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MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC

PERSONALITY INVENTORY
AMAMA FAIZ
KINNAIRD COLLEGE FOR
WOMEN

MMPI
ORIGINAL INSTRUMENT DEVELOPED
IN LATE 1930S
MOST WIDELY USED AND
EXTENSIVELY RESEARCHED OF ALL
PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
REVISED IN 1989--MMPI-2

MMPI
POPULARITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
DUE TO 3 ASPECTS OF ITS
DEVELOPMENT
MULTIPHASIC NATURE OF THE TEST
FORMAL ASSESSMENT OF TEST TAKING
ATTITUDE
EMPIRICAL BASIS FOR ITEM SELECTION

MMPI CLINICAL SCALE


DEVELOPMENT
AUTHORED BY HATHAWAY AND S
McKINLEY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
MINNESOTA HOSPITALS
SELECTED A POOL OF OVER 1000
ITEMS FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES,
PSYCH TEXTS, INTERVIEWS, AND
THEIR OWN CLINICAL EXPERIENCE

MMPI CLINICAL SCALE


DEVELOPMENT
DELETED DUPLICATE ITEMS AND
ELIMINATED THOSE NOT USEFUL FOR
THEIR PURPOSES LEAVING A POOL
OF 504 ITEMS
THESE ITEMS PRESENTED AS FIRST
PERSON DECLARATIVE STATEMENTS
TO WHICH SUBJECT RESPONDED
EITHER TRUE OR FALSE

MMPI CLINICAL SCALE


DEVELOPMENT
TESTED A GROUP OF NORMALS
AND COMPARED THEIR RESPONSES
WITH THOSE OF CAREFULLY
IDENTIFIED GROUPS OF PATIENTS
FROM SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTIC
CATEGORIES

MMPI CLINICAL SCALE


DEVELOPMENT
ORIGINAL 8 DIAGNOSTIC
COMPARISON CATEGORIES WERE
HYPOCHONDRIASIS, DEPRESSION,
HYSTERIA, PSYCHOPATHIC DEVIATE,
PARANOIA, PSYCHASTHENIA,
SCHIZOPHRENIA, AND HYPOMANIA

MMPI CLINICAL SCALE


DEVELOPMENT
EACH SCALE WAS THEN NORMED BY
CALCULATING THE MEAN AND SD IN
THE PRIMARY NORM GROUP
MASCULINITY-FEMININITY SCALE AND
SOCIAL INTROVERSION SCALES
WERE DEVELOPED LATER AND
DIFFERENTLY THAN THE ORIGINAL 8
SCALES

MMPI Mf SCALE
DEVELOPMENT
55 ITEMS RELATING TO SEXUAL
ORIENTATION OR GENDER INTEREST
PATTERNS WERE ADDED TO THE
POOL
TEST WAS ADMINISTERED TO AN
IDENTIFIED GROUP OF MALE
HOMOSEXUALS AND A GROUP OF
MALE SOLDIERS

MMPI
FINAL VERSION OF MMPI CONSISTED
OF 566 ITEMS ON 10 CLINICAL
SCALES AND FOUR VALIDITY SCALES

MMPI
VALIDITY SCALES
CANNOT SAY ?
LIE
L
FREQUENCY F
CORRECTION K

MMPI
CLINICAL SCALES
HYPOCHONDRIASIS
Hs1
DEPRESSION
D 2
HYSTERIA
Hy 3
PSYCHOPATHIC DEVIATE Pd4
MASCULINITY-FEMININITY Mf5

MMPI
PARANOIA
Pa 6
PSYCHASTHENIA
Pt 7
SCHIZOPHRENIA
Sc 8
HYPOMANIA
Ma 9
SOCIAL INTROVERSIONSi 0

MMPI-2
EXPERIMENTAL FORM WAS
ADMINISTERED TO NEW
STANDARDIZATION SAMPLE
NEW SAMPLE
AGE 18-90
WIDE GEOGRAPHIC AREA
GENERALLY COMPARES WELL WITH US
CENSUS DATA

MMPI-2
FINAL VERSION CONSISTS OF 567
ITEMS
ORIGINAL 4 VALIDITY SCALES AND 10
CLINICAL SCALES (ALL IN FIRST 370
ITEMS) IN ADDITION TO NEW
VALIDITY SCALES
RESULTS ARE EXPRESSED AS
UNIFORM T SCORES

MMPI-2
ADMINISTRATION
RECOMMENDED FOR USE WITH
PERSONS 18 YEARS OLD OR OLDER
NEED AT LEAST 8 YEARS OF EDUCATION
MOST ITEMS WRITTEN 6TH-8TH GRADE
READING LEVEL
NORMAL TESTING TIME 60-90 MINUTES

MMPI-2
SUBECTS SHOULD BE INFORMED WHY THE
TEST IS BEING ADMINISTERED
SHOULD BE GIVEN FEEDBACK RE/ RESULTS
AVOID PROVIDING DIRECT HELP
EMPHASIZE THAT THEY SHOULD RESPOND
IN WAY THAT REFLECTS THEIR CURRENT
THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, BEHAVIORS, AND
EXPERIENCES

MMPI-2
SCORING
HAND SCORING INVOLVES USE OF SEMITRANSPARENT TEMPLATES PLACED
OVER THE ANSWER SHEET
EXAMINE ANSWER SHEET FOR DOUBLE
MARKED OR OMITTED ITEMS & CIRCLE
SEPARATE ANSWER SHEETS BY SEX
COUNT # OF RESPONSES IN BOXES

MMPI-2-CANNOT SAY SCALE


NOT A SCALE BUT THE # OF ITEMS
DOUBLE MARKED OR OMITTED
> 30 ITEMS INVALIDATES PROFILE
HIGH SCORE

READING PROBLEM
CARELESSNESS
OCD/INDECISIVENESS
QUESTIONS DO NOT APPLY/LACK INFO

MMPI-2 LIE (L) SCALE


ORIGINALLY CONSTRUCTED TO
DETECT A DELIBERATE AND
UNSOPHISTICATED ATTEMPT TO
PRESENT ONESELF IN A POSITIVE
LIGHT
15 ITEMS
HIGH SCORE INDICATES DENIAL AS A
PROMINENT DEFENSE MECHANISM

MMPI-2 LIE (L) SCALE


HIGH SCORES
CLERGY
LIMITED SOCIAL AWARENESS
SOCIOPATHS
LIMITED INSIGHT, DENIAL, POOR
TOLERANCE FOR STRESS
PRESENTING SELF IN UNREALISTICALLY
POSITIVE LIGHT

MMPI-2 LIE (L) SCALE


LOW SCORES
BETTER EDUCATED, BRIGHTER, MORE
SOPHISTICATED PERSONS TEND TO
SCORE LOWER
SCORES <45 SUGGEST THAT SUBJECT
RESPONDED FRANKLY TO ITEMS AND
WAS COMFORTABLE ENOUGH TO ADMIT
TO MINOR FAULTS AND SHORTCOMINGS

MMPI-2 INFREQUENCY (F)


SCALE
ELEVATIONS ON F > 65
SCORING ERRORS
POOR READING ABILITY
FAKING BAD (T>95)
EXAGGERATING SYMPTOMS
EXPRESSION OF DEFIANCE, HOSTILITY,
NEGATIVITY
T 70-95 MOST SIGNIFICANT PATHOLOGY

MMPI-2 INFREQUENCY (F)


SCALE
LOW SCORES
ABSENCE OF BIZARRE OR UNUSUAL
THINKING
MAY BE ATTEMPT TO FAKE GOOD

MMPI-2 CORRECTION (K)


SCALE
ITEMS DETECT MORE SUBTLE OR
SOPHISTICATED ATTEMPTS TO DENY
FAULTS AND PRESENT ONESELF
FAVORABLY
HIGH SCORES NOT CORRELATED
WITH SPECIFIC BEHAVIORS BUT
INSTEAD REFLECT A RELUCTANCE TO
ADMIT TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

SCALE 1-HYPOCHONDRIASIS
DESIGNED TO INDICATE A VARIETY
OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS
CONSISTENT WITH BUT NOT
NECESSARILY DIAGNOSTIC OF
HYPOCHONDRIASIS

SCALE 1-HYPOCHONDRIASIS
HIGH SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
HIGH CONCERN WITH ILLNESS OR
DISEASE
SOMATIZATION AS DEFENSE
MECHANISM
SOUR, WHINY, COMPLAINING ATTITUDE;
HOSTILITY/CYNICISM EXPRESSED
INDIRECTLY

SCALE 1-HYPOCHONDRIASIS
LOW SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
CHEERFUL, OPTIMISTIC ATTITUDE
NON ENDORSEMENT OF SOMATIC
COMPLAINTS

SCALE 2-DEPRESSION
DESIGNED TO MEASURE
SYMPTOMATIC DEPRESSION, AN
ATTITUDE CHARACTERIZED BY POOR
MORALE, LACK OF HOPE FOR THE
FUTURE, AND A GENERAL
DISSATISFACTION WITH LIFE

SCALE 2-DEPRESSION
ITEMS DEAL WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS
OF DEPRESSION- DENIAL OF
HAPPINESS & PERSONAL WORTH,
PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION, LACK
OF INTEREST, SOCIAL WITHDRAWAL,
PHYSICAL COMPLAINTS, & EXCESSIVE
WORRY
STATE MEASURE--SITUATIONAL

SCALE 2-DEPRESSION
HIGH SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
DEPRESSED
WORRY
PESSIMISM
INDECISION, DOUBT
HOPELESSNESS, SUICIDAL IDEATION

SCALE 2-DEPRESSION
LOW SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
LACK OF DEPRESSION, WORRY,
PESSIMISM
TENDENCY TO FEEL COMFORTABLE WITH
LIFE
CHEERFULNESS, BUOYANCY, OPTIMISM

SCALE 3-HYSTERIA
ITEMS TAP TWO BROAD AREAS:
SPECIFIC SOMATIC COMPLAINTS AND
DENIAL OF PSYCHOLGICAL OR
EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS AND OF
DISCOMFORT IN SOCIAL SITUATIONS

SCALE 3-HYSTERIA
HIGH SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
IMMATURITY, EGOCENTRICITY,
DEMANDING
HISTRIONIC CHARACTERISTICS AND
REPRESSIVE DEFENSIVES
VANITY, LACKING IN INSIGHT
SHALLOW INTERPERSONAL
RELATIONSHIPS

SCALE 3-HYSTERIA
LOW SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
CONSTRICTED, CONFORMING, OVERLY
CONVENTIONAL SUSPICIOUS INDIVIDUAL
REALISTIC, LOGICAL, LEVEL HEADED
NOT PRONE TO IMPULSIVE DECISIONS

SCALE 4-PSYCHOPATHIC
DEVIATE
ITEMS REFLECT A PRIMARY
DIMENSION RANGING FROM
CONSTRICTED SOCIAL CONFORMITY
TO ANTISOCIAL ACTING-OUT
IMPULSES

SCALE 4-PSYCHOPATHIC
DEVIATE
HIGH SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
GENERAL MALADJUSTMENT
ANGRY DISIDENTIFICATION WITH
CONVENTION AND NORMS
IMPULSE CONTROL PROBLEMS
DISREGARD FOR RIGHTS OF OTHERS
UNWILLING TO ACCEPT RESPONSIBILITY
FOR BEHAVIORS

SCALE 4-PSYCHOPATHIC
DEVIATE
LOW SCORES SUGGESTIVE OF
OVERLY CONVENTIONAL, CONFORMING,
& MORALISTIC
AVOID COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS
STRONG GUILT OVER MINOR
INFRACTIONS

SCALE 5 MASCULINITY-FEMININITY
(Mf)
56 ITEMS MEASURE THE EXTENT TO
WHICH SUBJECT ENDORSES OR
IDENTIFIES WITH CULTURALLY
STEREOTYPIC MASCULINE OR
FEMININE INTEREST PATTERNS,
VOCATIONAL CHOICES, ASTHETIC
INTERESTS AND AN ACTIVITYPASSIVITY DIMENSION

SCALE 5 MASCULINITY-FEMININITY
(Mf)
A HIGH SCORE FOR EITHER SEX IS
INDICATIVE OF DEVIATION

SCALE 5 MASCULINITY-FEMININITY
(Mf)
MALES WITH HIGH SCORES TEND TO BE
RATHER PASSIVE, DEPENDENT, AMBITIOUS,
SENSITIVE, AND INTERESTED IN CULTURAL
AND AESTHETIC PURSUITS
MALES WITH LOW SCORES TEND TO BE
STEREOTYPICALLY MASCULINE AND PLACE
GREAT EMPHASIS ON TRADITIONALLY
MASCULINE BEHAVIORS

SCALE 5 MASCULINITY-FEMININITY
(Mf)
FEMALES WITH HIGH SCORES HAVE
REJECTED TRADITIONAL FEMININE ROLE.
DESCRIBED AS ACTIVE, AGGRESSIVE,
ASSERTIVE, COMPETITIVE, UNINHIBITED,
AND DOMINEERING
FEMALES WITH LOW SCORES ARE PASSIVE,
SUBMISSIVE YIELDING AND DEMURE

SCALE 6-PARANOIA (Pa)


40 ITEMS MEASURES IDEATION
RANGING FROM OBVIOUSLY
PSYCHOTIC TO SUSPICIOUSNESS AND
SELF-RIGHTEOUSNESS.
CONTENT OF ITEMS IS OBVIOUS
MAKING IT EASIER TO FAKE THAN
MOST

SCALE 6-PARANOIA (Pa)


HIGH SCORES IN RANGE OF T>60-70
INDICATES HYPERSENSITIVITY TO
CRITICISM, BASIC MISTRUST,
TENDENCY TO HARBOR GRUDGES,
ANGER, HOSTILITY, E.G. PARANOID
TENDENCES AND /OR PARANOID
PERSONALITY DISORDER

SCALE 6-PARANOIA (Pa)


HIGH SCORES BEYOND 75 THE POSSIBILITY
OF PSYCHOSIS BECOMES MORE LIKELY
LOW SCORES <35 SUGGEST 1) SELF
CENTERED, STUBBORN, UNAWARE; 2)
COLD AND CALLOUS PRESENTATION; 3)
OVERTLY PARANOID, DELUSIONAL,
DEFENSIVE, AND EVASIVE

SCALE 7 PSYCHASTHENIA
(Pt)
48 ITEMS REFLECTING CHRONIC
ANXIETY, GENERAL DISSATISFACTION
WITH LIFE, INDECISIVENESS,
DIFFICULTY WITH CONCENTRATION,
SELF DOUBT, RUMINATION AND
AGITATED CONCERN ABOUT SELF
AND THE OBSESSIONAL ASPECTS OF
OCD

SCALE 7 PSYCHASTHENIA
(Pt)
GOOD INDEX OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISCOMFORT
HIGH SCORES ARE DESCRIBED AS
RIGID, METICULOUS, MORALISTIC
AND DISSATISFIED WITH THEIR
PRESENT LIFE SITUATION. ANXIETY IS
PRONOUNCED. GENERALIZED
PHYSICAL COMPLAINTS ARE
COMMON

SCALE 8 SCHIZOPHRENIA
(Sc)
78 ITEMS TAP DIMENSIONS OF
SCHIZOID MENTATION, FEELINGS OF
BEING DIFFERENT, ISOLATED,
BIZARRE THOUGHT PROCESSES,
POOR FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS,
SEXUAL IDENTITY CONCERNS,
TENDENCY TO WITHDRAW INTO WISH
FULFILLING FANTASY

SCALE 8 SCHIZOPHRENIA
(Sc)
HIGH SCORES INDICATIVE OF THOUGHT
DISTURBANCES , LOOSE ASSOCIATIONS,
POOR JUDGEMENT, MISINTERPRETATION
OF REALITY
OTHER NON-PSYCHOTIC HIGH SCORERERS
TEND TO FEEL LONELY ALIENATED,
ISOLATED, MISUNDERSTOOD, NOT PART
OF SOCIAL GROUP

SCALE 8 SCHIZOPHRENIA
(Sc)
LOW SCORES TEND TO BE
INTERESTED IN PEOPLE AND
PRACTICAL MATTERS TO THE
EXCLUSION OF THEORETICAL AND
PHILOSOPHICAL CONCERNS,
CONCRETE THINKERS, COMPLIANT,
SUBMISSIVE, OVERLY ACCEPTING OF
AUTHORITY

SCALE 9 HYPOMANIA (Ma)


46 ITEMS THAT ARE A DIRECT MEASURE
OF ENERGY LEVEL
T SCORES >85 SUGGESTIVE OF MANIC
DISORDER.
T SCORES IN RANGE OF 70-85 ARE
RESTLESS, ENTHUSIASTIC, IMPATIENT,
ENERGETIC, GREGARIOUS, EXAGGERATED
SENSE OF SELF WORTH AND IMPORTANCE

SCALE 9 HYPOMANIA (Ma)


LOW SCORES <40 ARE LISTLESS,
LETHARGIC, LOW IN DRIVE,
DIFFICULT TO MOTIVATE, LACK
INTEREST, INITIATIVE AND
INVOLVEMENT; SHOW CHRONIC
FATIGUE AND EVEN PHYSICAL
EXHAUSTION

SCALE 0-SOCIAL
INTROVERSION (Si)
69 ITEMS ASSESSING INTROVERSIONEXTROVERSION DIMENSION WITH HIGH
SCORES INDICATIVE OF INTROVERSION
HIGH SCORES INTROVERTED, SHY,
SOCIALLY INEPT WITH TENDENCY TO
WITHDRAW
LOW SCORES ADEPT IN SOCIAL
SITUATIONS, GREGARIOUS, EXTROVERTED