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EFFECT OF POWER SWING ON

PERFORMANCE OF MHO RELAY


Thesis submitted for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology
in

Electrical Engineering
of

Siksha O Anusandhan University


by

SUBHANKAR DASH
SUSHREE SONALI
RAJESH MOHANTY
SIDDHARTH S.PATI
RAJ KU PASAYAT
Supervised by

PROF.SUBHENDU PATI

Department of Electrical Engineering


ITER, Siksha O Anusandhan University
Bhubaneswar-751013
May-2015

Department of Electrical Engineering


ITER, Siksha O Anusandhan University
Bhubaneswar-751013

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the progress report of the thesis entitled, EFFECT OF POWER
SWING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MHO RELAY submitted by
1. SUBHANKAR DASH
2. SUSHREE SONALI
3. RAJESH MOHANTY
4. SIDDHARTH S.PATI
5. RAJ KU.PASAYAT
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology degree
in Electrical Engineering at INSTITUTE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION & RESEARCH under
S O A UNIVERSITY, BHUBANESWAR, is an authentic work carried out by the group of
students under my supervision and guidance. To the best of my knowledge the matter embodied
in the thesis has not been submitted to any other University/Institute for the award of any degree
or diploma.

SUPERVISOR

HOD

Department of Electrical Engineering


ITER, Siksha O Anusandhan University
Bhubaneswar-751013

DECLARATION
We certify that
a. The work contained in this report is original and has been done by us under
the guidance of our supervisor.
b. The work has not been submitted to any other Institute for any degree or
diploma.
c. We have followed the guidelines provided by the Institute in preparing the
report.
d. We have conformed to the norms and guidelines given in the Ethical Code of
Conduct of the Institute.
e. Whenever we have used materials (data, theoretical analysis, figures, and
text) from other sources, we have given due credit to them by citing them in
the text of the report and giving their details in the references.

Name and signature of the student

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to show my greatest appreciation to my supervisor
PROF. SUBHENDU PATI, Associate Professor, department of Electrical
Engineering, ITER Bhubaneswar. I feel motivated & encouraged every time I
meet him. Without his encouragement & guidance ,this project would not
have materialized.
I am thankful to PROF. (Dr.) RENU SHARMA , Head of the Department of
electrical Engineering, ITER Bhubaneswar for her encouraging words &
valuable suggestions towards the project work.
I would like to thank the staff of Electrical Engineering department for
constant support & providing place to work during project period. I would
also like to extend my gratitude to my friends who are with me during thick &
thin.

ABSTRACT
Power swings refer to oscillation in active
and

reactive

power

flows

on

transmission

line

consequent to a large disturbance like a fault. The


oscillation in the apparent power and bus voltages is seen
by the relay as an impedance swing on the R-X plane. If
the impedance trajectory during power swing enters a
relay zone then the relay will issue a trip decision.
Tripping on power swings is not desirable. We now
investigate this phenomenon.

LIST OF FIGURES
1. (a) Distance protection and mho relay.
(b) Characteristics of mho relay , zones of protection.
2 . (a) Power swing phenomenon in transmission lines.
(b) Study of power swing locus.
(c) Effect of power swing on the performance of mho
relay for

various zones.

LIST OF TABLES &


CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

PAGE

NO
CERTIFICATE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
LIST OF FIGURES
1.

2.
RELAY

1.1. INTRODUCTION
1.2. MOTIVATION
1.3. LITERATURE SURVEY
1.4.TECHNICAL OBJECTIVE
1.5.IMPACT OF PROJECT WORK IN
1.5.1.GLOBAL CONTEXT
1.5.2.ECONOMIC CONTEXT
1.6.ORGANISATION OF THESIS
DISTANCE PROTECTION & MHO
2.1 PRINCIPLES OF DISTANCE

RELAY

3.
POWER SWING

2.2 MHO RELAY


2.3 BASIC PRINCIPLES
2.4 MHO CHARACTERISTICS
2.5 ZONES OF PROTECTION
POWER SWING & EFFECT OF
ON MHO RELAY
3.1 STABLE POWER SWING
3.2 POWER SWING EFFECT ON

DISTANCE RELAY
3.3 POWER SWING
CHARACTERISTICS

3.4 POWER SWING LOCUS &


EFFECT ON MHO RELAY
4.

CONCLUSION & FUTURE

WORK
5.

REFERENCES

Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction
In the past few years we have experienced big
disturbances in the power system which caused complete blackout and
million of users including industry have suffered big economical losses.
These disturbances cause big oscillations in active and reactive power, low
voltage, voltage instability and phase or angular instability between the
generated and consumed power which results in loss of generation and load
which effected both the power generation and the end customers.
Power swings refer to oscillation in active and reactive
power flows on a transmission line consequent to a large disturbance like a
fault. The oscillation in the apparent power and bus voltages is seen by the
relay as an impedance swing on the R-X plane. If the impedance trajectory
enters a relay zone and if stays there for sufficiently long time, then the relay
will issue a trip decision on power swing. Tripping on power swings is not
desirable. We now investigate this phenomenon.

1.2 Motivation:
In past there were so much disturbances in the power
systems for which reliability in the transmission system is not there. The
reliability & uninterrupted power supply is much more necessary now -a
days. There was major black outs which occurred in the northern east grid for
which there were major loss occur for small ,medium and large consumers.
Actually if we will analyse the causes of the failure of the
northern grid then it was the cause of nuisance tripping of circuit breaker.
The cascading effect of tripping of circuit breaker was mainly due to
misinterpretation between abnormal conditions & faults. The blackouts for
such reason must be avoided. During abnormal conditions such as power
swing how the relay behaves must be analyzed to solve the black outs .

1.3.Literature survey:
Typically, major power system blackouts have been initiated
by local disturbances that cascaded across the transmission networks.
Significant studies were performed to understand their causes. It can be
inferred that major power system contingencies typically comprise three
phases depending on their duration: the initial phase where temporary
system

faults

occur,

which

is

rapidly

cleared

in

milliseconds;

the

intermediate phase where the system separates in seconds into undesirable


parts; and the final phase where load and generation imbalance causes in
minutes a blackout [5]. Incidents of major blackouts that took place in
various nations have been reported in the literature [6] [11].
Since the late 1990s, power systems have been pushed
closer to their limits, resulting in a growing risk for a local failure to cascade
into a large-scale catastrophic blackout. The most common triggering fault of
such an event is a short-circuit that occurs on high voltage or extra-high
voltage transmission lines of the system. At the inception of a disturbance,
the relays located on faulty transmission lines operate to clear the fault. This
induces variations of the electrical power generator outputs while the
generator mechanical inputs remain almost constant. The resulting effect of
this power imbalance is the formation of groups of coherent generators
operating at different speeds, swinging one against the others. Eventually
this may lead to a loss of synchronism and the splitting of the network.
However, the islands so formed may not have a balance in generation and
load, which makes the failure to propagate further until a complete collapse
of the system. To prevent such events to occur, utilities have installed special
protection schemes based on under-frequency and under-voltage relays that
perform load and generation shedding and line tripping.
After a thorough analysis of the blackouts that struck the
North-West of the United States in summer 1996, Taylor [6] revealed their
causes and proposed remedial actions to prevent them from occurring in the

future. In France, Counan et al. [8] studied the behavior of the French electric
system under multiple contingencies. They recommended the use of curative
actions such as load shedding based on frequency criteria together with
system separation induced by local relays trigged by generator loss of
synchronism.
Currently, controlled separation schemes have been
implemented mainly inelongated and isolated power systems to split the
system along pre-determined boundaries, e.g., the East West boundary in
Bangladesh [9]. They have been planned based on simulations executed
under various forecasted load conditions and contingency scenarios. A more
general separation scheme was proposed by Vital et al. [10]; the authors
apply the normal form method to the Manitoba-Hydro power system to
determine groups of machines that swing coherently against each other
following

small

perturbation.

The

boundaries

separating

coherent

generator groups are identified and tripped to form islands [10]. If these
islands are deemed to be not stable, then various techniques such as load
shedding, generation curtailment, relay tripping, are implemented [6]-[11].

You et al. [12]-[13] propose a power system separation scheme


aimed at creating islands subject to load-generation balance via load
shedding based on the rate of frequency decline. This approach consists in
using a slow coherency method to detect clusters of coherent generator
groups, the boundaries of which provide desirable locations of separation. It
involves

power

system

modeling

followed

by

the

execution

of

computationally efficient method based on graph theory and pattern


recognition. The method seeks to determine the locations and the timing of
system separation. This approach assumes the availability of real-time widearea phasor measurements. Sun et al. [14]-[15] introduce a new two-phase
and three-phase system separation method based on ordered binary
decision diagrams . Here, the primary focus is to ensure that the equality and

inequality constraints are satisfied in all the islands formed [9]under a single
contingency. This approach involves the implementation of complex search
algorithms that require the knowledge of the system operating states to find
the desirable splitting locations.

1.4.Technical Objective:
The main objective of this project is to analyse that how
a mho relay behaves during power swing. As a relay should trip only for
satisfying its trip condition but there is a big difference between abnormal
conditions and faults. A typical power system is prone to disturbances such
as low voltage, phase angle instability, rotor angle instability , loss of
synchronism etc, these disturbance should not cause the relay to issue a trip
decision by take it as fault. But a healthy transmission line shouldnot trip for
disturbances like power swing .So in the project we will study the impedance
seen by relay during power swing & analyse its effect on it.

1.5.1.Impact of project work in Global context:


The project comprises of how a relay behaves during power
swing. As the relay shouldnot trip during power swing as there are frequent
oscillation of active and reactive power in the transmission line due to some
disturbances, it is much more essential to analyse what happened to a relay
when power swing occurs.
If a relay fails to detect the difference between power swing
and faults then the impedance trajectory at the time of faults will match the
power swing impedance trajectory. So for which false tripping will occur that
results in cascaded tripping of circuit brakers causing blackouts of the grid .
The same thing happened in our country the cascaded tripping of circuit
brakers causes the failure of northern east grid in march 2015.

1.5.2.Impact of project work in economic context:

Power swings refer to oscillation in active and reactive


power flows on a transmission line consequent to a large disturbance like a
fault. The oscillation in the apparent power and bus voltages is seen by the
relay as an impedance swing on the R X plane. If the impedance trajectory
enters a relay zone and stays there for sufficiently long time, then the relay
will issue a trip decision on power swing. Tripping on power swings is not
desirable.
Electric energy is produced by electric power systems, which
are critical infrastructures whose service is vital to the economy of a nation.
Providing continuous supply of electric energy to meet the load demand is a
complex technical challenge. It involves real-time estimation of the system
state together with the control and coordination of generating units aimed at
delivering in a secure manner electric power to the load. Due to cascading
tripping of circuit brakers the blackout occurs for which million of consumers
as well as industries have large economical losses.

1.6. ORGANISATION OF THE THESIS:


Chapter 1: Contains the Introduction, motivation, Literature Survey, Technical
objectives, The impact of project work in global & economic context and organization of thesis.
Chapter 2: Contains about distance protection & mho relay. Its basic principles &
characteristics.
Chapter 3: Contains about power swing characteristics , its determination and also
its effect on the performance of mho relay.
Chapter 4: Contains the conclusion & Future work.
Chapter 5: References

CHAPTER-2
DISTANCE PROTECTION AND MHO
RELAY

2. DISTANCE PROTECTION & MHO RELAY


The problem of combining fast fault clearance with selective
tripping of plant is a key aim for the protection of power systems. To meet
these requirements, high speed protection systems for transmission and
primary distribution circuits that are suitable for use with the automatic
reclosure of circuit breakers are under continuous development and are very
widely applied.
Distance protection, in its basic form, is a non-unit system of
protection offering considerable economic and technical advantages. Unlike
phase and neutral over current protection, the key advantage of distance
protection is that its fault coverage of the protected circuit is virtually
independent of source impedance variations.
Distance protection is comparatively simple to apply and it can be
fast in operation for faults located along most of a protected circuit. It can
also provide both primary and remote back-up functions in a single scheme.
It can easily be adapted to create a unit protection scheme when applied
with a signalling channel. In this form it is eminently suitable for application

with high-speed autoreclosing, for the protection of critical transmission


lines.

2.1 PRINCIPLES OF DISTANCE RELAYS


Since the impedance of a transmission line is proportional to its
length, for distance measurement it is appropriate to use a relay capable of
measuring the impedance of a line up to a predetermined point (the reach
point). Such a relay is described as a distance relay and is designed to
operate only for faults occurring between the relay location and the selected
reach point, thus giving discrimination for faults that may occur in different
line sections. The basic principle of distance protection involves the division
of the voltage at the relaying point by the measured current. The apparent
impedance so calculated is compared with the reach point impedance.
If the measured impedance is less than the reach point
impedance, it is assumed that a fault exists on the line between the relay
and the reach point. The reach point of a relay is the point along the line
impedance locus that is intersected by the boundary characteristic of the
relay. Since this is dependent on the ratio of voltage and current and the
phase angle between them, it may be plotted on an R/X diagram. The loci of
power system impedances as seen by the relay during faults, power swings
and load variations may be plotted on the same diagram and in this manner
the performance of the relay in the presence of system faults and
disturbances may be studied.

2.2 MHO RELAY


A relay that operates on the basis of a voltage to current ratio is
called an MHO relay . This ratio is also known as the apparent impedance
seen by the relay. The relay operates when the magnitude of the apparent
impedance is less than the value for which the relay is set to operate. This
type of relay detects faults in all four quadrants of the R-X plane. Therefore,

directional elements are unutilized for this type of relays. A typical


impedance relay has a timer, a directional element, and three impedance
elements.
In order to protect the three zones, all three impedance elements are set to
operate. Different impedance values, each at different time interval, should a
fault occur on the transmission line under their supervision. The tripping
characteristic of a simple impedance relay with impedance elements and
timer is a circle centered at the origin. Whenever the value of the apparent
impedance falls within the radius of the circle, the relay operates. On the
other hand, the characteristic of the directional element is a straight line
passing through the origin while being perpendicular to the line of maximum
torque. With the presence of a directional element, the tripping area is
defined as that falling within the circle and above the straight line. Mho relay
detects faults only in one direction thanks to the availability of three zone
elements and a timer. Note that directional elements are not needed. The
third zone impedance element can be adjusted to induce an offset
characteristic for back-up protection purpose. Note that generally, mho
relays are used for protection of long lines.
Some numerical relays measure the absolute fault impedance
and then determine whether operation is required according to impedance
boundaries defined on the R/X diagram. Traditional distance relays and
numerical relays that emulate the impedance elements of traditional relays
do not measure absolute impedance. They compare the measured fault
voltage with a replica voltage derived from the fault current and the zone
impedance setting to determine whether the fault is within zone or out-ofzone. Distance relay impedance comparators or algorithms which emulate
traditional comparators are classified according to their polar characteristics,
the number of signal inputs they have, and the method by which signal
comparisons are made. The common types compare either the relative
amplitude or phase of two input quantities to obtain operating characteristics

that are either straight lines or circles when plotted on an R/X diagram. At
each stage of distance relay design evolution, the development of
impedance operating characteristic shapes and sophistication has been
governed by the technology available and the acceptable cost. Since many
traditional relays are still in service and since some numerical relays emulate
the techniques of the traditional relays.

2.3. Basic Principle:


A distance relay has the ability to detect a fault within a pre-set
distance along a transmission line or power cable from its location. Every
power line has a resistance and reactance per kilometer related to its design
and construction so its total impedance will be a function of its length. A
distance relay therefore looks at current and voltage and compares these
two quantities on the basis of Ohms law.
Since the impedance of a transmission line is proportional to its length, for
distance measurement it is appropriate to use a relay capable of measuring
the impedance of a line up to a predetermined point (the reach point).

the relay location and the predetermined (reach) point, thus giving
discrimination for faults that may occur in different line sections.
The basic principle of distance protection involves the division of
voltage at the relaying point by the measured current. The calculated
apparent impedance is compared with the reach point impedance. If the

measured impedance is less than the reach point impedance, it is assumed


that a fault exists on the line between the relay and the reach point.

2.4.Mho Characteristic:
The limitation of the impedance characteristic can be overcome by
a technique known as self-polarization. Additional voltages are fed into the
comparator in order to compare the relative phase angles of voltage and
current, so providing a directional feature. This has the effect of moving the
circle such that the circumference of the circle passes through the origin.
Angle is known as the relays characteristic angle. It appears as a straight
line on an admittance diagram.

UNIVERSAL TORQUE EQUATION:


T= K1I2+K2V2+K3VI cos( )+K4
For mho relay, K3= +ve
K2= -ve

K1=0
K4=0(when the relay is on verge of operation)
For mho relay the directional unit will produce operating torque and
the voltage will produce the restraining torque for that reason mho relay is
also known as directional relay with voltage restrain.

K3VI cos( ) > K2V2

K2
cos( )> K 3

VI
v2

I
V cos( )>

K2
K3

K2
K3

cos( )>
1

Y cos ( )
1

<

K3
K2

< Zset cos( )

Zseen < Zset cos( )

----------- (Eqn 1)

Eqn-1 comprises trip law of mho relay,if this condition satisfies relay trips
otherwise it restrains.

RESULT:

40

CHARACTERISTICS OF MHO RELAY FOR TORQUE ANGLE 60 DEGREE

35

30

25

20

15

10

-5
-10

-5

10
R

15

20

25

30

40

CHARACTERISTICS OF MHO RELAY FOR TORQUE ANGLE OF 85DEGREE

35

30

25

20

15

10

-5
-20

-15

-10

-5

0
R

10

15

20

2.5.ZONES OF PROTECTION:
Careful selection of the reach point settings and tripping times for
various zones of measurement enables correct coordination between
distance relays on a power system. Basic distance protection will comprise
one instantaneous (Zone 1) and one or more time delayed zones (Zone 2,
Zone 3, Zone 4 ). Typical reach and time settings for a 3-Zone distance
protection are shown below:

zone 1: this is set to protect between 80% of the line length AB and
operates Zone without any time delay. This under-reach setting has been
purposely chosen to avoid over-reaching into the next line section to
ensure selectivity since errors and transients can be present in the voltage
and

current

transformers.

Also

manufacturing

tolerances

limit

the

measurement accuracy of the relays.

Zone 2: this is set to protect 100% of the line length AB, plus at least 20%
of the shortest adjacent line BC and operates with time delay t2. (0.5s)
It not only covers the remaining %20 of the line, but also provides backup for
the next line section.

Zone 3: this is set to protect 100% of the two lines AB, BC, plus about 25%
of the third line CD and operates with time delay t3. (1.5s)
It should be noted that, digital distance relays may have up to six zones,
some set to measure in the reverse direction.

RESULT:

80

THREE ZONE PROTECTION OF MHO RELAY FOR TORQUE ANGLE OF 85DEGREE

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

-10
-40

-30

-20

-10

0
R

10

20

30

40

70

THREE ZONE PROTECTION OF MHO RELAY FOR TORQUE ANGLE OF 60 DEGREE

60

50

40

30

20

10

-10
-20

-10

10

20
R

30

40

50

60

CHARTER-3
POWER SWING & EFFECT OF
POWER

SWING

ON MHO RELAY

3. POWER SWING:

Power Swing which is basically caused by the large disturbances in the


power system which if not blocked could cause wrong operation of the
distance relay and can generates wrong or undesired tripping of the
transmission line circuit breaker. And if not prevented from the generator
could cause severe damage to the machine.
In the past few years we have experienced big disturbances in the
power system which caused complete blackout and million of users including
industry have suffered big economical losses. These disturbances cause big
oscillations in active and reactive power, low voltage, voltage instability and
phase or angular instability between the generated and consumed power
which results in loss of generation and load which effected both the power
generation and the end customers.
During the steady state condition, power systems operate on the
nominal frequency (50Hz or 60Hz). The complete synchronism of nominal
frequency and voltage at the sending and receiving ends cause complete
balance of active and reactive power between generated and consumed
active

and

reactive

Frequency=Nominal

powers.

frequency

In
(50

steady
or

60

state
Hz)

operating

condition

+/

Hz

0.02

and

Voltage=Nominal voltage +/ 5%.Power system faults, line switching,


generator disconnection, and the loss or application of large blocks of load
result in sudden changes to electrical power, which is due to the causes
shown in Fig 1.

The mechanical power(Pm) input to generators remains


relatively constant.
The electrical power, Pg transferred from the generator, an
electric machine, to the load is given by the equation:

where:
Eg = Internal voltage and is proportional to the excitation current
El = Load Voltage
X = Reactance between the generator and the load
= Angle that the internal voltage leads the load voltage

Pm = Mechanical Turbine Power of the generating unit


Pg = Electromagnetic Power output of the generating unit
Pa = Accelerating Power

The mechanical power, Pm, is provided by the turbine and the


average mechanical power must be equal to the average electrical power.
When a system disturbance occurs there is a change in one of the
parameters of the electrical power equation. For faults, typically the
reactance between the generator and the load (X), the load voltage (El), or
some combination of these two parameters causes the electrical power to
change. For example, for a short circuit the load voltage is reduced, for a
breaker opening the reactance increases. When a generation unit trips, the
required electrical power from the remaining generators increases. In this
case, the instantaneous mechanical power provided by the turbine is no
longer equal to the instantaneous electrical power delivered or required by
the load. When the load on a unit is suddenly increased, the energy
furnished by the rotor results in a decrease in the rotor angular velocity . And
this decrease in rotor velocity will cause oscillations in rotor angle and can
result in severe power flow swing.
Suppose we have two generators G1&G2 in parallel, and both the generators
are sharing load. On the sudden disconnection of G2, there will be an
increase in load on G1 and due to this there will be the oscillations in the
rotor angle of G1, which is represented in Fig. 2.

is the steady state rotor angle.


is the change in rotor angle due to oscillations

In Fig. 2, is the steady state rotor angle and is the change in rotor angle
due to oscillations which will result in the oscillation of nominal voltage, and
this oscillation in the nominal voltage causes loss of synchronism between
the generators in parallel or between the generation and load. Depending on
the severity of the disturbance and the actions of power system controls, the
system may remain stable and return to a new equilibrium state
experiencing what is referred to as a stable power swing. Severe system
disturbances, on the other hand, could cause large separation of generator
rotor angles, large swings of power flows, large fluctuations of voltages and
currents, and eventual loss of synchronism between groups of generators or
between neighboring utility systems.

3.1.Stable Power Swing: Small disturbances which can be controled by


the action of Power System and the system remain in its steady state
condition. Unstable Power Swing: Severe disturbances can produce a large
separation of System Generator Rotor angles, large swings of power flow,

large fluctuations of voltages and currents, and eventually lead to lose


synchronism.

3.2.Power Swing Effect on the Distance Relay:


Power swings can cause the load impedance, which understeady state
conditions is not within the relays operating characteristic, to enter into the
relays operating characteristic, under figure-3,

Operation
these

of

relays during a power swing may cause undesired tripping of

transmission lines or other power system elements, thereby weakening the


system and possibly leading to cascading outages and the shutdown of
major portions of the power system.
Distance or other relays should not trip during such as stable or
unstable power swings, and allow the power system to return to a stable
operating condition. Distance relay elements prone to operate during stable
or transient power swings should be temporarily inhibited from operating to
prevent system separation from occurring at random or in other than preselected locations. However, faults that occur during a power swing must be
detected and cleared with a high degree of selectivity and dependability.
Severe system disturbances could cause large separation of the rotor angles

between groups of generators and eventual loss of synchronism between


groups of generators or between neighboring utility systems. When two
areas of a power system, or two interconnected systems, lose synchronism,
the areas must be separated from each other quickly and automatically to
avoid equipment damage and power blackouts.

3.3.POWER SWING CHARACTERISTICS :

In this chapter, we will introduce the concept of power swings. It


will be shown that the post fault power swings may encroach the relay
characteristics. This can lead to nuisance tripping of distance relays which
can sacrifice the system security. Power swings refer to oscillation in active
and reactive power flows on a transmission line consequent to a large
disturbance like a fault. The oscillation in the apparent power and bus
voltages is seen by the relay as an impedance swing on the R X plane. If
the impedance trajectory enters a relay zone and stays there for sufficiently
long time, then the relay will issue a trip decision on power swing. Tripping
on power swings is not desirable. We now investigate this phenomenon.
Let us consider a simple two machines system connected by a
transmission line of impedance ZL as shown in Figure below. ES and ER are the
generator voltages at two ends and we assume that the system is purely
reactive. The voltage ES leads ER by an angle

so that power flows from A to

B during steady state. The relay under consideration is located at bus A end.
The power angle curve is shown in Figure below.The system is operating at

0
initial steady operating point A with P mo as output power and
rotor angle.

as initial

Pm 0
Pmax

0 sin 1

3.4.Determination of power swing locus & Effect on


mho relay :
A distance relay may classify power swing as a phase fault if

impedance trajectory enters the operating characteristic of the relay. We will


now derive the apparent impedance seen by the relay R on R-X plane. Again
consider simple two machine system connected by a transmission line of
impedance ZL as shown in

Figure4.1 , where machine B is treated as

reference.

Fig-4.1

I relay

E S E R
ZT
----------------------(1)
ZT Z S Z L Z R

Where,

------------(2)

Now, impedance seen by relay is given by the following equation,

Z seen (relay )

Vrelay
I relay

E S I relay Z S
I relay


E S
Z S
E S E R

Z T

-----------------------(3)

Z S Z T

ER

1
ES

ES
ER

Let us define

. Assuming for simplicity, both the voltages as equal to

1pu, i.e. k=1,

1
Z seen (relay ) Z S Z T
1 cos j sin

Z S

ZT
2 sin

Z S

(sin

ZT
1

Z S

2
2

j sin cos
sin

2
2
2

j cos )
2
2

ZT

(1 j cot )
2
2

-------------------------(4)

Z
ZS T
2

j T cot
2 2

a cons tan t offset

perpendicular line segment

cot 0, Z seen Z S

180
From equation (4) at

ZT
2

There is a geometrical interpretation of above

ZS
equation. The vector component

j
X plane. The component

segment

ZT
2

ZT

cot
2
2

ZT
2

in equation (4) is a constant in R

is a straight line, perpendicular to line

. Thus the trajectory of the impedance measured by relay during

the power swing is a straight line as shown in fig3 (a). The angle subtended
by a point in the locus on S and R end points is angle

. For simplicity, angle

Z S , Z R and Z L
of

are considered identical. It intersect the line AB at mid point,

180
when

.
The corresponding point of intersection of swing impedance

trajectory to the impedance line is known as electrical center of the swing


fig3(a). The angle,

between two sources can be mapped graphically as


E S and E R

the angle subtended by source points

on the swing trajectory. At

the electrical center, angle between two sources is

180

. The existence of

electrical center is an indication of system instability, the two generators


now being out of step.

If the power swing is stable, i.e. if the post fault system

max
is stable, then

will be less than

. In such event, the power swing

ES
k 1
ER

max
retraces its path at

180

.If

, then the power swing locus on the R X is

an arc of the circle. (See fig 3(b)) .It can be easily shown that

ES
k (cos sin )
k[( k cos ) j sin ]

E S E R k (cos j sin ) 1 (k cos ) 2 sin 2


---------------(5)
Then,
Z seen Z S

k (k cos ) j sin
ZT
(k cos ) 2 sin 2

It is also clear from Fig 23.4 (b), that the location of the

ES
ER
electrical center is dependent upon the

ratio. Appearance o f electrical

center on a transmission line is a transient phenomenon. At the electrical


center, the voltage is exactly zero. This means that relays at both the ends of
line perceive it as a bolted three phase fault and immediately trip the line.
Thus, we can conclude that existence of electrical center indicates (1)
system instability (2) possibility of nuisance tripping of distance relay.

Fig-a power swing in R-X plane


Characteristics

Fig-b power swing along with mho

Result:

EFFECT OF POWER SWING ON MHO RELAY FOR K=1

40
35
30
25

20
15
10
5
0
-5
-50

50

100

150

200

EFFECT OF POWER SWING LOCUS ON MHO RELAY FOR


K=1

EFFECT OF POWER SWING LOCUS ON MHO RELAY FOR K>1

90
80
70
60

50
40
30
20
10
0
-10
-50

50

100

150

200

EFFECT OF POWER SWING LOCUS ON MHO RELAY FOR


K>1

EFFECT OF POWER SWING ON MHO RELAY FOR K<1

40

20

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100
-60

-40

-20

20

40
R

60

80

100

120

140

EFFECT OF POWER SWING ON MHO RELAY FOR K<1


Now consider a double-end-feed transmission line with three stepped
distance protection scheme having Z1, Z2 and Z3 protection zones as shown in
Figure 4(c). The mho relays are used and characteristics are plotted on R-X
plane as shown in Figure 4(d). Swing impedance trajectory is also overlapped
on relay characteristics for a simple case of equal end voltages (i.e. k = 1)
and it is perpendicular to line AB.

Fig4(c) single line diagram showing three protection zones

Zone-3
Zone-2
X
Zone-1

Impedance Trajectories entering three protection


Figure4(d) Three stepped distance protection to double-end-feed line

Z1 Z 2
Z3
From Figure4(c) ,
,
and
are rotor angles when swing
just enters the zone Z1, Z2 and Z3 respectively and it can be obtained at the
intersection of swing trajectory to the relay characteristics. Recalling max is
the maximum rotor angle for stable power swing, following inferences can be
drawn.
max Z 3
If

, then swing will not enter the relay characteristics.

Z 3 max Z 2

Z3

Z3

If
, swing will enter in zone . If it stays in zone interval than its TDS, then the relay will trip the line.

Z 2 max Z 1
If

Z 2 and Z 3
, swing will enter in both the zones

. If it stays in zone

2, for larger interval than its TDS, then the relay will trip on

max Z 1

Z2

Z 1 , Z 2 and Z 3

If
, swing will enter in the zones
protection will operate without instantaneous delay.

RESULT:

for larger

and operate zone 1

IMPEDANCE TRAJECTORY ENTERING THREE PROTECTION ZONES FOR K<1

100
80
60
40
20

0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-60

-40

-20

20

40
R

60

80

100

120

140

IMPEDANCE TRAJECTORY ENTERING THREE PROTECTION ZONES FOR


K<1
IMPEDANCE TRAJECTORY ENTERING THREE PROTECTION ZONES FOR K=1

90
80
70
60

50
40
30
20
10
0
-10
-50

50

100

150

200

IMPEDANCE TRAJECTORY ENTERING THREE PROTECTION ZONES


FOR K=1

IMPEDANCE TRAJECTORY ENTERING THREE ZONES PROTECTION FOR K>1

90
80
70
60

50
40
30
20
10
0
-10
-50

50

100

150

200

IMPEDANCE TRAJECTORY ENTERING THREE ZONES PROTECTION FOR


K>1

CHAPTER 4
CONCLUSION
&
FUTURE WORK

CONCLUSION
To decrease the risk of large-scale blackouts, appropriate
control actions may be taken on a power system when it undergoes a major
disturbance. Few recognized control actions are load shedding, generation
curtailment, and controlled separation, to cite a few. In this research work we
have developed a new method aimed at performing controlled system
separation using current technologies. Here, a power system is split into
islands having minimal load-generation imbalance . Power swing is a
variation in three-phrase power flow which occurs when the generator angles
are advancing or retarding relative to each other in response to changes in
load magnitudes and direction, line switching, loss of generation, faults, and
other system disturbance.

FUTURE WORK

The undesired tripping during power swing is a major Problem in the


transmission line. so for a healthy transmission system the false
tripping for power swing must be eradicated.

There should be stand alone digital distance protection

,Which can

discriminate between abnormal conditions and faults and with power


swing blocking scheme it should not trip during severe disturbance
causing much variation in the load angle.

CHAPTER 5
REFERENCES

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