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Chapter 13

A bacterium is believed to have a relatively thick peptidoglycan cell wall


with no extra, outer layer. Which test and appropriate result can confirm
this property? Gram stain: purple bacteria indicating Gram-positive properties
A population of Escherichia coli doubles about every ____________ in a
laboratory culture. 20 minutes
All of the following are methods microbiologists use to identify bacteria
EXCEPT: the size and location of the nucleus.
During times of financial turmoil, bonds are usually stable investments,
while stocks can fluctuate wildly in value. Bonds are to stocks as __________
are to __________.DNA viruses; RNA viruses
Establishing a phylogeny for bacteria is more difficult than establishing a
phylogeny for plants or animals." This statement is: correct because bacteria
can engage in lateral gene transfer.
From an evolutionary perspective, the most basic division among all
organisms on earth is among: bacteria, archaea, and eukarya.
Gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia are all caused by which type of
microbe? Bacteria
How do chemolithotrophs acquire energy? They use inorganic molecules for
energy.
How do chemoorganotrophs differ from chemolithotrophs?
Chemoorganotrophs consume organic molecules, whereas chemolithotrophs
consume inorganic molecules as their source of food.
How do plasmids containing genes for antibiotic resistance get exchanged
between different bacteria cells in a culture? through conjugation
In the bacterium pictured here, which label is associated with the
flagellum? H
In the graphic of a bacterium (shown here), which label is associated with
the chromosomal DNA? F
In which of the following environments would you expect to find microbes
flourishing? All of the above.
Of the following methods of DNA exchange between bacteria, which is
mediated by virus particles? Transduction
Paramecium is to animal-like protists as __________ are to __________.diatoms;
plant-like protists
The bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus plays an important role in: Both
the second and third choices are true.

Chapter 13
The bacterium Thermus aquaticus is to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as
__________ is to __________. penicillin mold; curing bacterial infections in humans
Under certain circumstances, the same genetic condition that causes
sickle-cell anemia can also protect against: malaria.
Until fairly recently, prokaryotes were classified as a single group called
Kingdom Monera. What has occurred to make scientists change microbial
classification? Scientists learned that microbes were much more genetically
diverse, even though they are all small.
What is a capsid? the protein coat of a virus that holds either DNA or RNA
Which of the following behaviors is most likely to increase antibiotic
resistance of microbes? not finishing the full course of an antibiotic prescribed by
your doctor
Which of the following domains are the MOST closely related, in that they
share a unique common ancestor? Archaea and Eukarya
Which of the following is a property of the bacterial capsule? All of the
above.
Which of the following is a TRUE statement about bacteria? Some "normal
flora" can become opportunistic pathogens
Which of the following is NOT a profound difference between bacteria and
archaea? the presence or absence of a nuclear membrane
Which of the following is NOT a type of plasmid found in bacteria? rapid
reproduction
Which of the following organisms could be considered pathogenic? cholera
bacteria
Which of the following processes is most associated with bacterial
resistance acquired through plasmid transfer? Conjugation
Which of the following reasons supports why an amoeba is NOT
considered a microbe? An amoeba actually is a microbe.
Which of the following sequences shows the correct order of the steps of
HIV replication? the virus attaches and enters the host cell; reverse transcriptase
changes viral RNA into viral DNA; viral DNA inserts into the host cell DNA; host cell
transcribes viral RNA from viral DNA; new virus particles assemble and leave the
host cell
Which of the following statements about antibiotics is FALSE? Antibiotics,
though effective against viruses, are not effective against bacteria.
Which of the following statements about Plasmodium is CORRECT? Because
it changes its surface proteins frequently, it is largely invisible to the immune
system.

Chapter 13
Which of the following statements about protists is correct? Protists are the
first group of organisms in which a nucleus is present.
Which of the following statements is FALSE about microbes? Microbes are,
as a rule, closely related to one another.
Which of the following statements is FALSE about microbes? Microbes are,
as a rule, closely related to one another.
Which statement is NOT true about archaeans? Most of the known archaeans
have been identified after growing them in a laboratory.
Why are the bacteria that normally grow on your skin and in your gut
important for your health? They take up space and consume nutrients that
might otherwise be used by disease-causing bacteria.
Why is the widespread use of antibiotics fed to livestock detrimental to
human health? Antibiotics used in this way select for bacteria that are resistant.