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Docs Seismic Reflection Fold in Seismic Reflection Surveying

Fold in Seismic Reflection Surveying

The fold refers to the number of times a particular subsurface point has been sampled. It is
equal to the number of traces in the CMP gather and is numerically evaluated by
N (number of geophones)
f old =

where n is the moveup rate in units of geophone spacing. Moveup rate is in fact (shot
spacing)/(geophone spacing). For example, if geophones are 2 meters apart and shots are
employed every 4 meters, then the moveup rate is n=4/2=2. This can be less than one if
there are shots set more often than geophone spacing, a practice that is sometimes done in
marine seismology, especially ocean bottom profiling.
The schematic below shows a single ended spread with 8 geophones and moveup rate of

We see that each point in the subsurface is sampled only twice. Notice that the distance
between the reflection points in the subsurface is half the geophone spacing.