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Seismic Design of Concrete Structures


5.

Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance

5.1

Earthquake Load Combinations: Strength Design

5.1.1 Earthquake Loads and Modeling Requirements.


Requirements Structures shall be designed for ground motion
producing structural response and seismic forces in any horizontal direction. The earthquake
loads that shall be used in the load combinations (set forth in NSCP Section 203) shall be in
accordance with the requirements of NSCP Section 208.5.1.1.

E = Eh + Ev

NSCP eq. 208-1

Em = o Eh

NSCP eq. 208-2

where
E

= the earthquake load on an element of the structure resulting from the combination of the
horizontal component Eh and the vertical component Ev.

Eh = the earthquake load due to the base shear V or the design lateral force Fp.
Em = the estimated maximum earthquake force that can be developed in the structure and used
in the design of specific elements of the structure.
Ev = the load effect resulting from the vertical component of the earthquake ground motion
and is equal to an addition of 0.5Ca*I*D to the dead load effect, D, for strength design
method, and may be taken as zero for allowable (or working) stress design method.
o = the seismic force amplification factor that is required to account for structure
overstrength. (Section 208.5.3.1).
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Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance

= Reliability/Redundancy Factor determined as:


=2

6.1
rmax AB

NSCP eq. 208-3

rmax = the maximum element-story shear ratio; the ratio of the design story shear in the most
heavily loaded single element to the total design story shear.
AB = the ground floor area of the structure expresses in m2.

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Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance


Example Problem 5.1. A four-storey concrete building of special moment resisting frame system
has been analyzed. Beam A-B and column C-D are elements of SMRF. Structural analysis yielded
the following results due to dead load, office building live load and lateral seismic forces:
Find the following:

Structure is located in Zone 4;

1.

Strength design moment at beam end A.

2.

Strength design axial load and moment at column top C. Distance to seismic source = 10 km
A

8000

Seismic source type: A

8000

Soil profile type: SD

8000

I = 1.0

4000

Roof

4000

4th

4000

3rd

2nd

4000

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GF

=1.1; f1 = 0.5
Member/
Stress

Dead Load
D

Live Load L

Lateral
Seismic Eh

Beam
moment
at A

135 kN-m

65 kN-m

165 kN-m

Column
C-D axial
load

400 kN

180 kN

490 kN

Column
moment
at C

55 kN-m

30 kN-m

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220 kN-m

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Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance


Solution and discussion:
Find the strength design moment at beam end A.
To determine strength design moments for design, the earthquake component E must be
combined with the dead and live load components D and L, as illustrated below. Determine
earthquake load E
E = Eh + Ev
Sect. 208.5.1.1
where, the moment due to vertical earthquake force is
Ev = 0.5CaID; in which Ca = 0.44Na = 0.44(1.0)
Ev = 0.5(0.44)(1.0)(135)
Ev = 29.7 kN - m
while the moment due to horizontal earthquake force is
Eh = 165 kN - m
then,
E = 1.1(165) + 29.7 = 211.2 kN - m
Apply load combinations involving earthquake. The basic load combinations for strength design
per Section 203.3.1 is

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1.2D + 1.0E + 1.0 f1L

NSCP eq. 203-5

0.9D 1.0E

NSCPPage
eq.134/7
203-6
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Seismic Design of Concrete Structures


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Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance


For reinforced concrete frame, the above equations shall be multiplied by 1.1 per Section 409.3.3
and become
1.32D + 1.10E + 1.10 f1L
0.99D 1.10E

therefore, strength design moment at beam end A


MA = 1.32MD + 1.10ME + 1.10 f1ML
MA = 1.32(135) + 1.10(211.2) + 1.10(0.5)(65)
MA = 446.27 kN - m and

MA = 0.99MD 1.10ME
MA = 0.99(135) 1.10(211.2)
MA = 365.97 kN - m or 98.67 kN - m

Find the strength design axial load and moment at column top C. Determine the earthquake load E
E = Eh + Ev
where,
for the axial load
E = 1.1(490) + 0.5(0.44)(1.0)(400) = 627 kN
for the moment at top
E = 1.1(220) + 0.5(0.44)(1.0)(55) = 254.1kN - m

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Apply load combinations involving earthquake.
for the axial load Pc

PC = 1.32PD + 1.10PE + 1.10 f1pL


PC = 1.32(400) + 1.10(627) + 1.10(0.5)(180)
PC = 1316.7 kN
and
PC = 0.99P D 1.10PE
PC = 0.99(400) 1.10(627)
PC = 1085.7 kN or 293.7 kN

therefore,

PC = 1316.7 kN or 293.7 kN

for the moment Mc

MC = 1.32MD + 1.10ME + 1.10 f1ML


MC = 1.32(55) + 1.10(254.1) + 1.10(0.5)(30)
Mc = 368.61kN - m
and
MC = 0.99MD 1.10ME
MC = 0.99(55) 1.10(254.1)
MC = 333.96 kN - m or 225.06 kN - m

Note that the column section capacity must be designed for the interaction of Pc = 1316.7 kN
compression and Mc = 368.61 kN-m (for D+L+E), and the interaction of Pc = 293.7 kN tension and
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Mc = -225.06 kN-m (for D+E).
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Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance

5.2

In-situ Reinforced Concrete Design and Detail


Reinforced concrete for most structures is generally desirable because of its availability and
economy, and its stiffness can be used to advantage to minimize seismic deformations and hence
reduce the damage to non-structure. Difficulties arise due to reinforcement congestion when trying
to achieve high ductility in framed structures, and at the time of writing the problem of detailing
beam-column joints to withstand strong cyclic loading had not been resolved. It should be recalled
that no amount of good detailing will enable an ill-conceived structural form to survive a strong
earthquake.

5.2.1 Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete.


Concrete Even in well-designed reinforced concrete members,
the root cause of failure under earthquake loading is usually concrete cracking. Degradation
occurs in the cracked zone under cyclic loading. Cracks do not close up properly when the tensile
stress drops because of permanent elongation of reinforcement in the crack, and aggregate
interlock is destroyed in a few cycles. In hinge and joint zones, reversed diagonal cracking breaks
down in the concrete between the cracks completely, and sliding shear failure occurs. Refer to
Figure 5.1.

Figure 5.1. Progressive failure of reinforced concrete hinge zone under seismic
loading.
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Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance

5.2.2 Principles of Earthquake-Resistant Design.


Design In reinforced concrete structures, the essential features
of earthquake-resistance are embodied in ensuring the following:
Beams should fail before columns. Strong Column - Weak Beam Concept. Design codes
require that earthquake-induced energy be dissipated by plastic hinging of the beams, rather
than the columns. This hypothesis is due to the fact that compression members such as
columns have lower ductility than flexure-dominant beams. If columns are not stronger than
beams framing to a joint, inelastic action can develop in the column. Furthermore, the
consequence of a column failure is far more severe than a local beam failure. This concept is
ensured by the following inequality:
where

6
Mcol Mbeam
5

Mcol = sum of moments at the faces of the joint corresponding to the nominal flexural
strength of the columns framing to that joint;
Mbeam = sum of moments at the faces of the joint corresponding to the nominal flexural
strengths of the beams framing into that joint. In T-beam construction, where the slab is
in tension under moments at the face of the joint, slab reinforcement within the effective
slab width has to be assumed to contribute to flexural strength is the slab reinforcement
is developed at the critical section for flexure.
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Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance


Failure should be in flexure rather than in shear. To prevent shear failure occurring before
bending failure, it is good practice to design that the flexural steel in a member yields while
the shear reinforcement is working at a stress less than yield (say normally 90%). In beams, a
conservative approach to safety in shear is to make the shear strength equal to the maximum
shear demands which can be made on the beam in terms of its bending capacity.
Referring to Figure 5.2, the shear strength of the beam should correspond to
Vmax =

where

Mu1 Mu 2
+ VDL
l

VDL is the dead load shear force


Mu is the factored moment, determined as

Mu = As fy z

As is the steel area in the tension zone


fy is the maximum steel strength after hardening, say 95%
z is the lever arm

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Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance


Mu1

Mu2
l

(+)

fy

Figure
5.2.
Shear
strength
consideration for reinforced concrete
beams.

95 percentile

As

(-)

Premature failure of joints between members should be prevented. Joints between members
such as beam-column joints are susceptible to failure earlier than the adjacent members due
to destruction of a joint zone, in a manner similar to that shown in Figure 5.1. This is
particularly true mostly to exterior columns.
Ductile rather than brittle failure should be obtained. In earthquake engineering, the effect of
material behavior on the choice of the method of analysis is a much greater issue than in
non-seismic engineering. The problem can be divided into two categories depending on
whether the material behavior is brittle or ductile, i.e. whether it can be considered linear
elastic or inelastic. The normal analytical and design methods of dealing with these two
states are summarized in the following table. See next page.
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Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance


Material
Behavior

Method of
Analysis
Equivalentstatic

Linear elastic
(brittle)

Linear dynamic

Equivalentstatic
Inelastic
(ductile)
Linear dynamic

Seismic
Loading

Design Provisions

Arbitrarily
reduced

1. Working stress or factored ultimate stress


design, plus imposed nominal ductility

Arbitrarily
reduced
Full

2. Working stress or factored ultimate stress


design, plus imposed nominal ductility
3. Ultimate stress design, plus imposed
nominal ductility

Arbitrarily
reduced

4. Working stress or factored ultimate stress


design, plus imposed arbitrary ductility*

Arbitrarily
reduced

5. Working stress or factored ultimate stress


design, plus imposed arbitrary ductility*
6. Working stress or factored ultimate stress
design, plus imposed arbitrary ductility*
7. Structure intended to remain elastic, but
nominal ductility imposed

Arbitrarily
reduced
Full

Inelastic
dynamic
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Full

8. Ductility demands found from plastic hinge


rotations
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Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance

5.2.3 Available Ductility for Reinforced Concrete Members.


Members The available section ductility of a reinforced
concrete member is most conveniently expressed as the ratio of its curvature at ultimate moment
u to its curvature at its first yield y. The expression u/y may be evaluated
from its first
principles, the answers varying with the geometry of the section, the reinforcement arrangement,
the loading and the stress-strain relationships of the steel and the concrete.
Single reinforced sections.
sections Consider conditions at first yield and ultimate moment as shown
in Figure 5.3.
ce

d'

A s'

cu

f ce

kd

f cm = 0.85f'c

Figure 5.3. Reinforced


concrete section in
flexure.

As

sy = f y /E s
strain

fy
stress

(a) at first yield

sy > f y /E s
strain

fy
stress

(b) at ultim ate

Assuming an under-reinforced section, first yield will occur in the steel, and the curvature

y =
where k = (n)2 + 2(n) n
in which =
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As
E 200000
andn = s =
Ec 4700 f'c
bd

f
sy
; in which sy = y
(1 k )d
Es

fy
y =
Es (1 k )d

Note that the formula for k is


true
for
linear
elastic
behavior only, while for
higher concrete stresses the
true non-linear concrete
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stress block shall
be used.
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Structural Design and Detailing for Earthquake Resistance


The ultimate curvature, u is
where

a=

As fy
and
0.85 f ' c b

cu
; from a = 1c
c

u = 1 cu
a

u =

1, which describes the depth of the equivalent


rectangular stress block, may be taken as

1 = 0.85 for f ' c 30 N/mm2 ,


otherwise

1 = 0.85

0.05
( f ' c 30) 0.65
7

From the above derivation, the available section ductility may be written as

u cu (1 k)dEs
=
y
cfy

The ultimate concrete strain cu may be taken as equal to 0.004 representing the limit of
useful concrete strain, for estimating the ductility available for reinforced concrete in a strong
earthquake.
Doubly reinforced sections.
sections The ductility of doubly reinforced sections (Figure (d)) may be
determined from the curvature in the same way as for singly reinforced sections.
Using the same expression for available section ductility as

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u cu (1 k)dEs
=
y
cfy

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but to allow for the effect of compression steel ratio , the expressions for c and k become
c=

and

1
( ' ) fy d
c=
0.85 f ' c 1

k = [( + ' )n]2 + 2[( + ' )n] ( + ' )n


in which ' =

A' s
bd

The above equations assume that the compression steel is yielding, but if this is not so, the
actual value of the steel stress should be used fy. And as k has been found assuming linear
elastic behavior in concrete, the qualifications mentioned for singly reinforced members also
apply.
d'

As'

Figure 5.4. Doubly


reinforced concrete
section.

As
b

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Effect of confinement on ductility.
ductility The ductility and strength of concrete is greatly enhanced
by confining the compression zone with closely spaced lateral steel ties. In order to quantify
the ductility of confined concrete, a number of stress-strain curves for confined concrete
have been derived. It is known that rectangular all-enclosing links are moderately effective on
small columns, but are of little use in large columns. In large columns, this is remedied to
some extent by the use of intermediate lateral ties anchored to the all-enclosing links.
The procedure for calculating the section ductility u/y is the same as that for unconfined
concrete as described herein, the only difference being in determining an appropriate value of
ultimate concrete strain cu for use in the expression for fu/fy. It is therefore recommended
that a lower bound for the maximum concrete strain for concrete confined with rectangular
links may be used.
where
b
lc

rv

b f
cu = 0.003 + 0.02 + v yv
l c 138

= ratio of the beam width to the distance from the critical section to the point of
contraflexure
= ratio of volume of confining steel (including compression steel) to volume of concrete
confined

fyv = yield stress of the confining steel in N/mm2


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Example Problem 5.2. Given a singly reinforced concrete beam section with 3-32 reinforcing bars
at the bottom. The confining steel consists of 12 mild steel bars (fy = fyv = 275 N/mm2) at 75 mm
centers and the concrete strength is fc = 25 N/mm2. Estimate the section ductility u/y.
Assume b = 1/ 8
lc

n .a .

500

A s = 3 - 3 2 b a rs
250

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Solution and discussion:
To find the curvature at first yield y, first estimate the depth of the neutral axis, the section being
effectively singly reinforced.
3 * 804
A
= s =
evaluate
bd (250)(500)
= 0.0193 and
200000
E
n= s =
Ec 4700 f'c
200000
= 8.511
4700 25
then, n = 0.164

n=

k = ( n) + 2( n) n
2

k = (0.164)2 + 2(0.164) 0.164


k = 0.432

y =

fy
Es (1 k )d

y =

275
= 4.84 x10 6 radian/mm
200000(1 0.432)500

Although this implies a computed maximum concrete stress greater than 0.85fc, the triangular
stress block gives a reasonable approximation. Thus, the curvature at first yield

b f
cu = 0.003 + 0.02 + v yv
l c 138
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To find the ultimate curvature for the confined section, first determine the ultimate concrete strain
cu.
113 * 2(488 + 170)
v =
where, consider link size, 488x170
then

0.0239 * 275
cu = 0.003 + 0.02(1/ 8) +

138

cu = 0.00777

(488)(170)(75)
= 0.0239

Next, find the depth of the neutral axis at ultimate from


Hence, the ultimate curvature is

cu 0.00777
=
c
146.9
u = 5.29x105 radian/mm

u =

c=

As fy
1 * 0.85 f ' c b

( 3 * 804)(275)
0.85 * 0.85(25)(250)
c = 146.9 mm
c=

5
Therefore, the available section ductility is u = 5.29x10 = 10.9
y 4.84 x106

It is of interest to observe that the ultimate strain cu = 0.00777 is about more than twice the value
of 0.004 normally assumed for unconfined concrete. Hence the available section ductility has been
roughly doubled by the use of confinement steel.
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5.2.4 Ductility of reinforced concrete members with flexure and axial load.
load Axial load unfavorably affects
the ductility of flexural members. It is therefore imperative that for practical levels of axial load,
columns must be provided with confining reinforcement.
For rectangular columns with closely spaced links, and in which the longitudinal steel is mainly
concentrated in two opposite faces, the ratio u/y may be estimated from Figure 5.5.

Figure 5.5. u/y for columns


of confined concrete.
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where
As =
and

h =

area of tension reinforcement, mm2

1.2 Ah fyh
shh f ' c

Ah =

cross-sectional area of the links, mm2

fyh =

yield stress of the link reinforcement, N/mm2

s =

spacing of the link reinforcement, mm

hh =

the longer dimension of the rectangle of concrete enclosed by the links, mm

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5.2.5 Seismic Shear Forces in Beams and Columns.


Columns
Shear failure in reinforced concrete members is regarded as brittle failure. Therefore, in designing
earthquake-resistant structures, it is important to provide excess shear capacity over and above
that corresponding to flexural failure. The code requirements are based on the strong columnweak beam concept. Hence plastification of the critical regions at the ends of the beams will have
to be considered as a possible loading condition.
The shear force is then computed based on the moment resistances in the developed plastic
hinges, labeled as probable moment resistance MPR, developed when the longitudinal flexural steel
enters into the hardening stage. Consequently, the computation of the probable moment
resistance, 1.25fy, is used as the stress in the longitudinal reinforcement. In order to absorb the
energy that can cause plastic hinging, the earthquake-resistant frame has to be ductile in part
through confinement of the longitudinal reinforcement of the columns and the beam-column joints
and in part through the provision of the excess shear capacity.
Figure 5.6 shows the deformed geometry of
and the seismic moment and shear forces for
a beam subjected to gravity loading and
reversible sidesway. (a) sidesway to the left;
(b) sidesway to the right.

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The seismic shear forces are

+
+ MPR
MPR
1.4D + 1.7L
+
l
2
+

M + MPR 1.4D + 1.7L

VR = PR
l
2

VL =

where l = span, L and R subscripts = left and right ends, and MPR = probable moment strength at
the end of the beam based on steel reinforcement tensile strength of 1.25fy and strength reduction
factor = 1.0. These instantaneous moments MPR should be computed on the basis of equilibrium
of moments at the joint where the beam moments are equal to the probable moments of resistance.
The shear forces in the columns are computed in a similar manner, so the horizontal Ve at top and
bottom of the column is
M + MPR 2
Ve = PR1
h
except that end moments for columns (MPR1 and MPR2) need not be greater than the moments
generated by the MPR of beams framing into the beam-column joint, where h = column height, and
the subscripts 1 and 2 indicate the top and bottom column end moments, respectively, as seen in
Figure 5.7.

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Figure 5.7 Seismic moments and shears at


column ends: (a) joint moments; (b) sway to
right; (c) sway to left.
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5.2.6 Strong Column-Weak Beam Concept.


Concept
As previously discussed in 5.2.2, the strong column-beam concept is ensured by the following
inequality:

6
Mcol Mbeam
5

For a joint subjected to reversible base shear forces, as shown in Figure 5.8, the above equation
becomes

6
(Mn+ + Mn )col (Mn+ + Mn )beam
5
where

= 0.90 for beams, 0.65 for


tied columns, and 0.70 for
spiral columns.
For beam-columns,

= 0.90 to 0.65.

Figure 5.8 Seismic moment summation at


beam-column joint: (a) sidesway to the left;
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(b) sidesway to the right.
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5.2.7 Design of Confining Reinforcement for Beam-Column Connection.


Connection
Transverse reinforcement in the form of closely spaced hoops (ties) or spirals has to be adequately
provided. The aim is to produce adequate rotational capacity within the elastic hinges that may
develop as a result of the seismic forces.
For column spirals, the minimum volumetric ratio of the spiral hoops needed for the concrete
core confinement cannot be less than the larger of:
0.12 f ' c
s
or
fyh

whichever is greater, where

Ag
f'
1 c
Ach fyh

s 0.45

s = ratio of volume of spiral reinforcement to the core volume measured out-to-out.


Ag = gross area of the column section.
Ach = core area of section measured to the outside of the transverse reinforcement.
fyh = specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement.

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For column rectangular hoops, the cross-sectional area within spacing s cannot be less than
the larger of:
f'
Ash 0.09shc c or
fyh

whichever is greater, where

A
f'
Ash 0.3 shc g 1 c
Ach fyh

Ash = total cross-sectional area of transverse reinforcement (including cross ties) within
spacing s and perpendicular to dimension hc.
hc = cross-sectional dimension of column core measured center-to-center of confining
reinforcement.
hx = maximum horizontal spacing of hoops or cross-ties on all faces of the column.
Ach = cross-sectional area of structural member, measured out-to-out transverse
reinforcement.
s = spacing of transverse reinforcement within length lo. Whose value should not exceed
150mm and need not be taken less than 100mm.
smax = one-quarter of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the member, 6 times
diameter of longitudinal reinforcement.
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Additionally, if the thickness of the concrete outside the confining transverse reinforcement
exceeds 100mm, additional transverse reinforcement has to be provided at a spacing not to
exceed 300mm. The concrete cover on the additional reinforcement should not exceed
100mm.
The confining transverse reinforcement in columns should be placed on both sides of a
potential hinge over a distance lo. The largest of the following three conditions governs the
length lo:
(a) depth of member at joint face
(b) one-sixth of the clear span
(c) 450mm
Increase lo by 50% or more in locations of high axial loads and flexural demands such as the
base of a building.
When transverse reinforcement is not provided throughout the column length, the remainder
of the column length has to contain spiral or hoop reinforcement with spacing not exceeding
the smaller of 6 times the diameter of the longitudinal bars or 150mm.

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For beam confinement, the confining transverse reinforcement at beam ends should be
placed over a length equal to twice the member depth h from the face of the joint on either
side or of any other location where plastic hinges can develop. The maximum hoop spacing
should be the smallest of the following four conditions:
(a) one-fourth effective depth d
(b) eight times diameter of longitudinal bars
(c) 24 times diameter of the hoop
(d) 300mm
however, the Code requires that confining reinforcement spacing need not exceed 100mm.
Figure 5.9 summarizes typical detailing requirements for a confined column.

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Figure 5.9 Typical detailing of seismically reinforced column: (a) spirally confined; (b) confined with
rectangular hoops; (c) cross-sectional detailing of ties. X 350mm. Consecutive cross ties have 90
hooks on opposite sides.
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Reduction in confinement at joints: a 50% reduction in confinement and an increase in the
minimum tie spacing to 150mm are allowed by the code if a joint is confined on all four faces
by adjoining beams with each beam wide enough to cover three-quarters of the adjoining
face.
The yield strength of reinforcement in seismic zones (particularly zone 4) should not exceed
410 MPa.
Horizontal Shear in Beam-Column Connection
Test of joints and deep beams shave shown that shear strength is not as sensitive to joint (shear)
reinforcement as for that along the span. On this basis, the code has assumed the joint strength as
a function of only the compressive strength of the concrete and requires a minimum amount of
transverse reinforcement in the joint. The effective area Aj in Figure 5.10 should in no case be
greater than the column cross-sectional area.
The minimal shear strength of the joint should not be taken greater than the forces Vn specified
below for normal-weight concrete.

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Figure 5.10 Seismic effective area of joint.


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Reduction in confinement at joints: a 50% reduction in confinement and an increase in the
minimum tie spacing to 150mm are allowed by the code if a joint is confined on all four faces
by adjoining beams with each beam wide enough to cover three-quarters of the adjoining
face.
The yield strength of reinforcement in seismic zones (particularly zone 4) should not exceed
410 MPa.
Horizontal Shear in Beam-Column Connection
Test of joints and deep beams shave shown that shear strength is not as sensitive to joint (shear)
reinforcement as for that along the span. On this basis, the code has assumed the joint strength as
a function of only the compressive strength of the concrete and requires a minimum amount of
transverse reinforcement in the joint. The effective area Aj in Figure 5.10 should in no case be
greater than the column cross-sectional area.
The minimal shear strength of the joint should not be taken greater than the forces Vn specified
below for normal-weight concrete.
Confined on all faces by beams framing into the joint:

Vn 1.66 f ' c Aj

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Confined on three faces or on two opposite faces:

Vn 1.25 f ' c Aj
All other cases:

Vn 1.0 f ' c Aj
A framing beam is considered to provide confinement to the joint only if at least three-quarters of
the joint is covered by the beam.
The value of allowable Vn should be reduced by 25% if lightweight concrete is used. Some test data
indicate that the value of Vn for all other cases is unconservative when applied to corner joints. Aj =
effective cross-sectional area within a joint in a plane parallel to the plane of reinforcement
generating shear at the joint. The code assumes that the horizontal shear in the joint is determined
on the basis that the stress in the flexural tensile steel = 1.25fy.

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5.2.8 Design of Confining Reinforcement for Beam-Column Connection.


Connection
Example Problem 5.3. Design the transverse confining reinforcement of joint A in a ductile
moment-resisting frame of a building as shown in the figure below. The structure is situated in
seismic zone 4. The following design criteria applies to the building frame as:

Joint
B

Joint
A

600

All beams are 300mm x 600mm with 4-25 longitudinal bars top and bottom and columns are
400mm x 600mm. Stirrup size is 12.

Column size
400mm x 600mm

600

4-25 bars top and


bottom.

7500

FRAME ELEVATION
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21 kN/m

wL =

36 kN/m

MPR =

460 kN-m

fc =

27.6 MPa

fy =

410 MPa

3600

600

All beams are 300mm


x 600mm with

wD =

600
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600

Check the web shear reinforcement along beam span outside the inelastic zone. Consider the
figure of isolated joint A below showing schematic of the lines of action of the beam-column joint
forces.

Column size

FRAME ELEVATION

600

h2 /2 =1800

7500

h1 /2 =1800

600

4-25 bars top and


bottom.

3600

600

All beams are 300mm


x 600mm with

col
Joint
A

Vu

MEQ

Vcol

Shear forces at beam-column joint.


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depth of reinforcement, d = 600-(40+12+25/2) = 535.5 mm
reinforcement, As = 4*491 = 1964 mm2
longitudinal steel ratio, :
A
1964
= s =
bd 300(535.5)
= 0.0122 < 0.025

Mn = 1.25 As fy d MPR
2

where
1.25 As fy 1.25(1964)(410)
=
a=
0.85 f ' c b 0.85(27.6)(300)

wD = 21 kN/m
wL = 36 kN/m

MA
MB

Ln = 7500

VA

VB

Beam AB Equilibrium

a = 143 mm, then


143

Mn = 1.25(1964)(410) 535.5
/1000000
2

Mn = 467.039 kN - m > MPR = 460 kN - m


therefore, 4-25 bars at top and bottom are sufficient.
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Determine the beam transverse confining reinforcement in the inelastic zone of plastic hinging.
Using the following equations for seismic shear forces:
wD = 21 kN/m

M + MB 1.4D + 1.7L 1
VL = A
+

2
ln

VL =

460 + 460 1.4(157.5) + 1.7(270) 1


+

7.5
2
0.75

wL = 36 kN/m
MA

VL = 575.667 kN
Computing shear strength provided by the concrete beam,
(1/ 6)( 27.6 )(300)(535.5)
Vc = (1/ 6) f ' c bw d =
1000
Vc = 140.664 kN
Calculate the nominal shear force at a distance d from the

MB

Ln = 7500

VA

VB

Beam AB Equilibrium

VDA = 21(7.5/2) = 78.75 kN


VLA = 36(7.5/2) = 135 kN

face of the column support,


575.667(7.5 / 2 0.5355)
Vn =
(7.5 / 2)
Vn = 493.462 kN
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Then, the nominal shear strength to be resisted by the reinforcement,

Vs = Vn Vc = 493.462 140.664
Vs = 352.798 kN
Using 12 hoops, Av = 2(113) = 226 mm2, the required spacing is

s=

Av fy d (226)(410)(535.5)
=
352.798(1000)
Vs

s = 140 mm
These confining hoops shall be placed over beam within a distance of lo = 2h = 2(600) = 1200 mm
and shall be spaced not to exceed the least value of
(d/4) = 535.5/4 = 133 mm.. Governs, say 125 mm
(8*smallest longitudinal bar db) = 8(25) = 200 mm
(24*hoop diameter) = 24(12) = 288 mm or
(maximum spacing of ) = 300 mm
Therefore, within lo = 1200mm, use 12 hoops and crossties at 125 mm c-c over this distance.
Further, use 12 closed hoops at 150 mm c-c beyond critical section, then increase spacing to d/2
= 535.5/2 = 267 mm, say 250 mm approaching midspan and stop stirrups at Vc/2.
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Determine the confining reinforcement in the column in beam-column joint. Calculate the joint
shear strength. Column shear forces should not exceed those base on the probable end moment
strengths MPR of the beams framing into the joint.
MPR
460
Vcol =
=
h1 / 2 + h2 / 2 3.60 / 2 + 3.60 / 2

Vcol = 127.778 kN
then Vn = As fy Vcol =

(1964)(410)
127.778
1000

Vn = 677.462 kN
and this Vn 1.25 f ' c Aj
where Aj = 400(600) = 240,000 mm2, then allowable

1.25 27.6 (240,000)


1000
Vn = 1576.071kN > actual Vn = 677.462 kN
Vn =

Hence, the confined column joint is adequate to resist the seismic shear.

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Determine the column confinement in the inelastic zone.
column d = 600 - (40+12+25/2) = 535.5 mm
At the Aj plane, the nominal shear strength provided by concrete is given also as

Vc = (1/ 6) f ' c bd =

(1/ 6)( 27.6 )(400)(535.5)


1000

Vc = 187.552 kN
then, the nominal shear strength to be resisted by confinement is
Vs = Vn Vc = 677.462 187.552

Vs = 489.91kN
Using 12 hoops, Av = 2(113) = 226 mm2, the required spacing is

s=

Av fy d (226)(410)(535.5)
=
489.91(1000)
Vs

s = 101mm

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Determine the greater value of the following expressions.
where
hc = column core dimension measured c-c of confining reinforcement
hc = 600 2(40+12) = 496 mm

Ash 0.09shc

f 'c
or
fyh

f'
A
Ash 0.3 shc g 1 c
Ach fyh

try spacing s = 90 mm

27.6
= 270 mm2 or
410
400 * 600 27.6
Ash 0.3(90)(496)
= 570 mm2 - -- > controls
1
264 * 496 410
Check with the maximum spacing, the least value of
Ash 0.09(90)(496)

(smaller column dimension/4) = 400/4 = 100 mm.. governs


(6*longitudinal bar diameter) = 6(25) = 150 mm
(maximum spacing of ) = 100 mm or
350 hx < 150 mm
sx = 100 +
3
> 100 mm

sx = 100 +

350 (496 64.5) / 2


= 144 mm
3
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Resistance

hc = 496

296

Determine the distance lo over which these confinements


shall be placed in the column of both sides of potential hinge
and shall be the largest of

600

400

8-25

12 @ 90mm

(depth of the member h) = 600 mm


(beam clear span over 6) = 7500/6 = 1250 mm or
governs

14 spaces @
90mm = 1260mm

(minimum of ) = 450 mm

4-25

Hence, provide 12 hoops and 12 crossties at 100 mm c-c


over the distance of say lo = 1250 mm.

12 @ 100mm

4-25
12 spaces @
100mm =
1200mm

150

150

50

12 @ 90mm

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5.2.9 In-situ Concrete Detailing General Requirements.


Requirements The following notes and associated detail
drawings have been compiled to enable the elements of reinforced concrete structures to be
detailed in a consistent and satisfactory manner for earthquake resistance. These details should be
satisfactory in regions of medium and high seismic risk in so far as they reflect the present stateof-the-art. However considerable uncertainty exists regarding effective details for some members,
particularly columns and beam-columns connections. In low risk regions, relaxations may be
made to the following requirements, but the principles of lapping, containment and continuity must
be retained if adequate ductility is to be obtained.
Laps.
Laps Laps in earthquake resisting frames must continue to function while the members or
joints undergo large deformations. As the stress transfer is accomplished through the
concrete surrounding the bars, it is essential that there be adequate space in a member to
place and compact good quality concrete.
Laps should preferably not be made in regions of high stress, such as near beam-to-column
connections, as the concrete may become cracked under large deformations and thus
destroy the transfer of stress by bond. In regions of high stress, laps should be considered
as an anchorage problem rather than a lap problem, i.e. the transfer of stress from one bar to
another is not considered; instead the bars required to resist tension should be extended
beyond the zone of expected large deformations in order to develop their strength by
anchorage.
Laps should preferably be staggered but where this is impracticable and large numbers are
lapped at one location (I.e. columns) adequate links or ties must be provided to minimize the
possibility of splitting in concrete. In columns and beams even when laps are made in
regions of low stress at least two links should be provided as shown in the details.
Code provisions on laps are given in NSCP Section 412.15 to 412.20.
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Anchorage.
Anchorage Satisfactory anchorage may be achieved by extending bars as straight lengths,
or by using 90 and 180 bends, but anchorage efficiency will be governed largely by the state
of stress of the concrete in the anchorage length. Tensile reinforcement should not be
anchored in zones of high tension. If this cannot be achieved, additional reinforcement in the
form of links should be added, especially where high shear exists, to help to confine the
concrete in the anchorage length. It is especially desirable to avoid anchoring bars in the
panel zone of beam-column connections. Large amounts of the reinforcement should not be
curtailed at any one location. See NSCP Section 412 for development and splices of
reinforcement.
Bar bending.
bending The code has adopted standardization of bar shapes but due attention must be
made to the bearing stresses in bends. The bearing stress inside a bend in a bar which does
not extend or is not assumed to be stressed beyond a point four times the bar size past the
end of the bend need not be checked, as the longitudinal stresses developed in the bar at the
bend will be small. See NSCP Section 407.2 through 407.407.4 for details of reinforcement.
The bearing stress inside a bend in any other bar should be calculated as
F
1.5 f ' c
bearing stress fp = t
r 1+ 2 / ab
where
Ft =

tensile force due to ultimate loads in a bar or group of bars, N

r =

internal radius of the bend, mm

diameter of the bar or, in bundle, the diameter of a bar of equivalent area, mm
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ab = center-to-center distance perpendicular to the plane of the bend between bars or
groups of bars for a particular bar or group of bars in contact, respectively, mm
Concrete cover.
cover

Minimum cover to reinforcement as set forth in NSCP Section 407.8.1.

Concrete quality.
quality The minimum recommended 28-day compressive strength, fc for structural
concrete is 20 N/mm2.
The use of lightweight aggregates for structural purposes in seismic zones should be very
cautiously proceeded with, as many lightweight concretes prove very brittle in earthquakes.
Appropriate advice should be sought in order to obtain a suitably ductile concrete. It cannot
be over-emphasized that quality control, workmanship and supervision are of the utmost
importance in obtaining earthquake-resistant concrete.
Reinforcement quality.
quality For adequate earthquake resistance, suitable quality of reinforcement
must be ensured by both specification and testing. As the properties of reinforcement vary
greatly between manufacturers, much depends on knowing the source of the bars, and on
applying the appropriate tests.
The following points should be observed:
- Adequate minimum yield stress may be ensured by specifying steel to an appropriate
standard (PNS 49 or ASTM A615).
- Grades of steel with fc in excess of 410 N/mm2 may not be permitted in areas of high
seismic risk, but slightly greater strengths may be used if adequate ductility is proven by
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- Cold worked steel are not recommended in high seismic risk areas.
- Steel of higher strength than that specified should not be substituted on site.
- The elongation test is particularly important for ensuring adequate steel ductility. In
PNS 49 or ASTM A615 appropriate requirements are set out for steels conforming to
those standards.
- Bending tests are most important for ensuring sufficient ductility of reinforcement in
the bend condition. In PNS 49 or ASTM A615 appropriate requirements are set out for
steels conforming to those standards.
- Minimum bend radius for bars as set forth in NSCP Section 407.3.
- Resistance to brittle fracture should be checked by a notch toughness test conducted
at the minimum service temperature, where this is less than about 3-5C.
- Strain-age embrittlement should be checked by re-bend tests.
- Welding of reinforcing bars may cause embrittlement and needs special consideration.
- Galvanizing of reinforcing bars may cause embrittlement and needs special
consideration.
- Welded steel fabric (mesh) is unsuitable for earthquake resistance because of its
potential brittleness. However, it may be used for the control of shrinkage in nonstructural elements such as ground slabs.
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