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PERIODONTAL INSTRUMENTS

Presented
By
Dr / sandy Hassan

Parts of Periodontal Instrument:


Handlethe part of a periodontal instrument used for
holding the instrument.
Shanka rod-shaped length of metal located between the
handle and the working-end of a dental

Working-Endthe part of a dental instrument that does the


work of the instrument. The

Classification
of
Periodontal Instruments
1- Periodontal Probes
2- Explorers
3- Scaling, Root Planing, Curettage
4- Ultrasonic and Sonic Instruments
5- Periodontal Endoscope
6- Cleansing and Polishing

1- Periodontal Probes
Purpose:
Used to measure the depth of pockets and
determine configuration.
Characteristics:
Tapered and rod-like with blunt, round tip
Calibrated in millimeters

Periodontal Probes
Usage:
Inserted with firm, gentle pressure to the bottom
of the pocket

Types of periodontal probes


Williams probes
graduated in 1,2,3,5,7,8,9,10
the spaces between 3-5 and 5-7

designated to minimize confusion in


reading the probe
.

Michigan O probe:
Marked at 3,6,8
Many clinician prefer it because of its thin
working end (o.5mm)

Marquis probe:
Color coded gradated in 3,6,9,12

Nabers probe:

Has curved calibrated working end in


3,6,9,12 for furcation exammintion

2- Explorers
Purpose:
1-Locate subgingival deposits of
2-calculus
3-Detect caries
4-Check smoothness after root planin

3- Scaling, Root Planing, &


Curettage
Used for removing:
-plaque
-calcified deposits
-altered cementum
subgingivally
In addition:
-for debridement
of the soft tissue
lining the pocket

Scaling, Root Planing, & Curettage


A-curette
B-scaler
C-File

D-Hoe
E-chiesl

Curettes
Instrument of choice for removing subgingival
calculus, root planing altered cementum,
removing soft tissue lining.
Shows subgingival adaptation around
the root is best using a curette
(instrument on right) as opposed to a
sickle scaler (on left).
*Note: Sickle scaler is not indicated
for subgingival instrumentation

Two Types of Curette Designs:

1- Gracey Curette

2- Universal Curette

Characteristics of the
Universal Curette Design:
Designed so that the working ends may be adapted
to all tooth surfaces of all regions of the oral cavity
with only one double-ended instrument.
The blade is honed at 90 degrees to the lower shank.
There is no curvature of the blade except for the
curve from the shank to the toe.
Has two cutting edges on each blade and both can
be utilized during instrumentation.

Characteristics of the
Gracey Curette Design:
Gracey curettes are area-specific instruments, with each blade
adapting to a specific tooth area or surface.
The blade of a Gracey curette is offset at an angle to the lower
shank.
The shape of the blade is semicircular
The face of the blade is offset at about 70 degrees to the
lower shank.
Has two cutting edges but, ONLY ONE cutting edge of the
Gracey curette blade is used.
The rounded, convex back of the curette that allows its
placement into the periodontal pocket with minimal
laceration or discomfort
Only the lower third or half of the blade contacts the root
surface during instrumentation.

Area Specific Curettes are the

GRACEY CURETTES:
Gracey 1-2

Anterior teeth

Gracey 3-4

Anterior teeth

Gracey 5-6

Anterior and bicuspid teeth

Gracey 7-8

Posterior teeth - buccal and lingual surfaces

Gracey 9-10 Posterior teeth -buccal and lingual surfaces


Gracey 11-12 Posterior teeth - mesial surfaces
Gracey 13-14 Posterior teeth - distal surfaces

Sickle Scaler:
Hook-shaped instrument available
in various sizes and shapes
Flat blade cut at 90 degree angle
to shank
Cutting edges on both sides of the face
of the blade.
Functions primarily to remove
Supragingival calculus

Characteristics of the sickle scaler

Shape of the blade is triangular


Has two cutting edges and a sharp pointed tip
Use on a pull stroke only

Anterior sickle
The blade , shank and handle are all in the same plane.
It is of two types;

Straight sickle and

curved sickle

Posterior sickle
( Jacquette Scaler)
Straight or curved blade + contra-angel bend added to the
shank

Used for posterior teeth

File Scaler:
Functions to crush tenacious
calculus
Used Supragingivally and
Subgingivally
Used in a pull stroke only
Has a series of blades
Not suitable for fine scaling and
root planing

Chisel Scaler:
Functions to remove calculus
Used mainly in the proximal of
anterior teeth that are too closely
spaced
Used in a push stroke only
Cutting edge has 45 bevel

Hoe Scaler
Functions:
To remove ledges or rings of calculus
Used Supragingivally and Subgingivally
Important to maintain a two-point contact with the
tooth to stabilize the instrument
Used in a pull stroke only blade is bent 99 angle
Cutting edge has 45 bevel

4- Ultrasonic and Sonic Instruments


Used for removing plaque,
scaling, curetting, and removing
stains
Alternating electrical current
causes scaler tip to vibrate when
adapted to the tooth
Attached water outlets at the tip
dissipate the heat generated by
the vibrations
The cavitation created by the
water spray also helps flush
debris, calculus, and plaque
dislodged by the vibrations

5- Periodontal Endoscope
For use subgingivally in the
diagnosis and treatment of
periodontal disease
Allows visualization
subgingivally of pockets and
furcations on a monitor
May also be coupled with
ultrasonic instruments and
periodontal probes

6- Cleansing & Polishing


Instruments

Rubber Cups
Bristle Brushes
Dental Tape
Air-Powder Polishing

Thank you