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Peltier rm. 229

Lesson One
Motivation- various psychological and physiological factors that cause us to act a
certain way at a certain time.
Instincts- natural or inherited tendencies of an organism to make a specific response
to certain environmental stimuli without having to reason.
Drive- internal condition that can change over time and orients an individual toward a
specific goal or goals.
Homeostasis- the tendency of the body to return to or maintain a balanced state.
Incentive- object we seek or the result we are trying to achieve through our motivated
Extrinsic Motivation- engaging in activities to reduce biological needs or obtain
incentives or external rewards.
Intrinsic Motivation- engaging in activities because those activities are personally
rewarding or because engaging in them fulfills our beliefs or expectations.

Instinct Theory

Theories of

Our actions, as well as most other species, are influenced

by our natural instincts.
1900s William McDougall proposed this theory.
1800s William James proposed humans have instincts
such as cleanliness, curiosity, parental love, sociability,
and sympathy.
Drive-Reduction Theory

Flaws instincts DO NOT explain behavior, they only label

Motivation starts with a need that turns into our drive.


Our drives can be psychological or physiological and we look to reduce or relieve the tension each drive

creates to achieve homeostasis.

Clark Hull focused on the importance of our basic physiological needs such as thirst and hunger.

Flaws can become habitual, we try the behavioral response that worked the first time (remember the
thinking unit and functional fixedness, etc.)

Harry Harlow & his monkeys there is more to attachment than

the drive-reduction theory. Two surrogate mothers made out of
wire. The all wire surrogate provided food, the surrogate
covered in cloth provided nothing to the babies, yet every time
something frightening was placed in the cages, the babies would
go to the cloth surrogate.

Some experiences (hugging) are inherently pleasurable. They

are incentives or goals for behaviors.

Also, we engage in activities that create tension and anxiety.

Theories of

Incentive Theory
Our environment helps to motivate our behavior.
Incentives are also known as reinforcers, goals or rewards.
Drives push us to reduce needs, incentives pull us to obtain them.
Ex. Hunger may cause (push) us to walk to the kitchen, but the incentive
(pulls us) is the sandwich we will eat.

We are usually motivated to obtain positive rather than negative


Cognitive Theory

We act in particular ways at particular times because of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators.

Looks at the forces inside and outside that energize us to move.

Mutually exclusive they go hand in hand in many of our actions.

Overjustification Effect when you have so much extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation

Video on

Dan Pink The Puzzle of Motivation

Response Questions (For your Portfolios)

Apply the concept of autonomy to a class
you are currently in. Be specific in your plan,
lay out the criteria for that class, how will
students be graded, what are the
expectations, etc.
I will be collecting these. Your plans should
be well organized as I may be sharing them
with particular colleagues. If your teacher
agrees to utilize your plan in some way you
will receive 10 extra credit points to apply
wherever you desire.