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Docs Seismic Reflection Fold in Seismic Reflection Surveying

Fold in Seismic Reflection Surveying


The fold refers to the number of times a particular subsurface point has been sampled. It is
equal to the number of traces in the CMP gather and is numerically evaluated by
N (number of geophones)
f old =
2n

where n is the moveup rate in units of geophone spacing. Moveup rate is in fact (shot
spacing)/(geophone spacing). For example, if geophones are 2 meters apart and shots are
employed every 4 meters, then the moveup rate is n=4/2=2. This can be less than one if
there are shots set more often than geophone spacing, a practice that is sometimes done in
marine seismology, especially ocean bottom profiling.
The schematic below shows a single ended spread with 8 geophones and moveup rate of
n=2.

We see that each point in the subsurface is sampled only twice. Notice that the distance
between the reflection points in the subsurface is half the geophone spacing.