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eRAN

AQM Feature Parameter Description


Issue

01

Date

2015-03-23

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2015. All rights reserved.


No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written
consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions


and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective
holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the
customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the
purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information,
and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or
representations of any kind, either express or implied.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and
recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address:

Huawei Industrial Base


Bantian, Longgang
Shenzhen 518129
People's Republic of China

Website:

http://www.huawei.com

Email:

support@huawei.com

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

Contents

Contents
1 About This Document.................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Scope.............................................................................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Intended Audience.......................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Change History............................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.4 Differences Between eNodeB Types.............................................................................................................................. 2

2 Overview......................................................................................................................................... 3
3 Technical Description...................................................................................................................4
4 Network Impact............................................................................................................................. 6
4.1 LOFD-001027 Active Queue Management (AQM)...................................................................................................... 6

5 Related Features.............................................................................................................................7
5.1 LOFD-001027 Active Queue Management (AQM)...................................................................................................... 7

6 Engineering Guidelines............................................................................................................... 8
6.1 When to Use AQM......................................................................................................................................................... 8
6.2 Required Information..................................................................................................................................................... 9
6.3 Planning.......................................................................................................................................................................... 9
6.4 Deployment.................................................................................................................................................................... 9
6.4.1 Requirements............................................................................................................................................................. 10
6.4.2 Data Preparation........................................................................................................................................................ 10
6.4.3 Activation...................................................................................................................................................................11
6.4.4 Activation Observation..............................................................................................................................................13
6.4.5 Reconfiguration......................................................................................................................................................... 14
6.4.6 Deactivation...............................................................................................................................................................14
6.5 Performance Monitoring...............................................................................................................................................14
6.6 Parameter Optimization................................................................................................................................................ 15
6.7 Troubleshooting............................................................................................................................................................ 16

7 Parameters..................................................................................................................................... 17
8 Counters........................................................................................................................................ 18
9 Glossary......................................................................................................................................... 23
10 Reference Documents............................................................................................................... 24
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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

1 About This Document

About This Document

1.1 Scope
This document describes LOFD-001027 Active Queue Management (AQM), including its
technical principles, related features, network impact, and engineering guidelines.
This document applies to the following types of eNodeBs.
eNodeB Type

Model

Macro

3900 series eNodeB

Micro

BTS3202E

LampSite

DBS3900 LampSite

Any managed objects (MOs), parameters, alarms, or counters described herein correspond to
the software release delivered with this document. Any future updates will be described in the
product documentation delivered with future software releases.
This document applies only to LTE FDD. Any "LTE" in this document refers to LTE FDD,
and "eNodeB" refers to FDD eNodeB.

1.2 Intended Audience


This document is intended for personnel who:
l

Need to understand the features described herein

Work with Huawei products

1.3 Change History


This section provides information about the changes in different document versions. There are
two types of changes:
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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

1 About This Document

Feature change
Changes in features and parameters of a specified version as well as the affected entities

Editorial change
Changes in wording or addition of information and any related parameters affected by
editorial changes. Editorial change does not specify the affected entities

eRAN 8.1 01 (2015-03-23)


This issue does not include any changes.

eRAN8.1 Draft A (2015-01-15)


Compared with Issue 02 (2014-05-30) of eRAN7.0, Draft A (2015-01-15) of eRAN8.1
includes the following changes.
Change Type

Change Description

Parameter
Change

Affected Entity

Feature change

None

None

Editorial change

Modified the description


in 6.7 Troubleshooting.

None

Macro, micro, and


LampSite
eNodeBs

1.4 Differences Between eNodeB Types


The features described in this document are implemented in the same way on macro, micro,
and LampSite eNodeBs.

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

2 Overview

Overview

A radio link has a lower bandwidth than a wired link and the bandwidth of a radio link
fluctuates. A large amount of data buffered on the eNodeB may congest the air interface
during downlink data transmission. Therefore, AQM is introduced, which actively controls
the buffer queue length to prevent congestion deterioration.
When air interface resources are insufficient, AQM estimates the buffer queue length and
selectively discards Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) packets in case of congestion.
Congestion control at the sender is triggered as early as possible to prevent congestion
deterioration. As a result, the transmission delay of interactive services (such as web
browsing) decreases, and user experience is therefore improved. The feature also ensures the
fair scheduling of different services.
AQM has the following benefits:
l

Detects congestion in the buffer queue as early as possible and minimizes the probability
of congestion deterioration by discarding packets.

Maintains a relatively short queue to reach a tradeoff between the data throughput and
transmission delay.

Avoids global synchronization caused by simultaneous overflow of multiple data


streams.
NOTE

Packets often burst when they arrive at a buffer queue. When the queue is full or nearly full, a large
number of packets are lost. Upon detection of lost packets, multiple TCP senders sharply decrease the
send window by reducing the amount of data to transmit. Then, the packet arrival rate declines quickly
and the network is no longer congested. The TCP senders start to increase the transmission rate after
detecting that the network is not congested, which again results in network congestion. This problem
occurs repeatedly, which is called global synchronization.

Huawei AQM applies to non-GBR (GBR is short for guaranteed bit rate) services.
AQM is controlled by the CellAlgoSwitch.AqmAlgoSwitch parameter. For details about the
configuration, see 6 Engineering Guidelines.

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

3 Technical Description

Technical Description

Due to the limitation of resource capacity and processing capability of networks, congestion
can become a bottleneck in network development. End-to-end congestion control technologies
in TCP have been the main methods used to control IP network congestion. However, UEs at
the network edge may not obtain accurate information about the network status in time.
Therefore, these TCP congestion control technologies cannot solve all problems in networks.
To address this problem, node-based congestion control technologies are developed. AQM is
one such node-based congestion control technology.
As an IP network node, an eNodeB uses AQM to detect buffer queues. If AQM detects that
the number of packets in a buffer queue (that is, the queue length) exceeds a specified
threshold, it discards TCP packets selectively based on TCP port numbers. As a result, the
amount of data is reduced, the delay of interactive services is reduced, and fair scheduling
among data streams is improved.
The working area of AQM is divided into normal, congestion avoidance, and congestion
control areas based on the minimum and maximum congestion thresholds. Figure 3-1 shows
the AQM working areas. In this figure, Max represents the maximum packet loss rate of a
non-GBR service in the congestion avoidance area, and the red lines denote the packet discard
rate.

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AQM Feature Parameter Description

3 Technical Description

Figure 3-1 AQM working areas

AQM calculates the average queue length and compares it with the minimum and maximum
congestion thresholds. AQM then performs different operations under each of the following
conditions:
l

Average queue length Minimum congestion threshold


In the normal area, AQM does not discard any packets because the queue is not
congested.

Minimum congestion threshold < Average queue length < Maximum congestion
threshold
In the congestion avoidance area, AQM discards some packets because the queue is
congested. The number of discarded packets increases along with the amount of data
successfully sent to the eNodeB.

Average queue length Maximum congestion threshold


In the congestion control area, AQM discards every newly arrived packet because the
queue is severely congested.

The minimum congestion threshold is automatically calculated by the eNodeB based on the
real-time data rate over the air interface and requires no manual setting. The maximum
congestion threshold is the minimum congestion threshold multiplied by eight.

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

4 Network Impact

Network Impact

4.1 LOFD-001027 Active Queue Management (AQM)


System Capacity
When AQM is enabled, the processing delay of downlink packets carried by non-GBR
bearers decreases. Therefore, the delay of delay-sensitive services, such as HTTP services and
small file downloads, decreases. The processing delay can be monitored by dividing the value
of the L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Time.QCI.x counter by the value of the
L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Num.QCI.x counter. However, when AQM is enabled, the cell
throughput decreases, some UEs' throughput fluctuates, or the throughput for non-GBR
services decreases. If GRB and non-GBR services coexist in a cell, and the actual GBR
service rate is smaller than the subscribed GBR service rate, the scheduling opportunities for
GBR services increase because the throughput for non-GBR services decreases. Therefore,
the throughput for GRB services increases.

Network Performance
The network key performance indicators (KPIs) related to the system throughput fluctuate as
follows:
l

If a cell has both cell edge users (CEUs) and cell center users (CCUs), AQM will
decrease the throughput of CEUs because services of CEUs are easily congested. There
is a low probability that services of CCUs are congested, and therefore AQM will
increase the throughput of CCUs and the increased throughput is larger than the
decreased throughput for CEUs. In this case, the cell throughput increases.

If a cell has only CEUs, the cell throughput will decrease because AQM decreases the
throughput of CEUs.

If a cell has only CCUs, the impacts of AQM on the cell throughput can be ignored.

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

5 Related Features

Related Features

5.1 LOFD-001027 Active Queue Management (AQM)


Prerequisite Features
None

Mutually Exclusive Features


None

Impacted Features
None

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AQM Feature Parameter Description

6 Engineering Guidelines

Engineering Guidelines

6.1 When to Use AQM


AQM is used for queue management of user plane data in LTE networks.
AQM applies to downlink hybrid-service scenarios where multiple TCP services are running
on one bearer. In such scenarios, the TCP services with a larger traffic volume occupy air
interface resources for a long time. The air interface resources for the TCP services with a
smaller traffic volume are insufficient, and a large amount of data is buffered in the eNodeB.
As a result, the latency of services that require a quick response (real-time services such as
web browsing or small-file download) is prolonged, and user experience deteriorates sharply.
Huawei AQM applies only to non-GBR services.
Enable AQM in the following scenarios:
l

The congestion probability and packet loss rate in specific cells are abnormally high,
user experience with interactive services deteriorates, and you have determined that the
problem occurs due to a large amount of downlink data. If the problem is not caused by a
large amount of downlink data, enabling AQM may cause further deterioration of the
service quality.

Multiple TCP-based bit torrent (BT) services are running or large files are being
downloaded while lots of interactive services are running on the network.

In the following scenarios, AQM brings no gain or could even have slightly negative effects:
l

When there are both TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) services on a bearer,
discarding TCP and UDP packets in this scenario can reduce the TCP traffic but not the
UDP traffic.

Packets are randomly discarded by AQM during network congestion. If packets of


interactive services are discarded, user experience with these services deteriorates.

The data rate of CEUs fluctuates due to interference. In this scenario, the eNodeB is not
congested and AQM brings little gain.

Discarding packets can cause throughput fluctuations, especially when there are only a
small number (for example, one or two) of TCP connections.

The downlink throughput on a bearer exceeds 30 Mbit/s. In this scenario, non-GBR


services are not congested and AQM brings little gain.

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AQM Feature Parameter Description

6 Engineering Guidelines

6.2 Required Information


The values of the following counters must be collected before AQM is deployed.
Counter ID

Counter Name

Description

1526727922

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Time.QCI.6

Processing delay of downlink PDCP SDUs for


DRB services with the QCI of 6 in a cell

1526727925

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Time.QCI.7

Processing delay of downlink PDCP SDUs for


DRB services with the QCI of 7 in a cell

526727928

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Time.QCI.8

Processing delay of downlink PDCP SDUs for


DRB services with the QCI of 8 in a cell

1526727931

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Time.QCI.9

Processing delay of downlink PDCP SDUs for


DRB services with the QCI of 9 in a cell

1526727923

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Num.QCI.6

Number of successfully transmitted downlink


PDCP SDUs for DRB services with the QCI of 6
in a cell

1526727926

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Num.QCI.7

Number of successfully transmitted downlink


PDCP SDUs for DRB services with the QCI of 7
in a cell

1526727929

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Num.QCI.8

Number of successfully transmitted downlink


PDCP SDUs for DRB services with the QCI of 8
in a cell

1526727932

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Num.QCI.9

Number of successfully transmitted downlink


PDCP SDUs for DRB services with the QCI of 9
in a cell

Assume that the value of L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Time.QCI.x/


L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Num.QCI.x (x indicates the QCI of a service) is A. If A is larger than
500 ms/packet for a non-GBR service with the QCI of x and the value of the Discard
timer(ms) parameter for the QCI of x is larger than 500 ms, it is recommended that AQM be
enabled. The Discard timer(ms) parameter value can be queried by running the LST
RLCPDCPPARAGROUP command.

6.3 Planning
None

6.4 Deployment

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AQM Feature Parameter Description

6 Engineering Guidelines

6.4.1 Requirements
This feature has no requirements for the operating environment or transmission networking.
This feature does not depend on and is not mutually exclusive with other features.
The operator has purchased and activated the license for the feature listed in Table 6-1.
Table 6-1 License information for AQM
Feature
ID

Feature
Name

Model

License Control
Item

NE

Sales Unit

LOFD-001
027

Active
Queue
Managemen
t(AQM)

LT1S000
AQM00

Active Queue
Management(AQM)
(FDD)

eNode
B

per RRC
Connected
User

6.4.2 Data Preparation


This section describes the data that you need to collect for setting parameters. Mandatory data
is data that you must collect for all scenarios. Collect scenario-specific data when necessary
for a specific feature deployment scenario.
There are three types of data sources:
l

Network plan (negotiation required): parameter values planned by the operator and
negotiated with the EPC or peer transmission equipment

Network plan (negotiation not required): parameter values planned and set by the
operator

User-defined: parameter values set by users.

Mandatory Data
The following table describes the parameters that must be set in the CellAlgoSwitch managed
object (MO) to configure the AQM algorithm switch.
Parameter Name

Parameter ID

Data Source

Setting Notes

Local cell ID

CellAlgoSwitch.Loca
lCellId

Network plan
(negotiation not
required)

Set this parameter to


the local ID of the
cell where the AQM
algorithm will be
enabled.

AQM algorithm
switch

CellAlgoSwitch.Aqm
AlgoSwitch

Network plan
(negotiation not
required)

Set this parameter


based on the
network plan.

Scenario-specific Data
None
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AQM Feature Parameter Description

6 Engineering Guidelines

6.4.3 Activation
Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration for Newly Deployed eNodeBs
Enter the values of the parameters listed in Table 6-2 in a summary data file, which also
contains other data for the new eNodeBs to be deployed. Then, import the summary data file
into the Configuration Management Express (CME) for batch configuration. For detailed
instructions, see section "Creating eNodeBs in Batches" in the initial configuration guide for
the eNodeB.
The summary data file may be a scenario-specific file provided by the CME or a customized
file, depending on the following conditions:
l

If the MOs in Table 6-2 are contained in a scenario-specific summary data file, set the
parameters in the MOs, and then verify the parameters and save the file.

If some MOs in Table 6-2 are not contained in a scenario-specific summary data file,
customize a summary data file to include the MOs before you can set the parameters.
Table 6-2 Parameters for activating AQM
MO

Sheet in the
Summary Data
File

Parameter Group

Remarks

CellAlgoSwitch

CellAlgoSwitch

Local Cell ID,


AQM algorithm
switch

None

Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration for Existing eNodeBs


Batch reconfiguration using the CME is the recommended method to activate a feature on
existing eNodeBs. This method reconfigures all data, except neighbor relationships, for
multiple eNodeBs in a single procedure. The procedure is as follows:
Step 1 Choose CME > Advanced > Customize Summary Data File (U2000 client mode), or
choose Advanced > Customize Summary Data File (CME client mode), to customize a
summary data file for batch reconfiguration.
NOTE

For context-sensitive help on a current task in the client, press F1.

Step 2 Choose CME > LTE Application > Export Data > Export Base Station Bulk
Configuration Data (U2000 client mode), or choose LTE Application > Export Data >
Export Base Station Bulk Configuration Data (CME client mode), to export the eNodeB
data stored on the CME into the customized summary data file.
Step 3 In the summary data file, set the parameters in the MOs listed in Table 6-2 and close the file.
Step 4 Choose CME > LTE Application > Import Data > Import Base Station Bulk
Configuration Data (U2000 client mode), or choose LTE Application > Import Data >
Import Base Station Bulk Configuration Data (CME client mode), to import the summary
data file into the CME.
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AQM Feature Parameter Description

6 Engineering Guidelines

Step 5 Choose CME > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts (U2000 client mode), or
choose Area Management > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts (CME client
mode), to export and activate the incremental scripts.
----End

Using the CME to Perform Single Configuration


On the CME, set the parameters listed in section "Data Preparation" for a single eNodeB.
The procedure is as follows:
Step 1 In the planned data area, click Base Station in the upper left corner of the configuration
window.
Step 2 In area 1 shown in Figure 6-1, select the eNodeB to which the MOs belong.
Figure 6-1 MO search and configuration window

Step 3 On the Search tab page in area 2, enter an MO name, for example, CELL.
Step 4 In area 3, double-click the MO in the Object Name column. All parameters in this MO are
displayed in area 4.
Step 5 Set the parameters in area 4 or 5.
Step 6 Choose CME > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts (U2000 client mode), or
choose Area Management > Planned Area > Export Incremental Scripts (CME client
mode), to export and activate the incremental scripts.
----End

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AQM Feature Parameter Description

6 Engineering Guidelines

Using MML Commands


To enable AQM, run the MOD CELLALGOSWITCH command with the AqmAlgoSwitch
check box selected under the CellAlgoSwitch.AqmAlgoSwitch parameter.

MML Command Examples


MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0,AQMALGOSWITCH=AqmAlgoSwitch-1;

6.4.4 Activation Observation


Before the observation, ensure that:
l

The downlink throughput of the user's computer is lower than 10 Mbit/s. The downlink
throughput can be controlled by decreasing the cell bandwidth or increasing the number
of UEs in the cell.

The operator's computer can normally access the network, connect to the download
server, and run FTP download services.

Multiple large files whose sizes are larger than 1 GB and multiple small files are
available on the server for the download.
NOTE

Whether a file is a small file depends on the downlink throughput of the user's computer. If the latency
of downloading a file while downloading one or multiple large files is within 10 seconds, the file is a
small file.

The observation procedure is as follows:


Step 1 Run the MOD CELLALGOSWITCH command with the AqmAlgoSwitch check box
selected under the AQM algorithm switch parameter. Then, enable the computer to access
the network.
MML Command Example:
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0,AQMALGOSWITCH=AqmAlgoSwitch-1;

Step 2 Download one or more large files and a small file simultaneously. Then, record the small file
download latency. Repeat the test and average the recorded values as the small file download
latency with AQM enabled.
Step 3 Run the MOD CELLALGOSWITCH command with the AqmAlgoSwitch check box
cleared under the AQM algorithm switch parameter. Then, enable the computer to reaccess
the network.
MML Command Example:
MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0,AQMALGOSWITCH=AqmAlgoSwitch-0;

Step 4 Download one or more large files and a small file simultaneously. Then, record the small file
download latency. Repeat the test and average the recorded values as the small file download
latency with AQM disabled.
Step 5 Compare the two average values and verify that the time of small file download is shortened
when AQM is enabled.
----End
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6 Engineering Guidelines

6.4.5 Reconfiguration
None

6.4.6 Deactivation
Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration
Batch reconfiguration using the CME is the recommended method to deactivate a feature on
eNodeBs. This method reconfigures all data, except neighbor relationships, for multiple
eNodeBs in a single procedure. The procedure for feature deactivation is similar to that for
feature activation described in Using the CME to Perform Batch Configuration for
Existing eNodeBs. In the deactivation procedure, modify parameters according to Table 6-3.
Table 6-3 Parameters for deactivating AQM
MO

Sheet in the
Summary Data
File

Parameter Group

Remarks

CellAlgoSwitch

CellAlgoSwitch

AQMalgorithm
switch

Set the
AqmAlgoSwitch
parameter to 0.

Using the CME to Perform Single Configuration


On the CME, set parameters according to Table 6-3. For detailed instructions, see Using the
CME to Perform Single Configuration for feature deactivation.

Using MML Commands


To disable AQM, run the MOD CELLALGOSWITCH command with the AqmAlgoSwitch
check box cleared under the CellAlgoSwitch.AqmAlgoSwitch parameter.

MML Command Examples


MOD CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0,AQMALGOSWITCH=AqmAlgoSwitch-0;

6.5 Performance Monitoring


The following counters are used to monitor the AQM performance.

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Counter
ID

Counter Name

Description

152672792
2

L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Tim
e.QCI.6

Processing delay of downlink PDCP SDUs


for DRB services with the QCI of 6 in a cell

152672792
5

L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Tim
e.QCI.7

Processing delay of downlink PDCP SDUs


for DRB services with the QCI of 7 in a cell

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6 Engineering Guidelines

Counter
ID

Counter Name

Description

152672792
8

L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Tim
e.QCI.8

Processing delay of downlink PDCP SDUs


for DRB services with the QCI of 8 in a cell

152672793
1

L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Tim
e.QCI.9

Processing delay of downlink PDCP SDUs


for DRB services with the QCI of 9 in a cell

152672792
3

L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Nu
m.QCI.6

Number of successfully transmitted


downlink PDCP SDUs for DRB services
with the QCI of 6 in a cell

152672792
6

L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Nu
m.QCI.7

Number of successfully transmitted


downlink PDCP SDUs for DRB services
with the QCI of 7 in a cell

152672792
9

L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Nu
m.QCI.8

Number of successfully transmitted


downlink PDCP SDUs for DRB services
with the QCI of 8 in a cell

152672793
2

L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Nu
m.QCI.9

Number of successfully transmitted


downlink PDCP SDUs for DRB services
with the QCI of 9 in a cell

152672686
3

L.PDCP.Tx.Disc.Trf.SDU.Q
CI.6

Number of downlink traffic SDUs


discarded by the PDCP layer for services
with the QCI of 6 in a cell

152672686
9

L.PDCP.Tx.Disc.Trf.SDU.Q
CI.7

Number of downlink traffic SDUs


discarded by the PDCP layer for services
with the QCI of 7 in a cell

152672687
5

L.PDCP.Tx.Disc.Trf.SDU.Q
CI.8

Number of downlink traffic SDUs


discarded by the PDCP layer for services
with the QCI of 8 in a cell

152672688
1

L.PDCP.Tx.Disc.Trf.SDU.Q
CI.9

Number of downlink traffic SDUs


discarded by the PDCP layer for services
with the QCI of 9 in a cell

After AQM is enabled, the average processing delay of downlink PDCP SDUs for DRB
services will decrease slightly and the number of downlink traffic SDUs discarded by the
PDCP layer will increase slightly.
NOTE

Average processing delay of downlink PDCP SDUs for a DRB service = Value of the counter
L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Time.QCI.x/Value of the counter L.Traffic.DL.PktDelay.Num.QCI.x. x indicates
the QCI of the service.

6.6 Parameter Optimization


None
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6 Engineering Guidelines

6.7 Troubleshooting
Fault Description
AQM is enabled but brings no gains to the system.

Fault Handling
Step 1 Run the LST CELLALGOSWITCH command to check that the AQM switch has been
turned on.
MML Command example:
LST CELLALGOSWITCH:LOCALCELLID=0;

Step 2 Download one or more large files, and perform ping operations simultaneously. Maintain the
test for at least 2 minutes, and monitor the ping delay changes. If the delay is shorter than 500
ms, add more downloading threads. When the delay reaches 500 ms, start downloading a
small file. If the test result still indicates no gains from AQM, contact Huawei technical
support.
NOTE

When the delay reaches 500 ms, AQM discards some packets. You can perform ping operations to check
whether AQM brings gains. If AQM brings gains, the end-to-end ping delay is reduced to 500 ms
regardless of the number of TCP threads (delay caused by the EPC is not considered).

----End

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

7 Parameters

Parameters

Table 7-1 Parameters


MO

Parame
ter ID

MML
Comma
nd

Feature
ID

Feature
Name

Description

CellAlg
oSwitch

AqmAlg
oSwitch

MOD
CELLA
LGOSW
ITCH

LOFD-0
01027 /
TDLOF
D-00102
7

Active
Queue
Manage
ment
(AQM)

Meaning: Indicates the switch that is used to enable


and disable the Active Queue Management (AQM)
algorithm. If this switch is set to ON, the AQM
function is enabled to prevent or control congestion.
The length of the PDCP packet queue is maintained at
a relatively small value to help achieve an appropriate
trade-off between throughput and time latency. If this
switch is set to OFF, the AQM function is disabled.

LST
CELLA
LGOSW
ITCH

GUI Value Range: AqmAlgoSwitch


Unit: None
Actual Value Range: AqmAlgoSwitch
Default Value: AqmAlgoSwitch:Off
CellAlg
oSwitch

LocalCe
llId

DSP
CELLU
LCAMC
CLUST
ER
LST
CELLA
LGOSW
ITCH

None

None

Meaning: Indicates the local ID of the cell. It uniquely


identifies a cell within a BS.
GUI Value Range: 0~255
Unit: None
Actual Value Range: 0~255
Default Value: None

MOD
CELLA
LGOSW
ITCH

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

8 Counters

Counters

Table 8-1 Counters


Counter ID

Counter Name

Counter
Description

Feature ID

Feature Name

1526726863

L.PDCP.Tx.Disc.Tr
f.SDU.QCI.6

Number of
downlink PDCP
SDUs discarded for
services carried on
DRBs with a QCI
of 6 in a cell

Multi-mode: None

Radio Bearer
Management

GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025
1526726869

L.PDCP.Tx.Disc.Tr
f.SDU.QCI.7

Number of
downlink PDCP
SDUs discarded for
services carried on
DRBs with a QCI
of 7 in a cell

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025
1526726875

L.PDCP.Tx.Disc.Tr
f.SDU.QCI.8

Number of
downlink PDCP
SDUs discarded for
services carried on
DRBs with a QCI
of 8 in a cell

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

8 Counters

Counter ID

Counter Name

Counter
Description

Feature ID

Feature Name

1526726881

L.PDCP.Tx.Disc.Tr
f.SDU.QCI.9

Number of
downlink PDCP
SDUs discarded for
services carried on
DRBs with a QCI
of 9 in a cell

Multi-mode: None

Radio Bearer
Management

GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025
1526727922

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Time.QCI.6

Total processing
delay of downlink
PDCP SDUs for
DRB services with
the QCI of 6 in a
cell

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025
1526727923

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Num.QCI.6

Number of
successfully
transmitted
downlink PDCP
SDUs for DRB
services with the
QCI of 6 in a cell

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025
1526727925

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Time.QCI.7

Total processing
delay of downlink
PDCP SDUs for
DRB services with
the QCI of 7 in a
cell

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

8 Counters

Counter ID

Counter Name

Counter
Description

Feature ID

Feature Name

1526727926

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Num.QCI.7

Number of
successfully
transmitted
downlink PDCP
SDUs for DRB
services with the
QCI of 7 in a cell

Multi-mode: None

Radio Bearer
Management

GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025
1526727928

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Time.QCI.8

Total processing
delay of downlink
PDCP SDUs for
DRB services with
the QCI of 8 in a
cell

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025
1526727929

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Num.QCI.8

Number of
successfully
transmitted
downlink PDCP
SDUs for DRB
services with the
QCI of 8 in a cell

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025
1526727931

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Time.QCI.9

Total processing
delay of downlink
PDCP SDUs for
DRB services with
the QCI of 9 in a
cell

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

8 Counters

Counter ID

Counter Name

Counter
Description

Feature ID

Feature Name

1526727932

L.Traffic.DL.PktDe
lay.Num.QCI.9

Number of
successfully
transmitted
downlink PDCP
SDUs for DRB
services with the
QCI of 9 in a cell

Multi-mode: None

Radio Bearer
Management

GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LBFD-002008
TDLBFD-002008

Radio Bearer
Management
Basic Scheduling
Basic Scheduling

LBFD-002025
TDLBFD-002025
1526729466

L.RLC.FirstPacket
Delay.NonGBR.Ind
ex0

Number of times
delay of the first
RLC SDU for a
non-GBR bearer
ranges within index
0

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LOFD-001027

Active Queue
Management
(AQM)
LTE-A Introduction

LAOFD-001001
1526729467

L.RLC.FirstPacket
Delay.NonGBR.Ind
ex1

Number of times
delay of the first
RLC SDU for a
non-GBR bearer
ranges within index
1

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LOFD-001027

Active Queue
Management
(AQM)
LTE-A Introduction

LAOFD-001001
1526729468

L.RLC.FirstPacket
Delay.NonGBR.Ind
ex2

Number of times
delay of the first
RLC SDU for a
non-GBR bearer
ranges within index
2

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LOFD-001027

Active Queue
Management
(AQM)
LTE-A Introduction

LAOFD-001001
1526729469

L.RLC.FirstPacket
Delay.NonGBR.Ind
ex3

Number of times
delay of the first
RLC SDU for a
non-GBR bearer
ranges within index
3

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LOFD-001027

Active Queue
Management
(AQM)
LTE-A Introduction

LAOFD-001001
1526729470

L.RLC.FirstPacket
Delay.NonGBR.Ind
ex4

Number of times
delay of the first
RLC SDU for a
non-GBR bearer
ranges within index
4

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LOFD-001027

Active Queue
Management
(AQM)
LTE-A Introduction

LAOFD-001001
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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

8 Counters

Counter ID

Counter Name

Counter
Description

Feature ID

Feature Name

1526729471

L.AQM.PacketDro
pNum.QCI.6

Number of packets
discarded by AQM
for services with
QCI of 6

Multi-mode: None

Active Queue
Management
(AQM)

GSM: None
UMTS: None
LTE:
LOFD-001027

1526729472

L.AQM.PacketDro
pNum.QCI.7

Number of packets
discarded by AQM
for services with
QCI of 7

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None

Active Queue
Management
(AQM)

LTE:
LOFD-001027
1526729473

L.AQM.PacketDro
pNum.QCI.8

Number of packets
discarded by AQM
for services with
QCI of 8

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None

Active Queue
Management
(AQM)

LTE:
LOFD-001027
1526729474

L.AQM.PacketDro
pNum.QCI.9

Number of packets
discarded by AQM
for services with
QCI of 9

Multi-mode: None
GSM: None
UMTS: None

Active Queue
Management
(AQM)

LTE:
LOFD-001027

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

9 Glossary

Glossary

For the acronyms, abbreviations, terms, and definitions, see Glossary.

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eRAN
AQM Feature Parameter Description

10 Reference Documents

10

Reference Documents

None

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24