you could get a loan from the bank if you ask them nicely. M: You're kidding! With my credit rating! 8 F: I'm thinking of dropping out of college and backpacking to Australia, Trouble is, my parents will go through the roof when I tll them. M: | should tread careful f | were you. F: The thing is, 'm not really enjoying the course at all. 1M: Aren't you? I thought you'd setded down to it now. 9 M: The service seems a bit siow tonight F: Well, we've been here at least twenty minutes and there's no sign of our appetizer. M: I don’t think we'll come here again! 10 F: I've been trying to look something up on the Internet but it's taking ages to download! M: Join the club! u F: You're smoking again! M: Yeah, | keep tying to kick the habit but it's easier soid than done. F: I know what you mean. | must have given up ten times before | finally made it t takes a lot of wilpower. M: You bet it does! |: Finished those leters yet? The mail goes in ten minutes, : Have a heart! I'm doing the best I can. You'l be for it if you don’t get a move on. = Well, 'm trying my best! : You really ought to work out more, you know. Don’t you think | would if I could? I've been meaning to g0 to the gym all week but it’s finding time that's the problem. F: Why don't | pick you up after dass tomorrow? We can go together. MI take you up on that! : You should have let me know you were going to be lote. Don't you think | would have if | could've? There wasn’t ‘a phone booth in sight. M: Ever thought of using your cell phone? F: Fat chance, seeing you went off with it this morning! ™zx M: What time does the movie star tomorrow? F: 8 o'clock, but we could always go to a later screening. That'd mean a bit of a late night though. Mi: | guess I could just make it ~ depends on the traffic situation. F: Well, do your best. I've got the tickets, anyway. M: This tooth is giving me agony. I think part of the filing must have come out. F: Why don’t you go and have a checkup? M: Because I'm scared stiff of dentists, if you must know. I'm keeping my fingers crossed that it'l wear off F: What an earth made you talk to Nicola like that? M: I dich’t mean to hurt her feelings but she can’t go round spreading folse rumours about people like that. F: Even so, you did come on o bt strong 18 M: If we keep on going at this snail's pace, we'll never get to the airport in time. F: | don’t know what you're worrying about. With fog like this, the fight’s bound to be delayed. M: | don't know about you but I'd rather not take that risk. Writing Exam Preparation p.46 c is UNIT 6 Grammar Exam Preparation p.48 |. the streets be widened at this point. 2. is about to be pedestrianized. 3. facilites are going to be provided at some stage in the future. 4 traffic be banned from driving through the city center. 5 people be fined heavily for dropping litter in the street, 6 will be installed in those areas where crimes are regularly committed 7 should have been consulted before the old town was pulled down, 8 the new football stadium been built, more visitors ‘would have been attracted to the city. | both of which av 3 The city, which | had visited once before, was stunning, 4 The area we lived in 5 constructed, bypassing the city 6 to whom | spoke 7 since which time av 9a metal box under the building containing a collection, of 10 The walls we were standing on had been constructed. | since when 2.who 3 whose 4 which 5 whom in which case 7 which 8 whom 9 at which point 10 whose Cloze Exam Practice p.49 1d 2a3d 4b 5a 6c 7b 8c 9d 10a Ic I2a 13b 14d ISc l6a I7d I8c 19b 20d very cold. 2 got drunk and started fighting, 3 the Asian buyers are fabulously wealthy. 4 it's very bad. ANSWER KEY Paragraph one: b Paragraph two: a Paragraph three: b Paragraph four: b 1b 2a3a4b Saba Exam Practice p.5! Ic 2b3a4b 5a Listening Exam Preparation p.52 | Recognizing the speaker's tone of voice. | anger 2 surprise 3 surprise 4 disbelief 5 sarcasm. 6 sarcasm Ib 2b 3c4e Se 6a 2 Recognizing key words. confusing and inaccurate feel romantic love for not caring about danger looks like he cannot be trusted ook with eyes partly closed, especially in sunlight 100 ready to believe what other people say and thus easy to trick Ib 2a3a4e5bba Exam Practice Part Il p.53 I9¢ 20b 21a 2b 23b 24b 2b 2%b We 2B 29¢ 30a 3c 3c 3a 34b 35 Tapescript Exam Preparation Part Il 1 M: What on earth d’you think you're doing with my new comera? 2 F: Gee, the last bus couldn't have gone already, could it? 3 M: Wow! Who'd have thought the car could go so fast? _ IN 4 F: Well never! Is that the time? 5 M: Wel, to what do we owe the pleasure of your company at such an early hour of the morning, Miss Smith? 6 F: Can't you do ony better than that? Exam Practice Part II In this port of the test, you will hear @ question. From the three answer choices given, choose the ane which best “answers the question. For exomple, listen to the question: Example M: Do you know where the procession is going to begin? The correct answer is b. Yes, in the park, For problems 19 through 35, mark your answers on the ‘separate answer sheet. No problem can be repeated. Please listen carefully. Do you have any questions? 19 M: How on earth do you expect me to hear with all that din going on? 20 F: How is it you haven't seen a doctor with that throat? 2 M: Shouldn't you have asked your parents before inviting ‘everyone round for a party? 2 F: Wouldn't you know i? I've gone and left my bag in the cor! B M: Is the wedding stil going ahead or are they caling the whole thing off? oo) F: Don’t you think it’s about time you stopped fiddling with ‘that car and came inside? 5 M: What was the page you said you wanted me to find for you? 6 F: I'm gonna work out after class. D'you wanna come with me? a M: You didn’t happen to see my wallet, did you? 2B F: How in the world did you think you were gonna fix the cor without the right took? 29 M: | must apologize for my behavior this evening. Can | ‘make it up to you somehow? 30 F: Who would have thought that Jason would turn out to be so mean? 31 M: The lamb casserole is off, I'm afraid. Is there anything | can bring you instead? 32 F: Couldn't you turn up on time for once in your life? 33 M: Was James really in cahoots with the pickpockets? 34 F: You don’t think there's ony chance we've missed the last bus, do you? 35 M: Don't you know it’s ude to eavesdrop on other people's conversations? Writing Exam Preparation p.54 A 1 elif. city . better. fe .. countryside. discuss positive and negative factors. c Starting To begin with, First and foremost, Continuing ‘Another point we should consider is that .. leis also a fact that Concluding Last but not least, ... A final point that can be made is that UNIT 7 Vocabulary Exam Preparation p.56 1 aatthe edge of b in the way of Con the verge of under suspicion of bat risk of cat the expense of under threat of in danger of out of tune with Ib 2a3a4b 5b 6a7b 8a 9b 10a If 2h 3g 4b 5c 6a7e 8d | waste 2 greenhouse 3 layer 4 engineering 5 Endangered 6 soil 7 acid 8 environment 9 species 10 habitat Cloze Exam Practice p.57 Id 2b 3d 4b 5b 6a 7c 8d 9d 10b Ic I2¢ 134 I4a 15¢ 16c I7b 18d 19b 20a Reading Exam Preparation p.58 ib 2a3b 4e5d Exam Practice p.59 Ib 2d 3a4a5e Listening Exam Preparation p.60 | Listening for gist. any appropriate summary of paragraph | 1 2 3 4 5 6 Earth leaves, berries, birds/chicks eggs leaves, water feed gibbon 2 Recognizing key words. ANSWER KEY | They're tough, indigestible and low on nutriment. eggs, chicks insect larvae, frogs energy SE Asia humans forearms too big, shoulders and hips too inflexible, coordination poor, inflexible wrists 8 You could fall off and injure yourself. Nounwn Exam Practice Part III p.6! 36b 37b 38a 39a 40c 41 b 42 43b 44a 45b 46c 47a 48b 49b 50c Tapescript Exam Practice Part III In this part of the test, you will hear three short segments from a radio program. The program is called ‘Our fascinating world.” You will hear what three different radio guests have to say about three diferent topics. Each talk lasts about 24-3 minutes. As you listen, you may want to take some notes to help you remember information given inthe tak. After each speaker talks, you will be asked some questions about what was said. From the three answer choices given, you should choose the one which best answers the question, ‘according to the information you heard. Remember, no problem can be repeated. For problems 36 through 50, mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. Do you have any questions? ‘Segment | F: We are destroying our forests at on alarming rate. Forests are important on many counts — they are known os the ‘lungs" of the planet, soaking up carbon dioxide and giving off oxygen in return. They also provide food and shelter to countless thousands of species of insects and to ‘many, many mammals. More on this from our guest, 0 world-famous presenter of natural history programmes. M: A third of the Earth's land is stil covered by trees of one kind or another ~ so, not unexpectedly, mammals belonging to very different families have managed to acquire the skills and physical adaptations required to feed there. There's a greater variety of food in the tropical rain forest than anywhere else in the natural world. One obvious source of food of course is leaves but the fact of the matter is that leaves aren't really very good food — they're rather tough, they're indigestible and actually they don’t contain much nutriment. But there's a lot more thon leaves to eat up there. If you're fast and agite enough you can catch birds but if you're not ~ well ~ some birds make their nests here and then eggs and chicks make 0 good and easy meal ‘And then there are brightly coloured fruits with fleshy coverings which are sufficiently good enough to eat to persuade animals of all kinds to swallow them and so distibute the seeds. If you're going to stay up in the trees for o long time, you will need to drink ~ that, perhops surprisingly, is not necessarily « problem. Sometimes it’s even easier to get 0 dink up in the trees than itis down below. Vase plants are fall of water and sometimes these tiny ponds contain insect larvae and even fiogs ~ so there's plenty of protein as wel. Allin all the larder up in the forest canopy is far too rch to Jgnore and many mammals come up and feed up here. But 1no big mammal can spend its entire fife in a simple tree — they all have to move to find new sources of food. Descending one tree, moving across the ground and climbing Lup another is one method. But there is another more energy- efficient way — and that isto cross ffom one tree to another at the top, To find the supreme tree-traveler, we have to climb into the canopy of the forests of Southeast Asia. The forest is hhome to the fastest of all the flightless inhabitants of the canopy in the world. It’s so swift and so ogie it’s capable of catching birds in mid-air. Gibbons — not monkeys but small ‘apes. They're such skilled acrobats that they can change direction in mid-flow. We may be distantly related to the lesser apes but when you watch gibbons up in the branches you realise how il-equipped we are for life in the trees. Our forearms are too big, our shoulders and our hips are too inflexible and our coordination compared to gibbons is very poor. And they have one characteristic which we and indeed «all other primates lack — that isto say, a ball and socket joint in their wrists. I is that that allows them to perform such fantastic aerial aerobatics. Hurting through the ‘branches, hand over hand, isthe gibbon’s standard way of | getting oround. Life in the trees is 0 dangerous business — one serious ‘mistake is fkely to be your last. Mankind’s success started when its feet hit the ground and it stood up on its hind legs. But animals like the gibbon are proof that there's a very 00d living to be had up therein the trees. 36 F: Why do so many mammals climb trees in the topical rin forests? 37 F: In comparison to humans, what do gibbons possess? 38 F: What does the speaker say about trees? 39 F: What does he say about gibbons? 40 F: What problems are associated with eating leaves? Segment 2 M: Scientists ore constantly searching for fossis that wil help us understand the history of evolution. In some cases these fossils are millions of years old, as was the case with the coelacanth. Nobody expected to find a living specimen of coelacanth, but in the early twentieth century a sensational discovery was made, as our next speaker wil now explain, F: Since we were tracing the history of life, species that linked one great group of animals with another were very important elements in our story. Fossils of fish called ‘coelacanths had long been known in rocks 400 milion years ‘ld, Judging from their bones, they had stout fleshy bases to their fins and some scientists believed them to be very close to the first four-legged animals to craw/ out of the sea and Up on to the land. They were therefore a link to the fist ‘amphibians and thus to all terestral vertebrates, including ‘ourselves. When, in 1938, a South Affican trawler brought Lup one alive from @ depth of around 300 feet, it caused a scientific sensation. It was a monster, five feet long and ‘much bigger than its fossil relations which were no bigger than herrings. Sadly, it had been gutted and its entrails thrown away before any scientists saw it, so details of its soft parts that could not be reveoled by fossils stil remained Lunknown. in spite of an intensive search over many years no farther specimen was found. Unti, that is, another was fished up from the seas ‘round the Comoro Islands, off the Aftican coast of ‘Madagascar. Since then, two or three had been caught in the waters around the Comores which were cleary the coelacanth’s main home. But no one had succeeded in filming living example. It would be @ great coup for our programme, Life on Earth, if we could do so. Scones believed that he could. He was ~ and is ~ one of the most experienced underwater cameramen with an extraordinary skill in devising special equipment for particular jobs. All the specimens, like the first, had been caught at depths of around 300 feet. That was beyond the range of ‘scuba diver but well within reach of an underwater camera, Peter's idea was to lower o remotely-controlled video camera ‘on a long cable in the area off the Comores where most specimens had been caught. It seemed worth a try. There ‘were other things of interest to us on the islands as well ~ 0 particularly photogenic colony of fruit bats, and some lemurs ~s0 whatever happened, a vst to the Comores would be worthwhile The Comores, we discovered, were not at that time politically stable. There had been a series of bloodless revolutions and it was difficult to find out who wos actualy in chorge. Eventually we contacted helpful people on the Islands and in due course, Peter and {arrived in Moroni, the copital. Most of the coelacanths that had been caught had been hooked at right, when they probably came up from greater depths in order to feed. So that was the time we went out to look for them. Every evening we left harbour in a launch. When we reached the area recommended by the local fishermen, Peter lowered his camera, with lights ‘attached, and we ail gathered around a monitor in the stereo to watch what it might reveal Things did not look promising. Any idea that o group of these prehistoric monsters would appear out of the gloomy depths and swim into the beam of our lights to take bait was soon seen to be wildly optimistic. The sea was too deep for us to anchor, and there was a strong current. So ail our video camera revealed was the sea floor moving steadily past at two or three miles an hour. Even if we were to catch «a glimpse of coelacanth maping around on the bottom, we would be swept post it before we could get a good look at it. Nonetheless, we persisted. ‘Although the sea floor was largely flat, in places there were rocky reefs. As soon os we spotted one ahead on the ‘monitor, we had to hau! in the cable so that the camera, as the current took us towards the reef, would rise above it and ‘not get tangled. The line was so long that it took some seconds before even the most frantic hauling on the boat, hod any effect. The end was inevitable. n the fifth night, we saw a huge reef coming. We hauled in the cable as quickly a we could but not quickly enough. The camera swept the boat on, white lines zigzagged over the television picture and then the monitor went blank. The cable had broken. And that, it seemed, was that. 4l M: What kind of onimal is a coelacanth? a2 M: Why was it so important for the makers of this ‘programme to locate a coelacanth? 4B M: Why was the coelacanth found by the South African trawler of litle use to scientists? “4 M: How did they plan to film a living example of coelacanth? 45 M: What was the main problem they encountered while firing? ‘Segment 3 F: Very few marine creatures can venture above the limit of the highest tide and survive. Turtles, however, are compelled +0 do so by their ancestry, as our final speaker will now explain M: Turtles are descended from lond-tving air breathing tortoises, and have, over the millennia, become superb swimmers, able to dive beneath the surface for long periods without drawing breath, propelling themselves at great speed with legs that have been modified into long broad flippers. But their eggs, like all repiion eggs, can only develop and hatch in cit. Their developing embryos need gaseous axygen to breathe, and without it they wil suffocate and dle. So every year, the adult female turtles, having mated at sea, must leave the sofety of the open ocean and visit ry land. Ridleys, one of the smallest of the sea-going turtles, ‘averaging about 60 centimetres in length, breed in vast congregations that must surely constitute one of the most ‘astounding sights inthe animal world. On one or two remote beaches in Mexico and Costa Rica, on a few nights between ANSWER KEY ‘August and November which scientists so far have been 8 unable to prédict, hundreds of thousands of tures emerge Tfoin the water and advance up the beach. They-have-the lungs and the watertight skin bequeathed them by their fand-tving ancestors so they are in no danger of either suffocation or desiccation, but their fippers are il-suited to life out of water. But nothing stops them. They struggle upwards until at last they reach the head of the beach just below the ie of permanent vegetation. There they begin digging their nest hole. So tightly packed are they that they clamber over one another in their attempts to find o suitable site, As they dig, sweeping ther fippers back and forth, they scatter sand over one another and slap each others’ shes When at last each turtle completes her hole, she lays about a hundred eggs in it, carefully covers it over, and returns to the sea. The laying continues for three or four rights in succession during which time over 100,000 Ridleys ‘may visita single beach. The eggs take forty-eight days to hatch but often before they can do so, a second army of turtles arrives. Again the beach is covered with crowing reptiles. As the newcomers dig, many inadvertently excavate 4 Q, ‘ond destroy the eggs laid by their predecessors and the beach becomes strewn with parchment-ike egg-coverings «and rotting embryos. Less than one in 500 of the eggs lid om the beach survives long enough to produce a hatchling The factors that govern this mass breeding ore stil not _propeily understood. le may be thot al the Rileys come to these very few beaches simply because ocean currents happen to sweep them passively in that direction. It could ‘also be advantogeous for them to nest thousands at a time, since if they spaced out their visits more evenly throughout the year, the beaches would attrac large permanent populations of predators such as crabs, snakes, iguanas and vultures. As iti, there is litle to eat there for most of the year, so very few such creatures ate there when the turtles rive. If this is the reason for the habit, it seems to have been effective, for Ridleys in both the Pacific and the Atlantic ‘are among the commonest of all turtles while many other species are now diminishing in numbers and some are in danger of extinction. 46 F: Why do turtles have to leave the sea to lay their eggs? 47 F: Why aren't the turtles in danger of desiccation when they leave the sea? 48 F: What do scientists know about the tutes’ breeding season? 49 F: What happens when the second ormy of turtles arrive? 50 F Why are there few predators waiting for the turtles? Writing Exam Preparation p.62 A Discuss some ... main environmental problems country ... how ... problems ... overcome. Discuss the problems. Suggest how to overcome them. D Cause and Result Asa consequence, As a result of this, Hence, For this reason, . your Addition Furthermore, ‘What is more, Besides, Moreover Contrast and concession In spite of this/Despite this, However, Nevertheless, ‘Although/Even though uNIT 8 Grammar Exam Preparation p.64 | was the heat (that) ‘quickly do conditions change in the Arctic (that) ‘was the severity of his injuries (that) afraid was she of water (that) shrouded in mist was the peak (that) bad was the storm (that) did he swim (that) the weight of her equipment (that) 9 tough was the competition (that) 10 was the number of people entering/who entered for the race (that) || Should my friends suggest such a risky adventure again 2 Such a feeling of freedom did the man get 3 4 Were | to enter such an event again 5. Such a stirring team talk did he give ov Ib 2a 3b 4a 5b 6b Exam Pras e p.65 Id 2b 3c 4d 5b 6a7d 8a 9c 10d Ile I2b 13d 14 1Sb 16a I7b Vocabulary Exam Preparation p.66 I heaved 2 grasped 3 swooped 4 hurtled 5 whirled 6 flashed 7 swerved 8 strained | take up 2 taken in 3 take to 4 taken on 5 taken off 6 taken over 7 take ... in 8 has taken on 1b 2b3a4b5a6b7a [for 2o0n 30 4up 5 between 6 to 7 in 8 of Exam Practice p.67 Ib 2a 3d 4c Sa 6c 7a Bb 9d 10c Id I2b [3c 14b ISd l6c I7b 18d Listening Exam Preparation p.68 | Understanding instructions or specific information. 1 They're in a laboratory, doing an experiment. c 2. Medicine. b 3. Operating a video machine. They could be husband and wife/partners/boyfriend and girriend. a 2 Understanding conversational English. 1 I'm going. Not at all/In no circumstances. 2 Tobe sensible. 3. Be very surprising/shocking, Ib 2¢3¢ Exam Practice Part 1 p.69 Ib 2c 3b 4¢5c 6b 7a Bc 9c 10b IIb 12b 13 I4a 15a 16b I7a 18c Tapescript Exam Preparation Part I | Understanding instructions or specific information. 1 M: What did the instructor warn us about the experiment? F: He said we have to leave the test tube to cool o bit before we add cold water to it. MI see 2 F: Did the doctor leave any special instructions about taking this medicine? f: He said not to worry unless it made you feel sleepy in which case you weren't to drive or use machinery. That's fin. : Have you read through the instructions for setting up the video recorder yet? F: Yes, dear. You do need to run the set up program before {you con record anything off the television, you know. M: Here. Let me have a look. 2 Understanding conversational English. ' M: It’s five o'clock. 'm out of here! F: Don't you think you ought to woit ‘til the bell rings? M: No way! 2 F: | don’t know if we can trust Brian with such an important task M: He’s got his head screwed on ail ight. Let’s see wiat happens. 3 F: Cive’s quite steady and dependable, isn’t he? M: | could tell you a few things about him that would make your hair cut! Exam Practice Part | In this part of the test, you will hear short conversations. From the three answer choices given, choose the answer which means the same thing as what you hear, or that is true based upon what you hear. For example, listen to the conversation. Example M: Let’s eat out F: You're on! I feel lazy tonight The correct answer is ¢. They both want to eat out. For problems | through 18, mork your answers on the separate answer sheet. No problem can be repeated. Please listen careflly. Do you have any questions? 1 M: Do you remember what the lecturer warned us about doing this experiment? F: He stressed the fact that we shouldn't handle the chemicals without wearing gloves as they are extremely corrosive. We'd better do as he says then. Are you still going to the mountains for your next break? : Well, to be honest we're in two minds. My wife's dragging her feet a bit — says she'd rather laze on a beach. Who could blame her? 37s | thought you were going to play tennis tis ofternoon. Had to scrap the idea — not a court to be had. Not the ‘ight sort of weather for tennis anyway. : Too bad. Maybe you'll get another chance tomorrow. mzeon mag What did Peter say we should do with the jumper cables? He said to attach them to the car battery but not to ‘switch our engine on until he's started his cor Right you are. z m me ve been trying to get through to the box office all morning but I've drawn a blank. M: It’s always the same with that theater. Why don’t I call in later on my way home from work? I guess they'l be open then, ‘Might be the best idea. Sure you don’t mind? {'m going up the wall tying to work this new video. { don’t know what its with machines these days. The newer the technology, the more impossible the manuals Well it’s certainly got me beat this time. nz07 {'m worn out. | think Il go home early tonight. So what's new? It's not the first time is it? Well, thanks very much for your sympathy! xz° uzm~ Zz |: I've got tickets for a concert tonight. Would you care to join me? ‘There's nothing Id love better but I've gota lot on tonight. Can I take a rain check on that? |: Sure thing! m meg Every time we go for lunch you have a burger. I don’t think they're very good for you. M: | don't see why not. They taste good — and you don’t want to believe all the rubbish you read about fast food. F: That's up to you. I'l stick to what the experts say. 10 F: Have you got that suit back from the cry cleaners yet? They said it would be ready yesterday. M: I told you I'd callin for it and | di M: Where ore you going with that hammer? F: | was just going to hang this picture in my bedroom. It won't take me a minute. M: That's what you think! Il thank you to give me thot hammer right now. 2 F: I'm looking for pale blue blouse but I can't seem to find my size M: We seem to be right out just now. Could I interest you in «@ dfferent shade ~ maybe this green one? It would really suit you F: Ive got nothing to go with that M: I'd like you to file oll those leters before you go home, please F: Ill do my best but 'm a bit short of time. | have to pick ‘my neighbor's kids up from schoo! tonight. M: Wel the letters are pretty important but | guess they can wait 4 F: Don't drive so fast! We're going to have an accident! M: You could've saved us allthis rush if you hadn't taken so long doing your bat! F: I suppose you wouldn't have minded if d gone to the ‘airport looking a complete wreck? M: You shouldn’t have gone out on the boat alone without telling someone. You should have let someone know where you were, F: | would have if there'd been anyone round to tell M: Are you telling me you couldn't find anyone around in the middle of the doy? F: Could you give me a hand? I'm decorating my bedroom ‘and I'm having trouble with the wallpapering. M: Why me? I might be an expert on computers but 'm no great hand ot do-it yourself. | wouldn’t have asked if | didn’t think you could do it. P11 be in a real mess if you don’t. 7 M: What got into Paul last night? F: I haven’t the slightest clue. | think somebody said something he took exception to and he just clammed up ofter that. M: Wel, I don’t fancy going out with him again if that's hhow he’s going to behave. M: Oh no! My cell phone isn’t working for some reason. The battery must have run down. F: I'd offer to lend you mine but it’s nat working ether. Why don’t you use a phone booth? There's one on the next block Oh, it can wait ™ Writing Exam Preparation p.70 A «ss new benefactor ... funds ... build ... sports and leisure complex ... oF... extend the library ... which you would choose ... give reasons. State a preference and give reasons. D = Despite even though due to while Furthermore On the other hand UNIT 9 Grammar Exam Preparation p.72 I totell me 2smile 3 coming 410 make 5 to help 6 hearing 7 studying 8 not to have heard | trying to frighten 2 expect to hear 3 not having spoken 4 not to have met 5 myself having 6 having been given | having 2.to mention 3 to tel, doing 4 calling 5 to go into 6 trying 7 speak 8 having | What he most wanted to do was 2 The doctor advised him to do 3 She told them to write av 5 Ihave just applied to go 6 Steve suggested that | take Ww 8 I'm going to have to postpone seeing you 9 | anticipate the situation getting 10 | don't recall the weather being Exam Practice p.73 1c 2d 3a 4d 5d 6b 7b Ba 9c 10d Ila I2¢ 13d I4e I5c lod Vocabulary Exam Preparation p.74 1} | drifting 2 purchase 3 dew 4 snap 5 terms 6 rigmarole 7 dribbling 8 quell 9 relatively 10 landmark | up with 2up against 3 down to 4 round to Sup 6 back 7 by 8 down in 9 across 10 round/to Ib 2a 3b 4b5a6b7b 8b | consciousness 2 simplify 3 outset 4 unattainable 5 variety 6 realize 7 expectations 8 deceptive 9 misapprehension 10 insoluble Exam Practice p.75 lc 2a 3c 4d 5b 6d 7d Bb 9c 10d IIc 12d 13b I4c ISb 16b Reading Exam Practice pp.76~-77 1b 2d 3c 4a5a6a7b 8d 9c I0c Writing Exam Preparation p.78 A 1 Describe ... person ... influence ... grew up examples of what you admired ... how changed ... passage of time. 2 Describe a person, give examples of what you admired, say how your perception has changed over time. perception ANSWER KEY unit 10 Grammar Exam Preparation p.80 L'have changed 2 I've gotten 3 I'll have been working 4 am going 5 finish 6 1 get are to be introduced ‘wondering if you might, he’s on the point of walking | arrive in Paris are due to be released quite likely to I'm leaving She's going to fait. as soon as 've gotten v Tihdo v 1b 2b 3a 4b 5b 6a aunwn= oan Cloze Exam Practice p.8! Id 2a 3b 4d 5c 6a 7b 8c 9a 10a IIb I2a 13¢ 14 15c 16d I7a 18a 19¢ 20b Reading Exam Practice pp.82-83 1b 2b 3c 4a 5d 6a7c 8b 9d 10a Listening Exam Preparation p.84 1 Recognizing elements such as elision, contraction, liaison and ellipsis. have not 2 d'you = do you, won't = will not 3. Who'd've = who would have, gonna = going to Peter've = Peter have, he's = he has you've = you have, could've = could have I's = Itis, didn’t = did not Don’t = Do not, it's = itis I'm = | am, gonna = going to, aren’ are not 2 Identifying key vocabulary. | unclear fuzzy 2 terrible noise 3 idiot 4 forgetful 5 very hot 6 very tired/sick/worried 7 stupid, slow to understand 8 mad, crazy (in a sily way) 9 a mess 10 frightening, scary Ib 2¢3b 4c 5a 6b 7b 8c 9a 10d Exam Practice Part II p.85 19a 20b 2ic 2b Be 2b 2a 2a MWe 2Ba 29b 30c 31b 32a 33b 34b 35d Tapescript Exam Preparation Part II | Recognizing elements such as elision, contraction, liaison and ellipsis. \ M: How is it you haven't done that typing assignment I gave you yet? F: How d'you expect me to help you if you won't do anything to help yourself? M: Who'd've thought Tina was gonna chuck her job in and take off for Mexico just like that? F: Where on earth could Peter've put the papers he's been working on? M: Would you've gone to the movies if you could've found a babysitter? F: I's @ heck of a shame you didn’t take him up on his offer of a free tip. M: Don't you think it’s about time you got down to some hard work for a change? F: I'm sure Alice was kidding when she said she was gonna propose to Ken, aren't you? 2 Identifying key vocabulary. \ M: Do you think the photos look rather blurred? 2 F: What on eorth is that row? 3 M: Why are you behaving like an imbecile? 4 F: I can't believe you're so scatterbrained! 5 M: It’s scorching today, isn’t i? 6 F: Why was Jane looking so haggard this morning? 7 M: You're so obtuse! 8 F: He's quite loony, isn't he? 9 M: Honestly John looks like a scarecrow today! 10 F: Thot film was really freoky! Exam Practice Part II In this port of the test, you will hear a question. From the three answer choices given, choose the one which best answers the question. For example, listen to the question. Example M: Do you know where the procession is going to begin? The correct answer is b. Yes, in the park. For problems 19 through 35, mark your answers on the ‘separate answer sheet. No problem can be repeated, Please listen carefully, Do you have any questions? 19 F: So you've decided to delight us with your presence after all, have you? 20 MIs there any need to stop for gas or did you fill up before you came? 2 F: Would you believe it! They've only gone and cancelled the next flight to Dallas! 2 M: Are you coming or will you stil be getting ready this time next week? 2B F: What's the likelihood we can persuade the bank to lend Us a bit more cash? or M: Can't you see you'e banging your head ogainst a brick wall trying to persuade Paul to stay on at university? 25 F: Why don't you have it out with Amy instead of just voiding her all the time? % M: Any idea where I can lay my hands on a screwdriver? | need it to fix the shelf in the bathroom. a F: You're very quiet today. What’s got into you? 28 M: | was sure | lft my passport on the kitchen table but where itis now is anybody's guess. 2» F: Where did you get that awful sweater? 30 M: Why don’t you stop playing games and tell me what it is you want? 31 F: How about skipping lunch and having o walk in the park? 32 M: | don't suppose there's any chance I could borrow your arden shears for a couple of days, is there? 33 F: What do you think will happen if we play truant tomorrow ond go shopping? 4 M: Didn't Emma look stunning lastnight? 35 F: Did you hear what | said or are you deaf? Writing Exam Preparation p.86 c ad Suggested answers | Not many people want to work until they're 90, 2. Nowadays, many people are fit enough to work into their 70s, 3. Alot of businesses don’t really want employees who are past retiring age. ‘Some/A number of firms ‘The majority/A lot of people don’t want .. 6 Some people tend to slow up as they get older. \ believe that it is unwise to make people €@ retire at the set age we have at present. Aé !M the first place, improvements in healthcare and diet H-mmeans *™MEAN that many people are staying fit and healthy for @ much longer than they wse * US€d to in the past. The implications ‘of this are obvious. A person whieh * “MO reaches the present statutory retirement age is being no longer worn ‘out; in fact this person he could well be on top form. Just think what a wealth of experience a firm is going losing if it makes that person €@ retire. We must also look at the problem from * thE point of view of the employees who are forced to retire while ghey stil feeling they have a lot to give to their employer. Too many People are chucked out of there * thei" jobs too early and left feeling that they are a drei * drain on society, unit 11 Vocabulary Exam Preparation p.88 | dabbling 2 grain 3 cobbled 4 scalding 5 grasp 6 enhance 7 thrive 8 floods 9 dwindled 10 ground | resources 2 course 3 nature 4 face 5 came 6 causes 7 reserve 8 selection la 2b 3b 4a 5b 6b7a 8b 9b 0a Cloze Exam Practice p.89 \d 2b 3a 4d Sc 6c 7a Bb 9b 0c IId 12b [3c I4b 15a I6c I7d 18d 19a 20d Reading Exam Practice pp.90-91 Id 2d 3a 4c 5b 6a 7d 8c 9b 0c Listening Exam Preparation p.92 | Note-taking, | False 2 False 3 True 4 True 5 True 6 False 7 False 8 False 2 Listening for key words. | eat 2 integrated 3 crop species 4 selective breeding 5 vagaries of the climate 6 proven 7 genie 3 Deducing the meaning of key words. | make an exact copy 2. made an exact copy of a plant or animal by taking a cell from it and developing it artificially. 3. idea that someone/some group has thought of without help from others 4 becoming different/not different 5 be so excited that you are no longer in control of what you do or say fault, a desirable quality in somebody's character 7 doesn’t make sense Exam Practice Part III p.93 36a 37¢ 38a 39c 40a 41b 42c 43a 44d 45a 46a 47c 48b 49b 50a Tapescript Exam Practice Part III In this port of the test you wil hear three short segments fram a radio program. The program is called ‘Scientific breakthroughs’. You will hear what three different radio guests have to say about three different topics. Each tak losts about 2% ~ 3 minutes. As you listen, you may want 0 take some notes to help you remember information given in the talk. After each speaker talks, you willbe asked some questions about what was said. From the three answer choices given, you should choose the one which best answers ‘the question, according to the information you heard. Remember, no problem can be repeated. For problems 36 through 50, mark your answers on the separate answer sheet. Do you have any questions? Segment | F: Around fifty years ago, Francis Crick walked into a bar with his collaborator James Watson and announced, ‘We have discovered the secret of life.’ Let us hear more about that famous discovery now, fiom today’s fist guest speaker. (UM: In. 1962, James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins together received the Nobel Prize for their discovery, in 1953, of the structure of DNA. Their colleague, Rosalind Franklin, had died of cancer in 1958. The discovery of the structure of DNA has revolutionized science. Without it, some of the most promising and ‘controversial areas of medicine, including genetic screening and human cloning, would never have been possible. DNA, the molecule which lays down the blueprint for every living organism, contains the patterns for constructing proteins in the body. It was discovered that DNA consists of double helxes, that i, two chains twisted round each other of alternating phosphate and sugar groups. The two chains ‘are held together by hydrogen bonds between pairs of organics bases ~ adenine with thiamine and guanine with ‘ftosine. The discovery of the structure of DNA, as I have pg Mutonet brug abou ere andestanding of heresy and hereditary disease. . The background forthe work of the fur sciests wos formed by sever! scentfic breaktvoughs the progress ‘made by X-ray crystallographers; the growing evidence Supplied by geneticists that it was DNA, not poten in chromosomes tat was responsible for heredity; and Linus Pauling’s discovery that the molecules of some proteins hove helical shapes. Of the four DNA researchers, only Rosalind Franklin had university degrees in chemistry. She went to work in King’s Colege, London, where she met Maurice Wilkins, «nuclear psc He hod worked in te US But had become Gsilusioned, ke others, when Hs subject wos applied to the creation of the atomic bomb. He turned instead to biophysics. Ie was Wilkins" idea to study DNA by X-ray + crystallographic techniques ‘Meanwhile, 23.year-old James Watson, a Chicago-born ‘Aimerican,anived in Cambridge. He heard Wiki tlk on the molecular structure of DNA and saw his recent X-ray photographs of DNA — and was hooked. Francis Crick, tater physi in biology, wos supposed tobe writing 0 dissertation on the X-ray crystallography of hemoglobin when James Watson arrived, eager to recruit a colleague for work on DNA. Watson ond Crick ropily put together several models of DNA and etempted to incorporate al the evidence they could gather. Watson and Crick were quick to cli ced forthe discovery of the double helix structure of DNA but they have been accused of belittling the work of Rosalind Franklin, whose X-ray photographs of the DNA molecule 4 &€ crucial. Watson was shown Fronklin’s work, without her “eiiede, by her superior Wikns, wth whom the pair ‘eventually shared the Nobel Prize but he has never accepted thot she played an equl role. Many believe she was veated badly by Watson, Crick and Wilkins because of her gender, though she was not considered for the Nobel becouse the pre is owerded ony to ivng sles 36 F: When did Watson, Crick and Wilkins receive the Nobel Prize? 7 F: Why did Wilkins decide to work in the field of biophysics? 38 F: What did the scents discover about DNA? ab ad 39 F: What is DNA? 40 F: What do we learn about Rosalind Franklin's X-ray Photographs? Segment 2 M: Genetically modified food has emerged in a relatively short time os one of the most controversial topics of public debate. Food, after all, affects everyone. It can be a highly emotive subject, especially if something hoppens to threaten cur sense of security about it. More about this from our next speaker. F.1d lke to stort by clspeling some of the misconceptions about the nature of food, digestion and existing practices, as well as about genetics. Humans, like all other animals, abtain the basic materials for bodily growth and maintenance from complex chemical materials ke proteins, fats, carbohydrates — in other words, food. These chemicals are broken down by normal digestive processes into relatively simple components, which ore re-sytesized into complex molecules within our bodies. In thot one sense, we are what we eat. Some of our food contains the DNA of plonts,