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Offshore Exploration and Production

Jaeyoung Lee, P.E.


July 2010

CONTENTS
World Energy Facts
Components of Offshore Production Systems
Subsea Systems
Surface Structures

World Energy Facts


Population growth (energy demand growth)
Limited energy supplies
Global warming

Population Energy Demand CO2 Emission


US consumes 5 times more
energy per capita and produces
4.4 times more CO2 per capita
than China.
But China has 4.4 times more
population than US.

Why Offshore Exploration and Production?


Limited onshore gas/oil sources (reservoirs)
Relatively larger offshore reservoirs than onshore
(oil:~20 times more, gas:~10 times more)
More investment cost (10~20 times) but more returns
Improved geology survey and E&P technologies

Global Oil Supplies


Peak at
2016

Importance of Offshore Oil Production


Offshore oil currently 33% of global output: 35% by 2020.
Deepwater: 3% of production in 2002, 6% in 2007, 10% by 2012.
After 2015, deepwater is the only sector to continue to grow.

Importance of Offshore Gas Production


Offshore gas currently 31% of global output: 41% by 2020.
Peak offshore gas by 2026: thanks to deepwater developments.

Deepwater Oil & Gas Production Forecast

Global Deepwater E&P Expenditure

Future deepwater investment is predicted as $167 billion


between 2010 and 2014 up 37% on past 5 years.
Source: The World Deepwater Market Report 2010-2014 Douglas-Westwood

Onshore Production Transportation

Wellhead Control Tree/


Process
Flowline/Pipeline

Offshore Production Transportation


Floating Structure
Wellhead Control Tree
Topside Process

Production Riser

Subsea
Wellhead

Pipeline Riser

Dry Tree System

Pipeline

Offshore Production Transportation


Floating Structure
Topside Process

Flowline Riser
Wet Tree System
Umbilical
Wellhead
Control Tree

Pipeline Riser
Pipeline

Components of Offshore Production Systems

Topside Processing System


Subsea System

Fixed or Floating
Structure System

Pipeline/Riser System

Flowline/Riser System

Subsea System Facts


 Active subsea wells: 3,500
 Offshore line pipes installed by 2009: 180,000 km (111,847 mi.)
(4.5 times of the earths circumference)
 Flowline installed in deepest water depth: 2,961 m (9,713 ft)
 HP/HT (high pressure/temp.) record: 13,212 psi (911 bar)/333oF (167oC)

Subsea Systems

Umbilical

Manifold

UTA
Flying Lead
Jumper
Wellhead Tree

PLET
PLET: Pipe Line End Termination
UTA: Umbilical Termination Unit

Subsea Components Review

Umbilical
?
UTA
?

Wellhead
?

Manifold
?
Jumper
?
Flying
?Lead
PLET
?

Surface Production Structures

Fixed Platform

Compliant Tower
TLP

Mini-TLP

Spar

Semi-Submersible

FPSO

Number of Surface Structures Worldwide


(as of 2009)

Structure Types
Fixed Platforms

No. of
Structures
~6,000

Water Depths (ft)


40 - 1,353

Compliant Towers

1,000 1,754

TLPs

22

482 - 4,674

Spars

17

1,950 - 5,610

Semi-FPSs (Semi-submersibles)

45

262 7,920

FPSOs

159

66 4,796

3,622+

49 7,600

Subsea Tiebacks

Development of Deepwater Floating Systems

Source: Jim McCaul, Floating Production Projects: What Now?,


Marine Technology Reporter, Jan/Feb 2009

Source: E&P Magazine poster

Global Floating Production Expenditure


Long term >200 prospects exist and growth will return.

Source: Douglas-Westwood

Spars

Water Depth:

5,400 feet

Production:

50 MBOPD
68 MMSCFG

Topside Weight: 9,700 tons


Risers:

14 top tension
11 SCRs

Center Well:

52x52 feet

Hull Diameter:

106 feet

Hull Weight:

15,000 tons

Mooring:

9 lines, 3x3

Selecting a Right Platform


Maximize recovery
Minimize risk due to uncertainties
Optimize productivity for least cost

Available Field
Proven Platforms

Platform
Selection
Criteria

Selected platform

Field
Development
Requirements

Source: www.gomr.mms.gov/PDFs/2009/2009-012.pdf

Available Field Proven Platforms (Deepwater)

TLP

Semisub

(wet/dry
trees)

(wet trees)

FPSO
(wet trees)

Spar
(wet/dry
trees)

Platform Selection Criteria


Technical feasibility
Economical feasibility
Functional requirement

Dry or wet trees


Intervention and workover
Drilling (surface or subsea BOP)
Crude oil storage

Compliance to rules and


regulations
Environment

Field Development Requirements


Reservoir characteristics and market
condition

Reservoir size (recoverable)


Well count & production rates
Well locations on seabed
Water depth

Local contents
Existing infrastructure
Operator strategy
Risk Management

Deepwater Platform Comparison

TLP

Semisub

Pros

Cons

Small heave/pitch/roll motion: good


for dry/wet trees, TTR, SCR,
surface BOP drilling, intervention
Large open deck
Dock side topside installation &
commissioning

Water depth limited to 5,000 ft by


tendons and payload restraints
Complex installation and limited
flexibility for relocation and expansion
(difficult to connect and disconnect
tendons)

Wide range of water depths and


payloads
Large open deck
Dock side topside installation &
commissioning
Relatively simple installation/
decommissioning/relocation/
expansion compared to TLP & Spar
(can be installed on preset mooring
system and return to dockside for
retrofit and redeployment)

Relatively larger motion than TLP &


Spar
Wet trees (subsea BOP drilling) only
Limited envelope for SCR
Require complex full ballast system
and scenario
Relatively sensitive to weight
distribution

Deepwater Platform Comparison


Pros

FPSO

Spar

Cons

Can accommodate very large


topside
Large crude oil storage
Simplest topside integration and
commissioning
Wet tow or sail from yard to site
Simplest to expand topsides,
relocate or decommission

Relatively sensitive to wave action


(require weathervane capability for
harsh/multi directional environment)
Wet trees only
Subsea BOP drilling only
Flexible risers required for deeper
waters
Require full ballast system

Small motion: good for dry/wet


trees, TTR, SCR, surface BOP
drilling, work over, intervention
Dual barrier production risers with
increasing depth and pressure
Covers wide range of depths and
payloads (>25,000 tons)

Topside installation by floatover or


heavy lift
Limited flexibility for decommissioning,
relocation, expansion
Multi-level decks due to small footprint
Horizontal tow (vertical tow is only
possible within limited water depths)

Floating Platforms for Small Reservoirs in GOM

Source: Selecting the Right Floating Production Platform for Deepwater Field
Developments, Presentation by Richard DSouza, March 2010

Floating Platforms for Medium Reservoirs in GOM

Source: Selecting the Right Floating Production Platform for Deepwater Field
Developments, Presentation by Richard DSouza, March 2010

Floating Platforms for Large/Multiple Reservoirs


in GOM

Source: Selecting the Right Floating Production Platform for Deepwater Field
Developments, Presentation by Richard DSouza, March 2010

Floating Platforms in GOM

Source: Selecting the Right Floating Production Platform for Deepwater Field
Developments, Presentation by Richard DSouza, March 2010

Floating Platforms by Petrobras

Semi
FPSO

Source: Selecting the Right Floating Production Platform for Deepwater Field
Developments, Presentation by Richard DSouza, March 2010

Questions?
jlee@jylpipeline.com