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165 Aufrufe46 SeitenSeismic Design

Feb 09, 2016

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Seismic Design

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

165 Aufrufe

Seismic Design

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- ASEP NSCP SECTION 207 WIND LOADS part 1.pdf
- Structural Analysis and Design Criteria
- Two - Way Slab Design - 2
- Structural Computation Analysis
- Seismic Design
- NSCP 2010 Seismic Provisions
- Reinforced Concrete Design of a 5 Storey Seminary Main Building
- NSCP Seismic Provisions SMRSF Horizontal Forces
- Rc Design Ppt
- Structural Analysis Jesselle
- Structural Computations Type 1
- Structural Design and Analysis
- Seismic Design of R.C and Steel
- Design of Construction StructureTableContent
- r059210303 Mechanics of Solids
- 2%5B1%5D.cecilia bartok
- Conference Paper-ASFE-Mariyana Aida Ab KAdir
- Duy Nguyen - A Brief Study of Using Membrane Sheel Plate in Assigning a Slab or Wall P and T Consultants Pte Ltd
- Seismic Design
- CFD-CP-65-99

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5.

5.1

Requirements Structures shall be designed for ground motion

producing structural response and seismic forces in any horizontal direction. The earthquake

loads that shall be used in the load combinations (set forth in NSCP Section 203) shall be in

accordance with the requirements of NSCP Section 208.5.1.1.

E = Eh + Ev

Em = o Eh

where

E

= the earthquake load on an element of the structure resulting from the combination of the

horizontal component Eh and the vertical component Ev.

Eh = the earthquake load due to the base shear V or the design lateral force Fp.

Em = the estimated maximum earthquake force that can be developed in the structure and used

in the design of specific elements of the structure.

Ev = the load effect resulting from the vertical component of the earthquake ground motion

and is equal to an addition of 0.5Ca*I*D to the dead load effect, D, for strength design

method, and may be taken as zero for allowable (or working) stress design method.

o = the seismic force amplification factor that is required to account for structure

overstrength. (Section 208.5.3.1).

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5.

=2

6.1

rmax AB

rmax = the maximum element-story shear ratio; the ratio of the design story shear in the most

heavily loaded single element to the total design story shear.

AB = the ground floor area of the structure expresses in m2.

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5.

Example Problem 5.1. A four-storey concrete building of special moment resisting frame system

has been analyzed. Beam A-B and column C-D are elements of SMRF. Structural analysis yielded

the following results due to dead load, office building live load and lateral seismic forces:

Find the following:

1.

2.

Strength design axial load and moment at column top C. Distance to seismic source = 10 km

A

8000

8000

8000

I = 1.0

4000

Roof

4000

4th

4000

3rd

2nd

4000

GF

=1.1; f1 = 0.5

Member/

Stress

Dead Load

D

Live Load L

Lateral

Seismic Eh

Beam

moment

at A

135 kN-m

65 kN-m

165 kN-m

Column

C-D axial

load

400 kN

180 kN

490 kN

Column

moment

at C

55 kN-m

30 kN-m

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220 kN-m

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5.

Solution and discussion:

Find the strength design moment at beam end A.

To determine strength design moments for design, the earthquake component E must be

combined with the dead and live load components D and L, as illustrated below. Determine

earthquake load E

E = Eh + Ev

Sect. 208.5.1.1

where, the moment due to vertical earthquake force is

Ev = 0.5CaID; in which Ca = 0.44Na = 0.44(1.0)

Ev = 0.5(0.44)(1.0)(135)

Ev = 29.7 kN - m

while the moment due to horizontal earthquake force is

Eh = 165 kN - m

then,

E = 1.1(165) + 29.7 = 211.2 kN - m

Apply load combinations involving earthquake. The basic load combinations for strength design

per Section 203.3.1 is

0.9D 1.0E

NSCPPage

eq.134/7

203-6

Rev1 04-04 / CE573-134

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5.

For reinforced concrete frame, the above equations shall be multiplied by 1.1 per Section 409.3.3

and become

1.32D + 1.10E + 1.10 f1L

0.99D 1.10E

MA = 1.32MD + 1.10ME + 1.10 f1ML

MA = 1.32(135) + 1.10(211.2) + 1.10(0.5)(65)

MA = 446.27 kN - m and

MA = 0.99MD 1.10ME

MA = 0.99(135) 1.10(211.2)

MA = 365.97 kN - m or 98.67 kN - m

Find the strength design axial load and moment at column top C. Determine the earthquake load E

E = Eh + Ev

where,

for the axial load

E = 1.1(490) + 0.5(0.44)(1.0)(400) = 627 kN

for the moment at top

E = 1.1(220) + 0.5(0.44)(1.0)(55) = 254.1kN - m

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5.

Apply load combinations involving earthquake.

for the axial load Pc

PC = 1.32(400) + 1.10(627) + 1.10(0.5)(180)

PC = 1316.7 kN

and

PC = 0.99P D 1.10PE

PC = 0.99(400) 1.10(627)

PC = 1085.7 kN or 293.7 kN

therefore,

PC = 1316.7 kN or 293.7 kN

MC = 1.32(55) + 1.10(254.1) + 1.10(0.5)(30)

Mc = 368.61kN - m

and

MC = 0.99MD 1.10ME

MC = 0.99(55) 1.10(254.1)

MC = 333.96 kN - m or 225.06 kN - m

Note that the column section capacity must be designed for the interaction of Pc = 1316.7 kN

compression and Mc = 368.61 kN-m (for D+L+E), and the interaction of Pc = 293.7 kN tension and

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Mc = -225.06 kN-m (for D+E).

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5.

5.2

Reinforced concrete for most structures is generally desirable because of its availability and

economy, and its stiffness can be used to advantage to minimize seismic deformations and hence

reduce the damage to non-structure. Difficulties arise due to reinforcement congestion when trying

to achieve high ductility in framed structures, and at the time of writing the problem of detailing

beam-column joints to withstand strong cyclic loading had not been resolved. It should be recalled

that no amount of good detailing will enable an ill-conceived structural form to survive a strong

earthquake.

Concrete Even in well-designed reinforced concrete members,

the root cause of failure under earthquake loading is usually concrete cracking. Degradation

occurs in the cracked zone under cyclic loading. Cracks do not close up properly when the tensile

stress drops because of permanent elongation of reinforcement in the crack, and aggregate

interlock is destroyed in a few cycles. In hinge and joint zones, reversed diagonal cracking breaks

down in the concrete between the cracks completely, and sliding shear failure occurs. Refer to

Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1. Progressive failure of reinforced concrete hinge zone under seismic

loading.

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5.

Design In reinforced concrete structures, the essential features

of earthquake-resistance are embodied in ensuring the following:

Beams should fail before columns. Strong Column - Weak Beam Concept. Design codes

require that earthquake-induced energy be dissipated by plastic hinging of the beams, rather

than the columns. This hypothesis is due to the fact that compression members such as

columns have lower ductility than flexure-dominant beams. If columns are not stronger than

beams framing to a joint, inelastic action can develop in the column. Furthermore, the

consequence of a column failure is far more severe than a local beam failure. This concept is

ensured by the following inequality:

where

6

Mcol Mbeam

5

Mcol = sum of moments at the faces of the joint corresponding to the nominal flexural

strength of the columns framing to that joint;

Mbeam = sum of moments at the faces of the joint corresponding to the nominal flexural

strengths of the beams framing into that joint. In T-beam construction, where the slab is

in tension under moments at the face of the joint, slab reinforcement within the effective

slab width has to be assumed to contribute to flexural strength is the slab reinforcement

is developed at the critical section for flexure.

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5.

Failure should be in flexure rather than in shear. To prevent shear failure occurring before

bending failure, it is good practice to design that the flexural steel in a member yields while

the shear reinforcement is working at a stress less than yield (say normally 90%). In beams, a

conservative approach to safety in shear is to make the shear strength equal to the maximum

shear demands which can be made on the beam in terms of its bending capacity.

Referring to Figure 5.2, the shear strength of the beam should correspond to

Vmax =

where

Mu1 Mu 2

+ VDL

l

Mu is the factored moment, determined as

Mu = As fy z

fy is the maximum steel strength after hardening, say 95%

z is the lever arm

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5.

Mu1

Mu2

l

(+)

fy

Figure

5.2.

Shear

strength

consideration for reinforced concrete

beams.

95 percentile

As

(-)

Premature failure of joints between members should be prevented. Joints between members

such as beam-column joints are susceptible to failure earlier than the adjacent members due

to destruction of a joint zone, in a manner similar to that shown in Figure 5.1. This is

particularly true mostly to exterior columns.

Ductile rather than brittle failure should be obtained. In earthquake engineering, the effect of

material behavior on the choice of the method of analysis is a much greater issue than in

non-seismic engineering. The problem can be divided into two categories depending on

whether the material behavior is brittle or ductile, i.e. whether it can be considered linear

elastic or inelastic. The normal analytical and design methods of dealing with these two

states are summarized in the following table. See next page.

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5.

Material

Behavior

Method of

Analysis

Equivalentstatic

Linear elastic

(brittle)

Linear dynamic

Equivalentstatic

Inelastic

(ductile)

Linear dynamic

Seismic

Loading

Design Provisions

Arbitrarily

reduced

design, plus imposed nominal ductility

Arbitrarily

reduced

Full

design, plus imposed nominal ductility

3. Ultimate stress design, plus imposed

nominal ductility

Arbitrarily

reduced

design, plus imposed arbitrary ductility*

Arbitrarily

reduced

design, plus imposed arbitrary ductility*

6. Working stress or factored ultimate stress

design, plus imposed arbitrary ductility*

7. Structure intended to remain elastic, but

nominal ductility imposed

Arbitrarily

reduced

Full

Inelastic

dynamic

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Full

rotations

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5.

Members The available section ductility of a reinforced

concrete member is most conveniently expressed as the ratio of its curvature at ultimate moment

u to its curvature at its first yield y. The expression u/y may be evaluated

from its first

principles, the answers varying with the geometry of the section, the reinforcement arrangement,

the loading and the stress-strain relationships of the steel and the concrete.

Single reinforced sections.

sections Consider conditions at first yield and ultimate moment as shown

in Figure 5.3.

ce

d'

A s'

cu

f ce

kd

f cm = 0.85f'c

concrete section in

flexure.

As

sy = f y /E s

strain

fy

stress

sy > f y /E s

strain

fy

stress

Assuming an under-reinforced section, first yield will occur in the steel, and the curvature

y =

where k = (n)2 + 2(n) n

in which =

Mapua Institute of Technology (MAPUA Tech)

As

E 200000

andn = s =

Ec 4700 f'c

bd

f

sy

; in which sy = y

(1 k )d

Es

fy

y =

Es (1 k )d

true

for

linear

elastic

behavior only, while for

higher concrete stresses the

true non-linear concrete

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stress block shall

be used.

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5.

The ultimate curvature, u is

where

a=

As fy

and

0.85 f ' c b

cu

; from a = 1c

c

u = 1 cu

a

u =

rectangular stress block, may be taken as

otherwise

1 = 0.85

0.05

( f ' c 30) 0.65

7

From the above derivation, the available section ductility may be written as

u cu (1 k)dEs

=

y

cfy

The ultimate concrete strain cu may be taken as equal to 0.004 representing the limit of

useful concrete strain, for estimating the ductility available for reinforced concrete in a strong

earthquake.

Doubly reinforced sections.

sections The ductility of doubly reinforced sections (Figure (d)) may be

determined from the curvature in the same way as for singly reinforced sections.

Using the same expression for available section ductility as

u cu (1 k)dEs

=

y

cfy

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5.

but to allow for the effect of compression steel ratio , the expressions for c and k become

c=

and

1

( ' ) fy d

c=

0.85 f ' c 1

in which ' =

A' s

bd

The above equations assume that the compression steel is yielding, but if this is not so, the

actual value of the steel stress should be used fy. And as k has been found assuming linear

elastic behavior in concrete, the qualifications mentioned for singly reinforced members also

apply.

d'

As'

reinforced concrete

section.

As

b

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5.

Effect of confinement on ductility.

ductility The ductility and strength of concrete is greatly enhanced

by confining the compression zone with closely spaced lateral steel ties. In order to quantify

the ductility of confined concrete, a number of stress-strain curves for confined concrete

have been derived. It is known that rectangular all-enclosing links are moderately effective on

small columns, but are of little use in large columns. In large columns, this is remedied to

some extent by the use of intermediate lateral ties anchored to the all-enclosing links.

The procedure for calculating the section ductility u/y is the same as that for unconfined

concrete as described herein, the only difference being in determining an appropriate value of

ultimate concrete strain cu for use in the expression for fu/fy. It is therefore recommended

that a lower bound for the maximum concrete strain for concrete confined with rectangular

links may be used.

where

b

lc

rv

b f

cu = 0.003 + 0.02 + v yv

l c 138

= ratio of the beam width to the distance from the critical section to the point of

contraflexure

= ratio of volume of confining steel (including compression steel) to volume of concrete

confined

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5.

Example Problem 5.2. Given a singly reinforced concrete beam section with 3-32 reinforcing bars

at the bottom. The confining steel consists of 12 mild steel bars (fy = fyv = 275 N/mm2) at 75 mm

centers and the concrete strength is fc = 25 N/mm2. Estimate the section ductility u/y.

Assume b = 1/ 8

lc

n .a .

500

A s = 3 - 3 2 b a rs

250

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5.

Solution and discussion:

To find the curvature at first yield y, first estimate the depth of the neutral axis, the section being

effectively singly reinforced.

3 * 804

A

= s =

evaluate

bd (250)(500)

= 0.0193 and

200000

E

n= s =

Ec 4700 f'c

200000

= 8.511

4700 25

then, n = 0.164

n=

k = ( n) + 2( n) n

2

k = 0.432

y =

fy

Es (1 k )d

y =

275

= 4.84 x10 6 radian/mm

200000(1 0.432)500

Although this implies a computed maximum concrete stress greater than 0.85fc, the triangular

stress block gives a reasonable approximation. Thus, the curvature at first yield

b f

cu = 0.003 + 0.02 + v yv

l c 138

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5.

To find the ultimate curvature for the confined section, first determine the ultimate concrete strain

cu.

113 * 2(488 + 170)

v =

where, consider link size, 488x170

then

0.0239 * 275

cu = 0.003 + 0.02(1/ 8) +

138

cu = 0.00777

(488)(170)(75)

= 0.0239

Hence, the ultimate curvature is

cu 0.00777

=

c

146.9

u = 5.29x105 radian/mm

u =

c=

As fy

1 * 0.85 f ' c b

( 3 * 804)(275)

0.85 * 0.85(25)(250)

c = 146.9 mm

c=

5

Therefore, the available section ductility is u = 5.29x10 = 10.9

y 4.84 x106

It is of interest to observe that the ultimate strain cu = 0.00777 is about more than twice the value

of 0.004 normally assumed for unconfined concrete. Hence the available section ductility has been

roughly doubled by the use of confinement steel.

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5.

5.2.4 Ductility of reinforced concrete members with flexure and axial load.

load Axial load unfavorably affects

the ductility of flexural members. It is therefore imperative that for practical levels of axial load,

columns must be provided with confining reinforcement.

For rectangular columns with closely spaced links, and in which the longitudinal steel is mainly

concentrated in two opposite faces, the ratio u/y may be estimated from Figure 5.5.

of confined concrete.

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5.

where

As =

and

h =

1.2 Ah fyh

shh f ' c

Ah =

fyh =

s =

hh =

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5.

Columns

Shear failure in reinforced concrete members is regarded as brittle failure. Therefore, in designing

earthquake-resistant structures, it is important to provide excess shear capacity over and above

that corresponding to flexural failure. The code requirements are based on the strong columnweak beam concept. Hence plastification of the critical regions at the ends of the beams will have

to be considered as a possible loading condition.

The shear force is then computed based on the moment resistances in the developed plastic

hinges, labeled as probable moment resistance MPR, developed when the longitudinal flexural steel

enters into the hardening stage. Consequently, the computation of the probable moment

resistance, 1.25fy, is used as the stress in the longitudinal reinforcement. In order to absorb the

energy that can cause plastic hinging, the earthquake-resistant frame has to be ductile in part

through confinement of the longitudinal reinforcement of the columns and the beam-column joints

and in part through the provision of the excess shear capacity.

Figure 5.6 shows the deformed geometry of

and the seismic moment and shear forces for

a beam subjected to gravity loading and

reversible sidesway. (a) sidesway to the left;

(b) sidesway to the right.

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5.

The seismic shear forces are

+

+ MPR

MPR

1.4D + 1.7L

+

l

2

+

VR = PR

l

2

VL =

where l = span, L and R subscripts = left and right ends, and MPR = probable moment strength at

the end of the beam based on steel reinforcement tensile strength of 1.25fy and strength reduction

factor = 1.0. These instantaneous moments MPR should be computed on the basis of equilibrium

of moments at the joint where the beam moments are equal to the probable moments of resistance.

The shear forces in the columns are computed in a similar manner, so the horizontal Ve at top and

bottom of the column is

M + MPR 2

Ve = PR1

h

except that end moments for columns (MPR1 and MPR2) need not be greater than the moments

generated by the MPR of beams framing into the beam-column joint, where h = column height, and

the subscripts 1 and 2 indicate the top and bottom column end moments, respectively, as seen in

Figure 5.7.

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5.

column ends: (a) joint moments; (b) sway to

right; (c) sway to left.

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5.

Concept

As previously discussed in 5.2.2, the strong column-beam concept is ensured by the following

inequality:

6

Mcol Mbeam

5

For a joint subjected to reversible base shear forces, as shown in Figure 5.8, the above equation

becomes

6

(Mn+ + Mn )col (Mn+ + Mn )beam

5

where

tied columns, and 0.70 for

spiral columns.

For beam-columns,

= 0.90 to 0.65.

beam-column joint: (a) sidesway to the left;

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(b) sidesway to the right.

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5.

Connection

Transverse reinforcement in the form of closely spaced hoops (ties) or spirals has to be adequately

provided. The aim is to produce adequate rotational capacity within the elastic hinges that may

develop as a result of the seismic forces.

For column spirals, the minimum volumetric ratio of the spiral hoops needed for the concrete

core confinement cannot be less than the larger of:

0.12 f ' c

s

or

fyh

Ag

f'

1 c

Ach fyh

s 0.45

Ag = gross area of the column section.

Ach = core area of section measured to the outside of the transverse reinforcement.

fyh = specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement.

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5.

For column rectangular hoops, the cross-sectional area within spacing s cannot be less than

the larger of:

f'

Ash 0.09shc c or

fyh

A

f'

Ash 0.3 shc g 1 c

Ach fyh

Ash = total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including cross ties) within

spacing s and perpendicular to dimension hc.

hc = cross-sectional dimension of column core measured center-to-center of confining

reinforcement.

hx = maximum horizontal spacing of hoops or cross-ties on all faces of the column.

Ach = cross-sectional area of structural member, measured out-to-out transverse

reinforcement.

s = spacing of transverse reinforcement within length lo. Whose value should not exceed

150mm and need not be taken less than 100mm.

smax = one-quarter of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the member, 6 times

diameter of longitudinal reinforcement.

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5.

Additionally, if the thickness of the concrete outside the confining transverse reinforcement

exceeds 100mm, additional transverse reinforcement has to be provided at a spacing not to

exceed 300mm. The concrete cover on the additional reinforcement should not exceed

100mm.

The confining transverse reinforcement in columns should be placed on both sides of a

potential hinge over a distance lo. The largest of the following three conditions governs the

length lo:

(a) depth of member at joint face

(b) one-sixth of the clear span

(c) 450mm

Increase lo by 50% or more in locations of high axial loads and flexural demands such as the

base of a building.

When transverse reinforcement is not provided throughout the column length, the remainder

of the column length has to contain spiral or hoop reinforcement with spacing not exceeding

the smaller of 6 times the diameter of the longitudinal bars or 150mm.

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5.

For beam confinement, the confining transverse reinforcement at beam ends should be

placed over a length equal to twice the member depth h from the face of the joint on either

side or of any other location where plastic hinges can develop. The maximum hoop spacing

should be the smallest of the following four conditions:

(a) one-fourth effective depth d

(b) eight times diameter of longitudinal bars

(c) 24 times diameter of the hoop

(d) 300mm

however, the Code requires that confining reinforcement spacing need not exceed 100mm.

Figure 5.9 summarizes typical detailing requirements for a confined column.

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5.

Figure 5.9 Typical detailing of seismically reinforced column: (a) spirally confined; (b) confined with

rectangular hoops; (c) cross-sectional detailing of ties. X 350mm. Consecutive cross ties have 90

hooks on opposite sides.

Page 159/7

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5.

Reduction in confinement at joints: a 50% reduction in confinement and an increase in the

minimum tie spacing to 150mm are allowed by the code if a joint is confined on all four faces

by adjoining beams with each beam wide enough to cover three-quarters of the adjoining

face.

The yield strength of reinforcement in seismic zones (particularly zone 4) should not exceed

410 MPa.

Horizontal Shear in Beam-Column Connection

Test of joints and deep beams shave shown that shear strength is not as sensitive to joint (shear)

reinforcement as for that along the span. On this basis, the code has assumed the joint strength as

a function of only the compressive strength of the concrete and requires a minimum amount of

transverse reinforcement in the joint. The effective area Aj in Figure 5.10 should in no case be

greater than the column cross-sectional area.

The minimal shear strength of the joint should not be taken greater than the forces Vn specified

below for normal-weight concrete.

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5.

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5.

Reduction in confinement at joints: a 50% reduction in confinement and an increase in the

minimum tie spacing to 150mm are allowed by the code if a joint is confined on all four faces

by adjoining beams with each beam wide enough to cover three-quarters of the adjoining

face.

The yield strength of reinforcement in seismic zones (particularly zone 4) should not exceed

410 MPa.

Horizontal Shear in Beam-Column Connection

Test of joints and deep beams shave shown that shear strength is not as sensitive to joint (shear)

reinforcement as for that along the span. On this basis, the code has assumed the joint strength as

a function of only the compressive strength of the concrete and requires a minimum amount of

transverse reinforcement in the joint. The effective area Aj in Figure 5.10 should in no case be

greater than the column cross-sectional area.

The minimal shear strength of the joint should not be taken greater than the forces Vn specified

below for normal-weight concrete.

Confined on all faces by beams framing into the joint:

Vn 1.66 f ' c Aj

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5.

Confined on three faces or on two opposite faces:

Vn 1.25 f ' c Aj

All other cases:

Vn 1.0 f ' c Aj

A framing beam is considered to provide confinement to the joint only if at least three-quarters of

the joint is covered by the beam.

The value of allowable Vn should be reduced by 25% if lightweight concrete is used. Some test data

indicate that the value of Vn for all other cases is unconservative when applied to corner joints. Aj =

effective cross-sectional area within a joint in a plane parallel to the plane of reinforcement

generating shear at the joint. The code assumes that the horizontal shear in the joint is determined

on the basis that the stress in the flexural tensile steel = 1.25fy.

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5.

Connection

Example Problem 5.3. Design the transverse confining reinforcement of joint A in a ductile

moment-resisting frame of a building as shown in the figure below. The structure is situated in

seismic zone 4. The following design criteria applies to the building frame as:

Joint

B

Joint

A

600

All beams are 300mm x 600mm with 4-25 longitudinal bars top and bottom and columns are

400mm x 600mm. Stirrup size is 12.

Column size

400mm x 600mm

600

bottom.

7500

FRAME ELEVATION

Mapua Institute of Technology (MAPUA Tech)

21 kN/m

wL =

36 kN/m

MPR =

460 kN-m

fc =

27.6 MPa

fy =

410 MPa

3600

600

x 600mm with

wD =

600

Page 164/7

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

600

Check the web shear reinforcement along beam span outside the inelastic zone. Consider the

figure of isolated joint A below showing schematic of the lines of action of the beam-column joint

forces.

Column size

FRAME ELEVATION

600

h2 /2 =1800

7500

h1 /2 =1800

600

bottom.

3600

600

x 600mm with

col

Joint

A

Vu

MEQ

Vcol

Page 165/7

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

depth of reinforcement, d = 600-(40+12+25/2) = 535.5 mm

reinforcement, As = 4*491 = 1964 mm2

longitudinal steel ratio, :

A

1964

= s =

bd 300(535.5)

= 0.0122 < 0.025

Mn = 1.25 As fy d MPR

2

where

1.25 As fy 1.25(1964)(410)

=

a=

0.85 f ' c b 0.85(27.6)(300)

wD = 21 kN/m

wL = 36 kN/m

MA

MB

Ln = 7500

VA

VB

Beam AB Equilibrium

143

Mn = 1.25(1964)(410) 535.5

/1000000

2

therefore, 4-25 bars at top and bottom are sufficient.

Mapua Institute of Technology (MAPUA Tech)

Page 166/7

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

Determine the beam transverse confining reinforcement in the inelastic zone of plastic hinging.

Using the following equations for seismic shear forces:

wD = 21 kN/m

M + MB 1.4D + 1.7L 1

VL = A

+

2

ln

VL =

+

7.5

2

0.75

wL = 36 kN/m

MA

VL = 575.667 kN

Computing shear strength provided by the concrete beam,

(1/ 6)( 27.6 )(300)(535.5)

Vc = (1/ 6) f ' c bw d =

1000

Vc = 140.664 kN

Calculate the nominal shear force at a distance d from the

MB

Ln = 7500

VA

VB

Beam AB Equilibrium

VLA = 36(7.5/2) = 135 kN

575.667(7.5 / 2 0.5355)

Vn =

(7.5 / 2)

Vn = 493.462 kN

Page 167/7

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

Then, the nominal shear strength to be resisted by the reinforcement,

Vs = Vn Vc = 493.462 140.664

Vs = 352.798 kN

Using 12 hoops, Av = 2(113) = 226 mm2, the required spacing is

s=

Av fy d (226)(410)(535.5)

=

352.798(1000)

Vs

s = 140 mm

These confining hoops shall be placed over beam within a distance of lo = 2h = 2(600) = 1200 mm

and shall be spaced not to exceed the least value of

(d/4) = 535.5/4 = 133 mm.. Governs, say 125 mm

(8*smallest longitudinal bar db) = 8(25) = 200 mm

(24*hoop diameter) = 24(12) = 288 mm or

(maximum spacing of ) = 300 mm

Therefore, within lo = 1200mm, use 12 hoops and crossties at 125 mm c-c over this distance.

Further, use 12 closed hoops at 150 mm c-c beyond critical section, then increase spacing to d/2

= 535.5/2 = 267 mm, say 250 mm approaching midspan and stop stirrups at Vc/2.

Page 168/7

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

Determine the confining reinforcement in the column in beam-column joint. Calculate the joint

shear strength. Column shear forces should not exceed those base on the probable end moment

strengths MPR of the beams framing into the joint.

MPR

460

Vcol =

=

h1 / 2 + h2 / 2 3.60 / 2 + 3.60 / 2

Vcol = 127.778 kN

then Vn = As fy Vcol =

(1964)(410)

127.778

1000

Vn = 677.462 kN

and this Vn 1.25 f ' c Aj

where Aj = 400(600) = 240,000 mm2, then allowable

1000

Vn = 1576.071kN > actual Vn = 677.462 kN

Vn =

Hence, the confined column joint is adequate to resist the seismic shear.

Page 169/7

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

Determine the column confinement in the inelastic zone.

column d = 600 - (40+12+25/2) = 535.5 mm

At the Aj plane, the nominal shear strength provided by concrete is given also as

Vc = (1/ 6) f ' c bd =

1000

Vc = 187.552 kN

then, the nominal shear strength to be resisted by confinement is

Vs = Vn Vc = 677.462 187.552

Vs = 489.91kN

Using 12 hoops, Av = 2(113) = 226 mm2, the required spacing is

s=

Av fy d (226)(410)(535.5)

=

489.91(1000)

Vs

s = 101mm

Page 170/7

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

Determine the greater value of the following expressions.

where

hc = column core dimension measured c-c of confining reinforcement

hc = 600 2(40+12) = 496 mm

Ash 0.09shc

f 'c

or

fyh

f'

A

Ash 0.3 shc g 1 c

Ach fyh

try spacing s = 90 mm

27.6

= 270 mm2 or

410

400 * 600 27.6

Ash 0.3(90)(496)

= 570 mm2 - -- > controls

1

264 * 496 410

Check with the maximum spacing, the least value of

Ash 0.09(90)(496)

(6*longitudinal bar diameter) = 6(25) = 150 mm

(maximum spacing of ) = 100 mm or

350 hx < 150 mm

sx = 100 +

3

> 100 mm

sx = 100 +

= 144 mm

3

Page 171/7

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

Resistance

hc = 496

296

shall be placed in the column of both sides of potential hinge

and shall be the largest of

600

400

8-25

12 @ 90mm

(beam clear span over 6) = 7500/6 = 1250 mm or

governs

14 spaces @

90mm = 1260mm

(minimum of ) = 450 mm

4-25

over the distance of say lo = 1250 mm.

12 @ 100mm

4-25

12 spaces @

100mm =

1200mm

150

150

50

12 @ 90mm

Page 172/7

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

Requirements The following notes and associated detail

drawings have been compiled to enable the elements of reinforced concrete structures to be

detailed in a consistent and satisfactory manner for earthquake resistance. These details should be

satisfactory in regions of medium and high seismic risk in so far as they reflect the present stateof-the-art. However considerable uncertainty exists regarding effective details for some members,

particularly columns and beam-columns connections. In low risk regions, relaxations may be

made to the following requirements, but the principles of lapping, containment and continuity must

be retained if adequate ductility is to be obtained.

Laps.

Laps Laps in earthquake resisting frames must continue to function while the members or

joints undergo large deformations. As the stress transfer is accomplished through the

concrete surrounding the bars, it is essential that there be adequate space in a member to

place and compact good quality concrete.

Laps should preferably not be made in regions of high stress, such as near beam-to-column

connections, as the concrete may become cracked under large deformations and thus

destroy the transfer of stress by bond. In regions of high stress, laps should be considered

as an anchorage problem rather than a lap problem, i.e. the transfer of stress from one bar to

another is not considered; instead the bars required to resist tension should be extended

beyond the zone of expected large deformations in order to develop their strength by

anchorage.

Laps should preferably be staggered but where this is impracticable and large numbers are

lapped at one location (I.e. columns) adequate links or ties must be provided to minimize the

possibility of splitting in concrete. In columns and beams even when laps are made in

regions of low stress at least two links should be provided as shown in the details.

Code provisions on laps are given in NSCP Section 412.15 to 412.20.

Mapua Institute of Technology (MAPUA Tech)

Page 173/7

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

Anchorage.

Anchorage Satisfactory anchorage may be achieved by extending bars as straight lengths,

or by using 90 and 180 bends, but anchorage efficiency will be governed largely by the state

of stress of the concrete in the anchorage length. Tensile reinforcement should not be

anchored in zones of high tension. If this cannot be achieved, additional reinforcement in the

form of links should be added, especially where high shear exists, to help to confine the

concrete in the anchorage length. It is especially desirable to avoid anchoring bars in the

panel zone of beam-column connections. Large amounts of the reinforcement should not be

curtailed at any one location. See NSCP Section 412 for development and splices of

reinforcement.

Bar bending.

bending The code has adopted standardization of bar shapes but due attention must be

made to the bearing stresses in bends. The bearing stress inside a bend in a bar which does

not extend or is not assumed to be stressed beyond a point four times the bar size past the

end of the bend need not be checked, as the longitudinal stresses developed in the bar at the

bend will be small. See NSCP Section 407.2 through 407.407.4 for details of reinforcement.

The bearing stress inside a bend in any other bar should be calculated as

F

1.5 f ' c

bearing stress fp = t

r 1+ 2 / ab

where

Ft =

r =

diameter of the bar or, in bundle, the diameter of a bar of equivalent area, mm

Page 174/7

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

ab = center-to-center distance perpendicular to the plane of the bend between bars or

groups of bars for a particular bar or group of bars in contact, respectively, mm

Concrete cover.

cover

Concrete quality.

quality The minimum recommended 28-day compressive strength, fc for structural

concrete is 20 N/mm2.

The use of lightweight aggregates for structural purposes in seismic zones should be very

cautiously proceeded with, as many lightweight concretes prove very brittle in earthquakes.

Appropriate advice should be sought in order to obtain a suitably ductile concrete. It cannot

be over-emphasized that quality control, workmanship and supervision are of the utmost

importance in obtaining earthquake-resistant concrete.

Reinforcement quality.

quality For adequate earthquake resistance, suitable quality of reinforcement

must be ensured by both specification and testing. As the properties of reinforcement vary

greatly between manufacturers, much depends on knowing the source of the bars, and on

applying the appropriate tests.

The following points should be observed:

- Adequate minimum yield stress may be ensured by specifying steel to an appropriate

standard (PNS 49 or ASTM A615).

- Grades of steel with fc in excess of 410 N/mm2 may not be permitted in areas of high

seismic risk, but slightly greater strengths may be used if adequate ductility is proven by

Page 175/7

tests.

Mapua Institute of Technology (MAPUA Tech)

Adam C Abinales

f.asep, pice

5.

- Cold worked steel are not recommended in high seismic risk areas.

- Steel of higher strength than that specified should not be substituted on site.

- The elongation test is particularly important for ensuring adequate steel ductility. In

PNS 49 or ASTM A615 appropriate requirements are set out for steels conforming to

those standards.

- Bending tests are most important for ensuring sufficient ductility of reinforcement in

the bend condition. In PNS 49 or ASTM A615 appropriate requirements are set out for

steels conforming to those standards.

- Minimum bend radius for bars as set forth in NSCP Section 407.3.

- Resistance to brittle fracture should be checked by a notch toughness test conducted

at the minimum service temperature, where this is less than about 3-5C.

- Strain-age embrittlement should be checked by re-bend tests.

- Welding of reinforcing bars may cause embrittlement and needs special consideration.

- Galvanizing of reinforcing bars may cause embrittlement and needs special

consideration.

- Welded steel fabric (mesh) is unsuitable for earthquake resistance because of its

potential brittleness. However, it may be used for the control of shrinkage in nonstructural elements such as ground slabs.

Page 176/7

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