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Impact of Pay, Promotion and Consequences of Emotional

labor on Employees Attitude in Education Sector in Pakistan

By

Arsalan Mujtaba
07-HITEC-BBA-09
BBA Thesis
Bachelors in Business Administration

HITEC University, Taxila Cantt, Pakistan


Spring, 2012

HITEC University, Taxila Cantt

Impact of Pay, Promotion and Consequences of


Emotional labor on Employees Attitude in Education
Sector in Pakistan

A Thesis Presented To
HITEC University, Taxila Cantt

In partial fulfillment
Of the requirement for the degree of

(BBA)
By

Arsalan Mujtaba
07-HITEC-BBA-09

Eighth semester, spring, 2012


2

Impact of Pay, Promotion and Consequences of


Emotional labor on Employees Attitude in Education
Sector in Pakistan

An undergraduate Thesis submitted to The Department of Management


Sciences as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of
BACHELORS IN BUSSINESS ADMINISTRATION (BBA).

Name

Registration No

Arsalan Mujtaba

07-HITEC-BBA-09

Supervisior
Mr.Iftikhar Ahmed Bhatti
Department of Management Sciences
HITEC University, Taxila Cantt.
September, 2012

Final Approval
This Thesis Titled

Impact of Pay, Promotion and Consequences of


Emotional labor on Employees Attitude in Education
Sector in Pakistan
By

Arsalan Mujtaba
07-HITEC-BBA-09
For Department of Management Sciences
has been approved
HITEC University, Taxila Cantt,
Internal Examiner: ___________________________________
Dr
External Examiner:

______________________
Dr

Supervisor: ____________________________________
Mr.Iftikhar Ahmed Bhatti
Department of Management Sciences
Chairperson: ____________________________________
4

Mr.Bakhtiar Hakeem
Department of Management Sciences

Declaration

In my thesis, and to the best of my knowledge, this research does not contain
any previously published data except where appropriate acknowledgment
has been made. Any material, which has been accepted for awarding some
other degree or diploma in any university, is not included in my thesis.

Date: ________________

Signature of the student: ___________


Arsalan Mujtaba
07-Hitec-BBA-09

Certificate

It is hereby certified that the work presented by Mr. Muhammad Arsalan


Mujtaba and 07-HITEC-BBA-09 in the thesis entitled Impact of pay,
promotion and consequences of Emotional labor on employees attitude
in education sector in Pakistan has been carried out under my
supervision. He has fulfilled all the requirements and is qualified to submit
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelors in
Business and Administration (Marketing) to the Department of Management
Sciences, HITEC University Taxila.

Date: ____________________

Supervisor: _______________
Mr.Iftikhar Ahmed Bhatti
Lecturer

Chairperson of Department:
_______________________
Mr.Bakhtiar Hakeem
6

Department of Management Sciences


ACKNOWLEGMENTS

I am thankful to my supervisor, Sir Iftikhar for his unremitting support.


Without his commendable assistance, direction and keen interest, my thesis
would not be completed.
I would like to acknowledge Professor Sir Iftikhar who managed all the
arrangements for successful completion of the thesis through the splendid
leadership in Department of Management Sciences, HITEC University
Taxila.
Lastly, I would like to thank my family for their help and support in
completing my thesis.

Arslan Mujtaba (07-HITEC-BBA-09)

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the impact of three HRM practices namely pay,
promotion and consequences of emotional labor on employees attitude in
education sector of Pakistan. Three hypotheses were formulated with respect
to subsequent discussed variables. Result indicated that pay practices was
significantly and positively associated with employees attitude in education
sector of Pakistan. On the other hand promotion practices were found to be
little insignificantly associated with employee performance.

Keywords: Pay, Promotion Practices, Emotional Labor, Education sector


of Pakistan, Employees Attitude.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction..1
1.1.
Problem
Statement...4
Significance of

1.2.

study........4
1.3.
Objective of
study.4
Research

1.4.

questions........4
1.5.
Hypothesis.5
2. Literature Review...6
2.1.
Pay........
7
2.2.

mployees Attitude.......9
2.3.
Emotional
Labor14
2.4.

Promo
tion.........17

3. Research Methodology........22
3.1.
Aim
and
purpose
of
research.....22
3.2.

Research
Approach........22

3.3.

Theoretical
Framework..23

3.4.

Research
Design.....24

3.5.

Sample
Size.......24
Data

3.6.

Method.....24

Collection

3.7.

Sampling

Techniques

Design..25
3.8.
Data

Analysis

and

Sampling

and

Data

Generation.......25
4. Result and Discussion.......26
4.0. Reliability Test.......27
4.1.

Regression
Test........27

4.2.

Correlation
Test.......29

4.3.

An
alysis.......29

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Conclusion..31
Implication for managers.........32
References.......33
Appendix........35
Questionnaire.....36

LIST OF FIGURES
1. Figure 3.1.23

LIST OF TABLES
1. Table 4.128
2. Table 4.228
3. Table 4.329

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

HEC
E.L
I-V
D-V
MD-V

Higher Education Commission


Emotional Labor
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Moderating Variable
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Chapter 1
Introduction

11

Impact of Pay, Promotion and Consequences of Emotional labor on


Employees Attitude in Education Sector in Pakistan
1.0. Introduction:
Employees Job satisfaction has been defined in many different ways, but for the
purposes of this thesis, it may be defined as the summary evaluation that people make of
their work Job satisfaction reflects the nature of the work performed, the characteristics
of the organization and individual needs and values. Pay, promotion procedures and
policies matter to organizations and employees alike; they will shape employees
perceptions of fairness and justice, and hence, their commitment to the organization. In
this thesis we explore the effects of a specific set of pay and promotional policies within
the Pakistan educational sector.
Rewards are part of the exchange when workers exert effort to help in the advancement
of organizational objectives. Policies aimed at reducing labor turnover should revolve
around giving employees both extrinsic (economic) and intrinsic (psychological) reasons
to stay. This thesis emphasizes the extrinsic reasons, although it should be recognized that
these two categories are not completely distinct, and that one may impact on the other,
particularly within certain social contexts.
Emotional labor can be defined as the degree of manipulation of ones inner feelings or
outward behavior to display the appropriate emotion in response to display rules or
occupational norms. This study concerns the development of an emotional labor model
for the hospitality industry that aims at identifying the antecedents and consequences of
emotional labor.
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This study investigates the impact of individual characteristics on the way emotional
labor is performed; it investigates the relationships among the different ways of enacting
emotional labor and their consequences, and addresses the question of whether
organizational characteristics and job characteristics have buffering effects on the
perceived consequences of emotional labor, which are emotional exhaustion and job
satisfaction.
Previous studies suggested that both pay and promotion opportunities are important
determinants of commitment. It has shown that both opportunities for advancement and
pay have a positive effect on organizational commitment. The importance of promotion
opportunities as a significant determinant of organizational commitment is also part of
this thesis. Organizational commitment is also one of the principle determining factors of
propensity to stay However, performance-based pay has the potential to undermine
supportive relations amongst workers; hence it represents a two-edged sword.
The Higher Education Commission (HEC), formerly the University Grant
Commission, is the primary regulator of higher education in Pakistan. In Pakistan, up till
2002, Universities were recognized by the University Grants Commission (UGC) which
draws its powers from The University Grants Commission Act, 1974. The Act was
repealed in 2002 by the Higher Education Commission Ordinance, 2002 and since
then, Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) is responsible for higher
education policy, quality assurance, and degree recognition, development of new
institutions and uplift of existing institutions in Pakistan. It also facilitated the
development of higher educational system in Pakistan. Its main purpose was to upgrade
universities in Pakistan to be centers of education, research and development. The HEC
has played a leading role towards building a knowledge based economy in Pakistan by
giving out hundreds of doctoral scholarships for education abroad every year. Dr. Javaid
Laghari is the last incumbent appointed HEC Chairman.
Education in Pakistan is overseen by the governments Ministry of Education and the
provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum
development, accreditation and in the financing of research. The article 25-A of
Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality
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education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years. The State shall provide free and
compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner
as may be determined by law.
The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into five levels: primary (grades
one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to
the Secondary School Certificate or SSC); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve,
leading to a Higher Secondary (School) Certificate or HSC); and university programs
leading to undergraduate and graduate degree.

1.1. Problem Statement:


The variables such as HR practices and their relative significance and impact yet to be
explored. Impact of monetary rewards (Pay) and growth/success/career (Promotion) is
discussed .Impact of Emotional Labor (Surface Acting and Deep Acting) to be discussed.
Effect of Monetary, non-monetary factors as well as Emotional Labor on Higher
Education Industry in Pakistan.

1.2. Significance of study:


Pay, promotion and consequences procedures and policies matter to organizations and
employees alike; they will shape employees perceptions of fairness and justice, and
hence, their commitment to the organization. The purpose of this study is to find how pay
and promotion affect on the attitude of employees in education sector in Pakistan. There
is high impact of pay and promotion on employees attitude and their work.

1.3. Objective of study:


Objective (OBJ1) = to identify impact of pay on employees attitude.
Objective (OBJ2) = to identify impact of promotion on attitude of employees.
Objective (OBJ3) = to identify moderating effect of emotional labor on pay and
promotion effects on employees attitude towards job.

1.4. Research Question:


Research Question (RQ1) = what is impact of pay on employees attitude?
Research Question (RQ2) = what is impact of promotion on attitude of employees?
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Research Question (RQ3) = what is moderating effect of Emotional Labor on pay and
promotion effects on employees attitude towards job?

1.5. Hypothesis:
Hypotheses (H1) =There is impact of pay on attitude of employees.
Hypotheses (H2) =There is impact of promotion on attitude of employees.
Hypotheses (H3) =There is impact of Consequences of Emotional labor on employees
attitude which derived from Pay and Promotion.

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Chapter 2
Literature Review

16

2.0. Pay:
The relationship between fairness and pay satisfaction was strong and major for both
junior and senior secondary school teacher. The relationship between fairness and
affective commitment, pay satisfaction and purpose to turnover, and affective
commitment (Motshegwa Baakile ).
The value while relation to be studied because pay satisfaction can potentially have either
positive or negative penalty. Focusing on th e concluding, some of the negative cost of
pay satisfaction include turnover, absenteeism, motivation to strike and lowered job
performance Pay satisfaction and its relationship to intent to turnover (Heneman) 2006.
In pay, fulfillment of significant predictors of organizational was commitment through a
sample of 128 employees from service industry (2003). The pay satisfaction was
positively connected to organizational commitment in a survey of 211 full-time
employees in Pakistan. Maliket al (2010).
Though member of staff attitudes such as pleasure will not be a major determinant
connected with career functionality, these are nevertheless significant. Many people
promote (or discourage) absenteeism along with an impact on turnover, plus they guided
to create the tradition of the group. In accordance with Ed (1999) several significant
gener1Lzations about member of staff attitudes along with incentives.
Very first, member of staff pleasure is influenced by simply how much is obtained along
with simply how much the individual perceives needs to be obtained. Minute, member of
staff pleasure is impacted by side by side comparisons with what occurs in order to other
folks. Finally, workers generally misperceive the incentives connected with other folks.
When staff feels that someone else is doing additional money in comparison with see
your face genuinely tends to make, the likelihood of discontentment boosts. For this all
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round career pleasure is impacted by exactly how happy workers are generally having the
extrinsic along with the implicit rewards many people obtain from other jobs.
Pulling through the content concepts along with requirement principle, this realization
suggests that numerous requirements could potentially cause habits understanding that
habits might be channeled towards a variety of aim.
Incentive persons based on the efficiency results represent their entire group. This process
presumes that all employees functioning jointly can easily crank out better organizational
results that lead to superior financial efficiency. These kinds of programs generally write
about some of the financial benefits towards company having employees by way of
obligations worked out like a portion of each and every employees foundation spend.
Furthermore, organizational incentives may be given like a lump-sum total just about all
employees, as well as different quantities may be provided to different amounts of
employees through the entire group. Probably the most common forms of organizationwide incentives usually are profit- expressing ideas along with member of staff
investment ideas. Regarding senior professionals along with executives, changing spend
ideas generally usually are set up to supply stock options and other forms of deferred
settlement that minimize this place a burden on liabilities of the recipients. (Benneth
1990, Cole 2000, Luthans 2003).
A few specific inducement packages that offer awards for you to folks are already
employed, including one-time prize draws intended for getting together with efficiency
locates for you to rewards intended for efficiency with time.
As an example, safe-driving awards are shown for vehicle drivers without having
damages or even violations on their documents within a year. Although specific packages
could also end up being developed intended for organizations and intended for total
companies, these kinds of packages usually concentrate on rewarding solely highperforming folks.
Honors Dollars product, gift accreditation, and travel would be the normally applied
motivation incentives. Dollars is still very sought after through a lot of employees simply
because they get attention on how to invest this.
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However, in the past two full decades, there has been considerable analysis increases
throughout realizing dispositional in addition to national influences about job fulfillment
as effectively, that's not really still effectively understood simply by practitioners.
Additionally, probably the most critical areas of the project circumstances to be able to
affect job satisfaction they perform itself is frequently unnoticed simply by practitioners
whenever addressing job fulfillment. (House,Shane, & Herold, 1996)

2.2. Employees Attitude:


The Employees with far above the ground affective commitment have high emotional
attachment classification with the organization and taking part in the organization, and
consequently are not possible to leave (Meyer & Allen, 2006). A lot of responsibility for
the low late of organizational commitment in China two factors like low reward and the
lack of opportunities to grow within their organization (Han 2006).
The meta-examination of correlates and consequences of organizational commitment
found that all forms of organizational commitment were strongly related to taking out
cognition and turnover. In the addition, the authors strongly recommended the need for
researchers to do more studies on organizational commitment outside Pakistan, yet the
publication of this meta-examination in 2001. We have seen a gradual increase in
research on organizational commitment outside Pakistan (2006).
In the Ethical behavior of coworkers was a major factor impacting organizational
commitment of Pakistan employees. The Ethical performance of successful managers
also radically impacted organizational commitment of employees. The china has been
reported to have a requirement culture where personal goals are secondary to goals of the
workgroup and referent others. (Jackson 2005).
Where the Older employees have greater commitment to their organization than younger
employees. The Younger employees may be more likely to give up when they are not
satisfied with their jobs or when they want to seek a better opportunity to develop their
career.

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The Organizational commitment is an issue of prime meaning, especially to the


management and owners of the organizations. Organizational commitment and job
satisfaction are related to an organizations profitability and competitive position in the
market. Organizational commitment affects employees performance and is therefore
treated as a subject of great importance (Shore & Martin, 1989; Meyer et).
The Commitment is a kind of link between an employee and the organization he is
working for (Buchanan, 1974). The strength of this kind is dependent on various factors.
That study will try to find the relation of some of these factors with organizational
Commitment.
Organizational commitment has a strong relation with employee behavior. But an
employee is committed to an organization; it would reduce the chances or occurrences of
absenteeism and turnover (Igbaria & Greenhaus, 1992).
The Commitment refers to an employees motivation to work positively in an
organization and his persistence to work for it (Mowday et al., 1982). The Organizations,
like Banks, are considered to be one of the more stressed-out sectors in the World
(Ebiringa, 2011).
But in the Pakistans culture, job security is considering an important requirement for a
job. Government jobs are measured more secure than private jobs because of the legal
and cultural constraint which work in the help of an employee. For example, it takes a
long process to finish an employee from his job, still if enough evidence exists against
him. For like reasons, people prefer to get into government jobs because of the high level
of job security offered. Also, handsome pay and packages add to the attraction of such
jobs. In the part from the monetary benefits, non-monetary benefits also play vital role in
an employees commitment towards his organization.
Government jobs in Pakistan offer benefits like house rent (or house leasing), medical
allowance, free medical facilities (for family also), easy loans (zero interest loans in case
of bank employees), pensions, bonuses, regular increments etc. Such facilities securely
tie an employees job interest to the organization in the working environment is usually
quite lovely.
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People respect each other and are willing to help in work-related and other issues besides
good relations (working and after-work) exist between peers; and even managers and the
employees. But input in Pakistani culture is a variable that is, generally, not considered
significant. The Decisions are made by the higher management with no-say of the
employees in the decision-making process. In most of the work-related issues, employees
are not consulted for their input.
A safe job is an employees obligation and wish. Job anxiety affects an employees
commitment to the organization. Employees do not think risks and are willing to stay in
an environment that provides satisfaction rather than optimized change (Kirmizi & Deniz,
2009).
The Commitment refers to the focus and the want of attachment of an individual to a
certain task or his work. Organizational commitment has been a topic widely researched
over the years. In the Affective, continuance and normative commitment are the tools to
measure organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen, 1991; Dunham et al., 1994).
Perceptions are generally propensities, or even tendencies, to behave in the good or even
unfavorable approach in the direction of a thing. The thesis could be most jobs in the
world all-around you. Perceptions mirror a new persons likes and dislikes in the
direction of different folks, things, events, and routines of their setting. It feels right to
analyze and learn about attitudes mainly because powerful attitudes can probably impact
a new persons actions. Perceptions in the direction of oversight, pay, gains, marketing
and advertising, or even any situation that might trigger optimistic or even unfavorable
side effects. Subsequently, employee satisfaction and attitudes characterize one among
the key areas intended for calculating organizational performance. Due to the fact that
your back links involving task, contextual, and honest overall performance along with
essential methods involving organizational performance, one of the crucial goals
involving operators will be to develop linkages between employee overall performance
and their particular satisfaction.
Nevertheless, it isn't often all too easy to transform a new persons attitudes regarding
their particular operation. The excuse is that you'll see, attitudes in the direction of
21

operate might be one important aspect from the persons construction involving attitudes.
They could be connected powerfully to different essential ones, generating these
individuals far stuck, and thus limiting how considerably operators could reach your
goals in transforming how personnel sense and react. Nevertheless, certain attitudes and
satisfactions at your workplace could and perform transform, sometimes speedily, seeing
that events transform. Employees who are delighted and profitable at some point could
become disappointed and exacerbated immediately as a consequence of a few managerial
steps.
Perceptions always apply to a number of identifiable targets. Persons include perceptions
in relation to one thing or perhaps a person, for example, toward government entities, the
examiner, the employment, or perhaps the usage of couch belts. It is not from a technical
perspective precise to mention a person has a good mindset or even a bad mindset
without having specifying the item of the mindset.
Probably the most generally definitions associated with stress might be categorized in to
three forms (Beehr as well as Franz, 1987). The primary sort can be stimulus-based
which often takes stress being a situational or perhaps environmentally friendly based
stimulation, impinging about the person. The other sort can be response-based,
identifying stress as a possible individuals psychological or perhaps bodily reaction to
environmental/situational allows.
In the Secord and Beckman (1969, r. 167) defined thought patterns since certain
regularities of the individuals emotions, thoughts and predispositions to do something
towards several element of his / her surroundings. Arnold et 's. (1995) suggested which
attitudes reveal any persons habit to experience, consider as well as respond within a
optimistic as well as unfavorable way on the subject from the attitude.
In line with Elizur and Guttman (1976), thought patterns towards transform in general
incorporate any persons cognitions with regards to transform, affective tendencies to
change, and behavior habit towards transform. Scientists get as a result, discovered
different employees replies with an organizational transform starting from strong
optimistic thought patterns (i. age. this transform is important to the firm to succeed) to
22

strong unfavorable thought patterns (i. age. This transform can wreck this company),
(Piderit, 2000).
For that reason, transform may be acquired with excitement and contentment as well as
rage and dread while employees a reaction to perhaps it will vary from optimistic
purposes to guide this transform to unfavorable purposes to oppose the item.
A lot of studies recommended that organizational modify work are often very stress filled
knowledge for people (Elrod as well as Tippett, 2002; Offer, 1996). Emotions as well as
answers to change could be therefore demanding the literature with organizational modify
offers compared these individuals having individual answers to help disturbing
improvements such as death as well as sadness (Henderson-Loney, 1996; Offer, 1996;
Kubler-Ross, 1969.)
Folks arrived at corporations along with specific needs, knowledge, objectives plus they
expect to locate a work place where they will work with their skills along with meet their
needs. When an organization provide these chances, it is likely that growing dedication is
usually greater. It's obvious that swap doesnt imply exploitation involving staff.
Commitment can be seen as a no less than several associated aspects; a substantial
approval from the organizations values along with targets, the willingness to be able to
apply considerable work regarding the business and a robust prefer to keep account inside
the organization.
Subsequently, dedication is determined by a range of organizational along with person
aspects such as personalized characteristics, structural characteristics, work experience
along with part associated features. There is certainly evidence inside the modify
supervision literary works pinpointing the particular part involving organizational
dedication in a modify wording. Numerous experts mentioned that will organizational
dedication plays a vital part with employees approval involving modify (Darwish, 2000;
Cordery et ing., 1993). Iverson (1996).
A organizational commitment for the reason that next most significant determinant right
after nation membership rights associated with attitudes when it comes to organizational
modify. A lot more specially, Lau as well as Woodman (1995).
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Staff members along with higher organizational commitment tend to be more prepared to
set a lot more work in a modify task as well as, consequently, it really is very likely to
develop beneficial attitudes towards organizational modify (Iverson, 1996; Customer,
1987).
Also, Customer (1987) encouragedWorkstrain163 which organizational commitment
mediated the whole causal results associated with beneficial affectivity, career stability,
Career satisfaction, and career enthusiasm as well as environment opportunity about
organizational modify. Consequently, it really is hypothesized that the beneficial romantic
relationship is available involving organizational commitment as well as attitudes to vary.

2.3. Emotional Labor:


The Emotional labor know how to be clear as the degree of handling of ones inner mindset or away from behavior to display the proper emotion in counter to display rules or
professional norms. In that study the concerns the development of an emotional labor the
model for the kindness industry that aims at identify the background and consequences of
emotional labor. That study investigates the effect of individuals individuality on the way
emotional labors are performed. (Kay Hei-Lin Chu).
To investigates the relationships in the middle of the different ways of enact emotional
labor and their consequences, addresses the question of whether organizational
characteristics and job characteristics have buffer effects on the seeming consequences of
emotional labor, which are emotional fatigue and job satisfaction. (Kay Hei-Lin Chu).
These are typical help wanted ads that can be found everywhere in the hospitality
industry. While farms or factories are hiring hands or heads, hospitality companies
want to hire people with more motivated. The spirit of the hospitality industry is not only
getting a job done, but also involves getting the job done with the right attitude, with
the right degree of sincerity, and with the right amount of concern for the guests. (Kay
Hei-Lin Chu).

24

Every company in the hospitality industry requires that employees, while interacting with
customers, display certain types of emotions such as friendliness, cheerfulness, warmth,
enthusiasm or confidence. (Kay Hei-Lin Chu).
There are other jobs that demand particular emotional displays. Nurses are called on to
display caring and kindness, food servers to show friendliness and cheerfulness; billcollectors need to be forceful and angry, and police calm and cool. One attributes that the
above job categories have in common is that they all are service occupations, in which
face-to-face or voice-to-voice interactions with customers, clients, or the public constitute
a major part of the work. ((Kay Hei-Lin Chu).
The communication between the service provider and customer is the core of a check
know-how that influences customers perceptions of service class, it is necessary for
employers to regulate or manage employees behavior or emotional words to ensure
service quality. For example, in the employee handbook of a deli store, two of the items
in the companys job statement make clear how the important customer satisfaction is to
the companys fiscal success and how employees behavior affects customer satisfaction
(Steinberg & Figart, 1999).
The results of an employees emotional display are no longer a private experience, but a
community act that is controlled by employer supervision. The rules for emotional
display are industrial and training programs are fixed. Employees go through interrupted
sessions to learn how to smile in a sincere way and how to change the private irritation
(or impatience) into public sympathy and kindness (Yanay & Shahar, 1998).
The management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display
;emotional labor is sold for a wage and therefore has exchange value This definition
explicitly delineates that service providers are required to regulate or manage their felt
emotions and display those emotions for commercial purposes.

25

These displayed emotions have economic value, which can be transformed into wages.
According to Hoch child (1983),
Both equally talk about efforts to generate a normative mental state, mask emotions so
that you can found a certain mental state, as well as limit, exaggerate; you aren't
management the appearance of mental declares. Experience operations is usually
achieved inside circumstance of applicable "feeling rules" (Hoch child, 1979), which in
turn prescribe mental declares, as well as "display rules, inch which in turn information
the appearance of feeling (Ekman, Friesen, & Ellsworth,1982).
Labour may be the effectiveness of varied kinds of feeling management inside the
circumstance regarding paid work. Precisely what separates psychological labour by
feeling function throughout formula is actually that psychological labour is conducted
regarding salary which is led by means of imperatives regarding function corporations.
As a result, psychological labour is actually at the mercy of command and oversight by
means of recruiters. Hochschild's (1983).
Emotive toil is frequently directly described with regard to communications with buyers
in addition to workers' work to manage their particular feelings. This kind of filter
conceptualizations belies the multidimensionality associated with emotive toil as
disclosed by simply empirical scientific studies. Emotive toil is just not usually available
to communications that will arise in the course of the provision of the service or perhaps
different primary duties associated with perform. Alternatively, feeling is untouched in
every societal relationship throughout organizational contexts (Gibson, 1997).
As a result, only a few emotive toil comes about throughout impersonal relationships
with customers, neither is this usually led by simply organizational suffers from in
addition to skilled as inauthentic Erickson & Wharton, 1997; Pugliesi & Shook, 1997.
The emotive toil is usually grounded in the specific varieties regarding feelings operate
associated with emotive toil led toward often customers or coworkers.

26

While famous sooner, feelings managing (or emotive regulation) can encompass the
particular managing of your respective personal emotions or the particular managing in
the emotions regarding others. The two of these general varieties of feelings operate is
show themselves inside a couple kinds of emotive toil at work: self-focused in addition to
other-focused emotive toil.
The consequences associated with emotive work emphasized it is hazardous outcomes in
personnel, scientific studies associated with personnel in a range of employment
recommend how the outcomes associated with emotive work are not evenly unfavorable.
Ethnographic scientific studies associated with emotive work especially employment
uncover complexness throughout workers' experiences associated with emotive work of
which is related to circumstance and also that means with regards to this do it yourself
(Gimlin, 1996; Leidner, 1993; Stenross & Kleinman, 1989; Tolich, 1993). Hoch child
(1993).
In the additional hands, psychological toil generally seems to possess optimistic
outcomes if it is experienced seeing that self-enhancing or even any time individuals are
in control of his or her emotion managing. Qualitative scientific tests recommend
sleeping pad any time psychological toil involves managing involving others' feelings, it
may be experienced seeing that strengthening (Leidner, 1993; Stenross & Kleinman,
1989; Tolich, 1993). Over emotional toil focused on other folks also can minimize
reputation variations concerning individuals and the clients these people provide (Gimlin,
1996).

2.4. Promotion:
In the other hand, the particular outsourcing craze impacts employees over the decline
involving fixed-employment opportunities and also ends in a growing number of part
time and also agreement individuals typically gaining less shell out when compared with
everlasting individuals and also without wellness, existence, short- and also long-term
impairment, and also old age positive aspects (Charara, 2004;Crolius, 2006).

27

Outsourcing techniques generally comes with an affect the particular sorted labor by
simply intimidating the particular labor force, while employees tend to be endangered by
the prospective client involving careers relocating abroad and so are not thinking about
unionizing (Lazes & Savage, 2000).
The Kennedy, et ing. (2002) considered entrusting in general, as a negative adjust, which
usually consequently could produce greater degrees of discontentment and also greater
probability of leaving his or her jobs. One more examine conducted by means of Walsh
and also Deery (2006)
Screened the effects of the entrusting method on those who become applied seeing that a
direct result of which method. They identified that the entrusting commitment developed
nominal job safety measures for that fresh personnel for the reason that group wasn't
invested in these kinds of personnel further than your three-year commitment. The
research also identified limited.
The particular reaction of these staff members that attend this outsourcing techniques
plan should likewise be evaluated. Survivor affliction, while identified throughout HOUR
OR SO FOCUSAug2009, "refers into a marked loss of determination, bridal, along with
output involving staff members in which remain with the business caused by downsizing
along with labor force discounts.
This entails several difficult emotional operations along with following behavioral
replies. Inches Sensations involving fear, fury, suffering, sense of guilt, insecurity,
unfairness, depression, lowered possibility having, along with determination usually are
expression involving emergency affliction.
Besides, "survivors" are required to create result quickly, protect this extra function, and
along with develop completely new thoughts (Baruch & Hind, 1999; HOUR OR SO
FOCUS, the year just gone; Kiplinger, 2009).
This specific further force may cause substantial turnover. Various other empirical
scientific tests possess revealed that discontented workers, following your setup

28

connected with outsourcing techniques method, may depart this company when
compared with their particular content fellow workers are (Spector,1997; Charara, 2004).
In the present examine illustrates frame of mind along with understanding connected with
retail staff members towards participation within promoting actions. The importance
connected with member of staff participation in different corporation is usually a worry
knowing that the item cannot be overstressed in different world connected with pastime
of the corporation, allow it to needlessly end up being any enterprise, training and even
social operates. Investigation of the examiner demonstrates a few staff members have an
interest within strategy system however they are certainly not considering advertising
actions although they will featuring involvement in the actual referral marketing
promotions, these kinds of member of staff frame of mind obtained in various class
connected with retail staff members, the existing examine demonstrates retail member of
staff extremely enjoyed in a variety of promoting actions. (Dr. B.V. Sangvikar).
The member of staff participation procedures have been among the approaches
extensively employed for enhancement purposes by groundbreaking agencies. Some of
those endeavors, upgrade connected with do the job joined with employment enrichment
usually are a pair of which have been used extensively aiming top quality boost by
developing jobs that entail autonomy and also feedback (Hackman & Oldham, 1980).
Restructuring do the job close to teams has become one more option organizational
transform software for you to bring about performance enhancement by means of
enhancing achievement at the office place (Morley & Heraty, 1995; Rodwell et almost
all, 1998).
Most of these methods largely focus about altering duties and also associations amongst
personnel and are also created on a number of presumptions. This premises driving
teamwork should be to upgrade autonomy which is recognized with regard to discovering
an effective way connected with training employment to achieve top performance by
means of ongoing lookup connected with personnel pertaining to option methods for do
the job procedures. Elevated autonomy will be anticipated to create self-fulfillment and
also help to make jobs significant (Ross, 1999).
29

With this consider, teamwork opposes the original Taylorist intentions to be able to
isolate workers through assigning to be able to normal duties sequentially developed and
at the same time allowing fewer chances with regard to conversation. Teamwork, as a
result, is viewed as a sophisticated try to integrate individual in to the business (Morley &
Heraty, 1995) although employees permission is usually achieved through producing
them believe their own passions and organization passions are usually arranged (Hare,
1976; Isabella & Waddock, 1994). For this end, workforces actions are a common
technique in reestablishing rely on toward administration exactly who drop stability
primarily soon after downsizing activities.
On the other hand, Griffin (1988) to proceeding ranges consequently. Signifies, Mirvis,
Hackett and Grady (1986) recommended in which good quality sectors programs rescued
staff members via unfavorable contextual aspects yet added much less to further improve
good quality regarding do the job life.
Yet another self deprecation is lifted by simply Parker & Slaughter (1988) that asserted in
which peer demand may become the negative aspect pertaining to squads which could
turn into a method for anxiety managing. In conclusion, these results point to the fact
adjust throughout do the job thinking including achievement and determination ought to
be screened carefully detailing unpredicted outcomes at the same time.

30

Chapter3
Research Methodology

3.0. Research Methodology:


31

Quantitative research Methodology has been used in this research paper. Data was
collected and then it was converted into numerical form. Accordingly statistical
calculations were made and conclusions were drawn.

3.1. Aim and Purpose of the Research:


The aim of research is to identify the impact of pay and promotion on employees attitude
and to measure the employees attitude, how organization will grow and more profitable
due to these factors. What is the influence of these factors on research?
A review of secondary data available in forms of research papers, book etc. done in the
preceding section helped us to end up the chapter by building a figure which elaborate the
theoretical framework.

3.2. Research Approach:


To investigate the relationship between dependent and independent variable s, impact of
pay, promotion and consequences of emotional labor impact on attitude of employees.
This relationship shows in theoretical frame work model also. Along with this, the
comprehensive overview of research design that is followed to achieve the objective of
study is given below

3.3. Theoretical Frame work:


32

EMOTIONAL
LABOUR

MD-V

PAY

ATTITUDE OF
EMPLOYEES

I-V I

D-V

PROMOTION

I-V II

Figure (3.1)
Reference of emotional labor:
Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles: the influence of
identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88115.

Reference of pay, promotion and attitude of employees:


David Morris, Arzmi Yaacob, Geoff Wood, (2004),"Attitudes towards pay and promotion in the
Malaysian higher educational sector", Employee Relations, Vol. 26 Iss: 2 pp. 137 150.

Independent variable:
33

The independent variables are pay, promotion and emotional labor.


Dependant variable:
The dependent variable is Attitude of employees.

3.4. Research Design:


Researcher can carry out such type of researches depending upon the research being
carried out. A research can determine a correlation relationship or can investigate a causal
relationship between variables. The studies try to identify the impact of dependent
variables and independent variables impact of pay and promotion on attitude of
employees. In order to find out the needed information from the sample unit
Questionnaires the survey is conducted by me, that is why rate respond are high.

3.5. Sample Size:


A set of predefined question are asked from the respondents during the Questionnaires
survey. Sample size is 100 questionnaires that were filled from employees.
Total Samples = 120 No of response = 67

Response rate

= 55.8%

The total sample size of questionnaire is 120, no of people response is 67 and the
response rate of questionnaire is 55.8%.

3.6. Data Collection Method:


The total questionnaire is 39. 7 questions measured the demographic. 26 questions
measured the independent variable, and 6 questions measured dependant variable,
questionnaire developed on Likert scale, its a self-developed questionnaire. The
questionnaires were developed in English to meet the need of thesis. The English version
of the questionnaire is given in appendix.

3.7. Sampling Techniques and Sampling Design:

34

Random and convenience sampling techniques is used here with sample size of 100.
They were filled from an employee who includes Assistant Managers, Mangers, General
Managers and Teachers.

3.8. Data Analysis and Information Generation:


The data is converted into constructive information by method of analysis. Different
analysis can be performed to change raw data into important information. The common
way by which data analyzed are Qualitative Analysis and Quantitative Analysis.
By the help of Regression and Correlation test identifying the relation of both variables
by using SPSS 17.0 version.

35

Chapter 4
Result and Discussion

4.0. Reliability and Validity Test:

36

In Reliability test total number of questionnaires is 140. The Cronbachs alpha is 0.731
which consider as highly reliable. Internal consistency and reliability is exiting.
VARIABLES

CRONBACHS ALPHA

PERCANTAGE

PAY
EMTOTIONAL LABOUR
PROMOTION
ATTITUDE

0.917
0.892
0.758
0.701

91%
89%
75%
70%

For variable pay the value of chronbachs Alpha is 0.917, for Emotional labor the value
of chronbachs Alpha is 0.892, for promotion the value of chronbachs Alpha is 0.758 and
for attitude the value of chronbachs Alpha is 0.701. These values are showing the
reliability of the instruments which is questionnaires.

4.1. Regression test:


In this session, we are going to look at the important tables. The next table of interest is
the Model Summary table. This table provides the R and R 2 value. The R value is 0.832,
which represents the simple correlation. The R2 value indicates how much of the
dependent variable Attitude of employees, can be explained by the independent variable,
emotional labor, pay and promotion. In this case, 56.6% can be explained, which is high.

37

Model Summary
Adjusted
Model R
.832a

R Std. Error of

R Square Square

the Estimate

56.6

0.5912

59.6

table (4.1)
a. Predictors: (Constant), PRF, PF, EF
The table below, Coefficients, provides us with information on each predictor variable
this provides us with the information necessary to emotional labor, pay and promotion
from Attitude of employees. We can see that the constant variable (Attitude of
employees) contribute significantly to the model (by looking at the Sig. column). By
looking at the B column under the Unstandardized Coefficients column we can present
the regression equation as:
= +b1 x 1+b 2 x 2 +b3 x 3+ e
Attitude of employees=2.163+0.27(pay) +.303(Emotional .labor) +0.53(promotion) +e
Coefficientsa

Model
1

Unstandardized

Standardized

Coefficients

Coefficients

B
(Constant)

Std. Error
2.163

.621

PF

0.27

.095

EF

0.303

PRF

0..53

Beta

Sig.

3.482

.001

.044

.285

.777

.142

.332

2.127

.040

.061

.124

.798

.430

Table (4.2)
a. Dependent Variable: AF

38

4.2. Correlation Test:


Correlation test show the positive relation between both independent and
dependent variables. Correlation between Ef and Af is 34% .It mean correlation is
significant.
PF
PF

Pearson

EF

PRF

AF

.058

.002

.025

.001

.001

.001

.001

120

120

120

120

.058

.066

.337*

.001
120

.001
120

.001
120

.001
120

.002

.066

.146

.001
120

.001
120

.001
120

.001
120

.025

.337*

.146

Sig. (2-tailed)

.001

.001

.001

120

Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
EF

N
Pearson

PRF

Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Pearson

AF

Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Pearson
Correlation

120
Table (4.3)

120

120

4.3. Analysis:
In the study impact of pay and promotion on attitude of employees basically I focused
on the pay and promotion and emotional labor tools to effect on employees attitude.
Result shows the reliability and relation between pay, promotion, emotional labor impact
on attitude of employees. The R value is .862a, which represents the simple correlation
And, therefore, indicates a high degree of correlation. The R 2 value indicates how much
of the dependent variable Attitude of employees, can be explained by the independent
variable, pay, promotion and attitude. In this case, 56.6% can be explained, which is high.

39

40

Chapter5
Conclusion

The factors pay, promotion and emotional labor are tools to measure the attitude of
employees. In this study I observed how independent variables effect on dependent
variables. These are the main factors which have the impact on attitude towards
employees. The pay, promotion and emotional labor have the positive impact on attitude
of employees. When pay is more the employees attitude is positive toward their job and
when pay is less the employees attitude towards job is negative and this turnover is
increased. When promotion of employees is increased their attitude is positive towards
41

their job and when employees promotion is less their attitude toward job is negative and
turnover again increased.

Managerial Implication:
After conclusion and after a study I preferred for organization and mangers to focus on
the salary, monetary rewards and pay of employees to increase organization performance
and job commitment in Pakistani education sector and in employees. Pay is very basic
and effective tool to get positive attitude of employees and the other tool is promotion
means growth of employees is also necessary and organization will get change in the
output of employees and positive attitude in their behavior resultantly organization will
grow more and more.
These two independent variable pay and promotion is effective tool for measuring and
changing attitude of employees and bring organizational commitment in their employees.
In future this study can be used and these independent variable pay and promotion tools
will help full in the further research to measure attitude of employees in the education
sector in Pakistan. This research is only for Pakistani employees.

References:
Abdullah* and Muhammad Ismail Ramay Department of Management Sciences,
International Islamic University Islamabad, H-10, Islamabad, Pakistan(Received 15
August 2011; accepted 12 December 2011).

42

Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles: the
influence of identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88115.
Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles: the
influence of identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88115.
Beebe, R. (2007). Predicting burnout, conflict management style and turnover among
clergy. Journal of Career Assessment, 15, 257275.
Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1980). Influence of extraversion and neuroticism on
subjective well-being: happy and unhappy people. Journal of Personality & Social
Psychology, 38, 66878.
Chatman, J.A. (1989), Improving international organisational research: a model of
person-organisation fit, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14, pp. 333-49.
David Morris, Arzmi Yaacob, Geoff Wood, (2004),"Attitudes towards pay and promotion
in the Malaysian higher educational sector", Employee Relations, Vol. 26 Iss: 2 pp. 137
150.
David A. Foote, Scott J. Seipel, Nancy B. Johnson, Michelle K. Duffy, (2005),"Employee
commitment and organizational policies", Management Decision, Vol. 43 Iss: 2 pp. 203
219.
Julie Drake, Joanne Blake, Wayne Swallow, (2009),"Employer engagement: the critical
role of employee commitment", Education + Training, Vol. 51 Iss: 1 pp. 23 42.
Karin Falkenburg, Birgit Schyns, (2007),"Work satisfaction, organizational commitment
and withdrawal behaviours", Management Research News, Vol. 30 Iss: 10 pp. 708 723.
Karen Pugliesi (1999), The Consequences of Emotional Labor: Effects on Work Stress,
Job Satisfaction, and Weil-Being. Motivation and Emotions, Vol 23, No. 2, 1999, P.125
154.

43

Maartje Maarleveld, Leentje Volker, Theo J.M. van der Voordt, (2009),"Measuring
employee satisfaction in new offices - the WODI toolkit", Journal of Facilities
Management, Vol. 7 Iss: 3 pp. 181 197.
Motshegwa Baakile (Corresponding Author) University of Botswana Department of
Political and Administrative Studies Private Bag UB00705, Gaborone, Botswana ISSN
1941-899X 2011, Vol. 3, No. 1: E5.
Naimatullah Shah, (2011),"Investigating employee career commitment factors in a public
sector organization of a developing country", Journal of Enterprise Information
Management, Vol. 24 Iss: 6 pp. 534 546.
Orly Michael, Deborah Court, Pnina Petal, (2009),"Job stress and organizational
commitment among mentoring coordinators", International Journal of Educational
Management, Vol. 23 Iss: 3 pp. 266 288.
Paul R. Jackson, (2004),"Employee commitment to quality: Its conceptualisation and
measurement",International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, Vol. 21 Iss: 7
pp. 714 730.
Sut I Wong Humborstad, Chad Perry, (2011),"Employee empowerment, job satisfaction
and organizational commitment: An in-depth empirical investigation", Chinese
Management Studies, Vol. 5 Iss: 3 pp. 325 344.
Shun-Hsing Chen, Ching-Chow Yang, Jiun-Yan Shiau, Hui-Hua Wang, (2006),"The
development of an employee satisfaction model for higher education", The TQM
Magazine, Vol. 18 Iss: 5 pp. 484 500.
Tui McKeown, (2003),"Commitment from a contractor workforce?", International
Journal of Manpower, Vol. 24 Iss: 2 pp. 169 186.

Appendix:
Dear Sir/Madam/BBA:
44

My name is Muhammad Arsalan Mujtaba a student of HITEC University Taxila Cantt. As


a part of the course requirement BBA (Honrs.) Program, I am conducting a study to
investigate Impact of pay and promotion on attitude of employees in education
sector. The objective of this research is to measure the impact of pay and promotion on
factors of emotional labor, job stress, employee satisfaction and well-being with the
attitude of employees. All responses to this survey are anonymous; there is no way for
your responses to be linked to you. Responses on individual surveys are confidential.
I know that your time is valuable and hope that you will take the time (an estimated 1520 minutes) to complete the survey. Please note completion of the survey implies consent
to participate. Thank you very much for your time and assistance.
Please provide your email address if you would like to receive the results and findings of
the research study.
Regards
Muhammad Arsalan Mujtaba
HITEC University Taxila Cantt

Questionnaire:
Part A
1. Years of service in the organization:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

13
35
510
1020
More than 20

45

2. Current position: ..
3. Sex:
A. Female
B. Male
4. Age:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

30 years or younger
3135 years
3640 years
4145 years
4650 years
5155 years

G. 56 years or older

5. Education Level:
A. Below Matriculation
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Matriculation
Intermediate or equivalent
Undergraduate or Bachelors degree
Postgraduate or Masters Degree
Above Masters Degree

6. Household income:
A.
B.
C.
D.

Less than PKR 15,000


PKR15,000 to PKR 20,000
PKR 20,000 to PKR 30,000
PKR 30,000 to PKR40,000
46

E. PKR 40,000 to PKR50,000


F. PKR 50,000 to PKR 60,000
G. Above PKR 60,000

7. Number of subordinates reporting directly to you:


A.
B.
C.
D.

0
13
46
79

E. 10-12
F. 13-15
G. 16-18
H. More then 19

Part B

Highly disagree (1)

Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agree (4)

Highly Agree (5)


1

1. My pay is as according to my Qualifications

2. I am satisfied with my salary as according to my tenure of job.


3. My pay is according to amount of work which I produce.
4. I am satisfied with my pay in comparison with those in
Different professions but with similar qualifications and years
of service.
5. I am happy with my overall pay.
6. In Addition to my pay, I am satisfied with the fringe benefit
Package offered by the organization.

47

Part C
Strongly Agree (5) Agree (4) Neutral (3)

Disagree (2)

Strongly Disagree (1)

1. There is a lot of variety in the kinds of things I do.


2. I keep learning new things in my position.
3. My position requires a high level of skill.
4. I am able to complete the work that I start. (Coding reversed)
5. My position involves too much work to do everything well.
6. I make decisions about how to do my work.
7. My supervisor asks for my opinion on matters of concern to me.
8. I am unable to express my true feelings to coworkers.
9. I am required to be "artificially friendly" to clients or students.
10. I have to be nice to people no matter how they treat me.
48

11. I cover or manage my own feelings so as to appear pleasant


at work.
12. Help coworkers feel better about them.
13. Help coworkers deal with stresses and difficulties at work.
14. Attempt to "keep the peace" by calming clashes between
co workers.

Part D
Highly disagree (1) Disagree (2)

Neutral (3)

Agree (4)

Highly Agree (5)


1

1. Are any chances comes in your organization intended for


a better job.?
2. Are your current promotion chances endless?
3. The particular promotion coverage can be linked with power.
4. The particular promotion coverage can be unfounded.
5. Is Promotion work out can be kept regularly?
6. The particular marketing coverage is related to the coverage
involving other companies.
7. I proud to discuss my organization with people outside
8. I really feel that the problem of organization is mine
9. I proud am to like part of the family at my organization.
10. I am offered supportive suggestions on the work perform I do.
49

11. This particular organization features quite a lot


of particular which means personally?
12. I've got to do the job really intensively.
(Source: Yazici, H. J. (2009). The Role of Project Management Maturity and
Organizational Culture in Percieved Performance. Project Management Journal , P.27-33)
(Source: Karen Pugliesi (1999), The Consequences of Emotional Labor: Effects
on Work Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Weil-Being. Motivation and Emotions, Vol 23, No.
2, 1999, P. 125-154)

50

51

52