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Eugenics and Genocide in


and from Australia

Romesh Arya Chakravarti (MD)

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CONTENTS:
Introduction...3
Immunization, hepatitis B and AIDS.....10
Schizophrenia and dopamine blockers..35
Macfarlane Burnet Centre and SKB.45
Psychoanalysis of psychiatry..50
Drug experimentation and biological warfare..60
Macfarlane Burnet Centre and International Health..72
Victorian psychiatry and lithium...80
Offence and defence.86
Friends, enemies and protecting democracy.90
Recent biological warfare....94
Macfarlane Burnet Centre on AIDS.106
A brief history of Melbourne.114
Eugenics and mental hygeine.118
Mental Health Foundation.129
The development of psychiatry in Australia140
A personal experience148
Prejudiced Rules.153
Psychiatry in the British Empire..160
American Psychiatry in Australia166
Medical wars and the AIDS industry...170
Disease Creation..181
Secret Police, Warfare and the Commonwealth..191
Mental Health Review Board.....211
Psychiatry, prisons and violence.....216
SKB and Panic.....246
Biological warfare and the mass media.250
Antagonism between the States..252
The disunited nations..254

Diagnosing the Global Economy..259


References..290

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EUGENICS & GENOCIDE IN AND FROM AUSTRALIA


2000 Dr

Romesh Senewiratne

In recent years there has been increasing international attention on


and concern about human rights abuses in Australia, particularly against
the Aboriginal population of Australia. The indigenous inhabitants of this
wealthy nation suffer from an appalling state of health, with a life
expectancy about 20 years less than the Caucasian population of
Australia. The illnesses that Aboriginal people are dying from include
easily curable bacterial infectious diseases, infectious diarrhoea, and
malnutrition in a pattern of disease common in poor nations. The
aboriginal population of Australia is also subject to a high incidence of
diabetes mellitus and hypertension, both of which predispose to heart
disease and kidney damage. These latter conditions are also increasingly
common in the descendants of African slaves in North America. Because
genetic relatives still living in Africa do not suffer from comparable rates
of hypertension and diabetes as their relatives who were taken to
America, it is clear that environmental factors (including dietary factors
and psychological factors) rather than genetic factors must be responsible
for this increase.
A similar situation applies to Aboriginal people in Australia: most of
the illness and death currently occurring is due to curable, preventable
problems which are being aggravated at present by the environments in
which Aboriginal people are forced to live, and the food, drink and
medical treatment they are provided with and deprived of. In addition to
infections and deficiency diseases, alcohol-induced chronic illness and
early death have been features of twentieth century surviving aboriginal
communities, a problem introduced and maintained by the whitecontrolled alcohol industry and abetted by Commonwealth, State and
Territory government support of alcohol promotion by this massive
industry. A further atrocity committed against the aboriginal people was
the deliberate introduction of plagues via blankets contaminated with
smallpox and other infections (biological warfare), in a similar fashion to
the genocide of American Indians by British colonists in that continent
(Kerin, 1999). Chemical poisons too were used. John Pilger in A Secret
Country (1989) writes of events in the 19th Century:
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Where the army could not defeat the Australians, chemicals


were used. The Sydney Monitor commented that mass poisoning by
strychnine, phosphorus and arsenic is much safer. A Queensland
Government report described the effect: the niggers *were
given+something really startling to keep them quietthe rations
contained about as much strychnine as anything and not one of the
mob escapedmore than a hundred blacks were stretched out by
this ruse of the owner of Long Lagoon.
The principal killing fields were in Queensland, where a specially
formed colonial army, the Native Mounted Calvary, used Snider
rifles whose wide bore tore people apart. This force operated as
extermination squads of 6-12 personnel sent to pacify. Historian
Andrew Markus has likened them to Hitlers Einsatzgruppen, the
elite stormtroopers assigned to exterminate Jews in the invaded
areas. (p.26)
One could live ones whole life in suburban Melbourne and never meet
an Aboriginal person. One might hardly even see one. This is because over
the past one hundred years most of the indigenous people who lived in
this area have been driven away, poisoned, hunted or locked up. Yet for
thousands of years numerous families of Aboriginal people had lived in
the fertile, forested areas of what we now call Southern Victoria. This
area, part of a massive volcanic plate, provided a bountiful supply of food,
fresh water, access to the sea (containing fish and shellfish) and other
naturally occurring necessities for a long, happy, healthy life. SouthEastern Australia and Tasmania also contained some of the most
magnificent forests in the world, containing the worlds tallest flowering
tree, the Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus Regnans). It contained natural lakes
and springs, waterfalls, rivers and caves. It also contained many
thousands of people who had lived here since time immemorial and who
nurtured and respected their homeland far more than the European
invaders who came here in search of timber, gold, land and people to
exploit.
The treatment of indigenous people in Australia by British colonists is
well summarised by the journalist Stuart Rintoul in the introduction of his
1993 book The Wailing: A National Black Oral History:
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The twentieth century was no less brutal. After the killings of


the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries came more violence, more
abuse, imprisonment, humiliation, a grotesque gallery of laws which
denied indigenous people their fundamental human rights. The
missionaries gave them a haven from the bullets of the police and
the white landowners, but usually the price required was their
culture. As the missionaries at Hermannsburg, in Central Australia,
sang them Bach cantatas, they prayed for God to change the heart of
the Australian Aborigine.
In most of Australia, indigenous people were forbidden to speak
their hundreds of beautiful languages, and pursue their culture. They
were governed by protection boards whose absolute powers
determined where and how they would live. Local protectors were
often the police and usually bigoted whites vigilantly pursuing
policies designed to breed out the black, not smoothing the pillow
of a dying race but suffocating them under it. Prisoners in neck chains
are among this countrys most forbidding historical images. Children
were snatched from their parents arms by police and welfare
officers and then sent out to work as domestic servants and
labourers for little or no money. (p.5)
In this book, the influence of eugenic theories in the systematic
genocide of the indigenous people of Australia will be explored, since this
sheds light on the full implications of attempts to breed out the black
and why it was that Aborigines were considered to be a dying race. It
also demonstrates how persistent these tendencies have been in the
medical and political policies of Australia, and why this is not a problem of
Australias past but of Australias present. An examination of the history
of eugenics and psychiatric theory and practice in Australia also shows
that other races in this nation have also been targeted by discriminatory
political, social and medical policies and treatments based on eugenic and
related Social Darwinist theories and implementation programs. Some
of these treatments have amounted to torture and mass-murder, and
have occurred in what were referred to retrospectively in Nazi Germany
as concentration camps, but in Australia, are usually termed reserves,
missions, hospitals, prisons and aboriginal compounds.

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In A Secret Country, John Pilger describes conditions in an aboriginal


reserve named the Santa Teresa Mission in the 1960s:
About three hundred Aboriginal people lived in the camp, in
dead cars and under shelters of leaves and newspapers stiff with
flies and what flies had left. The white administrator had complete
authority over their lives. He could divide families by sending
trouble makers into the bush and children to homes in the cities
from which they would never return. As punishment he could
withhold food and water and confiscate money and personal
possessions. Here Aborigines were being phased into society by
way of an iron shed, a prototype of which was on display behind
the garbage dump. Theyll be house-broken in that, said the
administrator, adding ruefully that no one wanted to live in it
because it was either too hot or too cold. (p.34)
Similar conditions to those were the lot of surviving Aboriginal
communities around Australia - in some they were worse. A constant
harassment and frequent murder of aborigines (especially those in police
custody) by police were additional problems which have continued
throughout the twentieth century, and became the subject of a royal
commission in the 1980s. Pilger writes, of this:
An aboriginal friend remembers his mother being tied to a
veranda post, awaiting the visits of a white man who abused her and
his sister repeatedly. No one was punished. Another friend, a lawyer,
remembers an uncle shot dead by a policeman in a railway yard. No
one was punished. Another described the decimation of his
grandparents family for cattle stealing, and the murder of an aunt
at her front door. I know of other such stories; the most common is
of violent death while in police custody.
White silence is the other component. How many white
policemen, lawyers, magistrates and ordinary citizens knew about
these atrocities and did nothing? How many reporters knew and
wrote nothing? How many editors had an unwritten policy on Abos
and would publish nothing that cast doubt on the racial and moral
superiority of the majority?
The press, I often heard it argued, could not publish rumours.

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Today these stories are no longer rumours. Aboriginal deaths in


police custody have become a public issue in Australia; and what is
finally done about it will say much about the development of
Australian civilization. At the time of writing, a Royal Commission is
enquiring into at least 105 unexplained deaths in police and prison
cells since 1980. Every few weeks yet another death is added to the
list. If white people were dying in a similar ratio, the death toll would
be 8,000 in eight years. As Australian governments of the 1980s have
claimed the moral right to censure South Africa, the rate of
imprisonment of blacks in Australia has risen to at least as high a
level as in South Africa and the rate of deaths in custody is thirteen
times higher than in South Africa. (p.43)
Pilger points out that many of these deaths are attributed by police to
suicide, when it is was clearly without motive or means. At the time of
writing, yet another aborigine has died in custody, this time a fifteen-yearold boy in a Darwin prison. His crime was theft of some stationary and
pens, worth, according to the Age report of 11.2.2000, $90 dollars (later
reports claimed $50.00 of Textas and pens only). He went to jail because of
mandatory sentencing laws in place in the Northern Territory and
Western Australia (that happen to be home to the largest proportion of
aborigines in Australia today). He had five days to go before release, and
was an orphan from Groote Eylandt who spoke little English. The director of
the Mitwajl Aboriginal Service, Mr Selwyn Hausman, who had visited the
boy in jail, said that the child had no concept of the regime that
incarcerated him, and that he was distressed and wanted to leave there.
The Northern Territorys Chief Minister, Denis Burke, however claimed that
it was a lie to connect the boys death with mandatory sentencing and,
that to suggest somehow that this youth died of mandatory sentencing is
the lowest of the low. The issue, according to Burke is the tragedy of a
youth who committed suicide. However, according to the report, ATSIC,
community groups and the legal profession attacked the laws [mandatory
sentencing] as discriminatory, suggesting they deliberately targetted
juvenile Aborigines.
A few days later, with the eyes of concerned Australians on the
Northern Territory courts, another youth, aged 22, who had allegedly
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stolen $3.00 worth of biscuits and cordial (later reports claimed $23.00, as
if that makes much difference) from the mining compound at Groote
Eyland (ironically, on Christmas day) was sentenced to one year in jail for
his crime. The jail in Darwin is 800 kilometres from his home in the small
island of Groote Eyland. This youth is one of many young aborigines in jail
for petty crimes (and victimless crimes such as drug use, or non-payment
of fines) in the Northern Territory and Western Australia, where mandatory
three strikes and youre in sentencing laws were introduced in 1997 on
the recommendations of Mr Shane Stone, who appropriated the draconian
laws from the more regressive states in the USA which still apply these laws
ostensibly as part of the US governments war on drugs. Shane Stone is
now the Federal President of the Liberal Party in Australia, and was
previously Chief Minister of the Northern Territory. The Prime Minister,
John Howard, has expressed reluctance to interfere with territory
matters and, the Labour Party opposition, led by Kim Beasley, has made
only weak and ineffectual comments about the abuse. Far from
condemning clearly unjust and discriminatory laws, or acknowledging a
history of mass-murder, genocide and slavery in Australia, Kim Beasley
could only muster that:
Most appropriate would be if they did the right thing and
acknowleged that there are too many inflexibilities, particularly as far as
young people are concerned.
However, prominent Australian legal figures have (uncharacteristically)
been vocal about the need for abolition of the mandatory sentencing laws
of the Northern Territory and Western Australia. Dr William Jonas,
Commissioner for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice at the
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission wrote, in the Australian,
on 16.2.2000:
Regrettably, this death is not an aberration. The Royal
Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody reported in 1991 that
in the previous decade there had been an appalling 99 such deaths.
In the 1990s the figure rose to 147Regrettably, authorities in
Australia have known for years that indigenous people are vastly
over-represented in the juvenile justice and criminal justice systems.
They have known for years that the causes are systemic, rooted deep

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in a history of discrimination and disadvantage, of economic


deprivation and social disruption.
The connection between race and jail has been common in
indigenous issues for some 20 years. The Royal Commission into
Aboriginal Deaths in Custody recommended that state and territory
laws and policies should offer alternatives to incarceration wherever
possible. Prison should be a last resort. The 1997 National Inquiry
into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children
from Their Families exposed the traumatic consequences of
separation. Incarceration, on the scale now experienced by our
indigenous communities, is separation under a new guise.
Mandatory sentencing, introduced in Western Australia in 1996
and in the Northern Territory in 1997, has made a bad situation
worse.
The legislation is having a particularly devastating impact on
indigenous youth. Aboriginal children accounted for 80 per cent of
the three strikes cases in the Childrens Court of Western Australia
from February 1997 to May 1998. A 1999 report by the National
Childrens and Youth Law Centre found that most of those sentenced
under mandatory detention laws in the Northern Territory have been
young Aboriginal men.
The legislation forces courts to hand down minimum sentences
for minor property offences such as theft (irrespective of the value of
the property), unlawful entry to buildings, unlawful use of a motor
vehicle (whether as passenger or driver), and receiving stolen goods
(again, regardless of value). The courts discretion to take into
account extenuating circumstances has been abolished, and there is
no right of appeal.
How does this translate into practice? A 24-year-old indigenous
mother who received a stolen can of beer worth $2.50, and an 18year-old man who stole a cigarette lighter and then obeyed his father
and admitted it to the police, were each imprisoned for 14 days. A
15-year-old Aboriginal boy who broke a window after hearing about
the suicide of a close friend was sentenced under mandatory
detention for damaging property, then he attempted suicide. At
some level of culpability, the legislation translates into the latest
death.
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The public were given some space in letters to the editor by the
Murdoch press to express their anger at mandatory sentencing. On
16.2.2000, the Australian contained several letters, including one from TonThat Quynh-Du of ACT:
While I hope that the federal Government will be persuaded to
override the NT mandatory sentencing laws, I am not holding my
breath.
Let us not forget that Mr Shane Stone, the original instigator and
prime architect of those laws, is the federal president of the Liberal
Party.
And it was Prime Minister Howard who brought him to the
federal presidency
Ian Semmel of Queensland wrote:
I wonder how many state and territory members of parliament
could stand up and honestly say that they have never stolen
anything?
Never pinched anything from a shop when they were young,
never taken pens or Textas home from the office and given them to
the kids, or never kept any money they found.
The death of Johnno in the Northern Territory was not a tragic
accident. He died as a direct result of the deliberate actions of the
Northern Territory administration. Anyone who remains silent shares
the guilt.
Barry Thomson from New South Wales wrote:
It would be a bit premature for John Howard to say sorry to the
stolen children. His mates in Darwin are still at it.
Two days later, on Friday, 18th February, more outraged letters were
printed in the Australian. Charles Herdy, of New South Wales showed a
greater awareness of Australian History than our so-called political
leaders when he wrote:
A man in the Northern Territory has been sentenced to a years
imprisonment for the theft of biscuits and cordial. There is important
legal precedent for this sentencing regime: in the 18th century some
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British subjects found themselves transported to NSW for the theft of


bread.
One interpretation might be that the greatest tenets of the
precedence-based Common Law have been enshrined in NT
legislation. Another might be that, more than 200 years on, some
jurisdictions in this country have taken on the mindless and heartless
character of the legal system that was a factor in European
settlement here
Judith Bessant of the Australian Catholic Research Centre in Melbourne
wrote:
We may well wonder whether any progress has been made since
Australia was a penal colony and dumping ground for Englands poor
shipped to the other side of the Earth as punishment for crimes such
as stealing bread.
Con Vaitsas, of Queensland asked a rhetorical question:
If a man can can be sent to jail for stealing a packet of biscuits
why are no politicians languishing in jail for misusing their travel
allowance?
David Peetz of Queensland expressed his indignation:
Unjust. Heartless. Soulless. Cynical. Opportunist. Ignorant. Some
words can describe the laws that equate a year of a mans life to a
packet of biscuits, and a childs death to a few Textas and paints. But
how will we describe our national leaders if they fail to overturn
these laws?
A few days later the Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan
was in the Northern Territory where he met the NT Chief Minister Burke,
who had previously said that mandatory laws are not on the *his+ agenda
when he met Annan. The public and the Murdoch media hoped otherwise,
but contrary to the expectations of some, the UN chief did not raise the
matter of the outrageous number of aboriginal people in Australian jails or
the number who die there, with Mr Burke. He did not seek evidence to
back claims that State-sanctioned murders are routinely dismissed as
suicides in Australia, and that many others are described as accidents,
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heart attacks, strokes and overdoses. Annan did not castigate Burke for
presiding over continued social and economic impoverishment of
Aborigines in his State, or the harrassment of Northern Territory
aborigines by police and psychiatric services. Annan did not raise the
history of genocide in Australia, or question Australian involvement in
militias which ravaged East Timor before, during and after the partition of
Timor. He could not, of course, ask questions about things he had not been
informed about. He did not investigate claims of biological warfare and
chemical warfare originating in Australia or drug warfare being instituted
against Australian people. He did not ask uncomfortable questions about
corruption in Australian politics, medicine and law. He would have not been
given truthful answers even if he had asked such questions, but they were
not on the agenda.
Kofi Annans schedule was to bring him (surrounded by minders) to
Southern Australia, where he met John Howard, the Prime Minister, who
happily sent Australian troops to keep the peace in Timor, after
contributing to turmoil and genocide there during many years in office,
when he, in the habit of his predecessors, supported the military brutality
of Suhartos Javanese empire. Questions about Australias appalling human
rights record and support of other nations with reprehensible human rights
records (such as Britain and the USA) were presumably not on the agenda
with Howard, either. The Australian, on 19.2.2000 explained the Prime
Ministers sensitivity to human rights issues and inability to discriminate
crimes against humanity from local politics. In a page 9 article titled Dont
tell us what to do, PM warns, Benjamin Haslem reports:
The federal Government would not be dictated to by the UN
when determining its position on the mandatory sentencing of
juveniles, John Howard warned yesterday.
The Prime Minister said he would not stand for Australias human
rights reputation being tarnished internationally over a domestic
political issue.
Howard is quoted as saying on ABC radio:
Weve had our blemishes and made our errorsbut Im not going to
have a situation where people are denigrating the human rights reputation
of Australia.
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The human rights record of Australia is historically obvious. Routinely,


mass-murder and individual murder of aborigines have been denied by
every government in the country for 200 years. Torture and terrorism have
also been denied as well as arbitrary imprisonment by government forces.
But surely, given the well-established consequence of isolation, solitary
punishment, stigmatisation and dispossession as occurs systematically
through the process of being found guilty and sent to prison, resulting
in depression and suicide, governmental and judicial collusion in a
murderous regime should be considered. Given the added factors of
systematic harrassment and bullying [and even murder] by white police of
young black offenders, this becomes a matter of international human
rights significance. The memory of the televised home video of bigoted
Queensland State Police Officers laughing at and mocking an effigy of a
hanging black man (shortly after the media reports of yet another
aboriginal death in custody) is imprinted on many minds in Australia,
regardless of Mr Howards pathetic efforts to white-wash our human
rights record.
In addition to direct violent murder, Aboriginal people have been
subject to mass-murder by withholding readily available medical care,
which was freely available to whites at the time. An example of massmurder by incarceration, neglect and deprivation of medical care from the
twentieth century is given by Rintoul in the introduction of The Wailing:
There were special Aboriginal prisons, there were the infamous
lock hospitals on Dorre and Bernier islands where indigenous
people suffering from venereal diseases and other contagious
conditions were incarcerated, which the missionary Daisy Bates
called the Isles of the Dead. In the Northern Territory, Aborigines
suffering from contagious diseases were sent to Darwin where they
were imprisoned in a lock-up at the Kahlin Aboriginal Compound.
Xavier Herbert became manager of the compound in 1927. Giving
evidence at the Finniss River land claim hearing in 1980, Herbert
described conditions in the compound when he had taken over as
hideous. Women suffering from gonorrhoea were kept in an old
building made of white-washed corrugated iron, which had,
ironically, once been the chapel: This was occupied by six to ten
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women all fairly advanced in agewho were chained to posts. They


had iron beds and they were chained to posts in it by the leg and
they had been there for years like that. There was no treatment for
them (p.7)
Pilger writes, of the genocide of Tasmanians:
In the island state of Tasmania, the bloodletting continued for
more than half a century. On May 3 1804 the 102nd Regiment shot
dead fifty people at Risdon Cove, including women and children. The
Tasmanians had approached unarmed and with green boughs in their
hands, a sign of peace. The commanding officer remarked afterwards
that he did not apprehend that these people would have been any
use to the English. In 1830 martial law was declared in Tasmania and
the Black War was said to be a final solution, with 5000 Europeans
assembled to drive the remaining 2000 aborigines into the Tasman
peninsula. Twenty years later the fabric of Tasmanian Aboriginal life
had all but unravelled; and only a few survived. (p.28)
The crime of genocide of the Tasmanian Aboriginal people was
accompanied by a cruel attempt to posthumously prove their inferiority
using pseudoscientific techniques and arguments, and some acts of
brutality that defy the most morbid imagination; acts the Australian and
British Governments are still in denial of. Rintoul summarises the murder
and mutilation of the last full-blooded Tasmanian Aborigines as follows:
Oyster Cove, Tasmania: a small graveyard that brings you to
tears. It was here that the last tribal Tasmanians were brought to die,
deprived of warmth and dignity, only a generation after the arrival of
the white men. A handful of graves. In a bottle in a shed is the
severed head of a man just recovered from England, a macabre
reminder of the scientific attempts to prove the racial superiority of
the white man. In 1869, the body of William Lanne, thought to be the
last full-blooded Tasmanian man, was mutilated before and after
burial, his skull removed by Dr William Crowther and replaced with a
white mans. In spite of her pleas that her remains not be violated,
the body of Truganini, the last Tasmanian, was exhumed, her skull
filled with lead by scientists who claimed her cranium size was more

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like an apes than a humans, and her articulated skeleton exhibited


in the Tasmanian Museum, not to be returned for 100 years. (p.11)
In Australian history books it is not customary to describe the camps in
which aboriginal people were forced to work as slaves concentration
camps or death camps, but that is what they were. They were also
enslavement camps, from which aboriginal child slaves were stolen from
their families to work as domestic servants for rations and a place to live.
The conditions that these people were forced to endure were at least as
bad as that of African slaves in the United States, and, whereas American
slaves were able to buy their freedom at times, for the Australian aborigine
there was no freedom anywhere: their choice was slavery or death. Most
were given no choice. As Rintoul writes, the treatment of this ancient race
was indescribably brutal:
Throughout Australia, men and women and children were
hunted and murdered, raped, beheaded, dismembered, boiled down
in buckets, skinned for their cicatrice patterns, their scrotums cut off
and dried and used for tobacco pouches.
These are not events from the distant past. The ongoing direct massacre
of Aboriginal people continued well into the twentieth century, as the
chronology at the end of The Wailing: A National Black Oral History reveals:
1926: In the Kimberley region of WA, following the killing of a
white pastoralist, a heavily armed posse, comprising two policemen,
four other whites and seven Aborigines go on a killing rampage.
Many Aborigines are shot, women and children clubbed to death.
The bodies are burned at four separate sites in what becomes known
as the Forrest River massacre. A royal commission reports that at
least eleven Aborigines were killed; the Reverend Ernest Gribble, the
missionary responsible for having brought the incident to public
notice, says he personally knew of thirty victims. Aborigines say
hundreds were murdered. The two policemen who led the party are
put on trial, to the outrage of the white population which sets up a
fund to meet their legal costs. The police are found to have acted in
self-defence, acquitted and promoted out of the district. Gribble had
first been made aware of the murders by police and stockmen in
1922, when he was told by Aboriginal people the country all stink
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from the dead fellows. His efforts to force an inquiry by the Chief
Protector, A.O.Neville, were unsuccessful. (p.381)
The Chief Protector of natives was one of several euphemisms of
colonial Australias system of government. The fact that the aboriginal
population was decimated from an estimated 750,000 in 1788 to 60,000 in
1920 (Rintoul, 1993) gives some indication of how deficient was the
protection given aborigines by the colonial administration. A missionary
zeal to save heathen souls (but not bodies or minds) was combined with
supercilious efforts to educate the natives into a civilised way of life. Not
enough education was given to the natives, however, to provide them with
professional qualifications, rights of citizenship and the most basic of
human rights. The pittance they earned in occupations destructive to their
cultural integrity and their personal wellbeing was held in trusts that
were not to be trusted. This denied them the free use of their own hardearned money. Any hope of education in the white mans languages, laws,
customs, medicine and science came via Christian missionaries who
provided a worldview that denigrated their wisdom and that of their
ancient cultures and traditional beliefs. They were viewed as backward,
naughty children, incapable of adapting to inevitable change and
technological progress, yet were routinely denied opportunities to learn
more than the most rudimentary technological and scientific facts. They
were accused of laziness, but denied opportunities to work in other than
the most servile and objectionable jobs.
Even today most aboriginal people are trapped within reserves and
missions where they are deprived of the basic necessities for health:
clean water, fresh fruits and vegetables and safe, hygienic housing. In these
reserves and missions aboriginal people are forced to work in conditions
and for wages that few, if any, white Australians would tolerate. A veiled
admission of this is evident in the commentary of Douglass Badlin and
David Moore in The Dark Australians, published in 1970:
Sad to say, the main factor preventing any solution *to the
problem of past policies regarding aborigines+ is vested interest.
For, like it or not, great areas in the north of the continent are
dependent economically on the exploitation of aboriginal labor,
which in the past has been provided cheerfully and willingly for no
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more reward than minimal and unhealthy rations and the use of
substandard, unhygienic shacks as shelter for their families. In more
settled areas it has been useful for farmers and others to have a pool
of unskilled casual labor, willing to undertake seasonal work for a
pittance and not requiring housing up to European standards.
(p.127)
The authors of the book understate the economic and social plight that
forces families to accept sub-standard housing, wages and food. The threat
of starvation causes people all over the world to tolerate oppressive living
conditions because they are given no better alternative. These better
alternatives include fair wages, pleasant living conditions, decent clothing,
progressive education, nourishing food, clean water, good health care, and
the social stimulation and emotional support of family and friends. All of
these basic necessities have been withheld from Aboriginal people in
Australia, who were driven to the desolate parts of the continent several
generations ago and now know no other home. In addition to these
problems of deprivation the aboriginal population continues to have
specific medical intervention policies directed towards them, including
special programs involving immunization and psychiatric treatment, both of
which involve forced or coerced injections, and in the case of the latter,
often incarceration and other punishments.

IMMUNIZATION, HEPATITIS B AND AIDS


The injection of incarcerated Australian people, including Aboriginal
people, with chemical restraints will be discussed at length later, but first, a
brief exploration of current immunization programs will be undertaken,
since the concerns about their safety are less clear but even more serious
than the obvious injustice of diagnosing people who speak a different
language and have different cultural and religious views with Eurocentric
and specifically Anglocentric psychiatric illnesses and personality
disorders, and injecting them with known neurotoxins under the guise of
medical treatment.

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Aboriginal children have, for several decades, been routinely given, with
Governmental assistance and insistence, the same childhood
immunizations (vaccinations) that other children in Australia receive as well
as hepatitis B vaccination because they were (and are) considered an at
risk group for this infection. The routine vaccination program in Australia
includes immunization against tetanus, whooping cough (pertussis) and
diphtheria as the DTP or triple antigen vaccines, which are given to all
children in Australia (except those with strongly objecting parents)
beginning at the age of 2 months. The first injection of DTP is accompanied
by 2 drops of Oral Sabin vaccine, a protection against polio. Following
this, the primary vaccination of DTP continues with injections at four, six,
and eighteen months of age. Since the 1980s, Measles-Mumps
immunization has been given at the age of 12 months, which is now
combined with Rubella vaccine as measles-mumps-rubella (MMR)
immunization. In the 1990s another series of injections were added to the
primary vaccination course for Australian children. This was against
haemophilus B, which is a bacterial organism which can cause middle ear
infections and a serious, but rare, acute infection of the epiglottis (the
trapdoor at the upper end of the larynx). These injections are given along
with the DTP vaccinations at 2, 4 and 6 months, on the opposite limb (the
thigh is recommended) as the DTP.
In addition to this, Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and South-East Asian
races have been, since the 1980s, specifically targetted as at risk
populations for immunization against hepatitis B. In the past two years it
has also been claimed that they have a high incidence of the newly
discovered hepatitis E virus, which causes a high mortality in infected
pregnant women. In 1997, it was decided by the National Health and
Medical Research Council (NHMRC) that all Australians should be
immunized against hepatitis B. According to the August 1997 CHECK
program, a general practice education program from the Royal Australian
College of General Practitioners, sexually active homosexual men are also
an at risk group and HIV positive men should receive double the dose of
vaccine.
The vaccination program recommended by the Australian National
Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and the American Centers
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for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is strongly endorsed by medical


and governmental organizations in Australia, including the Royal Australian
College of General Practitioners, the Royal Australian College of Physicians
the Australian Medical Association (AMA) and the Commonwealth and
State departments of health. Immunization also forms a predominant focus
of medical aid programs in the Third World, including several programs
orchestrated from Australia.
The ADIS International press is Australias biggest producer and
distributer of medical journals in Australia, sending, free of charge,
thousands of copies of Current Therapeutics, Practice Management and
Patient Management to GPs around the country. The magazines are free
and sent unsolicited to doctors, containing articles written by doctors for
doctors. The magazines are also full of drug company advertising and the
journals are financed by the pharmaceutical industry. They are described
by their producers as medical education.
The December 1999-Jan 2000 edition of Current Therapeutics contains a
feature article titled Vaccination Counselling: dispelling the myths,
authored by Diana Terry, the National GP Immunisation Coordinator for
the Australian Division of General Practice Ltd, Deakin, ACT. She is
described in Author details as Ms Terry, so presumably she is not a
medical doctor. She repeats as irrefutable doctrine, however, dogmas
created and propagated by medical doctors. In her eyes, the reluctance of
the hard to get 5-10%, as she terms those who refuse to have their
children (or themselves) immunized, is misguided. They are ignorant of the
facts about immunization and subject to inaccurate vaccine information,
for which she blames the World Wide Web and media-seeking headline
news:
The progressively popular trend towards alternative medicine,
the ease with which inaccurate vaccine information is disseminated
via the World Wide Web, and the ever-present media-seeking
headline news, make the task of handling vaccine safety concerns a
vital skill for GPs and other vaccine providers. Health effects linked
with vaccines may be true adverse reactions, or simply coincidental
associations. Optimal outcomes rely on ensuring risk

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communications adequately address the issues raised by parents and


caregivers.
Optimal outcomes mean successful communication of the need for
vaccination, not a balanced presentation of scientific evidence for and
against specific vaccinations, or about vaccination generally. Scientific
reports of associations between chronic (or delayed) disease from
immunization is dismissed as coincidental. The desirability of
implementing the NHMRCs recommendations is assumed and the
organisation (despite close pharmaceutical and corporate connections) is
viewed as an infallible authority:
Findings of previous studies indicate that a high proportion of
GPs fail to immunise at these opportunistic encounters [when
children are seen for unrelated reasons], either by not following the
National Health and Research Council (NHMRC) recommended
guidelines or not reviewing the childs current immunisation status. A
major challenge for busy GPs is to find innovative approaches to
ensure routine assessment of childrens vaccination status at each
practice visit. This may include routine checklists used by practice
staff, or initiating changes to recognised policy and procedures at the
practice level. Facilitating practice staff training to increase
knowledge and skills across all areas of practice-based vaccine
management (including cold chain) will further enhance quality
patient care and best practice standards at this level.
It is not clear as to what other levels exist in medical care in the view
of the author, (a term suggestive of the Australian nursing hierarchy), and it
is not explained as to what the sinister-sounding cold-chain management
is, but Diana Terry does explain the concept of missed opportunities *to
vaccinate] with a dogmatic assertion that this is a serious medical failure:
Many studies have documented the impact of elimination of
missed vaccination opportunities. Missed opportunity is defined as
when a child either due or overdue for immunisation, is seen by a
health care provider but receives no immunisations or not all of the
immunisation due or overdue at that visit. These lost opportunities
are very commonly attributed to the time pressures under which GPs

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work (Table 4). Elimination of these missed opportunities in general


practice would increase immunisation rates generally.
It is assumed that increasing immunisation to get the last 5-10 % is a
good thing, indicating quality care from busy GPs. To keep things simple
and quick, the article has a 4 tables, presenting statistics and points to
remember: Deaths in Australia from common preventable diseases 19261995 (table 1), Reduction in mortality with vaccination for common
preventable disease in Australia (table 2), Age appropriate vaccination
rates by State as at 31 March 1999(table 3) and Missed opportunities to
vaccinate (table 4).
Table 4 is presented in two columns: problem and solution. The five
problems listed are office and clinic barriers, parental misconceptions,
failure to track children, invalid contraindications and lack of
simultaneous administration. The solutions are, like the problems,
designed to get the injection done with the minimum questions asked or
answered. No question of providing balanced information and giving the
parent, family and child time to discuss pros and cons before embarking on
a potentially risky program of exposing their immune system to live viruses
and animal proteins in the form of serial, painful injections. As far as
Current Therapeutics is concerned, all parental concerns (and outright
opposition) is due to misconceptions which is to be solved by awareness
raising about the pros (but not the cons) of immunization. What many
scientists, doctors and parents would view as times and reasons to defer or
refrain from immunization, are, to the vaccine promoters, missed
opportunities:
Missed opportunities can also be attributed to barriers including
false beliefs regarding true contraindications such as: family history
of any adverse reactions following vaccination; family history of
convulsions; prematurity; history of allergy including asthma,
eczema, hayfever or snuffles; child being breastfed; treatment with
antibiotics; contact with an infectious disease; and previous
pertussis-like illness, measles, rubella or mumps infection.
The article stresses that there are only two true contraindications to
vaccination, which are presented in a box titled General Rule:
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There are only two permanent contraindications to vaccination:


immediate severe allergic or anaphylactic reaction to vaccination
with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP); and encephalopathy
within 7 days, defined as severe acute neurological illness with
prolonged seizures and/or unconsciousness and/or focal signs (but
not a simple febrile convulsion), without a known cause. (p.17)
In other words, unless the infant or child collapses immediately from
anaphylactic shock or goes into a coma or state of seizures within a few
days of the vaccination, immunization should be performed routinely on
everyone. All the observed correlations between subsequent (and often
more subtle) illness and vaccination history is dismissed as coincidence.
The article presents some specific myths and misconceptions which have
scared the public (and doctors):
Loss of public confidence has been demonstrated on numerous
occasions. For example, public concerns regarding the safety of
whole cell pertussis vaccine in the 1980s, resulting in a decline in
vaccine coverage rates and the resurgence of epidemic disease in
Japan, the United Kingdom and Europe. More recently in the United
Kingdom, purported associations between measles-mumps-rubella
(MMR) vaccine, Crohns disease and autism received much media
attention and resulted in a significant decline in public compliance
with the national immunisation program in that country. Further
media attention has been focused on causal relationships between
hepatitis B and multiple sclerosis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b
vaccine and diabetes and influenza vaccine and Guillane-Barre
syndrome.
There have also been concerns about immunisation predisposing to
arthritis later in life, as well as autoimmune disease. Correlations have
linked vaccination dates and sudden infant death (SIDS), but these are not
mentioned by the author of Vaccination Counselling: dispelling the
myths. The associations between vaccination and damage to the immune
system are not mentioned either, and specifically omitted is the connection
between hepatitis B vaccination and AIDS.

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Hepatitis B is a viral infection which can, and does in less than 5 percent
of cases, lead to a chronic infection of the liver resulting in incurable
scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) and liver failure. Less convincing evidence
also links chronic hepatitis B infection with the subsequent development of
liver cancer (although most who develop such cancer do not have hepatitis,
and most who have hepatitis do not develop cancer). Hepatitis B is
transmitted sexually and by blood-borne transmission, according to medical
texts, and is endemic in some areas of the world (in the third world) and
among particular at risk groups in first world countries. In Australia the
infection is said to be more likely in homosexuals, intravenous drug users,
Aborigines and South-East Asians, particularly Vietnamese. All these
populations are specifically targetted for vaccination against hepatitis B,
however, serious questions have been raised regarding the safety of the
Hepatitis B vaccine, and the global immunization project more generally.
In the 1980s concerns were raised by several researchers about the
disproportionate number of homosexual men in the United States of
America who later developed HIV infections and AIDS after being
vaccinated with an experimental hepatitis B vaccine in the late 1970s and
early 1980s. Dr Alan Cantwell refers to this in an article titled, AIDS: a
doctors note on the man-made theory:
Conveniently lost in the history of AIDS is the gay Hepatitis-B
vaccine experiment that immediately preceded the decimation of gay
Americans. A cohort of over a thousand young gays was injected
with the vaccine at the New York Blood Center in Manhattan during
the period November 1978 to October 1979. Similar gay experiments
were conducted in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Denver, St.Louis, and
Chicago, beginning in 1980. The AIDS epidemic broke out shortly
thereafter. (p.25)
More detail was given by R.Ayana in the 1988 publication AIDS: The
Real Story:
The AIDS virus began to appear in homosexuals around 1979.
This was immediately following tests of the first hepatitis vaccine,
says Dr J. Anthony Morriss, a leading virologist who has worked with
the NIH, Walter Reed Hospital, and for 35 years with the Food & Drug

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Administration in connection with research on vaccines for influenza


and other respiratory diseases.
The hepatitis-B vaccine was produced using infected blood taken
primarily from homosexual males. Information on HIV in the West
prior to the early 1980s comes from the detection of antibodies in
blood samples stored as part of a San Francisco study of hepatitis B
among homosexual men.
The first tests of the vaccine were conducted under unusual
circumstancesOnly homosexual males between 20 and 40 who
were not monogamous could participate in the tests of the vaccine,
which took place principally in San Francisco and New York. Soon
afterward, AIDS was first detected among gay males in these areas.
The Centres for Disease Control (CDC) reported in 1981 that 4%
of those receiving the hepatitis vaccine were AIDS-infected. This was
prior to the advent of testing kits for HIV. In 1984 the CDC reported
that 60% of those involved in the hepatitis-B program had developed
AIDS.
Dr Cantwell, in a more recent article (June, 1999) titled Chimps,
Conspiracies and Killer Viruses, wrote:
Beginning in the Fall of 1978 (around the time HIV was
introduced into the gay community), thousands of homosexuals
were injected in New York City as part of the experimental hepatitis B
vaccine program. In 1979 the first few cases of AIDS (then known as
gay-related immune deficiency syndrome) showed up in
Manhattan.
During the years 1980-1981, similar vaccine experiments were
conducted in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Denver, Chicago and
St.Louis. In the Fall of 1980 the first West Coast case of AIDS
appeared in a young man from San Francisco.
By 1980 twenty percent of the Manhattan men in the
experiment had turned HIV-positive
He continues:
How could HIV been seeded into gays during vaccine experiments
in the late 1970s when the virus was supposedly unknown and
unavailable to scientists? Until recently it was claimed that the
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earliest HIV-positive blood specimens all traced back to gay men in


the hepatitis B experiment at the New York Blood Center. (This fact in
itself should give some credence to the relationship between the
experiment and the outbreak of AIDS.)
However, evidence provided by Joseph McCormick in Level 4:
Virus Hunters of the CDC (Turner Publishing, 1996) suggests HIVcontaminated blood was already in the virology research community
before the gay experiments began. McCormick, a former chief of the
CDCs (Centre for Disease Control) legendary hot zone laboratory,
claims that hundreds of vials of African serum were collected and
airshipped to the CDC (and presumably also to biowarfare and cancer
virus laboratories) for research purposes in 1976. These blood
specimens were collected from natives in a remote northern area of
Zaire (now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo) who
were exposed to the mysterious African Ebola virus outbreak (yet
another emerging virus of dubious origin).
A decade later when these vials were retested for HIV, it was
discovered that 5 out of 600 samples were positive for HIV, and from
one specimen the virus was actually cultured. Thus, two years before
the hepatitis experiment began, HIV-infected African blood was in
the hands of biowarfare scientists and animal cancer virus
researchers.
Alan Cantwell makes the assumption that virally infected serum from
Africa being in the hands of the CDC in the 1970s meant that it was also in
the hands of biowarfare and cancer virus laboratories. Is this true? While
cancer virus laboratories certainly exist in the US and elsewhere in the
West, biowarfare laboratories do not officially exist in the USA, Britain or
Europe. They were outlawed in the early 1970s. At this time the Army
Biological Warfare Laboratory at Fort Detrick (Maryland) was renamed the
National Cancer Institutes Frederick Cancer Research Facility. Did the
thriving American biological warfare industry make a dramatic change from
disease creation in the enemy to disease prevention and cure for
everyone, regardless of race, colour, class or religion? If so, when did this
happen?

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Other researchers and commentators have described a shift in


biowarfare from official military departments to private universities,
laboratories and research institutions which received military contracts and
provided the military with advice and expertise on virology (and medicine
generally), protection against biowarfare and chemical warfare, and
prevention of disease in combat. This is likely to be the case, however the
advice is said to be intended for protection against biological and chemical
warfare. Thus the soldiers who were sent to the Persian Gulf in the 1990s
were given experimental vaccines against anthrax and botulinum toxin,
which were said to be in Saddam Husseins biological warfare armoury. It is
easy to recognise problems in the advice the American military have been
given from the recently publicised Gulf War Syndrome and the many
problems affecting soldiers who returned from Vietnam (including
psychological problems, drug addiction and the effects of poisoning by
toxins such as Agent Orange). If Iraq was limiting its biological warfare
research to anthrax and botulism, by the way, their science is far behind
the times. These agents were known about over a hundred years ago. The
range of potential biowarfare agents has grown considerably since then.
Dr Joseph McCormick, an insider in the CDC, and one of the key
obtainers of infected blood specimens for the American government and
CDC, makes no admission about American or European biological warfare in
Level 4: Virus Hunters of the CDC, although he does make a single reference
to interest in haemorrhagic fevers as agents for biological warfare. This
reference implicates Russian science but not that of the Americans:
China and the former Soviet Union have always had a keen
interest in hemorrhagic fevers. We know that the Soviet military had
established a major experimental program to investigate these
diseases. But their interest in the viruses was not necessarily
altruistic. More ominously, they may have been motivated by the
prospect of developing CCHF and other diseases for use in biological
warfare. (p.313)
CCHF is an acronym for Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever, one of
several known viral haemorrhagic fevers, others including Lassa Fever,
Ebola Virus and Marburg virus. They cause fever, diarrhoea which becomes
bloody, and can cause fatal haemorrhage. The infections can also cause
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encephalitis with loss of consciousness, convulsions, coma and death. Most


physicians in Australia, including myself, have never seen a case of
haemorrhagic fever but it sounds like a horrific illness. These infections are
fatal, at times, and can also cause permanent disability, mainly through
brain damage. According to McCormick, he pioneered the use of the antiviral drug ribavirin for acute haemorrhagic fevers in Africa (where most of
the deaths from haemorrhagic fevers occur) after unsuccessful experiments
with plasma from recovered patients. He found intravenous ribavirin
particularly effective in the treatment of early Lassa Fever, although it
becomes evident that the drug was not affordable for most Africans.
In Joseph McCormicks adventures and those of his wife Susan FisherHoch (who co-authors Level 4: Virus Hunters of the CDC) it becomes evident
that the American military also have an active interest in haemorrhagic
fevers, and collaborate with the CDC at times. Senior staff from the CDC
have subsequently been employed in the USAMRIID (United States Army
Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, based at Fort Detrick,
Maryland). In fact, it was from experiments on infected monkeys at the US
military research centre that Mc Cormick got the idea of trying out ribavirin
on humans with Lassa Fever:
Karl *Dr Karl Johnson, chief of Special Pathogens at CDC+ told me
that he was already testing the drug against Lassa virus in tissue
cultures, adding that similar experiments were being conducted by
Peter Jahrling at USAMRIID. Peter was infecting monkeys with Lassa
virus and treating them with ribavirin. There was good safety data on
the drug, including human use data, because it had already been
used successfully as a treatment for acute viral pneumonia in
infants. (p.99)
Karl Johnson was head of Special Pathogens at the CDC (and
McCormicks boss) during the 1970s, when the first cases of AIDS were
discovered (but before Robert Gallos announcement that he had
discovered the HIV virus), and went from there to work at the USAMRIID in
1982, leaving three years later, shortly after Gallos announcement (in
1984). It was Johnson who first sent McCormick to Africa in 1976 in search
of Ebola Virus.

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Level 4: Virus Hunters of the CDC is a personal account of McCormicks


adventures in search of killer viruses in Africa during the 1970s and 1980s
and gives an indication of some of the unofficial and official alliances that
occur in the dangerous world of viral epidemic research. Mc Cormick tells
his story in graphic detail, concentrating more on presenting an
entertaining narrative than providing solutions to the problems of global
health. He portrays himself as the hero: venturing into the darkest Africa in
search of the source of Lassa Fever, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and other
haemorrhagic fevers. These are potentially lethal viruses, but McCormick,
in telling a dramatic narrative exaggerates the drama. Writing about
pricking his finger with a possibly infected needle, he writes:
How could I have been so careless? I had bled over three
hundred victims of Lassa Fever and never come close to pricking
myself. My first instinct was to pull off my glove and cry out, but
what good would that have done? Though I rinsed off the glove with
disinfectant, I knew the damage had been done. So the only thing I
could do was finish bleeding the woman and continue with my work.
I cant say that I was calm, but I wasnt in a panic, either. Still, I had a
nauseating feeling. I knew, more than most people, that when you
get stuck by a potentially contaminated needle in the midst of a
deadly epidemic like the one Id earlier investigated in Zaire the
odds for survival arent very good.
Actually, Id have to say that the fatality rate was about 100
percent. (p.17)
This is not actually true, and Dr McCormick should know it not to be
true. A needle-prick with even a definitely infected needle does not
guarantee infection: the risk of this is a small percentage even with the
most deadly viruses. Nevertheless, Ebola virus, which potentially
contaminated the needle with which he accidentally pricked himself, is a
horrific micro-organism.
The 1980 edition of Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine describes
the terrible mortality that this viral infection caused in early cases (all from
Central Africa):
Between July and November 1976 simultaneous outbreaks of
an acute febrile hemorrhagic disease occurred in Southern Sudan and
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Northern Zaire. Secondary and tertiary spread of infection,


particularly among hospital staff, was noted. In the Sudan over 300
cases with 151 deaths and in Zaire 237 cases with 211 fatalities were
reported. In one Sudanese hospital, 76 members of a staff of 230
were infected and 41 died. The virus isolated from patients in the
Sudan and Zaire was morphologically similar to the Marburg agent
but was antigenically distinct. The name Ebola virus, after the river in
Zaire located near the epidemic, has been proposed. (p.822)
The textbook describes the typical course of an Ebola virus infection:
` Clinically, the disease is similar to Marburg virus disease. The
incubation period ranges from 4 to 6 days. Patients usually present
on the fifth day of illness with a history of abrupt onset of headache,
malaise, myalgias [muscle pains], high fever, diarrhea, abdominal
pain, dehydration, and lethargy. Pleuritic chest pain, a dry hacking
cough and a pronounced pharyngitis [throat inflammation] were also
noted. A maculopapular eruption [skin rash] develops between days
5 to 7 of illness. On black skins the rash is often faint and not
recognised until desquamation [loss of surface layers of skin] occurs.
Hematemesis [vomiting blood], melena [passage of blood in faeces],
and bleeding from the nose, gums and vagina are common. Abortion
and massive metrorrhagia was a frequent complication among
pregnant women. Death usually occurs in the second week of illness
and is preceded by severe blood loss and shock. (p.823)
The illness caused by Ebola Virus is similar to that of Marburg virus,
named after the German town where the first case of the haemorrhagic
viral infection was discovered, in 1967. All the initial cases of human
infection were in people working in German and Yugoslavian medical
laboratories where they were exposed to African Green Monkeys,
according to Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine. The textbook gives
an overview of the epidemiological basis on which the monkeys were
implicated:
The initial outbreaks affected 31 patients in Marburg and
Frankfurt, Germany, and Belgrade, Yugoslavia, and was
epidemiologically linked to monkeys imported from the same source
in Uganda. Virus was isolated from the blood and tissue of these
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monkeys. Of the 25 primary infections, there were seven deaths. Six


secondary cases, involving two physicians, one nurse, a postmortem
attendant, and the wife of a veterinarian occurred. Person-to-person
transmission was felt to take place via accidental needle sticks or
abrasions, although respiratory and conjunctival infection could not
be ruled out. The wife of one patient developed Marburg virus
disease at the onset of his illness; Marburg virus was demonstrated
in the semen of the original patient, despite the presence of
circulating antibody, and this secondary case is believed to have been
acquired through sexual intercourse. Subsequent investigations in
the Lake Kyoga region of Uganda where the monkeys originated
revealed no unusual illnesses or death among primates in the area.
Complement fixation antibodies were demonstrated in 36 percent of
C. aethiops [green monkeys] trapped in the region, and antibody was
detected in three monkey trappers. (p.822)
There are other possibilities worth considering for the origin of Marburg
virus, Ebola virus and HIV. One is that the viruses arose through crossinfection from experimental animals and humans who were infecting them
with various viruses to study the effects of infection in different animals
(including green monkeys) and testing drugs on these animals before using
them on humans. Another possibility is that the infections were
transmitted to health care workers and laboratory workers via
experimental vaccines or infected vaccines (laboratory workers and health
care workers are routinely immunised as at risk groups). These vaccines
could have been unintentionally contaminated with animal viruses, or they
could have been intentional trials on the researchers. While the latter
might seem improbable, admissions by the US military that hundreds of
open air germ tests were done on civilian populations of cities in the USA
in the 1950s and 60s, make it clear that morality plays little role in
experimental ethics as far as the US military research establishment is
concerned. It is also clear that the US military have not hesitated to
deliberately infect monkeys with haemorrhagic fever viruses. Susan FisherHoch, in Level 4 Virus Hunters of the CDC writes:
It is true that experiments have been conducted at USAMRIID to
show that aerosol spread of several hemorrhagic fever viruses is
possible. But doing so requires the use of a muzzle system attached
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to the face of guinea pigs and monkeys, which delivers a large dose
under pressure. (p.284)

Lassa fever is a less dangerous haemorrhagic fever than that caused by


Ebola virus or Marburg virus, and most people who are infected with Lassa
fever survive. The 1980 edition of the authoritative textbook Harrisons
Principles of Internal Medicine gave the official mortality figures for what is
described in the book as a new virus disease:
The mortality rates in Jos *in Nigeria, where an outbreak
occurred in 1970] and Zorzor [in Liberia, where an outbreak occurred
in 1972] were 52 percent and 36 percent, respectively, while in Sierra
Leone the rate was 8 percent.
These mortality figures are based on small samples, since the number of
people who became ill and died was only 10 (out of 32 suspected cases) in
Nigeria and 4 (out of 10 suspected cases) in Liberia. More cases of the
haemorrhagic fever were reported between 1970 and 1972 from Sierra
Leone, but still only 63 cases were reported. The mortality rate amongst
these suspected cases was significantly lower than in Nigeria and Liberia,
with a death rate of 8 percent reported in Harrisons Principles of Internal
Medicine. The textbook also gives statistics which suggest that Lassa Fever
is not usually a killer virus:
In Sierra Leone 6 percent of the population surveyed had
complement-fixing antibody against Lassa Virus, while only 0.2
percent had recognised disease, suggesting mild disease or
inapparent infection. In Liberia 10 percent of hospital personnel had
antibodies. (p.843)
In the dramatic tale of how he discovered the value of intravenous
ribavirin (an anti-viral drug) for the treatment of early infection with Lassa
Fever in Sierra Leone, however, Mc Cormick gives different figures for
untreated versus treated Lassa Fever:
We went on to treat more than 1,500 patients with laboratoryconfirmed Lassa Fever. From over 16 percent, mortality dropped
dramatically to less than 5 percent. As time went on, the new
treatment became famous throughout the district (p.107)
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The figure of a reduction from 16% mortality to 5%, which was


attributed to treatment with ribavirin, can be explained in other ways. The
studies in the healthy population of Sierra Leone and Liberia indicate that a
much larger proportion of the population have Lassa Fever antibodies than
actually develop symptoms of the disease, let alone die from it. By doing
widespread and earlier testing for antibodies, a sizeable number of mildly
infected people (who would recover without treatment anyway) could have
been treated with the drug, resulting in apparantly lowered mortality rates
by use of the drug. It is accepted by Mc Cormick that serious cases did not
recover, even with use of the drug, and that his previous trials of oral
ribavirin were of doubtful value.
These trials, described in a chapter titled magic bullets, occurred in
1979, and involved comparing oral ribavirin with plasma taken from people
who had recovered from Lassa Fever. After returning to CDC headquarters
in Atlanta, Mc Cormick analysed the results of the treatment with the help
of computer technology:
The first analysis suggested that neither treatment was effective.
Looked at as cold, hard numbers, even the ribavirin seemed to have
little effect.
Yet I could not let go so easily. The more I thought about it, the
more I began to wonder whether there might not be another way of
looking at the results. I went back and reanalyzed the data. This time,
I decided, we would take a different tack. I started to break down the
patients into two basic categories those who were in the early
stages of illness on the day we began treatment, and those who were
in the late stages. In our first analysis, we took no account of the
timing of the admission: When did the patient become ill, and when
did he actually go to the hospital for help? Now I took into account
how much time had passed from the onset of illness to the day wed
started ribavirin.
No matter how we looked at the data for immune plasma, the
result was the same. In every case, the plasma failed to work. It
didnt matter how early in the disease we treated, the patients
continued to die at the same rate as before. But with the ribavirin I
detected a glimmer of success, the faint glow, perhaps, of at least a
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fraction of the miracle we sought. If a patient was admitted in the


first six or seven days of his illness, ribavirin improved prospects for
survival. If the patient had been sick for more than a week, the
capsules had less effect. We were onto something.
The faint glow of a fraction of a miracle, provided by a drug which was
always too expensive for Sierra Leone, Nigeria or Liberia to afford for their
impoverished citizens. The same applies for azidothymidine
(AZT/Zidovudine): apart from debatable benefits from the drug, it is too
expensive for most of the people with AIDS in the world today.
Furthermore, it may shorten, rather than lengthen, life expectancy.
The possibility that AIDS has been introduced into the human
population through vaccinations, whether accidentally or intentionally, is so
serious that it cannot be easily dismissed as unprovable or unlikely. If
unintentional it is a medical blunder of unprecedented scale, which
warrants an immediate re-evaluation of medical immunization strategies
and public health programs worldwide. If intentional, which is a possibility
raised by several researchers, it is an act of brutal genocide and massmurder even worse than the Nazi atrocities of the Second World War, and
the perpetrators should be in prison. Cantwell makes the important point,
however, that all biological warfare research in the US is secret and hidden
from public view. The same applies to biological warfare research in other
countries, including Australia and Britain.
The history, demographics and epidemiology of AIDS in the modern
world are simply inconsistent with the theory, promoted by the medical
and pharmaceutical industries in Britain, America and Australia, that the
infection, now called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), spread to
humans from wild monkeys (or chimpanzees) in Central Africa during the
1960s or 1970s. It clearly does not explain a simultaneous explosion of HIV
and AIDS in white homosexuals in America, and black heterosexual men
and women as well as children in Africa. Cantwell wrote, in 1998:
Where did HIV originate? Prominent cancer virologists and
government epidemiologists have theorised that HIV originated in
African green monkeys. Purportedly the monkey virus jumped
species and entered the black population. From there it migrated to
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Haiti and Manhattan. After the virus entered the black heterosexual
population in the late 1970s, it rapidly spread to millions of blacks
because of transfusions with HIV-infected blood, dirty needles,
promiscuity and genital ulcers or so the experts said.
Not all scientists believe the official monkey story, although it is
rare to find people who express this view publicly. One persistent
underground rumor is that AIDS is biological warfare. Proponents of
the AIDS conspiracy theory believe that AIDS has nothing to do with
green monkeys, homosexuality, drug addiction, genital ulcerations,
anal sex or promiscuity, but that it has to do with scientists
experimenting on blacks and gays: in short, AIDS is genocide. Most
African-Americans have heard the story that HIV is a manufactured
virus genetically-engineered to kill off the black race. Thirty percent
of New York City blacks polled by The New York Times (October 29,
1990) actually believe AIDS is an ethno-specific bioweapon designed
in a laboratory to infect black people.
Despite the general acceptance that HIV came from monkeys and
the rain forest, there is no scientific evidence to prove that HIV and
AIDS originated in Africa. What is true is that the first AIDS cases
were uncovered in the U.S. in 1979, around the same time that AIDS
cases were discovered in Africa. In addition, no stored African tissue
from the 1970s tests positive for HIV [this is corrected in Cantwells
1999 article]. And scientists have a hard time explaining how a black
heterosexual epidemic centered in Africa could have quickly
transformed itself into a white homosexual epidemic in Manhattan.
(p.25)
Cantwell does not mention several scientific and historical facts and
trends which might shed more light on the subject of motivation for a
genocidal use of the HIV virus as a biological weapon. These include
concern about Global Overpopulation blamed on Third World
Overpopulation among First World scientists, politicians and
international health experts (including the WHO), pre-existing white
supremacist regimes, eugenic theories and programs, drug promotion
interests and the corporate promotion of needles and condoms, as well as
the financial interests of the insurance industry, mining industry and
chemical industry, the medical treatment industry and the international
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aid industry. Specifically, it is difficult to ignore the fact that the


populations worst decimated by AIDS: homosexuals, intravenous druginjecters and blacks have been the targets of genocidal eugenic programs
in the past, the most notorious of which were the Nazi euthanasia
programs. A direct connection between these Nazi programs and the
development of Australia-based medical mass murder strategies
(biowarfare programs) becomes more likely with the recent revelations
that many Nazi scientists were given asylum in Australia after the Second
World War. Nazi scientists and senior military espionage officers were also
employed by the American military after the war, and were involved in the
development of the CIA and Cold War against communism, according to
recent exposes (Vankin and Whalen, 1997).
The possibility that the importation Nazi scientists adversely influenced
the development of science in Australia is discounted by Guy Nolch, in the
September 1999 editorial of Australian Science, in which he deplores the
naming of several Nazi scientists by the Melbourne Age newspaper:
Last month the public image of science was turned back more
than 50 years when The Age reported that Australia had smuggled
127 former German scientists into Australia soon after World War II.
The rationale for this was to bolster Australias fledgling scientific
effort. Our allies also wished to keep military knowledge out of Soviet
hands.
The Age named 41 of the scientists who had been members of
the Nazi Party, and used this fact to stir up a frenzy. Whether they
were ardent Nazis or had joined the party under duress was unclear,
and irrelevant as far as The Age was concerned. These were war
criminals!
What was not revealed by The Age or Australasian Science is what
medical and health science industries former Nazis and Nazi-sympathisers
were employed in, and in what government and public service positions
they were given work when they came to Australia. This is important
knowledge for the Australian people, and would help clarify the State and
Commonwealth Governments attitude to Nazi philosophy, which may well
have been one of sympathy. It may also help Australians gain a more
complete picture of Australian and Australia-based biowarfare programs of
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the 20th century. It is clearly necessary to identify abuses of science in the


past to stop further use of scientific knowledge, including biological
knowledge to create disease, famine and pestilence in the future.
In the same edition of Australasian Science is an article on modern
biowarfare written by Jacinta Kerin of the Murdoch Institute in Melbourne.
In the article, titled Biological weapons from genetic research she writes:
The role of genetic engineering in biological warfare can be
divided into two main areas. The first is the genetic manipulation of
either bacteria, viruses or toxins in order to maximise their suitability
for biological warfare. Before molecular genetics, candidate
biological warfare pathogens were selected on the basis of a number
of naturally occurring properties that render them hazardous to
human health. For example, resistance to environmental
degradation, high infectivity, short and predictable incubation period
and resistance to antibiotics and/or vaccines are some of the factors
that might be considered in choosing a pathogen as a bioweapon.
DNA manipulation raises the possibility that the list of candidate
pathogens could be substantially expanded should some of these
properties be genetically engineered into them. Alternatively, such
technology gives us the means of fine-tuning any of the properties
already identified in order to maximise their utility for a given
attack.
Kerin refers to us having the means of fine-tuning biological
weapons using DNA manipulation, but it requires technology far more
complex and expensive than most individuals, or third world nations, for
that matter, have at their disposal. Not so several private research
institutions and universities, both public and private, in Australia, the
United States and Europe including the Murdoch Institute and Macfarlane
Burnet Centre (MBC) in Melbourne. Both of these university and corporate
connected research institutions are conducting research and developing
technology that could be used for modern biological warfare of the most
devastating kind. Given that the MBC have been involved in active
promotion of immunization with trial (experimental) vaccines in several
parts of the third world, including vaccination with new Hepatitis B
vaccine preparations, as will be later expanded on, and also advises the
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World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations (UN) on AIDS


prevention and treatment, it appears that Australian science merits a very
close examination indeed.
The Murdoch Institute, Macfarlane Burnet Centre and Howard Florey
Institute (of experimental physiology, at the University of Melbourne) are
three of the biggest medical research institutes in Melbourne, and are
among the small number of Australian Research Institutes to receive
ongoing block funding from the National Health and Medical Research
Council (NHMRC), the main federal government medical research funding
body. Others include the Baker research institute (cardiovascular research)
at the Alfred Hospital and the Mental Health Research Institute in Parkville,
Melbourne (which was located near and associated with Royal Park
Hospital and the University of Melbourne). All are involved in drug-oriented
research and several are looking for genetic causes of illness. Predominant
amongst these are the Mental Health Research Institute, which is
conducting a genetic study of schizophrenia, funded by the NHMRC and
Network for Brain Research into Mental Disorders-Genetic Linkage
Consortium and the Murdoch Institute which, according to their 1996
Annual Report, has been engaged in studies seeking to prove, of all things,
genetic markers for schizophrenia in Southern African Bantu-speaking
families. It is unclear as to what criteria were used to diagnose
schizophrenia in Africans whose language, beliefs, cultural norms and
attitudes are predictably different from the European psychiatrists who
developed criteria for diagnosis of schizophrenia. The same applies to the
surviving Australian aborigines and Australian people generally: Eurocentric
and Christian Church-based ideas of what constitutes normal beliefs,
attitudes and behaviour cannot reasonably be inflicted on Australian
people, who are of diverse racial, religious and cultural backgrounds
without serious human rights abuses occurring.
The Annual Report of the Murdoch Institute does not elaborate on these
schizophrenia studies, as it does about some of its more worthwhile
projects, but the section at the end of the publication, titled List of
Publications mentions four schizophrenia studies, all involving the Director
of the institute, and Professor of Medical Genetics at the University of
Melbourne, Dr Robert (Bob) Williamson. These include one article titled
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No evidence for linkage of chromosome 22 markers to schizophrenia in


Southern African Bantu-speaking families which was published in the
American Journal of Medical Genetics and three papers published in
Psychiatric Genetics: Non-parametric analysis of chromosome 6p24-22
marker data and schizophrenia in Southern African Bantu-speaking
families, A linkage study of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit
gene loci and schizophrenia in Southern African Bantu-speaking families
and No evidence for linkage of chromosome 6p markers to schizophrenia
in Southern African Bantu-speaking families.

SCHIZOPHRENIA AND DOPAMINE-BLOCKERS


Schizophrenia was invented in 1911 by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen
Bleuler (1857-1939), who crafted diagnostic criteria for this mental illness
of young people from the condition termed dementia praecox by the
German psychiatry professor Emil Kraepelin (1855-1926) in the 1890s.
Michael Stone, in Healing the Mind, writes:
Succeeding Forel as the director of the famed Burgholzli clinic in
1898, Bleuler worked intensively with psychotic patients, visiting and
talking with them five or six times a week, such that his familiarity
with them was comparable to that of psychoanalysts with their
patients (who were also seen about five times a week in this era). His
great monograph on the group of schizophrenias appeared in 1911;
here he proposed a new definition of the condition Kraepelin and
others had been calling dementia praecox. Bleuler identified the
primary signs of this condition, which have become known as the
four As: autism, loosening of associations, ambivalence, and affect
inappropriateness. The latter trait was the key element for Bleuler:
The patient who smiled while talking of the death of his mother, or
who cried while talking of inheriting a fortune, was showing a split
(Greek: schizo) between thought and affect: hence his term
schizophrenia. Ambivalence and autism were also words Bleuler
coined. (p.146)
It is difficult to see how autism (inability or refusal to speak) and these
other abnormalities could be detected in people who do not speak the
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same language as the diagnoser. How does one tell if a persons mental
associations are loosened when they have a completely different belief
system, mode of speech and conceptual framework; when they think and
speak in another language? It is easy to judge smiling or crying
inappropriately as suggestive of madness evidenced by inappropriate
affect if the reasons for such emotions are not understood due to
linguistic, social and cultural differences and barriers. It is equally unclear as
to how injections or tablets of dopamine-blockers can improve such
symptoms.
There have been many changes in the accepted criteria for diagnosis of
schizophrenia in the modern world, however, and considerable differences
exist in different parts of the world. This is mentioned in the World Health
Organizations Handbook for the Schizophrenic Disorders (1995), which
was written by Heidi Sumich, Gavin Andrews and Caroline Hunt of the
Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety Disorders of the University of New
South Wales at St Vincents Hospital, Sydney and underwritten by the
New South Wales Institute of Psychiatry:
There is no single specific symptom that is required for a diagnosis
of schizophrenia. In other words, the symptoms experienced by one
person may not be exactly the same as the symptoms experienced by
another person. However, as a group, people with schizophrenia display
an identifiable set of symptoms. If someone exhibits one or more of
these symptoms for a specified length of time, he or she may then be
regarded as having a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
The American Psychiatric Associations (APA) Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) is the
alternative major diagnostic classificatory system to ICD-10 [the World
Health Organizations International Classification of Diseases+. In DSMIV, the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia differ slightly [!] from ICD-10
in relation to the duration of time for which symptoms are required to
have been present prior to diagnosis. DSM-IV requires a minimum
duration of six months, including a prodromal or residual phase, while
ICD-10 requires the persistence of symptoms for only one month.
The handbook continues to explain how these symptoms of
schizophrenia are to be elicited, claiming that the most important
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symptoms and signs include hallucinations, delusions, thought


disturbances, disordered thinking and negative symptoms (these are
very different to Bleulers criteria). Detailed methods for acquiring evidence
of these abnormalities are given in the Handbook for the Schizophrenic
Disorders, which was distributed to health workers in Australia by the Swiss
drug company Janssen-Cilag, which manufacture several drugs for the
treatment (but not the cure, which is said to be impossible) of
schizophrenia, including the crippling dopamine-blocker haloperidol,
which is marketed as injections, syrup and tablets of Haldol. This drug has
been used around the world for the punishment of social and political
dissidents over the past 40 years. The manual contains a series of questions
and interpretations for doctors and other health workers designed to
increase both diagnosis of mental abnormality and treatment with Haldol
and related drugs, and for the most dubious of reasons.
The Handbook for the Schizophrenic Disorders contains a dangerously
over-inclusive set of diagnostic criteria enshrined as the W.H.O.s Brief
Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). In it, hallucinations are described as
seeing, hearing, smelling, or tasting things that other people do not see,
hear, smell, sense or taste *which could be due to greater sensitivity] and
are to be elicited by the following questions:
Do you ever seem to hear your name being called?
Have you heard any sounds or people talking to you or about you
when there has been nobody around?
Do you ever have visions or see things that others do not see?
What about smell odors that others do not smell?
It is easy to see why schizophrenia was not diagnosed in Biblical times.
All the prophets and visionaries, including Jesus Christ, would have been
committed for involuntary psychiatric treatment. People who believe that
they are Jesus Christ rate a special mention in the manual, for these
people are suffering from the typical delusions of schizophrenia:
Delusions *are+ false beliefs that are firmly held despite objective
and contradictory evidence, and despite the fact that other members
of the culture do not share the same beliefs; for example, the person
may believe that he or she is Jesus Christ, or that he or she is being
followed, poisoned, or experimented upon.
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What about the people under surveillance in the numerous police states
around the world, and what about the people who are being poisoned and
experimented on by the psychiatric industry itself? These people can expect
a diagnosis of delusions after being asked the following questions, which
are apparently indicative of unusual thought content if answered in the
affirmative:
Have you been receiving any special messages from people or
from the way things are arranged around you? Have you seen any
references to yourself on TV or in the newspapers?
Can anyone read your mind?
Do you have a special relationship with God?
Is anything like electricity, X-rays, or radio waves affecting you?
Are thoughts put into your head that are not your own?
Have you felt that you were under the control of another person
or force?
Bizarre behaviour, another sign of schizophrenia is to be detected by
asking:
Have you done anything that has attracted the attention of others?
Have you done anything that could have gotten you into trouble
with the police? *the word gotten betrays an American origin for
the BPRS]
Have you done anything that seemed unusual or disturbing to
others?
In the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (attributed in the manual to the
World Health Organization) is a description of self neglect which is archconservative, verging on fascist. A rating of 2 for self neglect is to be
recorded for hygiene/appearance slightly below usual community
standards, e.g., shirt out of pants, buttons unbuttoned, shoe laces untied,
but no social or medical consequences. A rating of 3 (out of 7, which is
extremely severe) is merited by hygeine/appearance occasionally below
usual community standards, e.g., irregular bathing, clothing is stained, hair
uncombed, occasionally skips an important meal with no social or
medical consequences. To be mentally well the manual insists that we
should be eating three meals a day, which many Australians cannot
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afford, and many others choose not to consume. This strange obsession
with regular meals is repeated in grade 4 self-neglect which is to be
recorded by the health worker if a person fails to bathe or change
clothes or is thought to have, clothing very soiled, hair unkempt, OR
irregular eating and drinking with minimal medical concerns and
consequences.
It is difficult to see how genetic defects and chemical imbalances can be
blamed for failing to tuck ones shirt in ones pants, and eat three meals a
day. In addition, the handbook contains a single-paged table on which the
level of severity (from a mild 2 to a very severe 7) of 24 symptoms and
signs elicited by the leading questions can be formally recorded by the
health worker. The forms are suitable for analysis by a computer, and
provide a checklist of abnormalities to detect. These include: somatic
concern, anxiety, depression, suicidality, guilt, hostility, elated mood,
grandiosity, suspiciousness, hallucinations, unusual thought content,
bizarre behavior, self neglect, disorientation, conceptual disorganization,
blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, motor retardation, tension,
uncooperativeness, excitement, distractibility, motor hyperactivity,
mannerisms and posturing.
Suspiciousness is to be elicited by the following questions:
Do you ever feel uncomfortable in public? Does it seem as
though others are watching you? Are you concerned about anyones
intentions toward you? In anyone going out of their way to give you a
hard time, or trying to hurt you? Do you feel in any danger?
For those who study psychiatry professionally, meaning they first gain
medical degrees from recognised universities, further training in techniques
of interrogation are obligatory, always seeking evidence of mental illness.
The recommended undergraduate textbook in Psychiatry for medical
students in Melbourne is Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry written in
collaboration between psychiatry professors at the University of Melbourne
and Monash University, and published in 1994 by Melbourne University
Press. In the chapter titled the psychiatric interview and evaluation of the
mental state Professor Nicholas Keks explains how persecutory delusions
can be inferred and that they are not necessarily untrue to qualify as
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delusions (reflected also in the psychiatric truism that a delusion is still


a delusion even if it transpires, by coincidence, to be correct !):
Delusions with religious or subcultural content can prove difficult
to assess. Usually consultations with a member of the patients social
group is necessary. It should also be kept in mind that what appear to be
persecutory delusions may be true. It is not whether the delusion is
absolutely false that is relevant, but rather that the belief is adhered to
by the patient very firmly despite manifestly insufficient or
inappropriate evidence. For instance, a man was convinced that his wife
was having an affair, and indeed she was in a secret relationship.
However, the husbands conviction arose from the interpretation he
placed on entirely unrelated events such as the numbers printed on the
letter he received from the tax office.
In eliciting delusions, it is useful to first ask a question which
should elicit a positive response from anyone, and then to probe further
for abnormal thought content. For instance: Do you ever feel selfconscious or shy in a new place or with strangers? The answer should
be yes if the question was understood. Then the patient can be asked
whether they worry if people laugh behind their back, and so on,
progressing to ask about organised persecution. (p.74)
It is assumed that belief in organised persecution is indicative of
serious mental illness: namely schizophrenia. What of hundreds of years
of organised slavery and other colonial atrocities. Did these end with the
official abolition of slavery by the French in 1794? Or by the British in 1834?
Or by the United States of America in 1863? Or by the Belgians in 1904? Did
organised persecution of Australian aborigines end with the banning of
blackbirding (kidnapping of aboriginal slaves) in 1874? Was the 1940s
persecution and mass-murder of people diagnosed as schizophrenic in
Nazi Germany disorganised? What about the diagnosis of sluggish
schizophrenia in Soviet political dissidents during the 1960s and 1970s?
Rather than looking for the social, political and historical origins of
schizophrenia, the Mental Health Research Institute (MHRI) in Melbourne
is, in addition to conducting an extensive genetic study of schizophrenia,
actively engaged in trying to establish biological abnormalities in
diagnosed schizophrenics. The focus of the work of the Molecular
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Schizophrenia Division is on the neurotransmitters dopamine and


serotonin. The institutes 1997 Annual report explains:
Dopamine is a chemical within the brain which is thought to be
important in the pathology of schizophrenia. The major evidence for this
is that drugs which behave like dopamine in the brain can cause a
psychosis reminiscent of schizophrenia in non-schizophrenic individuals.
In addition, the antipsychotic drugs that are used to treat schizophrenia
reduce the activity of dopamine in the human brain. Together, these
observations suggest that over-activity of the dopamine neuronal
pathways are important in the pathology of the illness. (p.18)
In other words, because dopamine-blocking drugs which have been
forced into people to treat schizophrenia (and mania) for several decades
affect this particular neurotransmitter, dopamine must be at the root of the
postulated biochemical imbalance in this illness. It is a deft reversal of
logic, and if statistically significant differences were discovered it would
be very difficult to ascribe dopamine receptor abnormalities to the illness
rather than the treatment. As it turns out, after examining many brains
from dead schizophrenics, the researchers were unable to pronounce any
difference between theirs and those of normal people:
Within the Molecular Schizophrenia Division there are a number
of strategies being employed to determine whether dopamine is
involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. Tabasum Hussain and
Susie Kitsoulis have measured the density of dopamine receptors in
samples of brain tissue obtained from subjects who have had
schizophrenia [with their permission?] and compared these
measures from individuals who have not had schizophrenia. There
was no difference in dopamine receptor quantities in either the
caudate putamen or frontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. In
addition, Robyn Bradbury has shown that there is no difference in
dopamine receptor numbers in the hippocampus of people with
schizophrenia. Our data have shown that dopamine receptor
quantities do not appear to be altered in the brains of subjects with
schizophrenia.
Not daunted by yet another failure to demonstrate actual abnormality
in the brains of people diagnosed as schizophrenic, the MHRI is also
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investigating serotonin neurobiology and schizophrenia, again because


drugs which are used on people labelled schizophrenic affect this
neurotransmitter, which is also the focus of a marketing campaign for new
antidepressants. Here the institute claims to have had some success, but
also plans to make some ridiculous inferences from studies on rats:
Developments are being made on what cause the changes in
the serotonin transporter in subjects with schizophrenia. Lee Naylor
has discovered that by injecting rats with a drug called 5,7-dihydroxy
tryptamine, she can cause changes in their serotonin transporter
which are similar to those we have seen in subjects with
schizophrenia. If her early findings are confirmed, then this may
provide a model by which the changes in the serotonin transporter in
the human brain can be studied using rat brains. (p.19)
In a situation repeated in all the large research institutions in Australia,
most of the repetitive, often meaningless, sometimes dangerous work
which includes handling potentially infectious tissue samples is done by
young women, often of ethnic background. The Board of Directors,
however is consistently middle aged, all-white and heavily male dominated,
with usually one or two token female board members.
The Chairman and Company Director of the Mental Health Research
Institute, which received grants totalling $5,484,523 in 1997, is Professor
Ben Lochtenberg, qualified with a Bachelor of Engineering (BE), and
medically unqualified. He is also Chairman of ICI Australia (Imperial
Chemical Industries), Director of Capral Aluminium and a Board Member of
the Inner and Eastern Health Care Network. He is a member of the
University of Melbourne Council and the former Chairman of the
Ministerial Review of Medical Staffing in Victorias Public Hospital System
according to the 1997 Annual Report. All 14 members of the Board of
Management in 1997 were white, and 12 were male. They included one
professor of psychiatry (David Copolov, the Institute Director), one
professor of medicine (Robert Porter, who is also Board Member of the
Southern Health Care Network and Member of Council, Victorian Institute
of Forensic Medicine), a professor of surgery (Gordon Clunie, a Scottish
surgeon, now retired), three lawyers, an accountant (who is treasurer of
the institute) and an economist. The female members were Dame Margaret
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Guilfoyle, who is described as Deputy Chairman of the Infertility


Treatment Authority, Chairman of the Judicial Remuneration Authority and
Board Member of the Childrens Television Foundation and Dulcie Boling,
who is described in the 1997 Annual Report as Director of Seven Network,
Mercantile Mutual Holdings Ltd, Multi Media Asia Pacific Ltd and Country
Road Ltd. Dame Guilfoyle also is the former Chairman of the human
Rights Commission Inquiry into Rights of People with Mental Illness. Not
the sort of people likely to identify with the suffering of the impoverished
and dispossessed in Australia, as the research studies of the MHRI suggest.
In addition to their studies on schizophrenics brains and those who died
with Alzheimers disease, the MHRI is also involved in the Clozaril Patient
Monitoring System (CPMS), which, according to the institutes report, is an
independent monitoring system established by the Mental Health
Research Institute. It is funded by Novartis Australia. Novartis (which also
markets Ritalin for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder) is the only
company that sells Clozaril (clozapine) in Australia. The reason it needs to
be closely monitored is that clozapine is a very toxic drug, as the report
admits, whilst maintaining that it is a good drug for refractory
schizophrenia:
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent of the
dibenzodiazepine class of compounds. It is chemically and
pharmacologically distinct from standard antipsychotic drugs and has
been shown to improve both the positive and negative psychotic
symptoms in many patients with schizophrenia who are unresponsive
to, or intolerant of present day therapy, while producing minimal
extrapyramidal side effects.
Unfortunately, clozapine can cause a life threatening decrease in
the number of white blood cells (usually the neutrophils) in some
people. At present there is no way to determine who may be at risk
from this effect, but it is known that anyone who has experienced this
problem cannot be exposed to the drug again.
The toxicity if the drug is such that:
Everyone using clozapine must have a weekly blood test for the
first 18 weeks of treatment, and then blood tests must be performed no
less than every 28 days thereafter.
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Agranulocytosis is not the only problem clozapine can cause. The 1999
MIMS lists: agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia, other haematological
disturbances, fatigue, drowsiness, sedation, dizziness, headache, weight
gain, hypotension, tachycardia, transient pyrexia (fever), extrapyramidal
symptoms (such as Parkinsonism), seizures, neuroleptic malignant
syndrome (another potentially fatal adverse effect), dream intensification,
hypersalivation, hyperthermia and others.
The 1996 American Publication Inside the Brain, by Pulitzer prize-winner
Ronald Kotulak, purchased from the Monash University Bookshop, makes
no mention of these problems. Kotulak, an enthusiastic promoter of any
and all the drugs mentioned in the book, gives clozapine his full support:
Unlike the standard antipsychotic drugs and tranquilisers,
which often render patients dulled and sedated, the new
medications leave them clearheaded.
One such drug is clozapine (Clozaril), which dampens
explosive aggression and clears psychotic thoughts. At places like the
Mendota Mental Health Institute in Madison, Wisconsin, clozapine
has swung open the doors of the back wards, allowing patients once
doomed to a lifetime under tight security to move into the
community, going to school and work.
Doctors who have seen the drugs effect are enthusiastic. Its
like these people were living under a spell and clozapine is breaking
the spell, said Dr.Gary J. Maier, of the University of Wisconsin, and
director of psychiatric services at Mendota, which houses the states
most violent patients. When that happens the long-standing
immature personality that had been struggling to be healthy but
couldnt because it kept going crazy is freed. They start to grow
up.
Harvards Dr. John Ratey, who treats Massachusetts most
violent criminals at Medfield State Hospital, also is sending some of
his patients home after putting them on clozapine. He called it the
most exciting new drug Ive ever seen and likened its effect to a
guided missile that goes right to the site of aggression in the brain
without making patients stupid, apathetic, sleepy, or non-sexual.
(p.88)
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By inference, the usual drugs used for psychotic disorders do cause


these problems. Ronald Kotulak, a science reporter, was not commissioned
by the editor of the Chicago Tribune to criticise the new drugs but to praise
them, and to find out Why do some children turn out bad? This question
is the motive given in the introduction, anyway, and the answer Kotulak
provides is simplistic and misleading: brain chemistry accompanied by
being brought up in bad neighborhoods. When he describes these bad
neighborhoods as being characterised by poverty, single mothers, and
lower education and income levels it becomes clear that black
neighbourhoods fit his description of bad neighbourhoods. It is also
evident that several pharmaceutical companies stood to benefit from his
book, particularly Novartis, the manufacturers of Clozaril, and the makers
of the new antidepressants, including Eli Lilly, manufacturers of Prozac,
which is promoted several times in the book.
A key factor in the chemical imbalance theories propagated by Kotulak
and the maketing strategies for new antidepressants is blaming the
neurotransmitter serotonin for a ludicrous range of mental illnesses and
mental abnormalities. Conveniently, the new SSRI (Selective Serotonin
Reuptake Inhibitor) drugs are known to primarily affect serotonin
metabolism. With scant regard for scientific evidence, Kotulak writes:
Low serotonin is common to many mental problems in which
one or more of our drives bursts out of its chemical corral.
Medical researchers found that most of these disorders may be
treatable with drugs that change serotonin levels. First developed to
halt the uncontrollable aggression of schizophrenia and depression,
these drugs are now being used or tested for a wide variety of
problems, including alcoholism, eating disorders, premenstrual
syndrome, migraines, anger attacks, manic-depressive disorder,
obsessive-compulsive disorders, anxiety, sleep disorders, memory
impairment, drug abuse, sexual perversions, irritability, Parkinsons
disease, Alzheimers, depersonalization disorder, borderline
personality, autism and brain injuries. (p.88)
This gives some indication of the widespread experimentation that has
occurred since SSRI drugs were developed. They were developed, however,
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as antidepressants, not antipsychotics or anti-parkinsonian drugs. The


list above, rather than demonstrating a low serotonin aetiology, merely
shows that when a new psychiatric drug is developed the medical
profession tends to experiment widely with it, trying it out on patients
with a range of different problems. This has occurred with the whole
spectrum of psychiatric drugs, including minor tranquillisers, major
tranquillisers, lithium, antidepressants and amphetamines.

MACFARLANE BURNET CENTRE AND SKB


The Macfarlane Burnet Centre, located in Yarra Bend at the site of the
now defunct Fairfield Infectious Diseases Hospital (where the centre
originated) is Australias foremost virology research institute, according to
their own propaganda. Their 1997 Annual Report begins with a mission
statement which claims:
The Macfarlane Burnet Centre for medical research is Australias
premier virology and communicable disease research institute. The
Centre has ongoing active research programs into many of the
viruses of major public health importance, including hepatitis A, B, C
and E, HIV and AIDS, rubella, and respiratory syncitial virus infection.
The Centres philosophy is that a variety of approaches should
be used to achieve control of viral and other communicable diseases,
from fundamental research in virology, molecular biology and
immunology; through cell biology, laboratory support for clinical
trials, clinical trials, epidemiological and social research, and the
design, implementation and evaluation of public health programs.
The centres work becomes increasingly relevant not only locally but
globally in the face of growing numbers of viral diseases manifesting
themselves in often horrifying ways throughout the world.
Established initially as a centre for basic laboratory research
MBC has, in line with its philosophy, started to reach out not only to
the local community through its Epidemiology and Social Research
Unit, but to the larger global community through its International
Health Unit. It now has offices in Indonesia, Nepal and Vietnam
which co-ordinate various field studies in these locations, and an
office in Geneva which has the responsibility of liasing with
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international organisations such as the World Health Organisation.


The Centre has a lesser presence in many other Asian, Indian and
African areas.
Although MBC advises on the treatment of people of many races, most
of whom are impoverished and dark-skinned, the Members of the MBC
Board are all white, with the exception of Ms Sharon Firebrace, who is
one of two female board members and is described as an active member
of several committees concerned with Aboriginal and general community
affairs over 18 years, and director of *a+ private consultancy specializing
in public relations and economic and business development of Aboriginal
and wider communities.
Despite the best efforts of Ms Firebrace to represent the interests of
aborigines, her views would likely be over-ridden by the interests of the 11
middle-aged white men who sit on the 13-member Board. They included, in
1998, the Executive Director, Professor John Mills (also director of AMRAD
pharmaceuticals and the Rothschilds Biosciences Investment Trust), Sir
Roderick Carnegie (Chairman of Hudson Conway, Newcrest Mining, Valiant
Consolidated Limited and John Fairfax Holdings Limited) and Raymond
Williams (Chairman and CEO of HIH Winterthur insurance and director of
The Insurance Council of Australia and Australian Motor Insurers Limited).
The Board of MBC also included at the time, Peter Ivany (CEO of the Hoyts
Group), Douglas Rathbone (Director of Gibson Chemicals and other
corporate industrial positions), Graeme Hannan (Chairman of Hannan
corporate finance), and Michael Roux (director of the Local Authorities
Superannuation Board and advisor to the Deutsche Bank Group in
Australia).
It is of relevance that the most generous corporate sponsors of the
Macfarlane Burnet Centre, according to their 1997 and 1998 Annual
Reports were HIH Winterthur Insurance, Rio Tinto Mining, SmithKline
Beecham (pharmaceuticals and vaccines) and BHP. It is easy to recognise
the vested interests that all these companies could have in diseasecreation. The insurance industry benefits from concern about illness
generally, and there have been few illnesses that generated the public and
governmental panic that AIDS generated in the 1980s, with active
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assistance from public terrorization campaigns such as the notorious Grim


Reaper ads on Australian television. The mining industry profits from the
sale and distribution of metal needles, plastic syringes and drugs but also
could perceive a political benefit in genociding indigenous populations in
areas where they have mining interests. SmithKline Beecham obviously
profits from the promotion of immunizations, being one of the worlds
biggest vaccine manufacturers.
It may also be of relevance that one of the main WHO international
health concerns over the past 40 years has been excessive breeding
(resulting in overpopulation) by human beings in what have been
interchangeably and serially described as undeveloped nations,
underdeveloped nations, developing nations and third world nations.
These nations, which also happened to have been colonised and exploited
for several centuries by the nations which now comprise the self-styled
first world are mainly in Africa, South America and Asia (including
Indonesia, Philippines, Bangaladesh, India, Sri Lanka and South-East Asia)
with small islands in the Pacific Region also thus designated. Britain,
Canada, New Zealand and Australia are the only Commonwealth Nations
that are allowed in the first world club. And the last three only as poor
cousins to the mother country.
SmithKline Beecham, is a massive British drug company that promotes
the SSRI drug Aropax for panic disorder and depression and markets
several vaccines, including vaccines against hepatitis A, hepatitis B,
diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, neisseria
meningitidis, polio and typhoid. They, together with the Commonwealth
Serum Laboratories (CSL) and the American Mercke Sharpe & Dohme
(MSD) are Australias biggest vaccine marketers. Staff at SmithKline
Beecham International claim that all the vaccines used in the Australian
region are manufactured in and distributed from Rixensart in Belgium,
which has been the centre of biologicals for many years. The corporate
decisions of the company, however, are generated from Britain, where the
head office of SmithKline Beecham is located. The company is on the British
and American (but not the Australian or European) stockmarkets.

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The public relations department of SKB Australia, which informed the


HRIC that all SKB vaccines are manufactured by SB Biologicals in Belgium,
were unable to discover how long this has been the case, explaining that
the company is divided into consumer, pharmaceutical and biological
sections. Biologicals is centred in Belgium, where a factory employing
2000 people have produced 700,000,000 vaccines used in 158 countries
since 1956, when they produced their first injectable polio Salk vaccine.
According to the official SKB promotion, this was followed by the
following vaccines: Sabin polio (oral) vaccine in 1961, live attenuated
rubella vaccine in 1969, measles vaccine (1976), meningococcal vaccine
(1978), chicken pox (1984), (the worlds first) genetically engineered
hepatitis B vaccine (1986), influenza vaccine (1991), hepatitis A vaccine
(1992), DVP (triple antigen with acellular pertussis, in 1995), haemophilus
influenzae (1996), measles, mumps rubella vaccine (1998) and typhoid
vaccine (1998). This is only a summary, and, for example, earlier nongenetically engineered hepatitis B vaccines are not mentioned in the official
immunization highlights.
SmithKline Beecham was formed by the amalgamation of the American
Smith Kline & French pharmaceuticals with the British Beecham
laboratories, which occurred in the 1980s. Maybe it could be described as a
takeover by Beecham of Smith Kline & French, since the corporate
decisions of the company now emanate from Britain. It was Smith Kline &
French that first marketed the crippling chemical chlorpromazine as an
antipsychotic back in the 1950s, after its initial discovery and testing by
the French drug company Rhone-Poulenc (which had tested the drug in
Montreal, Canada). Edward Shorter writes, in A History of Psychiatry about
momentous pharmaceutical events in 1953:
The scene shifts to the United States, toughest market of all
to crack because of the predominance of psychoanalysis and its
predilection for getting to the real causes of the illness. Here an
ambitious young drug house named Smith Kline & French enters the
picture. The company was a maker of patent medicines, and its new
president, Francis Boyer, wanted to upgrade it to a manufacturer of
ethicals, meaning drugs prescribed by the medical profession.
Aware that Rhone-Poulenc had a hot new potentiator going but
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unaware that it might have psychiatric uses in the spring of 1952


Boyer went to FranceWhen Boyer signed the licensing agreement,
he thought he was buying an antiemetic (anti-vomiting drug). Having
virtually no research budget, Smith Kline was not prepared to
undertake extensive trials. Said Boyer, Lets get this thing on the
market as an antiemetic and well worry about the rest of that stuff
later. The company brought it out as Thorazine. (p.254)
Thorazine was the American trade name for chlorpromazine, which was,
and still is, marketed in Australia by the original French discoverers of the
drug, Rhone-Poulenc, as Largactil. Thousands of people in Australia, and
millions of people worldwide have been slowly crippled and killed by
injections of this drug, often given to them against their will for treatment
of schizophrenia and mania in public hospitals, clinics and prisons. This
has occurred continuously over the past forty years, and still goes on today,
although there is widespread recognition that far safer alternatives exist to
injections, or ingestion of this drug. Chlorpromazine is a direct neurotoxin,
damaging the brain and nervous system from the time of initial ingestion
rendering a state of emotional and intellectual dullness, muscular stiffness
and pain, lethargy and drowsiness. More seriously, the drug, and related
dopamine-blockers, frequently cause Parkinsonism, characterised by
tremor, difficulty initiating movement (including that required for speech),
depression and fatigue. The worst of the drugs neurotoxic effects,
however, is probably the chronic disease only known to occur through the
use of this class of drug (dopamine-blockers): tardive dyskinesia.
Tardive dyskinesia, which can develop following the use of any and all
dopamine-blockers, including Stelazine, the dopamine-blocker currently
sold in Australia by SmithKline Beecham, and Haldol (haloperidol), is
incurable and usually worsens with time, being a direct result of damage to
the brain by constant dopamine-blockade. It is characterised by bizarre,
uncontrollable movements, predominantly affecting the head and face,
such as repeated protrusion of the tongue, grimaces of the face, puckering
of the lips and puffing of the cheeks. The spasms may also affect the upper
and lower limbs, accompanied by strange writhing movements of the
hands, and difficulty walking. It is difficult to conceive a more stigmatising
collection of movement disorders, and they give an appearance of strange
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behaviour, in people whose mental state may be quite normal (whatever


that is).
Despite these well-recognised problems with chlorpromazine, Edward
Shorter is unqualified in his praise of the drug:
Chlorpromazine initiated a revolution in psychiatry, comparable
to the introduction of penicillin in general medicine. While it did not
cure the diseases causing psychosis, it did abolish their cardinal
symptoms so that patients with underlying schizophrenia could lead
relatively normal lives and not be confined to institutions. (p.255)
It is hard to see how a drug which causes a crippling state of illhealth can
be compared with antibiotics, which effect a permanent cure from bacterial
infections. This sort of blind support for anti-psychotics and other
psychiatric drugs is not uncommon, however, amongst the corporate and
academic medical recorders of psychiatric history and the history of the
pharmaceutical industry. These writers also unanimously omit any
reference to biological warfare, chemical warfare or drug warfare and the
connection between the biotechnology and medical industries (including
the psychiatric industry) and the global war machine. Yet this connection is
historically obvious. References to psychological warfare are also noticeably
absent from modern psychiatric texts, although this aspect of warfare has
been central to every major conflict since ancient times. The reasons for
this are complex, and include the fact that the psychiatric profession have
played an active role in creating and sustaining warfare whilst claiming the
contrary.

A PSYCHOANALYSIS OF PSYCHIATRY

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In recent years, many psychiatry departments in Australia have changed


their name to departments of psychological medicine, however, over the
past 100 years, the philosophical, political and theoretical divide between
psychology and psychiatry (a medical specialty) has been deep, and in
many ways irreconcilable. It remains the case that genuine psychology
(scientific knowledge of the mind) and healing psychiatry (medical
treatment of psychological problems) cannot be achieved without a
complete transformation of both disciplines. It will require more than
changes of name. It will need a change from a system of labels, statistics,
punitive treatments, patriarchal attitudes and hierarchies to one where the
complexity of different cultures and individual perspectives is understood
and valued. It is hoped that the new systems of psychiatry and psychology
are more open, egalitarian and democratic than those of the present, which
tend to be secretive, ruled by old boy clubs, prejudices and negative
preconceptions about psych patients (now officially called clients and
consumers of the Mental Health Services). In Australia the domination of
psychiatrists over psychologists is obvious, especially in the hospital system.
It is a sad reflection of the state of the psychology profession that from
being a breeding ground for pertinent criticism of the medical model and
commonsense (and logical) alternatives to labels and drugs, in Australia,
graduate clinical psychologists are often as certain of the existence of
schizophrenia as they are about the miracles of modern psychiatric drugs.
Psychology, meaning knowledge about the mind, has become
increasingly splintered over the years into different schools of thought,
each with different approaches, assumptions, theories and research
methods. They also have different beliefs about the brain, ranging from
schools of thought which argue that all behaviour is caused by chemicals in
the brain to ones that argue that the brain has little to do with thinking or
the destiny of individuals, which is preordained by karmic forces and
past lives. Other schools of psychology argue that all (or most) adult
psychological distress is related to early childhood traumas, or that
psychological problems are usually caused by genetic defects and
susceptibilities, or the aftermath of viral infections. Some schools of
psychology are preoccupied with statistical analyses of behaviour, others
consider these a waste of time and focus on developing personality tests
and intelligence tests. Some of the more outrageous psychology schools
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ascribe what others interpret as psychopathology to alien abductions and


channeling by extraterrestrials and metaterrestrials. Many recent schools
of psychology are heavily involved in animal experimentation, including the
torture of mice, rats, cats, dogs (a favourite) and monkeys, from which
often unreasonable inferences are made about human thought and
behaviour. Some just focus on giving good advice, concentrating on
empowering individuals to make realistic, sensible choices and decisions,
and to find solutions to problems through their own creative thought and
personal motivation. Some schools of psychology are predictably more
scientific than others, some are more philosophically sound and
therapeutically effective than others.
Psychology is a broad field of study, which developed from the arts
and philosophy, rather than from science and medicine, a point which
has led to intense rivalry between adherents of psychology and those of
psychiatry over the years, with psychiatry, as a branch of medicine,
claiming a mantle of scientific superiority over unscientific psychology. In
truth, however, neither is founded on firm scientific ground, though both
have tried hard to appear scientific, often by quoting statistics and
engaging in scientific-sounding double-blind trials and clinical trials.
Although Sigmund Freud and other early psychiatrists were medical
doctors trained in neurology, they focused on disturbances of thinking as
well as dynamic processes affecting the development of the mind generally,
often using anecdotal and personal experiences as a basis for their theories.
Freud is said to have coined the term unconscious and he argued that
much of an adults behaviour is governed by largely unrecognised
unconscious motives, which it required many years of analysis by an expert
psychiatrist (such as himself) to gain insight into. The dependence and
other undesirable results of such prolonged talk therapies were
themselves given names in the new jargon that grew in the new scientific
discipline of psychoanalysis and the practitioners of this style of
psychiatry were (and are) called psychoanalysts.
Literally speaking, psychoanalysis refers to analysis of the mind, and in
this sense it is an essential prerequisite for understanding the mind and
improving mental health in individuals and society as a whole. In practice,
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however, the therapeutic value of psychoanalysis is dependent on the


theoretical assumptions of the psychoanalyst: how the psychoanalyst
thinks other people think. This includes assumptions about others
motivations and the dynamic processes that shape the minds development
throughout life. Behaviour, the observable result of others mental activity
can be interpreted in different ways depending on the assumptions, beliefs,
hypotheses and theories of the analyst, and can also be misperceived
because of prejudices of the analyst.
It is also inevitable (and probably desirable), that psychoanalytical
theorists would include in their models some elements of self-analysis, and
whilst this sometimes denigrated as subjective and thus not scientific,
mathematical (statistical) analysis of normal behaviour (based on human
and animal experimentation) as the only objective scientific method of
study has obvious limitations and dangers, many of which have become
increasingly apparent in recent years.
The most influential medical doctor this century to present a model of
human mental processes was probably Sigmund Freud, a Jewish Austrian
physician with rather suspect attitudes to women and children, and he
developed his theories through a combination of clinical experience (with
asylum inmates and affluent private patients) and self-analysis. This was
commented on by Professor Stanfield Sargent in the 1944 introductory
textbook Great Psychologists (published by Barnes and Noble: New York),
when the early division of European psychological theory into different
(and often conflicting) schools of thought is described with a less than
accurate, and rather reductionist historical perspective:
In a young and growing science internal disputes often occur.
Psychology is no exception. Psychologists have differed about what
psychology should or should not include, about what it should
emphasize, about what research methods are best. When several
psychologists strongly support a certain viewpoint they are called a
school.
Structuralism traces back to two men, WILHELM WUNDT and
EDWARD BRADFORD TITCHENER. Wundt is regarded as the father of
experimental psychology since he established in 1879 at Leipzig,
Germany, the first psychological laboratory. To study with Wundt
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came young and eager psychologists from many countries. One of


these was Titchener, an Englishman, who later came to America to
head the psychology department at Cornell University for many
years.
Following Wundts basic ideas, Titchener established the school
known as structuralism. Psychology is concerned with studying
images, thoughts, and feelings, the three elements forming the
structure of consciousness. The proper research method is
introspection, performed by trained observers. Learning, intelligence,
motivation, personality, or abnormal and social behavior Titchener
ruled out of psychology [!]. He and his students did notable research
studies
Functionalism is a less systematic and unified school. It grew out
of the protests of many psychologists against analyzing
consciousness into ideas, images and feelings. The Danish
psychologist HARALD HOFFDING, and the American WILLIAM JAMES
both emphasised the dynamic, changing nature of mental activity
and questioned whether it could be analyzed into structural
elements. Shortly after 1900 JOHN DEWEY and JAMES ROWLAND
ANGELL at the University of Chicago began to stress the ways in
which an organism adjusts to environment. Their aim in studying
mental functions was to discover how thinking, emotion, and other
processes fulfilled the organisms needs. The views of the
functionalists helped to align psychology with biology and to bring
about a genetic approach to psychological problems. (p.5)
The author of the book, Professor S. Stansfeld Sargent (PhD) of
Columbia University, fails to mention the word eugenics as the outcome
of the genetic approach to psychological problems, although this was
common knowledge at the time, nor does he admit to the atrocities that
were being perpetrated by biological psychiatrists in Nazi Germany over
the years immediately preceding the writing of this book. Although Wilhelm
Wundt is described as establishing the first psychological laboratory, the
ethics of what was done in this laboratory and to whom, is not explored
in this book, which tends to idolise the fathers of psychology who are
listed in the preface as Binet, Freud, Galton, Helmholtz, Hollingworth,
James, Thorndike, Watson and Woodworth followed by Adler, Cannon,
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Cattell, Ebbinghaus, Gesell, Goddard, Janet, Jung, Koffka, Kohler, Kraepelin,


Lashley, Lewin, Pavlov, Rorschach, Terman, Titchener, and Yerkes who are
said to be associated primarily with more specialized work.
Of these names a few have grown in fame (and notoriety) over the past
fifty years, including Freud, Jung, Galton, Kraepelin, Rorschach and Pavlov.
The Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung is best remembered for his self-analytical
work on dreams, symbolism and philosophy, although he was an active
clinical psychiatrist (and physician). Michael Stone writes, in Healing the
Mind (1998), of the relationship between Adler, Freud and Jung:
Viennese-born Alfred Adler (1870-1937) was among the small
group who met at Freuds house in Vienna on Wednesday evenings
to discuss important issues and developments in psychoanalysis.
Adler believed that the crucial dynamic motivating human action was
the wish for power. He articulated this notion in his 1907 book on
Organ Inferiority (the source of his coinage: the inferiority complex).
The first international meeting of analysts was organized by Jung
in 1908. Freud read his paper on the Rat Man, a case of obsessional
neurosis. At this time C.G.Jung was Freuds fair-haired boy. Freud
regarded him as brilliant and, of equal importance, hoped that this
Christian physician, the son of a Swiss pastor, would help make
psychoanalysis thus far practiced almost entirely by Jewish
professionals in Austro-Hungary acceptable in the wider, gentile
circles beyond the Viennese inner circle. (p.141)
Jung himself, wrote of Freud, in Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1961):
Psychiatry teachers were not interested in what the patient had
to say, but rather in how to make a diagnosis or how to describe
symptoms and to compile statistics. From the clinical point of view
which then prevailed, the human personality of the patient, his
individuality, did not matter at all. Rather, the doctor was confronted
with Patient X, with a long list of cut and dried diagnoses and
detailing of symptoms. Patients were labelled, rubber-stamped with
a diagnosis, and, for the most part, that settled the matter. The
psychology of the mental patient played no role whatsoever.
At this point Freud became vitally important to me, especially
because of his fundamental researches into the psychology of
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hysteria and of dreams. For me his ideas pointed the way to a closer
investigation and understanding of individual cases. Freud introduced
psychology into psychiatry, although he himself was a neurologist.
(p.135)
The scientific disciplines of Neurology, Psychiatry and Psychology
can be best understood from the Greek roots of these composites of
neuro, psyche, logos and iatros. Neuro refers to the brain and
nerves, and the logic based scientific study of the nervous system has long
been described as neurology. The idea of medical doctors trained in the
treatment of the mind but not the brain is a relatively recent phenomenon,
and has led to the absurd situation where a mindless neurology and a
brainless psychiatry have become the only choices available for the
medical graduate who wishes to undertake further study in the
neurosciences. Psyche is variously translated as mind or soul, but it
certainly does not mean behaviour, as some modern psychologists and
psychiatrists suppose. Logos, translated literally means word, however in
the context of neurology and psychology can be used to refer to the
total scientific knowledge of the topic next to which the suffix is used. Thus
neurology refers to collective human knowledge about the brain and
nervous system, whilst psychology refers to collective human knowledge
(including that of past times) about the mind, thinking and thought (and
even to scientific study of soul, if the term is used unusually broadly).
Psychiatry, combining psyche with iatros (treatment) refers to treatment of
the mind (and soul) and it is difficult to see how the mind can be rationally
and scientifically treated without a rational scientific understanding of both
psychology and neurology.
Following his introduction to Freud, Jung continues, in Memories,
Dreams, Reflections with a description of his own psychoanalytical
technique at work:
I still recollect very well a case which greatly interested me at the
time. A young woman had been admitted to the hospital suffering
from melancholia. The examination was conducted with the usual
care: anamnesis, tests, physical check-ups, and so on. The diagnosis
was schizophrenia, or dementia praecox, in the phrase of those
days. The prognosis: poor.
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This woman happened to be in my section. At first I did not dare


question the diagnosis. I was still a young man then, a beginner, and
would not have had the temerity to suggest another one. And yet the
case struck me as strange. I had the feeling that it was not a matter
of schizophrenia but of ordinary depression, and resolved to apply
my own method. At the time I was much occupied with diagnostic
association studies, so I undertook an association experiment with
the patient. In addition, I discussed her dreams with her. In this way I
succeeded in uncovering her past, which the anamnesis had not
clarified. I obtained this information directly from the unconscious,
and this information revealed a dark and tragic story.
The story, briefly, is that the woman, who was very pretty was
rejected by the son of a wealthy industrialist whom, according to Jung
she thought her chances of catchingwere fairly good. After marrying
someone else, her depression had developed suddenly after being told that
the wealthy industrialists son had quite a shock when she got married,
followed by a tragedy when her young daughter died of typhoid fever, and
she thought that the infection had been contracted by the child sucking on
a sponge tainted by impure river water.
In his description of the story and his miraculous cure of her mental
illness by telling her she was a murderer, Jung seems to accept, and indeed
reinforce, the assumption that the child developed typhoid by sucking on
this sponge, even though the womans little son drank a glass of the river
water without becoming ill:
She was bathing her children, first her four-year-old girl and
then her two-year-old son. She lived in a country where the water
supply was not perfectly hygeinic; there was pure spring water for
drinking, and tainted water from the river for bathing and washing.
While she was bathing the little girl, she saw the child sucking at the
sponge, but did not stop her. She even gave her little son a glass of
the impure water to drink. Naturally, she did this unconsciously, or
only half consciously, for her mind was already under the shadow of
the incipient depression.
A short time later, after the incubation period had passed, the
girl came down with typhoid fever and died. The girl had been her
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favourite. The boy was not infected. At that moment the depression
reached its acute stage, and the woman was sent to the institution.
From the association test I had seen that she was a murderess,
and I had learned many details of her secret. It was at once apparent
that this was a sufficient reason for her depression. Essentially it was
a psychogenic disturbance and not a case of schizophrenia.
It is clear from Jungs writings that, whilst recognising this womans
distress as due to psychological traumas that she suffered in the past, he
failed to realise that her predictable feelings of guilt that she had caused
the death of her own daughter through negligence could have been
treated in a much more humane way than by accusing her of being a
murderer. He also accepted the diagnosis of schizophrenia and an
attendant poor prognosis, although he believed the pessimistic prognosis
had been misapplied in this case. He appears to have failed to realise and
evidently failed to explain to his patient that the belief she held that her
daughter contracted typhoid by sucking on a sponge with river water in it
was not a scientific certainty by any means, and the accidental death of her
daughter hardly made her a murderess, which by usual definition refers
to the intentional killer of another person. The fact that she did not have
schizophrenia would seem obvious, but a deeper exploration of why she
had been diagnosed as such would have perhaps made more interesting
reading than this rather self-indulgent book makes. Jung explains why he
considered his psychoanalytical psychotherapy technique a success:
I told her everything I had discovered through the association
test. It can easily be imagined how difficult it was for me to do this.
To accuse a person point-blank of murder is no small matter. And it
was tragic for the patient to have to listen to it and accept it. But the
result was that in two weeks it proved possible to discharge her, and
she was never again institutionalised. (p.137)
She may have committed suicide after being discharged.
Englishman Francis Galton, another Great Psychologist according to
Professor Sargent, was the first cousin of Charles Darwin, and is more
notorious for founding the Society for Eugenics with Darwins son than for
any useful psychological work. The German psychiatry professor Emil
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Kraepelin is still venerated as the father of biological psychiatry in Australia,


and acclaimed for his work in formulating the basic classification of mental
abnormalities and deficiencies that underpins modern medical
psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Rorschach is remembered for devising
the ambiguous and unreliable Rorschach test, where inkblots are
presented to the subject to be analysed and their responses interpreted by
the analyst. Pavlov has become a household name (along with Freud) for
conditioning (programming) dogs into salivating in response to a bell, but
whose experimental legacy included cruel human experimentation also.
Professor Sargent continues his passage on Schools in Psychology with a description
of behaviorism, yet another school of thought regarding thinking:
Behaviorism was founded about 1914 by JOHN B. WATSON, then an
animal psychologist at John Hopkins University. He too was impatient with the
narrowness of structuralism, but he did not feel that the functionalists went far
enough in their criticisms. Watson objected particularly to introspection, which
he considered unscientific. Psychologys real concern, he said, is to study
behavior, not consciousness. Expose an animal or a human being to a stimulus
and see how he responds; record this behavior objectively and you have real
scientific evidence. Watson and his fellow behaviorists experimented on
learning, motivation, emotion, and individual development.

According to Professor Sargent, Psychoanalysis is just another school of thought out


of many competing models, and one that is scientifically suspect:

Psychoanalysis stood apart from the other schools. Founded by a


physician, SIGMUND FREUD, it grew out of his effort to cure persons
suffering from mental and nervous disorders. Psychoanalysis
presents amazingly fruitful and provocative theories of motivation, of
personality development, and of abnormal behavior. Unlike other
founders of schools, Freud made no effort to verify his theories by
scientific experiment. Freuds major interpretations and those of his
dissident disciples are presented in the chapter called Conflicts and
the Unconscious. (S.Sargent in Great Psychologists, p6)
Professor Sargent, in Chapter 12, titled mental disease, lists his
preference for psychiatric icons of all time. Several names are listed in
capital letters under the chapter heading: Hippocrates, Weyer, Pinel, Dix,
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Kraepelin, Bleuler, Griesinger, Beers, Campbell, White, Jackson, Meyer,


Rosanoff and Lennox. The chapter begins with what, taken literally, could
be a self-fulfilling threat:
About one person of every twenty in the United States will at
some time during his life be treated in a mental hospital. The care
and cure of such persons is a tremendous problem.
Then is presented a very misleading reference to the current humane
versus the prior inhumane methods involved in the treatment of those
deemed mentally ill or mad:
Apparently mental disease has always existed, but only in the
last fifty years has it been handled scientifically. We have progressed
a long way from the days of cells and chains for the insane. We still
have far to go to reach an ideal solution.
The supposition that the mentally distressed, confused, upset or
disturbed were routinely treated by all countries, nations, governments and
families with cells and chains is obviously not correct. In fact it is very few
of the population at any one time who have been treated in this way, and
this sort of treatment has been ordered by only a few people (mainly men)
who have had the authority to give such orders and have them
implemented. Professor Sargent also fails to mention that the routine
treatments given to psychiatric patients who had been diagnosed as
suffering mental disease (or mental illness) were much more cruel and
punitive than mere cells and chains. The imprisoned, chained lunatics
(by many names) have been whipped, immersed in cold water or hot water,
sensorily deprived, injected with known poisons and infections, made
comatose, given electrical shocks to their head, genitals and hands,
surgically or chemically castrated, had their teeth removed, starved and
tortured in many other ways, always with the claim that these things were
being done for the sake of the afflicted individual and the greater society.
Inevitably a scientific sounding theory has been used to justify what would
otherwise be clearly recognised as unethical and illegal abuse of the
population by a professional elite.
Convincing the increasingly skeptical population of the world that they
have a superior understanding of madness and sanity, mental illness and
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health to other experts and non-experts has been a longstanding


concern of the psychiatric profession, and a professional insecurity can be
seen in efforts of psychiatrists and psychologists to claim a position as
legitimate scientists. The problem of scientific credibility is addressed by
Professor Sargent in the following way:
We have called psychology a science. Is this correct? Astronomy,
chemistry, and physics are readily recognized as sciences; they
involve careful laboratory work, exact measurement, rigid laws, and
sure-fire predictability. Psychology is concerned with something less
definite and tangible; exactitude is hard to obtain and exceptionless
laws almost never occur.
However, it is not the definiteness of its material which
determines whether a subject is a science. (If it were, biology might
be excluded since it studies the great unknown - life.) KARL
PEARSON, an English mathematician and scientist, insisted nearly
fifty years ago that the criterion of science is not subject matter but
the methods of investigation used. If scientific method is used
systematically, we may properly speak of a science, whether the
object of study is minerals, bacteria, human thoughts and feelings, or
social institutions.
Scientific method is no mystery. It is a definite procedure used in
trying to answer a question or solve a problem. The problem may be
a practical one like What causes malaria?, What causes mental
disease?, How does alcohol affect behavior? Or the problem may
be inspired by mere curiosity: Why do objects fall to the earth?,
How does heredity work?, Can animals learn?
It is interesting that Professor Sargent should mention these particular
problems and questions and it is worth looking at the ways in which
these scientific, biological and social phenomena have been researched in
the years since this book was written, and what conclusions have been
reached by the scientific community about them. It is also worth looking
at the medical research that was occurring in institutions associated with
Columbia University where S. Stanfield Sargent was employed as Associate
Professor of Psychology during the Second World War.

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The first question, What causes malaria?, can be answered easily on


the most obvious level: infection with Plasmodium malaria parasites, which
are carried by mosquitoes, and transmitted into the blood through the skin
by mosquito bites, usually from Anopheles or Culex mosquitoes. This is,
however, only a partial explanation of what causes malaria. Firstly, not
everyone who has malaria parasites injected into their skin will develop
malaria (depending on immune system health), and secondly, not everyone
who has contracted malaria has done so by being bitten by mosquitoes.
Some have been given infections by deliberate transfusion of infected
blood to test new antimalarial drugs. And at doses that made serious illness
certain.

PRIVATE HOSPITALS AND MILITARY CONNECTIONS


The drug trials, on interred Italians and Jewish refugees, as well as
wounded Australian soldiers (who were obtained from convalescent
hospitals), were reported in the Australian newspapers over 50 years after
they occurred, and were hardly commented on by the scientific press or
politicians in the country in which these terrible abuses occurred. These
experiments, on people described in the Age articles as human guinea
pigs, were done in North Queensland (and later, in Melbourne) during the
Second World War and for several months after the official cessation of
hostilities, driven by the military and financial motive of testing new
antimalarial drugs developed in Germany for toxicity by the Allies on
captive populations. It is difficult not to see this as a hostile act against
Australia and the Australian people, as well as the Italian and Jewish people
who were subjected to torture, which was then denied.
Even with the revelation of details of these cruel and unnecessary acts
by the Australian and British Governments of the day (who ultimately hold
responsibility for their armed forces), the deliberate infection and
poisoning of these people was not described as torture or biological
warfare by the Age newspaper, although the reporters did describe the
incident as abuse. The Murdoch owned newspapers in Victoria (The
Australian and The Herald Sun) did not take the issue up, and The Age did
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not persist with the historical story or make the necessary connections
with contemporary medical science and research activity in Australia (and
Melbourne, in particular) to understand why Guy Nolch may have written
in the editorial of Australasian Science that little has changed in 50 years
when commenting on biological warfare suggesting that the fault lies not
with the scientists but the masters who control them.
The drug Paludrine was being tested for ICI chemicals, a large Britishbased company which continues to market the drug today, and the director
of ICI Australia, Professor Ben Lochtenberg, has been, for several years, the
director of the Mental Health Institute in Parkville, Melbourne. ICI, which
is an acronym for Imperial Chemical Industries was founded in 1926,
during a period of time between the two World Wars, that has been
referred to as The Depression.
Around the same time as the revelations about the infection and
treatment trials, ICI pharmaceuticals was transformed into Zeneca
pharmaceuticals, which in 1999 became amalgamated with the Sweden
based Astra pharmaceuticals, forming a new giant drug company called
Astra-Zeneca. The huge non-pharmaceutical operations of ICI continued
as ICI chemicals, unaffected by the merger, according to the Information
Service provided on a 1800 number by Astra-Zeneca. The phone message of
the old Astra-Zeneca number in Melbourne announced, on 1.9.99, that the
Melbourne office of Astra-Zeneca has closed, and the head office relocated
to Sydney.
The malaria infections, which occurred in remote North Queensland,
under the auspices of the Red Cross, Royal Australian and British Military,
involved deliberately exposing physically and psychologically stressed
individuals to extraordinarily high doses of malaria through specially bred
mosquitoes and transfusions of blood infected with malaria. The infected
people were then subject to physical trauma such as exposure to cold and
then given massive doses of the chemicals to be tested, observing for toxic
effects. After the war ended, according to the newspaper reports, pressure
from the American drug company Winthrop (producers of Panadol) and ICI
resulted in the trials being shifted to the Heidelberg Military Hospital in
Melbourne, which had orchestrated the Australian trials.
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Heidelberg Military Hospital, which was built in 1941, became the


Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital in 1947, and became incorporated with
the adjacent Austin Hospital in 1995 to form the massive Austin and
Repatriation Hospital located in the North-Eastern Melbourne suburb of
Heidelberg. The Austin hospital, according to the Public Relations
Department of the hospital, was one of Melbournes first hospitals, and
was built in 1882. It is, like Melbournes first hospital, the Royal Melbourne
Hospital in Parkville, which was built in 1848, affiliated with the University
of Melbourne, which was founded in the 1860s, at the time of the goldrush. Both these hospitals are major teaching hospitals (for medical
students) and public hospitals which treat Melbourne people who cannot
afford, or do not want private medical care. They also both provide public
psychiatric services, including locked facilities for people to be injected in
against their wills. In February, 2000, the Public Relations officer at the
Royal Melbourne Hospital explained that the hospital has recently opened
a unit with 25 acute beds and 8 for people (usually girls) with eating
disorders (mainly anorexia). Previously the Royal Melbourne Hospital was
associated with the notorious Royal Park Psychiatric Hospital, which has
recently been closed and partially demolished to make room for a visiting
athletes at the Commonwealth Games.
On 1.9.99, the Age newspaper in Melbourne announced in an article
headlined titled Coalition pledges $1b for health that, the coalitions
announcement came as the Opposition launched its health strategy,
promising to spend an extra $270 million building and upgrading hospitals
including $155 million to ensure the Austin and Repatriation Medical
Centre remained in public hands.
The Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre has never really been in
public hands. The Heidelberg Military hospital, which became the
Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital, was initially a British-Australian Military
Hospital, which coordinated medical military activity during the Second
World War (in the 1940s). This is the hospital that coordinated the malaria
experiments on interred Italian and Jewish people during the WWII, and
treated veterans for shell-shock (later termed post-traumatic stress
disorder) after this war and all the wars Australia has been involved in
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since then. These include the wars in Korea, Vietnam, New Guinea, and
Malaya.
The 1943 University of Queensland publication The Nervous Soldier by
Professor John Bostock (of the University of Queensland and Brisbane
General Hospital) and Dr Evan Jones (of the University of Sydney) gives an
indication of treatment methods employed in Australia during the Second
World War, as well as the favoured diagnoses of the time. The book
recommends traits which will suggest need for psychological
investigations in soldiers, because, according to the manual, the military
machine must have efficiency at all times. These traits include:
resentfulness to discipline or inability to be disciplined, unusual stupidity
or awkwardness in drills or exercises, inability to transmit orders
correctly, personal uncleanliness, criminal tendencies, abnormal sex
practices and tendencies including masturbation, filthy language and
defacement of property, distinct feminine types, bed wetters,
subjects of continual ridicule or teasing, queer or peculiar behaviour,
chronic homesickness and all recruits who show persistent fearfulness,
irritability, seclusiveness, sulkiness, depression, shyness, timidity, anti-social
attitude, over boisterousness, suspicion, dullness, sleeplessness [or] sleep
walking. (p.80)
The authors rule out those with mental deficiency, epilepsy,
schizophrenia or manic depression from employment in the armed forces,
and gives the following description of schizophrenia:
Whilst the fully developed schizophrenic personality is so
obvious that it cannot escape recognition, milder forms may be
recognised by certain character traits. They are sensitive, reserved,
bad mixers, unpractical, abstracted and dreamy, and generally have
difficulty in facing ordinary problems. Their mind is made up with
difficulty. They may lack the power of concentration. These traits
make them unsuitable material for soldiers. It is noteworthy that
during the last war 20 per cent of mental invalids belonged to this
class.
Not surprisingly, the main problems diagnosed in soldiers were related
to anxiety (ranging from normal nervousness to grave anxiety states).
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The recommended treatments for more severe states of anxiety were


convulsion (chemical shock) therapy and narcotherapy. Milder cases
were treated by suggestion, hypnosis, hypno-analysis and narco-analysis.
Electrical shocks are also briefly discussed (as Faradism), and insulin coma,
whilst considered an effective treatment by the authors, was not
considered appropriate for military use. Alcohol was also used as an
anxiolytic and such use was recommended as follows:
The role of alcohol for the soldier cannot be lightly dismissed.
Drinking is a method of evading reality. Those who deprecate the use
of alcohol should imagine themselves attacking a machine gun at
dawn with death or mutilation a probability. In such cases some
evasion of reality is perfectly justifiable. The report by the War Office
on shell shock states that whilst alcohol must be rationed front-line
medical and executive officers favoured the use of rum if properly
controlled: it was especially valuable in the early morning hours.
Service conditions create periods of abstinence, boredom and
danger. At their conclusion there is an irresistible urge for
conviviality, which exposes the soldier to alcohol at a time when his
tolerance is low. It is not surprising that cases of acute alcoholism are
inevitable. Whilst such lapses are to be deprecated from the angle of
discipline, the Medical Officer is concerned purely as a doctor whose
job is to make a presumably good soldier fit to resume his duty.
(p.69)
Alcohol and cigarette abuse are identified as caused by military training,
although this is not admitted as clearly as that. Under the subtitle, the
preliminary military training, in a chapter titled The Stresses of Military
Life, Bostock and Jones wrote, in 1943:
When Bill Smith receives his first uniform he must face an entire
alteration in his living conditions. His contacts are different. He is
shorn of many personality props and of the friends and relatives of a
life time. They are replaced by new faces and strange voices. Soon he
learns that he is fettered and frustrated by disciplinary restrictions.
His soul belongs to the army. For both married and unmarried there
is a modification of the sex routine. For some the change is towards
continence; others are snared in the net of promiscuity with its
attendant worries. The conditions of military life are calculated to stir
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into activity repressed homo-sexual tendencies resulting in the


development of anxiety states or of paraphrenic psychoses. Even the
alcohol and tobacco habits partake of the change. There is a move
from teetotalism towards drinking, often to excess. Tobacco
becomes almost a necessity. (p.15)
The authors do not seem to realise how permanently destructive the
training of young men in this way is bound to be for society generally,
whilst admitting that it destroys fundamental respect for life:
and in addition there is another aspect manifesting itself. The
aggressive instincts are unfolding. The soldier trained from infancy to
regard human life as sacred must become efficient in taking life when
necessary. Unless he can learn to kill his enemies, military training is
futile. (p.16)
The prime motivator for a successful soldier, according to The Nervous
Soldier is patriotism. Ironically, the opening chapter suggests that fighting
(and killing) in support of the British war effort (despite the British
imperial history of slavery and oppression), is actually a fight for freedom
from Nazi slavery and Japanese imperialism:
We are actors today in one of the great moments of history. We
are called to help free a large proportion of civilization from the
enslaving serfdom of German Nazism and Japanese imperialism. We
realise, as never before, the value of personal and national liberty.
This liberty, which has been brutally snatched from the Czechs,
Danes, Norwegians, Poles, Dutch and Greeks, has assumed a new
significance for us in the face of danger. Hitherto we took it
overmuch for granted. Democracy alone provides the way of life and
the form of government under which it can live and flourish. So
Democracy must prevail or freedom will vanish from the earth. This is
an incentive, this is a motive that should have the power to light the
torch of unflagging enthusiasm in us. And today we of the Anzac zone
have another motive perhaps the most primitive of all that of
defending our homes from destruction and our women and children
from slaughter.

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The fact that democracy is incompatible with monarchies and


authoritarian hierarchies evidently escaped the psychology professors who
wrote this manual, and the treatments they gave to nervous soldiers
were not based on the democratic will of the Australian people. They were
based on the psychiatric dogmas prevalent in British and Australian
universities and hospitals at the time, and an agenda based on producing
efficient killing machines who obeyed orders unquestioningly, accepted
punishment without complaint (discipline) and were willing to sacrifice
their lives for the elites who gave both the orders and the punishments
(whilst believing they were fighting and risking injury or death for freedom
and democracy).
The mainstay of treatment for severe anxiety was, incongruously,
chemical shock therapy, involving the intravenous injection of drugs which
caused convulsions. These drugs included cardiazol and phrenazol, which
also caused acute terror and death, at times:
Shock therapy has received such widespread recognition during
the last few years that there is little need to describe the method in
detail. As it is particularly useful in the early stages its employment in
anxiety and hysterical conditions associated with war will often be
indicated. The treatment should be carried out by a trained team,
and under such conditions that complications such as fractures,
should they occur, can be adequately dealt with. This will include
access to an X-ray unit. It is obvious therefore, that the method is not
applicable under field conditions.
The book continues to give details of dose, and injection technique for
inducing convulsions using cardiazol, warning that, if a convulsion fails to
occur the results are often most unpleasant, if not harmful. The trauma of
such treatment is easy to imagine:
The patient is in a dorso-recumbent position with a pillow under
the head and another under the upper thoracic region. During
convulsions the upper extremities should be held adducted to the
trunk and the shoulders are pressed down to avoid violent flexion of
the dorsal spine. Hold patient rigidly by shoulders to the bed, see
that the limbs are straight. A fracture of any limb may occur, but is
less likely if these precautions are carried out. (p.58)
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Narco Therapy, essentially the same as the notorious deep sleep


therapy, was reserved for resistant cases. With an inexcusable ignorance
about the difference between a good nights sleep and a drugged coma,
the authors gave a revealing case history:
There is a growing belief in the utility of narco therapy for early
cases. Everyone is aware of the benefits of a good nights sleep
particularly after a heavy and worrying day. Public belief in the
efficacy of sleep is profound. Oh, doctor, says the patient, if I
could sleep for days, I would be cured. Today we are able to achieve
this miracle often with remarkable results. As an instance the
following case may be quoted.
AB was profoundly depressed and said he had venereal disease.
Suggestion and persuasion with exhaustive blood tests were useless.
Shock therapy was then tried without success. Finally he was put to
sleep for three weeks. When he awoke to reality the previous morbid
ideas had disappeared. Within a few days he was anxious to return to
work. [He may have just stopped complaining about his fear, for
obvious reasons]
As will be seen by the above, certain cases which do not respond
to cardiazol may respond to narco-therapy. Quite frequently
sleepnessness and restlessness or excitement render it either
impolitic or impossible to give shock therapy. Whenever this occurs,
there is scope for the use of narco-therapy.
As for physio-therapy the psychiatrists who wrote The Nervous Soldier
were not talking about aerobic exercise. The section on Physio-Therapy
begins with an extraordinary description of the value of electrical shocks:
Electricity plays a small but definite part in the treatment of
nervous disorders. Faradism may be used with dramatic results. The
inert muscle at its touch leaps into spasm associated with discomfort
if not pain. Faradism has therefore a distinctly persuasive quality
since it gives ocular proof that paralysis is not complete. Furthermore
as a method of treatment, it has the merit of being uncomfortable
and therefore carries with it the suggestion, Get well quickly and be
finished

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In hysteria faradism will be used most frequently for mutism and


paralysis. In the former the electrodes may touch the naso pharynx
[the back of the throat+ or be applied to the neck. (p.61)
In actuality, the suggestion is: get back to the firing line or well
torture you with painful electric shocks and chemically-induced
convulsions. The focus on efficiency means that doctors are expected to
return soldiers to active duty as soon as possible and while spending
minimal time with them (hence the enthusiasm for quick treatments like
electrical and chemical shocks). In a section titled enlisting the help of a
cobber the book explains:
A medical officer can only be with any one patient for a few
moments. He needs therefore an extension of himself to carry on the
good workOften a word with a mans cobber will infuse new hope
and if he has no cobber, see his platoon officer, and find him one.
A few years before George Orwell wrote Nineteen Eighty-Four, Bostock
and Jones wrote:
Most men are better for a big brother. When needed the
Medical Officer must take practical steps to find him. (p.71)
Wars make a lot of money for some industries, notably the weaponsmanufacturing industry, mining industry, chemical industry, espionage
industry, drug industry and medical treatment industry (including the
psychiatric diagnosis and treatment industry). In recent wars, the
increasingly influential humanitarian aid industry has also become a
noticeable profiteer. All these industries are now set up along corporate
lines, and compete with each other for credibility, sales and size. Many of
the humanitarian aid and charity organizations have completely
betrayed the noble ideals expressed in their titles and do the very opposite
of what they are claimed by their public relations departments to do.
Although on paper these may be non-profit organizations, this is
merely because in Australia and America non-profit organizations
including religions and charities do not have to pay tax. Australia has
therefore become a tax haven for corrupt religious organizations and
charities, the money raised from the public being spent on projects which
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are dubious, to say the least. Many of these charities ostensibly raise
funds for medical research which turns out to be largely drug trials and
human (and animal) experimentation, often orchestrated by universities
and independent research institutions located in and connected with
public hospitals.
In Australia, as well as in Britain and America, the training people
receive in universities regarding philosophy (including ethics), economics,
marketing, politics, sociology, medicine and psychology are designed to
corrupt ideals of truth, honesty, justice, kindness, generosity and
peacefulness. The reasons for this can be elucidated historically, politically,
and economically. They can also be looked at psychologically and
scientifically. However they are approached, they should be looked at
logically if we are to recover from the militarisation and corporate takeover
of Australian education. With the corporatisation of the tertiary education
system in Australia, the focus has been on training young people to get a
job, beat other people (compete ruthlessly), make more money and be
compliant consumers. The tertiary education institutions in Australia also
teach, and have developed within a support-of-the-military paradigm,
especially in the areas of science and medicine.
The change of status of psychiatric victims from prisoners to lunatics
to patients to consumers and clients has been an official one
overseen by senior members of the psychiatric profession in Australia,
along with other changes of name, such as mental hygeine to mental
health, and human-rights to anti-psychiatry. Others, such as
eugenics and biological warfare have disappeared from the vocabulary
of doctors in Australia, to be replaced by psychiatric genetics(when
applied to local practices) or ethnic cleansing (when applied to the Allies
military opponents).
In the recent attempt at invasion of Timor by The Allies via UN peacekeeping forces (with armoured amphibious tanks, rockets and machine
guns), the actions of the Indonesian militias have been described in the
Australian media as political cleansing, again along racial and cultural
lines. The television in Australia showed images of young Javanese men on
new motorbikes, with new machine-guns on a lawless rampage, in which
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the East Timorese capital city Dili was left in ruins. Desperate friends and
families of people who were living or working in Timor were terrorised into
asking the source of the terror and violence to send restore law and order
in Timor, and have doubtless been assured that minimum force necessary
will be used. One wonders, however, how mimimal force can be achieved
when the peacekeeping forces are equipped with armoured tanks, guns,
missiles, battleships and bombs, and trained in following orders (regardless
of violence), obeying a patriarchal military hierarchy, racism, and emotional
disconnection from the violent acts they commit.
It is important to discriminate also between patriotic freedom fighters
and paid killers (mercenaries). It is of concern that the Australian armed
forces are notorious for producing racist, violent men with major drug and
alcohol problems, and this is not surprising, given the orders and training
they receive. The mercenary incentive, and the fact that they consider
themselves obliged to follow orders (via a chain of command) make
Australian and other Commonwealth mercenary fighters a global danger.
There is a big difference between patriotic national defence and mercenary
military actions in foreign lands. How many Australian and New Zealander
soldiers would go to Timor if they were not paid to do so?
The elaborate system of psychological training that soldiers are
programmed with to stop thinking about it and keep fighting without
questioning orders, has profound effects on their behaviour during
action (fighting and supporting the war effort), as well as afterwards,
when they find it impossible de-program themselves and return to civilian
life. This is where the repatriation and veterans hospitals have
developed and extraordinary system of blame the victim psychiatry. The
veterans were said to suffer from mental illness or nervous disorders
and discharged from the armed forces, sometimes on a pension from the
Commonwealth Department of Veterans Affairs. Alcoholism, aggression,
violence, drug addiction, gambling, nightmares, depression and chronic
anxiety are all common problems amongst returned soldiers and are the
real fruits of war.
The old Heidelberg Military Hospital is now part of the Austin and
Repatriation Medical Centre in Heidelberg, and proposals have been made
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recently to privatise the hospital (sell the hospital to individuals and


corporations), as has been done with several ex-military hospitals around
Australia in recent years.
One such hospital is the Repatriation Hospital at Greenslopes in
Brisbane, which was sold to Ramsay Health Care, who claim, in their glossy
1997 prospectus that:
Ramsay Health Care was established in 1964 and has grown to
become one of the largest and most successful private hospital
operators in Australia. The origins of Ramsay Health Care were in the
field of psychiatric healthcare where it achieved a reputation for
innovation in many areas of psychiatry and for providing high quality
care. The same culture and principles apply in all its healthcare
operations, which now encompass a diverse range of
medical/surgical hospitals in addition to psychiatric hospitals.
The prospectus also announces that the company, which owns and
operates 11 hospitals located in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland,
South Australia and Western Australia, with a total of 1,351 beds had
signed contracts in May 1996 with TF Woolham & Son Pty Ltd to construct
a new 30 bed psychiatric ward at Greenslopes Private Hospital for the sum
of $1,515,011 and Transfield Constructions Pty Ltd (for $11,035,597) to
build four more hospital wards at the Hollywood campus in Western
Australia. In May, 1996, the prospectus reports, Kilcullen & Clark was
engaged to design and construct a psychiatric unit on the Hollywood
campus for the sum of $2,489,749.
In Victoria, the main centre of Paul Ramsays huge private psychiatric
empire is the Albert Road Clinic in Inner Melbourne. The prospectus
explains:
Albert Road Clinic was opened in July 1995 and in part was a
conglomeration of three existing psychiatric hospitals owned by
Ramsay Health Care. These hospitals were closed upon the opening
of Albert Road clinic. Albert Road Clinic is an 80 licensed bed facility
which is recognised throughout Melbourne as a major specialist
referral centre. The clinic specialises in the treatment of eating
disorders, adolescent disorders and elderly assessment and through
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its mood disorders programme, has formal links with the University
of Melbourne.
Simultaneously, in a contract that has been kept secret by the Victorian
State Government, a 135 bed forensic psychiatry hospital is being
constructed at Yarra Bend, adjacent to the Fairfield Hospital and current
home of the Macfarlane Burnet Virology Institute, which is to be relocated
adjacent to the Alfred Hospital in Prahran (in inner eastern Melbourne).
The Macfarlane Burnet Centre, which advises the National and State
Governements on HIV, AIDS and AIDS prevention, is run by their Chief
Executive Officer and Executive Director the American Professor John Mills,
who heads the Childrens Virology Department, according to their 1998
Annual Report, as well as being CEO of the company. Possibly presenting a
major conflict of interest, Professor Mills is also described as the Director of
AMRAD pharmaceuticals, which has recently constructed a massive new
complex also in prime land by the Yarra River.
AMRAD corporation, Macfarlane Burnet Centre, the Alfred Hospital and
Forensic Psychiatry Hospital, as well as the Austin Repatriation Hospital all
have formal and informal links with the University of Melbourne,
Melbournes oldest university, and one of only two in the State of Victoria
authorised to produce medical graduates and train them in various areas,
the other being Monash University, founded in the 1960s. This includes the
training of medical specialists including psychiatrists and specialists on
public health, including international public health. This training is a
prolonged process involving in six years of undergraduate study, a years
internship in the public hospital system, and a variable number of years in
the public (teaching) hospital system during which they are examined by
senior specialists and, if they satisfy various criteria, allowed to call
themselves specialists also (and claim both authority and increased fees).
The same system, with some variations, is in operation throughout the
world, including Britain, where it originated, the USA, Canada, New
Zealand, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia.
Predictably, given the history of Australia, the medical and scientific
institutions in Australia maintain close philosophical and political links with
the old English Universities Oxford and Cambridge in addition to an
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increasing influence from Harvard, Yale and other universities in the USA. It
is usual practice, and often considered obligatory, that as part of their
higher education, medical graduates spend at least one year in Britain or
the USA before receiving their specialist qualification. It is also the case that
many doctors with medical qualifications obtained in the United Kingdom
and New Zealand are practising in Australia, without any particular
qualification in the unique health problems and psychology of the
Australian people or a knowledge of their history or culture. Extraordinarily,
many of these doctors, some of whom also qualified in other
Commonwealth countries, such as New Zealand, Sri Lanka, India and
Canada, are working in the area of clinical and academic psychiatry, where
a sensitive approach and detailed knowledge of the diverse cultures and
languages of Australia is surely essential.

MACFARLANE BURNET CENTRE AND INTERNATIONAL


HEALTH
The 1996/7 Annual report of the Macfarlane Burnet Centre (MBC),
states that its major corporate sponsors were HIH Winterthur (insurance),
Rio Tinto (mining) and Smith Kline Beecham (pharmaceuticals and
vaccines), however corporate gifts together with other donations
comprised only 7% of the Centres income. The MBC also received grants
from the Commonwealth Government (27% of their declared income),
National Health and Medical Research Council (38%) and other grants, as
well as interest from interest and dividends. The Macfarlane Burnet Centre
Company retained profits at the end of the financial year, according to
their annual report of $ 3,776,231 increasing their operating revenue to $
13,424,863. This has allowed the company to expand their activities in
South East Asia, South Asia, New Guinea, the Pacific Islands and Africa
(Eritrea and Southern Africa) with new projects centred on surveillance,
needle and condom promotion and distribution (ostensibly for AIDS
prevention) and vaccine experimentation.

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The International Health Unit of the MBC, which is conducting joint


projects with AusAID and the Red Cross, mention the following projects in
the Annual Report for 1996/97:
1. HIV/AIDS and STD prevention and care in Indonesia; a $20 million joint
project between the Australian and Indonesian Governments through
AusAID, which is worryingly focused with specific reference to three
Eastern Indonesian Provinces- Bali, NTT and South Sulawesi. The project
involves training from the MBC International Health Unit staff given to
the Indonesian Government Departments controlling education,
manpower and employment, religious affairs, social affairs and family
planning and includes a policy to provide HIV/AIDS and sexual health
education in all Indonesian schools. The MBC report states that
HIV/AID programming is now an established part of the strategic plans
of all six departments, with dedicated budgetary allocations from the
national planning board.
2. Pioneering the use of a novel, prefilled, non-reusable injection device
(Uniject) to deliver hepatitis B and tetanus toxoid vaccines to pregnant
women, infants and their mothers in Lombok, another Eastern
Indonesian island with a large non-Javanese indigenous population who
have been seeking independence from Javanese rule in recent years.
3. Training health personnel engaged in the care of women and newborn
children, at levels in the [eastern] Provinces, down to the village. These
are the eastern provinces of NTB and NTT, and it is acknowleged that
these eastern areas are characterised by cultural, social and religious
diversity distinct from the western parts of Indonesia.
4. Establishment of the first needle exchange program in India, in
collaboration with the Emmanuel Hospitals Association, despite the fact
that unlike in Australia, most of the cases of AIDS in India, South East
Asia and Africa, do not affect intravenous drug self-injectors.
5. Short courses (programming) in Primary Health Care and HIV/AIDS in
India.

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6. Studying the incidence, morbidity and mortality of hepatitis E infection


in pregnant women in Northern India (a newly discovered, and possibly
newly created viral infection that apparently causes a 20% mortality in
pregnant women who become infected with it).
7. Development of the National HIV/AIDS/STD plan in Laos in collaboration
with the Joint United Nations Program on AIDS (UNAIDS), the United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the Government of the
Lao Democratic Republic. This included advice from Bruce Parnell, who
has a Masters degree in Public Health from Monash University in
Melbourne, and was engaged as a policy development specialist for six
months as part of a larger project, to expand existing programs in the
South-East Asian nation in scope, and be complemented with further
programs in provincial areas and in sectors other than the health
sector.
8. Comparing combined versus separate Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis
(DTP) and Hepatitis B (HB) vaccines in Thailand. Although no indication
is given that hilltribe people are at risk of any of these infections,
funding was obtained for a subproject to strengthen EPI delivery in
hilltribe areas, because the rate of seroconversion was somewhat
lower in hilltribe people. Seroconversion can only be detected by
repeated blood tests, which presumably these people were subjected
to, without proper evaluation of their environment, diet and the real
causes of health problems in this population.
9. Community Health and Development in Vietnam, in collaboration with
World Vision Australia and AusAID, which is introduced in the Annual
Report with a revealing perspective on MBCs views of the modern
global economy: The introduction of a free market economy presents
great challenges to models of primary health care (PHC) developed
under communist rule. This project involved Dr Peter Deutschmann,
who has a medical degree from the University of Melbourne advising on
the health of women and children and the implementation of public
health measures (predictably centred on immunization, many of which
are available from the Macfarlane Burnet Centres largest
pharmaceutical sponsor, SmithKline Beecham).
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10. HIV/AIDS Education and Awareness Project in Vietnam, also by Peter


Deutschmann in collaboration with World Vision and AusAID. The
synopsis reads: Youth in Vietnam are vulnerable to the transmission of
HIV through sexual practices and experimentation with drug use. The
development of the first Vietnamese curriculum for sexual health
education for youth in schools and the introduction of sex and HIV
education to out of school youth provided the major focus of this
project.(p.53)
11. Strengthening Immunization and Malaria control in Vietnam, in
collaboration with the University of Melbourne, Department of
Medicine at the Royal Melbourne Hospital and the Walter & Eliza Hall
Institute (an immunology and medical research institute in Melbourne,
located at the Royal Melbourne Hospital).
12. Development of a National AIDS strategy in Papua New Guinea, again
by Peter Deutschmann in collaboration with UNAIDS.
13. Development of National Drug Policy and standard treatment guidelines
in Eritrea in North East Africa.
14. Development of community-based HIV/AIDS prevention and care and
malaria control projects in Southern Africa (Malawi and Zimbabwe).
15. Youth and womens health project in six Pacific Island countries.
16. Development of a regional strategy for the prevention and control of
STD/AIDS in Pacific Island Countries and Territories.
17. The control of Hepatitis B infection in Pacific Island Countries.
18. Developing national drug policies in Fiji and fifteen Pacific Island
countries.
19. HIV/AIDS program evaluation in South-East Asia (by Bruce Parnell and
Kim Benton in collaboration with the Australian Red Cross).
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20. Integrated management of childhood illness (in collaboration with the


World Health Organization).
21.Project Male-call: this involved training a project team in recruiting
strategies to access men who have sex with men for a national
telephone sexual behaviour survey and implementation of the strategy
in New Zealand.
22. Victorian Aboriginal Health Service Youth Health Promotion Project:
risk reduction in the Melbourne aboriginal community, the objective
of which is claimed as to establish a longitudinal study of a cohort of
young Aboriginal people in order to describe their health problems,
explore the interrelated causes of these problems, and describe factors
associated with adolescent resilience and vulnerability. The data
collection will, according to the research synopsis, include
administration of an appropriate questionnaire which has been
programmed for computer use, a health check, and blood and urine
testing. (Not the sort of information that one would want falling in the
wrong hands).

23. HIV/AIDS policy development (Bruce Parnell, in collaboration with the


Australian Federation of AIDS Organizations).
24.SexDrive II condom usage study (involving Mike Toole, Roger Pole and
others in collaboration with Enersol Engineering Consultants, the
University of Melbourne Department of Public Health and Community
Medicine and the La Trobe University Centre for Study of STDs). The
synopsis of this project provides some details which give an indication
of the MBCs strategic direction:
The aim of this study was to replicate an earlier study comparing
the performance of two types of condoms in actual use; one that met
the Australian and ISO standards for condom quality and one that
met the more stringent Swiss Quality Seal requirements; and to
compare condoms used for anal and vaginal sex.

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Packs of 12 condoms were allocated at random to 101


participants from Metropolitan Melbourne as each man entered the
study and a pack of 12 alternative condoms was sent out when the
first batch of diary sheets were received. There were 1895 condoms
used by 101 men over seven months. There was an overall breakage
rate of 2.1% and no significant difference was found in the overall
performance of the condoms.
Compared with the earlier study, the overall breakage rate is
smaller (2.1% versus 2.9%) and the breakage rates for anal and
vaginal sex were smaller than in the previous study. The suggestion
of a difference in breakage rates between the two types of condom
remains, but other, larger, or differently designed trials are necessary
to confirm its existence.
Is this really what we want our health research budget spent on?
The 1996/97 Annual Report of the MBC also lists nine projects,
described as global including five training programs (including a Master of
Public Health and Graduate Diploma in International Health) as well as
three projects worth careful scrutinization, given the current global AIDS
epidemic, which has worsened considerably since the Macfarlane Burnet
Centre began its global operations. These three projects are titled,
Development of a guide to Strategic Planning of National AIDS Responses,
Strengthening the role of WHO in complex humanitarian emergencies,
and Development of guidelines on tuberculosis control in emergency
settings.
It is essential, given the nature of these programs, that strict ethics are
enforced to prevent the increase and spread of disease and illness, rather
than its reduction. It is also essential to closely examine the motives that lie
behind these programs. Why these programs in particular? With SmithKline
Beecham and others with financial interest in global immunization
programs as corporate collaborators and sponsors, is the relentless push
for more injections (into pregnant women and children in particular)
motivated by concern for their health or concern about the economic
health of corporations in England, Australia, Germany, France, Belgium,

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Switzerland, the United States of America and other countries that


manufacture and market immunizations, condoms and drugs?
Is it coincidental that the areas in which the Macfarlane Burnet Centre
have been the most active are the areas where AIDS and other third world
epidemics are the worst, and the incidence of death and illness from these
and other causes (including military explosives) continues to rise, unlike
that in the host countries sponsoring the programs?
Is there really a big difference between unethical medical
experimentation and biological warfare, as a spokesman for Amnesty
International claimed when confronted with this information, before
becoming angry at questioning of the political agenda of Amnesty
International and
other International human
rights and
humanitarian/charity organizations.
Is the year 2000 going to be the beginning of a new demilitarised
Australasia or is the war machine to be successful in dividing Australians
between yellow, brown, white or black and christian, moslem,
jew, buddhist or hindu and thus decide who prospers and who
suffers, who lives and who dies, who is free and who is imprisoned? Can we
honestly look at the roots of Australia in war, genocide, race-laws and
punishment and create a new society that is proud to be Australian, not
because they were programmed to say it or because Australia beat the
Poms, Windies, Pakkies or Curry-munchers in cricket matches
orchestrated by the mass media, tobacco and alcohol industries, but
because we have created a just, caring, peaceful, democratic home? Proud
to be Australian because from a racist, bigoted nation which embraced
white supremacy laws and perpetrated acts of genocide we have looked
with open eyes at the often horrific past and created a future which is not
reconciled to atrocities of the past but free of injustice, inequality, cruelty
and prejudiced discrimination in the present.
Can we hope for a future in which people are brought up in a world
where it is natural to be happy, because psychological, biological and
chemical warfare no longer exist? Because economic warfare and corporate
slavery have ceased?
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Can we stop the systematic plagiarisation of Australian art, music,


science and technology through the corporate controlled educational
system, and prevent our children from being programmed from primary
schools into glorifying war and the legends of war such as General
Monash and the noble soldiers who gave their lives to give us the peace
and freedom we now enjoy (as well as the continued might of the British
Empire)?
Inescapably, most of the people who have the opportunity and ability to
read and understand this work are themselves only able to do so because
they, like the author, were programmed with the vocabulary necessary to
understand the text. While I studied medicine at the University of
Queensland in the late 1970s, I was aware that the cold war was said to
be going on, but didnt realise how much this would influence my medical
training which largely determined my belief system. I believed most of what
I was taught at university. I accepted that the world was overpopulated,
and that forced sterilization was sometimes warranted. I thought that there
was a strong case for voluntary euthanasia. I thought that schizophrenics
needed to be injected with drugs if they would not take them of their own
accord. (I never actually diagnosed anyone as schizophrenic, manic or
personality disordered myself, but would accept the judgements of other
doctors, especially specialists, including psychiatrists).
Until 1995 I remained largely ignorant of medical politics, the role of the
pharmaceutical industry in medical research, textbook publication and
continued education for doctors, other than what I was told myself by
representatives of the pharmaceutical industry (drug reps). The many
past crimes perpetrated by members of the medical profession, and
examples of medical abuses such as eugenics applications, which resulted
directly from medical policies, were not mentioned in the 6 years I studied
at the University of Queensland, or the 3 years that followed at the Royal
Brisbane and Royal Childrens Hospital in Queensland. The role of the
medical profession in supporting warfare was not explained to me at
medical school, but it became evident to me in the years that followed. It
has been a gradual realisation, accompanied by several surprises about
how closely my own training was influenced by military medicine.
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During 1987, when I worked as a senior resident doctor and junior


registrar at the Royal Childrens Hospital, in Brisbane, Queensland, I served
as a senior resident for Professor John Pearn (who became Head of the
Department) and Dr Barry Appleton (paediatric neurologist). Both were
unusual men who were abnormally rigid in their movements and obsessed
by irrelevant details, protocols and hierarchy. Barry Appletons teaching
rounds were frightening experiences to go on, since he aggressively
quizzed medical students and humiliated them if they gave answers
different to what he believed to be the case, or took too long to answer.
He was qualified as a neurologist, and had an extraordinary amount of
information stored in his brain. It was very jumbled, and contradictory,
however. It surprised me to read recently then, in the drug-company
sponsored Current Therapeutics journal, that Barry Appleton is also a
senior officer in the Australian Military, specifically, in the Royal Australian
Air Force.
John Pearn, who authored the article about Military Medicine,
regarded himself, when I worked in the Royal Childrens Hospital (at which
he was professor of paediatrics), as a paediatric geneticist. He was
obsessed by family trees, and reasons to add fluoride to water supplies. He
also stood out from the other professors by always wearing full whites, and
driving a convertible sports car. His general knowledge of medicine, science
and clinical paediatrics was apalling, and his ostentatious obsession with
having people at his Grand Rounds was a standing joke at the hospital. It
astounded me then, to read that John Pearn is now the Chief of the
Australian Commonwealth Military Medicine Department of the
Department of Defence, in addition to continuing to work as a professor of
paediatrics at the Royal Childrens Hospital. His official military and political
title is Surgeon General, but he still doubles as a Professor of
Paediatrics. These are some of the strange contradictions of Australian
military and medical politics.

VICTORIAN PSYCHIATRY AND LITHIUM

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The medical education system in Australia has, since its inception, like
the military, been rigidly hierarchical, with professors at the top and
medical students at the bottom, and the ladder is climbed by the
acquisition of degrees and publications, together with less easily identified
factors, which come into operation in the mysterious upper echelons of
the academic world, an area where global politics plays a greater role than
most people realise.
The Mental Health Research Institute in Parkville, Melbourne is
Victorias biggest psychiatry research institution and is affiliated with the
University of Melbourne, the citys oldest university. The Institute was
initially set up at Royal Park psychiatric hospital in the 1950s, shortly after,
as was revealed in the press recently, several Nazi scientists were
smuggled into Melbourne.
The previous medical director of Royal Park Hospital, the psychiatrist
Norman James, was, after the closure of Royal Park, appointed Chief
Psychiatrist of Victoria by Victorian Premier Jeff Kennett, (a government
appointment), replacing the Sri Lankan psychiatrist Carlyle Perera who held
the position for many years. Norman James, a small bespectacled man in
his 60s, is one of the most politically powerful people in Australia, however,
like other senior psychiatrists is hardly known outside the medical
profession, police and judicial system. James wrote the opening chapter in
the undergraduate textbook Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry (1994) titled
A Historical Context.
In it he wrote:
It was in the asylums that the first widely available and effective
biological treatments were developed. Freud himself trained in
neurology and recognised that the severely mentally ill required
organic forms of treatment. The discovery of electroconvulsive
therapy (ECT) by Cerletti and Bini who worked in a mental hospital in
Rome in 1938 led to a simple and readily applied treatment for those
who suffered from severe depressive illness and related disorders.
Despite the advent of World War II, ECT was rapidly adopted as a
treatment internationally.

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The discovery of lithium in 1949 as a treatment for mania and as


a prophylaxis for bipolar disorder (manic depression) was made by Dr
John Cade, a distinguished Australian Psychiatrist. This was soon
followed by the development of major tranquillisers, the
neuroleptics, by Delay and Deniker in Paris in 1952, although the
initial idea of their application in psychiatry occurred in a general
hospital when it was noted that they were effective tranquillisers for
patients undergoing surgery. Shortly after this Nathan Kline made the
discovery that a drug being tested for its effect in tuberculous
patients had an antidepressant action and thus the first specific
antidepressants were discovered, again in a large mental hospital
and this time in Orangeburg, New York.
Professor Edward Shorter, in A History of Psychiatry (1997) gives more
details of John Cades less than exacting methodology in his rapturous
description of the medical discovery of lithium:
The story began in 1949 with John Cade, the 37-year-old
superintendent of the Repatriation Mental Hospital in Bundoora,
Australia [Victoria]. Cade, like Neil Macleod in late-nineteenthcentury Shanghai, had not lost his scientific curiosity despite his
provincial isolation. He was determined to see if the cause of mania
was some toxic product manufactured by the body itself, analogous
to thyrotoxicosis from the thyroid. Not having any idea what, exactly,
he might be searching for, he began taking urine from his manic
patients and, in a disused hospital kitchen, injecting it into the bellies
of guinea pigs. Sure enough, the guinea pigs died, as they did when
injected with the urine of controls. Cade began investigating the
various components of urine urea, uric acid and so forth and
realized that to make urine soluble for purposes of injection he
would have to mix it with lithium, an element that had been used
medically since the nineteenth century (in the mistaken belief that it
could serve as a solvent of uric acid in the treatment of gout).
Then Cade, on a whim, tried injecting the guinea pigs with
lithium alone, just to see what would happen. The guinea pigs
became very lethargic. Those who have experimented with guinea
pigs, he wrote, know to what degree a ready startle reaction is part
of their makeup. It was thus even more startling to the experimenter
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that after the injection of a solution of lithium carbonate they could


be turned on their backs and that, instead of their usual frantic
righting reflex behavior, they merely lay there and gazed placidly
back at him.
Cade had stumbled into a discovery of staggering importance,
yet he was able to develop it only because of his resoluteness in
taking the next step. He decided to inject manic patients with
lithium he injected 10 of his manic patients, 6 schizophrenics, and 3
chronic psychotic depressives. The lithium produced no impact on
the depressed patients; it calmed somewhat the restlessness of the
schizophrenics. But its effect on the manic patients was flamboyant:
All ten of them improved, though several discontinued the
medication and were still in hospital at the time Cade wrote his
article late in 1949. Five were discharged well, though on
maintenance doses of lithium. (p.256)
No mention is made in this book, or in Professor James account, of the
toxicity and risks associated with swallowing (or injecting lithium), which
are, in particular damage to the kidneys and thyroid. So dangerous is this
drug, that regular blood tests must be done to guard against acute and
chronic toxicity. According to the MIMS Annual (1993), its adverse
reactions, better described as dangers and toxicity, are briefly described
as follows:
Administration of lithium carbonate may precipitate goitre
requiring treatment with thyroxine, but this regresses when
treatment is discontinued. The ECG [electrocardiograph] may show
flattening of the T wave. Hypercalcaemia, hypermagnesaemia,
weight gain and oedema may occur, and skin conditions may be
aggravated. The toxic symptoms are referable to the gastrointestinal
tract and the central nervous system. These must be known by the
patient and his or her nurses and relatives. Those referable to the
gastrointestinal tract are anorexia, nausea, vomiting, severe
abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea. Those referable to the central
nervous system are lassitude, ataxia, slurred speech, tremor
(marked) and agitation. If none of these are present, the patient is
not intoxicated. Patients suffering from lithium toxicity look sick,
pale, grey, drawn and asthenic. It is vital to bear in mind that lithium
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can be fatal, if prescribed or ingested in excessAt serum lithium


levels above 2 to 3 mmol/L, increasing disorientation and loss of
consciousness may be followed by seizures, coma and death.
Heralding the discovery of lithium by Cade by a Victorian psychiatrist
as a great moment in medical science, the Victorian medical establishment,
including Professor Norman James, has long been insistent on the
treatment of manic and even hypomanic people with lithium. This is
despite the known risks and toxicity of the drug.
Lithium is said, by Australian psychiatrists, to stabilise the mood, and it
is assumed that people who have had even brief episodes of elevation or
abnormal excitement need long term mood stabilization with the drug.
This includes single episodes of hypomania, which is described in the
American Psychiatric Associations DSM IV as follows:
A Hypomanic Episode is defined as a distinct period during
which there is an abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or
irritable mood that lasts for at least 4 days (Criterion A). This period
of abnormal mood must be accompanied by at least three additional
symptoms from a list that includes inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
(nondelusional), decreased need for sleep, pressure of speech, flight
of ideas, distractibility, increased involvement in goal-directed
activities or psychomotor retardation, and excessive involvement in
pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful
consequences (Criterion B). (p.335)
As if it makes the diagnostic criteria precise and specific, the DSM
adds that:
If the mood is irritable rather than elevated or expansive [which
are not further defined in the DSM IV], at least four of the above
symptoms must be present.
It is incredible that increased goal directed activities and nondelusional increase in self-esteem could be cited as evidence of mental
illhealth rather than an indication of improved health. Furthermore DSM IV
adds that:

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The change in functioning for some individuals may take the


form of a marked increase in efficiency, accomplishments or
creativity. (p.335)
It is strange that this mental state should be viewed as an abnormal
one, but at least the American Psychiatric Association (unlike the Australian
psychiatric establishment) does not advocate incarceration or forced
drugging for hypomania. The reference manual says:
In contrast to a Manic Episode, a Hypomanic Episode is not
severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational
functioning or to require hospitalization, and there are no psychotic
features.
The University of Melbournes Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry is not
as clear in their distinction between hypomania and mania and
hypomania has only two references to it, one relating to diagnosis and
one relating to treatment. Under Abnormal states of mood elevation is
written:
Far less commonly *than depression+, a persistent elevated mood
occurs. Similarly, a continuum of severity if found with the mild
states difficult to distinguish from normality. Moderate severity
Hypomania, or severe state Mania, are obvious, the patients
behaviour having serious consequences if treatment is not swiftly
initiated. Most manic patients also experience depressive swings,
and this condition is therefore referred to as Bipolar Mood Disorder.
(p129)
The recommended treatment is described under management of
elevated mood states:
The assessment and treatment of the patient suffering from
acute hypomania or mania is essentially the management of the
acutely psychotic patient. Organic conditions, including drug-induced
states, need to be excluded. For reasons of safety, most patients
need hospitalisation which, because of the lack of insight, may need
to be recommended. The mainstay of pharmacotherapy are the
neuroleptics, such as Haloperidol or Chlorpromazine. Although
lithium carbonate is an effective antimanic agent at relatively high
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concentrations risks of toxicity discourage its use. Occasionally, for


particularly severe cases, ECT is needed. (p.144)
The drugs recommended for the treatment of hypomania and mania
turn out to be the same ones recommended for schizophrenia and ECT
is electroconvulsive treatment (shock treatment), which is used for
depression as well as its opposite, mania and also for severe or
intractable psychosis (including that supposedly due to schizophrenia
or schizoaffective disorder). Unlike many other parts of the world, where
ECT has been banned or seriously restricted, in Australia the use of
electrical shocks has increased in recent years and is used more widely (in
more centres and for more reasons). Most of the psychiatric hospitals in
Australian cities give patients ECT, often against their will.
Involuntary ECT in the State of Victoria is said to be restricted to
emergency cases, but it is left to the individual psychiatrist to define what
constitutes an emergency. The systems of appeal open to the protesting
patient are very limited. They can appeal to the Chief Psychiatrist, Norman
James, who has the authority to stop the abusive use of drugs or ECT. It is
most unlikely that he would, however. James, who was previously head of
psychiatry at the Royal Park Hospital is a keen advocate of both ECT and the
use of neuroleptic drugs. It is he who wrote the opening chapter of
Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry. In it, he wrote an intriguing passage:
The asylums inaugurated as a result of humanistic urges soon
became grossly overcrowded, despite the fact that some were
among the largest and most expensive buildings erected by the
governments of the day. Numerous difficulties beset them. As a
result of their isolation they became large, impersonal, human
warehouses. Patients had few if any rights and were completely at
the mercy of their carer a largely untrained workforce from which
has arisen the modern profession of psychiatric nursing. There was a
total lack of any specific physical treatment for mental illness until
the advent of ECT [so much for walking in gardens, music and warm
baths]. Those who did improve did so largely by the passage of time
and the happy advent of a spontaneous remission *not recovery+.
These conditions led to a cycle of scandals, public inquiries, usually

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some temporary improvement and then a relapse into previous


conditions or worse. (p.9)
It could be time for another public inquiry.

OFFENCE AND DEFENCE.


In psychiatric wards and Mental Health Review Board hearings the
psychiatric patient is judged guilty unless proven innocent. Unfortunately
innocence (of mental illness or personality disorder) cannot actually be
proved according to prevailing psychiatric theory which does not view
humans in terms of guilty or innocent. All psychiatric patients are
officially innocent, just unfortunately inflicted with an (invisible) illness.
One which unfortunately tends to run in families. Thus entire families are
stigmatised without laying blame on any individual. It is not the fault of the
family or the individual to be afflicted with illness: it is just one of those
things. Maybe genetics plays a role. That way individuals in the family can
scan their relatives (and in-laws) for evidence of insanity.
As for the diagnosed patient, regardless of whether he or she is called a
mental patient, schizophrenic, nutcase, client or consumer there
is no escape from the judgement of defective and the accompanying
stigma. Even if no evidence can be found at a particular time of mental
illness, the patient can be accused of masking (hiding) their madness or
be in remission. The rules which are used to nail a diagnosis are changeable
subject to the whim of individual psychiatrists and psychiatric hospitals.
Generally, however, diagnoses are never officially removed, only modified,
changed and added to.
Yet when objections were raised to Liberty Victoria, the Chief
Psychiatrists office and other official human rights protectors about
stigmatising labels, forced injections and electroshock treatment, citing the
UN declaration on human rights, it was claimed by these organisations that
one of these rights is right to treatment.
It is important, from a legal point of view, to recognise the difference
between offence and defence (as it is between torture, punitive treatment
and healing treatment). In the courts this is reflected in the difference
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between assault or murder and self-defence. This applies to the


individual as well as to individual nations and groups of nations, in which
case the arguments about what is offence and defence come under the
influence of the war machine and attendant propaganda.
This is evident from military and military-sponsored programs,
soundbites and interviews, familiar to Australians from the media
appearances of NATO, American and Australian military spokesmen during
the recent wars in the Persian Gulf area and Yugoslavia. At these times,
bombs dropped on civilians in other countries were justified as necessary
for the defence and protection of other civilians in the same country as well
as protection of neighboring states. A few times the American Military
spokesmen admitted that a major driving force was Americas National
Security Interest.
The military, regardless of how aggressive, is euphemistically called the
defence forces, in Australia and New Zealand as well as in Britain and the
United States of America, the latter countries having close military ties with
the Royal Australian Army, Airforce and Navy. This is evident from the
military history of Australias involvement in the First World War, Second
World War, Korean War, Vietnam War and Persian Gulf Wars.
The cover story in The Bulletin (August 1999) is announced as Defence,
Our New Policy Revealed and titled Operation Backflip by the magazines
National Affairs Editor, John Lyons. The article explains that the Australian
Defence forces are gearing up for a more aggressive and offensive
approach:
Despite the fact that events had overtaken the assumptions
contained in them six months earlier, the governments two reviews
premised on continued economic expansion in the region were used
as justification for not cutting Australias $11 bn-a-year defence
budget. Our regional neighbours - so the logic went would continue
to expand their military capabilities.
Now, an investigation by The Bulletin has uncovered classified
Defence Department documents which show that Australia has been
developing a dramatically different defence policy in secret. Since
the end of the Vietnam War, Australia had placed priority on
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defending the sea-air gap across northern Australia. Our desire for
forward operations, such as Korea or Vietnam, had dissipated with
defeat in Vietnam.
But what is occurring now is an historic change in the countrys
defence policy. Australias defence force is becoming more
integrated into the American military machine and has begun
purchasing equipment with less relevance to its own defence needs.
The reality is clear: Australia is now moving towards a forward
defence policy, by stealth. (p.21)
It is relevant then to ask what a forward defence policy could involve
and include. What weapons and strategies are being developed by stealth
in Australia under the guise of national defence? This question can be
approached historically and by a survey of contemporary popular science
magazines.
The September 1999 edition of Australasian Science, a Control
Publications glossy popular science magazine, contains an editorial
comment by Guy Nolch in defence of the 127 Nazi scientists who were
smuggled into Australia after the Second World War, ostensibly to keep
military knowledge out of Soviet hands as well as an article by Jacinta
Kerin, based at the Murdoch Institute in Melbourne, titled Biological
Weapons from Genetic Research, which is to be the first in a new serial
on biowarfare according to the editorial. Guy Nolch ends his editorial with
the following:
Last month Dr Ken Alibek, who defected from Russia in 1992,
told the International Virology Conference in Sydney about Russias
secret bioweapons program, which employs more than 60,000
scientists in 200 laboratories. His comments follow those of Laurie
Garrett, author of The Coming Plague, who in Melbourne in May
described how a laboratory sample of smallpox which has been
eradicated from the wild has gone missing. The Russian
bioweapons laboratories are the prime suspect.
It seems little has changed in 50 years. But should we really be
blaming the scientists for these evils, or the masters who control
them?

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Most people in Australia had not heard about biological warfare until
the late 1990s, when the media ran several stories describing the
activities of UN Weapons inspector Richard Butler, who was
maintaining that by developing biological and chemical weapons
capabilities, Saddam Hussein, the political leader of Iraq was defying the
International Community (and International Law, by inference), posing
a major threat to the world, since these biological and chemical
weapons are potential weapons of mass destruction. This argument
was used by the US military to justify dropping bombs on Iraq, with the
British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, as well as Australian Prime Minister,
John Howard, repeating that although unfortunate, this drastic action
was necessary because Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass
destruction and was defying the International Community.
On Saturday, 18th April 1999, The Age ran an article by Tania Ewing
based on an exclusive talk with UN envoy Richard Butler, titled Iraq:
Weapons chief warns of looming Gulf showdown. The article begins with
the caption continued secrecy over biological weapons could trigger
another gulf crisis and a small, slightly blurred picture of Richard Butler
with what looks like a smile on his face, beneath which is written in bold
print, Mr Butler: Angry.
The article begins:
Iraq has breached its United Nations agreement to reveal details
of its biological weapons program, including the location of missing
warheads, a UN inspection team has found.
This team was that headed by Richard Butler, who claimed
independence from American influence because he was Australian, and
therefore independent. This obviously false supposition, given Australias
new military policy, was repeated in various ways in mass media around
Australia during the bombing of Iraq, which followed Mr Butlers
pronouncement by only a few weeks. Mr Butler has also been a guest of
honour at the University of Melbourne after he was removed from the
position of UN weapons inspector amidst global outrage at the selective
blindness and deafness that he demonstrated in this role.

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In the article, Mr Butler is quoted as saying that he was frustrated and


angry and that Iraq had the chance to offer full and complete
declaration of past biological weapons programs and where they stood
now. He is also quoted as saying We gave them the opportunity and they
blew it. The article continues:
After the agreement between Mr Annan and the Iraqi
Government, the Security Council voted to threaten Iraq with the
severest consequences if it obstructed inspectors.
What constituted obstruction in the eyes of Mr Butler is evident from
later sections of the article:
Mr Charles Duelfer, the deputy head of the UN Special
Commission and one of the inspection team, warned that Iraqi
officials planned to ban future access to the palaces, in direct
contravention of the agreement between the UN and Iraq.
While the UN team did not expect to find prohibited material
there, the inspections were designed to set up a precedent of
unrestricted access.
It is worth speculating about how unrestricted access is to American
Military bases in Australia such as those at Nurrungar and Pine Gap, not just
to Iraqis, but to Australians. It is obvious that Australian medical research
institutions and those in New Zealand, England and America also have the
scientific and technological knowledge necessary to develop biological
weapons. Can these institutions be readily inspected by their declared
enemies, or even by their declared friends and allies?

FRIENDS, ENEMIES AND PROTECTING DEMOCRACY


During the bombing of Yugoslavia last year, several references were
made in the Australian media to the Allies, meaning those nations which
were considered the Allied Forces in the Second World War, with minor
differences. The historical reasons for this identification with American and
British military objectives as consistent with our own are understandable,
but dangerous, since evidence that has surfaced in recent years that proves
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beyond doubt that the Allies have repeatedly betrayed Australia and the
Australian people in numerous ways including involving this nation in wars
that need not have cost Australian lives. Australia could, if it had strong
pacifist leadership at the time, have contributed significantly to the
cessation of hostilities in the region. This is the case now as well, and has
been since the establishment of defence forces in Australia and New
Zealand by the British Government over the past two centuries.
The names of the Royal Australian Army, Navy and Airforce alone testify
to the historical connection between the Australian armed forces and the
British Monarchy (and Government). Australia remains to this day a
constitutional monarchy although there is discussion of a new
constitution and a presidential system of Government. Interestingly,
three important words have been routinely omitted from the
constitutional debate: freedom, independence and democracy. Some
might suppose that these are already widespread in Australia, and others
that they are ideals which cannot, and have never been achieved in the
past, in Australia, or anywhere else. Whilst both arguments have some
validity, the first can be criticised as being nave and the second as
unnecessarily pessimistic and defeatist.
The evidence suggests that Australia contains a marked difference
between individuals and groups of people regarding freedom and
independence, and that true democracy has never existed in Australia,
although most of the governments of the world, including those of
Australia, have declared themselves democratically elected and thus
ruling by mandate (and will) of the people. In reality, the fact that social
and financial inequities exist in extremes in Australia (and elsewhere) result
in some people having far more influence over government policy than
others. It is also a well-accepted fact that large corporations, educational
institutions, research institutions, religious organizations, charity
organizations and other non-democratic bodies have the ear of
Government policy makers and implementers, and presumably have an
influence on decisions that are made. If several of these voices repeat the
same thing this is likely to have an even more convincing effect on the
minds of politicians and other government employees. If similar things are
said by recognised experts with professional qualifications, the beliefs
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in the minds of politicians and others becomes more firmly cemented.


Some of these beliefs are core philosophical beliefs, including ones relating
to friends, allies and enemies.
Allies are not necessarily friends, but may be allied against a common
enemy. Thus England and France, which were previously considered
traditional enemies witnessed by the Napoleonic and other wars, became
allied against German military expansion in the 1930s. Australia, which
had previously suffered the fate of losing many young lives in Gallipoli
(Turkey) less than 20 years earlier, was called upon to support the Allied
effort, rather than work out for itself who were its friends and who were
its enemies. The immediate threat to Australia in the 1940s came not from
Germany, but from Japan and the United States of America, and these
came to the Southern Continent in the form of military craft: submarines,
ships and aircraft, and also human beings hostile to the interests and needs
of the Australian people and land. It is often mentioned in records of the
Second World War in Australia, that the Japanese bombed Darwin, with an
inference that this was the beginning of an attempt to destroy or colonise
Australia and the Australian people. Thus it is assumed that had not
Australia fought with the Allies we would have been ruled by Japanese
masters and accepted that whilst tragic, the nuclear bombs which were
dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were
unavoidable and overall in the best interests of peace, since after these
bombs were dropped the Japanese surrendered. Likewise the loss of
thousands of young Australian lives in various parts of Asia were, and still
are, regretted as terrible, but necessary for preservation of the freedom
and democratic way of life we enjoy today.
The facts are that we have never enjoyed a truly democratic way of life
in Australia and our personal and national freedom is being constantly
eroded by the nations that credit themselves with winning the Second
World War: the United States of America and United Kingdom. The
psychiatric system in operation in Australia is one of the ways in which this
erosion of freedom is occurring, and political changes that have occurred in
the name of globalization has created a disastrous situation where the
worst abusers of human rights and freedoms are in positions where they
can directly advise on the interpretation of human rights laws and the
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development and implementation of social policy, including the making of


new laws.
Each State in Australia has different mental health laws, which is one of
the confusing things about human rights in Australia. Australia also lacks
any national human rights laws, and as the recent high court ruling
confirms, does not even have national laws precluding genocide. In Victoria
the current Mental Health Act was passed in 1986, with significant, but
largely unnoticed amendments in 1995, which greatly expanded the criteria
for which people could be incarcerated and forcibly treated in this State.
The changes were centred on subtle changes to the wording of the act
including the addition of the term mental disorder to include the term
mental illness in the 1986 Act.
The reason for the addition of the term mental disorder was claimed, at
the time, to provide for the forced treatment of a small number of selfmutilating people who, suffering from what is psychiatrically termed a
personality disorder rather than a mental illness are excluded from
forced treatment under the existing law. However events in the psychiatric
literature at the time and since suggest far greater possibilities for
application of this new reason for involuntary treatment. One is Attention
Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, another is Conduct Disorder and yet
another, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, all new mental disorders
announced in the 1994 edition of the American Psychiatric Associations
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV).
The American Psychiatric Association is not a democratic organization,
nor has it a history of supporting freedom, independence, human rights or
friendship. The head on the emblem of the APA seal is that of the white
supremacist and medical charlatan Benjamin Rush, who is regarded by the
APA as the founding father of American Psychiatry. In addition to a
legendary obsession with self-promotion, Rush had theories that black
skin is caused by disease and all mental illness is caused by abnormality in
blood vessels of the brain. Based on his simplistic theory, Rush advocated
blood letting as the treatment necessary for a range of mental illnesses
and also devised or implemented several torture devises such as spinning
chairs and beds, immobilization chairs and other cruel punishments and
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then justified their use with scientific-sounding reasons. None of this is


mentioned in the DSM IV, which does not mention Rush other than the
words Benjamin Rush 1844 under the portrait of this infamous man.
The DSM does, however have a brief section titled Historical
Background, which gives some indication of the perspective the
organization would like to give of itself and psychiatry:
The need for a classification of mental disorders has been clear
throughout the history of medicine, but there has been little
agreement on which disorders should be included and the optimal
method for their organization. The many nomenclatures that have
been developed during the past two millennia have differed in their
relative emphasis on phenomenology, etiology and course as
defining features. Some systems have included only a handful of
diagnostic categories; others have included thousands. Moreover,
the various systems for categorizing mental disorders have differed
with respect to whether their principle objective was for use in
clinical, research, or statistical settings. Because the history of
classification is too extensive to be summarized here, we focus
briefly only on those aspects that have led directly to the
development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (DSM) and to the Mental Disorders sections in the
various editions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).
In the United States, the initial impetus for developing a
classification of mental disorders was the need to collect statistical
information. What might be considered the first official attempt to
gather information about mental illness in the United States was the
recording of the frequency of one category idiocy/insanity in the
1840 census. By the 1880 census, seven categories of mental illness
were distinguished mania, melancholia, monomania, paresis,
dementia, dipsomania, and epilepsy. In 1917, the Committee on
Statistics of the American Psychiatric Association (at that time called
the American Medico-Psychological Association [the name was
changed in 1921]), together with the National Commission on Mental
Hygeine, formulated a plan that was adopted by the Bureau of the
Census for gathering uniform statistics across mental hospitals.
Although this system devoted more attention to clinical utility than
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did previous systems, it was still primarily a statistical classification.


The American Psychiatric Association subsequently collaborated with
the New York Academy of Medicine to develop a nationally
acceptable psychiatric nomenclature that would be incorporated
within the first edition of the American Medical Associations
Standard Classified Nomenclature of Disease. This nomenclature was
designed primarily for diagnosing inpatients with severe psychiatric
and neurological disorders.
A much broader nomenclature was later developed by the U.S.
Army (and modified by the Veterans Administration) in order to
better incorporate the outpatient presentations of World War II
servicemen and veterans (e.g., psychophysiological, personality, and
acute disorders). Contemporaneously, the World Health Organization
(WHO) published the sixth edition of ICD, which, for the first time,
included a section for mental disorders. ICD-6 was heavily influenced
by the Veterans Administration nomenclature and included 10
categories for psychoses, 9 for psychoneuroses, and 7 for disorders
of character, behavior, and intelligence. (p.xvii)

RECENT BIOLOGICAL WARFARE


In the past two years, focus has been on Australia as a source of
expertise on biological and chemical warfare, in the form of the UN special
envoy Richard Butler, who gave a lecture at the University of Melbourne in
which he warned of Iraqs biological and chemical weapon manufacturing
potential. Despite the fact that the Australian UN weapons inspector
Richard Butler repeatedly accused Iraq of developing weapons of mass
destruction in the form of chemical and biological weapons, he did not
make it clear as to what his own qualifications and expertise in these areas
were nor did he comment on the capabilities of the United States of
America, Britain and Australia to develop biological and chemical weapons.
Yet, given the close connection between the military organizations of these
three nations, and the fact that both Britain and the United States
governments ran official biological warfare departments during and after
Second World War, it seems likely that Australian medical and military
science has also been tainted by involvement in chemical and biological
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weapons development. Indeed, the deliberate exposure of Australian


soldiers to mustard gas (to test its capacity to burn) and malaria (to test
Paludrine, an anti-malaria drug) during the Second World War make it
certain that Australian people have been subjected to biological and
chemical warfare by the British Military with the collaboration of the
Australian army and the Commonwealth Government (of Australia), at least
in the past.
Although biological warfare was outlawed in the 1970s, according to an
international treaty, David Suzuki, in Inventing the Future, wrote:
During the Reagan administration, there was an ominous
increase in defence spending on biological weapons from $14.9
million at the beginning of Mr. Reagans first term in 1981 to $73.2
million by 1987It is clear that the military, by financing top
scientists, is keeping an eye on the latest ideas and techniques in
molecular biology. Scientists in private companies and universities in
twenty-one states are receiving military contracts for biological
weapons. They are studying the deadly dengue fever virus, Rift Valley
fever virus and other organisms that cause Japanese encephalitis,
anthrax, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, leishmania, and dysentery.
(p.89)
Suzuki does not mention HIV and AIDS, nor does he mention several
other bacterial and viral agents which have been, and can be, used for
biological warfare including haemorrhagic fevers, rabies, typhoid, cholera,
bubonic plague and smallpox. The use of smallpox as a biological weapon is
referred to by Jacinta Kerin in Biological Weapons from Genetic Research
who refers to a recent British publication:
Biotechnology, Weapons and Humanity cites the use of smallpox
against the American Indians as an example of a bioweapon attack
predating molecular genetics [there have been many]. One might
also recall the deliberate distribution of wet blankets to Australian
Aborigines as another state-sanctioned attempt at genocide founded
on a biological strategy.
Wet blankets are not as clearly monstrous weapons of biological
warfare as blankets infected with smallpox. Judging by other reports, and
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the fact that smallpox epidemics also decimated Aboriginal populations in


the early years of British invasion, Jacinta Kerin may have, as is common
practice, understated the atrocity in her own country against the
indigenous population. Whilst there can be no doubt that infections
brought to the continent by Europeans, including smallpox, measles and
influenza caused havoc in the aboriginal population, killing thousands of
children, women and men, there is disagreement as to whether this was
the result of deliberate or accidental exposure. The fact that poisoning
and intentionally infecting enemy populations is an ancient military
technique used by the British and others hundreds of years before the
colonisation of Australia makes the former very likely, although this may
not have been official policy. Indigenous people did not, after all, officially
exist, according to the terra nullius declaration by Captain Cook and
associates.
While admitting to the long history of biological warfare, the Gaia
Peace Atlas, which boasts a foreword by Javier Perez de Cuellar, then
Secretary-General to the United Nations, considers this type of warfare to
be of lesser importance to conventional warfare and nuclear warfare:
Biological warfare, which uses disease-carrying substances and
organisms, has a long history. Plague was used as a biological
weapon as long ago as the 14th century. More recently, the Japanese
used plague bacteria against cities in north China during the 1930s.
But despite their long usage, biological weapons do not have the
same appeal for the military as chemical weapons. They are difficult
to handle (requiring optimal conditions for growth), their spread is
unpredictable once released, and they are slow to take effect.
Although the 1975 Biological Weapon Convention prohibits the
development, production and stockpiling of biological and toxin
weapons, the fact that they are relatively easy and cheap to produce
may cause small countries to regard them as affordable weapons of
mass destruction. (p.135)
The Gaia Peace Atlas, which was published in 1988, views the threat of
biological warfare as being one limited to small countries, presumably
excluding the United States of America and the United Kingdom (despite a
known interest of the militaries of these countries in this type of warfare).
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The reason for this is may lie in the fact that the book is edited by a
Western military consultant, whose qualifications are a mass of
contradictions. In the books description of Frank Barnabys background it
appears that peace research and military research are interchangeable:
General editor: Frank Barnaby, International consultant on
military technology, former Guest Professor of Peace Research at the
Free University in Amsterdam, former Director of the Stockholm
International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), author and editor of
several books on military affairs.
In the book, which is crammed with facts and figures, some more
reliable than others, is a revealing perspective of the UN organizations
concern about overpopulation. In the chapter titled short-term steps for
survival is written, under the subtitle population control:
One of the toughest problems facing us is the population
explosion. Rather than straining our overloaded planet to the limit to
cater for twice as many people within just another 35 years, we must
try to call a halt. If we were to achieve a replacement level of fertility
(namely a two-child family on average) by the year 2005 20 years
earlier than assumed by the United Nations in its medium projection
the global population would stabilize at around 8, rather than 10,
billion persons. If, however, replacement levels of fertility are not
reached until 20 years after the date anticipated by the UN, then 2.8
billion more people would be added to the projected total (unless
AIDS or other unknowns change this pattern) a difference of 4
billion more mouths to feed. (p.206)
The Gaia Peace Atlas specifically mentions Nigeria in West Africa as a
hard-pressed country, which would benefit by population control aimed
at a replacement rate:
If Nigeria, for instance, were to achieve this goal, its ultimate
population size would not be 532 million but 227 million, greatly
expanding its options for ending poverty and achieving sustainable
development.
Yet in Nigeria, as in elsewhere, an unfair distribution of resources
(including food), continued exploitation by first world corporations and
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bankers (via third world debt), and wastage by the government on military
purchases from first world and second world (Russia and China) are
much more serious problems than the size of Nigerian families. The same is
the case in Central America, which also rates a special mention as an
overpopulated area (strangely the much more populous Europe, Japan
and North America are not so considered):
In the case of Central America, the ultimate population figure
would fall from 81 million to 55 million, with all that would imply for
enhanced stability in a region with long-standing antagonisms.
It is of little consequence to the authors that the long-standing
antagonisms in Central America have been the result of constant efforts at
colonization by European and later North American masters who were
involved in genocide of the indigenous population (Indians) and
exploitation of the land, natural resources and people of the area. Colonial
and neocolonial masters who continue to economically enslave vast parts
of the world and tell the people in distant lands that they have too many
children and should be using condoms.
The strategies of population controllers include much more than the
promotion of condoms or the instilling of fear of sex (for risk of disease or
as an affront to God). In the face of perceived failure to control the
population explosion by voluntary contraception, various methods have
been used around the world to restrict reproduction, by coercion and at
times, force. This includes forced hysterectomy, tubal ligation and
euphemistically named provider-dependent contraceptives, including
long-lasting injections.
The danger of provider-dependent contraceptives is admitted in the
1992 book Poverty and Development in the 1990s published by the
conservative Oxford University Press:
These trends are particularly worrying for women: first of all
because most contraceptive methods are directed at women who
have no part in determining research priorities and standards.
Second, some of the trends have serious implications for womens
health. For example, women in developing countries have been used
frequently for testing contraceptives. The women of Puerto Rico,
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Haiti, Guatemala and Chile were among the first to take part in the
tests of contraceptive pills and sterilization injections in the 1960s
and 70s. More recently, women in India and Bangaladesh have been
used in the trials of hormonal contraceptives. In all cases, such
experiments were carried out with little or no information given to
the women themselves or, at times, to the local personnel involved
in the trials (p.94)
The sterilizing injections referred to include depo-provera injections
(which are still given, at times, to psychiatric patients in Australia to prevent
them from irresponsibly conceiving) and beta-HCG injections, which have
been given without prior consent or knowledge to young women in several
third world countries, including Indonesia and the Philippines.
These anti-fertility vaccines are described in glowing terms in the
specialist textbook Immunology, published in 1996 by Mosby, and edited by
Professor Ivan Roitt of the University College Hospital, London:
In principle, conception and implantation can be interrupted by
inducing immunity against a wide range of pregnancy hormones. The
target of the most successful experimental trials has been human
chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), the embryo specific hormone
responsible for maintaining the corpus luteum. Vaccines based on
the beta chain of hCG, coupled to tetanus or diphtheria toxoid, have
been extremely successful in preventing conception in baboons and,
more recently, humans. In the human trial [where, and on whom is
not mentioned], infertility was only temporary [untrue], and no
serious side effects were observed [also untrue]. Clearly this
represents a powerful new means of safely limiting family size,
though there are of course cultural and ethical aspects to consider
too. (p.19.10)
As for the safety of vaccines generally, the book has few reservations,
but in glossing over the risks of and many concerns about long-term
damage to the immune system (and other systems) from immunization,
admits to some general risks which are worth noting:
Some more of the serious complications may stem from the
vaccine or from the patient. Vaccines may be contaminated with
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unwanted proteins or toxins, or even live viruses. Supposedly killed


vaccines may not have been properly killed; attenuated vaccines may
revert to the wild type. The patient may be hypersensitive to minute
amounts of contaminated protein or immunocompromised in which
case any living vaccine is usually contra-indicated.
The last statement brings the entire third world immunization strategy
under question. It is common knowledge that many children in poor
countries suffer from malnutrition. It is also accepted that malnutrition
compromises the immune system, causing immunosuppression. It thus a
clearly dangerous thing to inject such children with live viruses, even if they
are supposed to be attenuated. It would be even more suspect if these
children developed an epidemic of acquired immune system deficiency and
collapse of the immune sysem and no serious attempts were made by
vaccinators and epidemiologists to look for a connection between the two.
Live virus vaccines made from infected animal tissues or cell lines have
been injected into malnourished African children and babies since the
1920s (smallpox vaccines in Rhodesia) and immunization programs were
greatly expanded in the late 1950s (with the Salk polio vaccine). At this time
and for another two decades retroviruses (slow viruses) were not known
to cause disease in humans, but they were found to cause disease (mainly
immune damage and cancers) in several animal species. In an ongoing
industry of animal virus experimentation, chimpanzees, monkeys, dogs,
cats, rabbits, goats, sheep, rats, chickens, pigeons and mice in universities
around the world have been deliberately infected with an increasing variety
of viruses. New hybrid viruses have been created, and animals have been
specially bred with susceptibility to diseases (particularly cancers) from
these viruses, as well as from other causes. This is the scientific
environment in which the entire virology and immunology industries have
developed, and the focus of their efforts has been to develop new drugs,
find new uses for old drugs, and develop new vaccines. Alleviating third
world debt or poverty has not been on the agenda.
Did the HIV virus develop accidentally as a result of unrestrained
animal experimentation, or was it deliberately designed for the purposes of
biowarfare? Was it unintentionally spread through infected blood
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transfusions in Africa, or was it a further effort at population control


involving the deliberate inoculation of Africans with a killer-virus?
David Suzuki wrote, rather glibly, in 1990:
In 1972, then-president Richard Nixon signed the Biological
Weapons Convention, under which all research on biological
weapons was stopped and all cultures were destroyed. (Inventing
the Future p.89)
Did Nixon reveal as much about American biowarfare as he did about
events in Watergate? Is it possible to stop all research on biological
warfare when it is all secret (and therefore routinely denied) anyway? Can
we expect honest answers from governments and research institutions,
when the history of biological warfare is systematically denied and
attributed to natural disasters and the susceptibility of nave native
populations to admittedly introduced, but accidentally introduced,
disease?
The question of whether biological and chemical weapons have been
used by the British and/or Americans against Australians in the past has
more than historical importance: it reaches to the core of Australias
political and military independence and national interest, as well as raising
further questions about the nature and extent of biological warfare
(biowarfare) programs in the modern world.
The claim by Kerin that ideal biological weapons have short incubation
periods, which excludes HIV/AIDS, is not, by the way, true. For the purposes
of population control and targetted genocide whilst making multi-billion
dollar pharmaceutical and diagnostic pathology profits, HIV is a remarkably
suitable agent. Because it is said to be transmitted through sexual
intercourse, it has influenced sexual behaviour amongst young people in
the direction of safe sex, which includes the use of condoms, which act as
an additional means of population (number) control. The sale of condoms is
also a multimillion dollar industry of its own accord. AIDS has also resulted
in unprecedented sales of drugs for combined regimes, none of which can
cure the disease or prevent it. The sales of these drugs, including AZT
(Azidothymidine/Zidovudine) from Glaxo Wellcome, abacavir (Ziagen) also
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from Glaxo Wellcome, nelfinavir (Viracept), saquinavir (Invirase) and


zalcitabine (Hivid) from Roche (producers of Valium) and many others on
offer amount to billions of dollars every year, and all can cause serious
illness and death themselves, usually by damage to the immune system, a
problem they are supposed to be treating.
In addition to these antiviral drugs people with AIDS in Australia are
routinely treated with a cocktail of other drugs, including antibiotics,
antifungals, sleeping tablets and psychiatric drugs (including
antidepressants, antipsychotics and tranquillisers).
The connection between AIDS and psychiatry is evidenced by a
continued medical education publication sent to Australian doctors in
1998 titled HIV/AIDS: a developing issue for general practitioners. This
edition claimed to focus on GI and psychiatric manifestations of
HIV/AIDS. Actually, the focus of the publication is on encouraging doctors
to identify patients at risk, test them for antibodies and treat them with
drugs. The education program is sponsored by Britain-based Wellcome
pharmaceuticals, which advertise themselves as leaders in antiviral
therapy. Following the article on HIV/AIDS and Psychiatry in which it is
claimed that people with HIV/AIDS are at particular risk of depression,
anxiety disorders and suicide (at 21 to 66 times the rate of the general
population), a short article features under the banner HIV/AIDS News.
The news is that low dose zidovudine is cost-effective in asymptomatic
HIV-positive patients and that zidovudine benefits children with advanced
HIV infection. Zidovudine, previously called AZT (Azidothymidine) and
marketed in Australia as Retrovir is produced by Wellcome pharmaceuticals
(Glaxo-Wellcome).
People with AIDS are predictably diagnosed with anxiety and depression
for which, in Australia, they are systematically prescribed psychiatric drugs.
They are also said to suffer from an increased incidence of psychotic
illnesses (including mania) and dementia characterised by paranoia. It is
evident, however, that paranoia and delusions could be diagnosed for
such things as believing that multiple drug treatment is harmful, that AIDS
is a man-made disaster or that HIV-antibodies do not necessarily indicate
infectivity. Obviously, a belief that AIDS is the result of biological warfare,
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or that HIV surveillance has a hidden agenda would also be diagnosable as


paranoid according to current psychiatric criteria (endorsed by the World
Health Organization).
The surveillance of HIV status has, in recent years, been a central
focus of the US-centred AIDS research strategy, with an accompanying
insistence (despite evidence to the contrary) that HIV-antibodies indicate a
death sentence, signifying the inevitable development of AIDS (at some
stage). Contradicting this pessimistic prediction, however, there are several
people in the world today who have tested positive for HIV antibodies as
far back as 1984 but not developed AIDS. Closely observed by the medical
research establishment, these non-progressers, as they are termed by the
AIDS research establishment, have disproved the death sentence they were
given when they were diagnosed as HIV infected. The AIDS establishment
have refused to be convinced that HIV is not necessarily fatal. Meanwhile
the campaign to collect more blood specimens from people of all races,
cultures and nationalities continues.
The Australian medical establishment has played a crucial role in
collecting statistical data on HIV status in this part of the world (including
the Pacific region and South-East Asia), and advising governments of the
region about how to contain the epidemic of AIDS which has worsened in
the surrounding Third World nations, but not in Australia. This is
attributed to successful public health measures in Australia (for which the
medical establishment, hospitals and governments take credit), which are
said to be lacking in underdeveloped nations. There is, according to the
medical establishment, no cure for AIDS or HIV infection, but a combination
of drugs is recommended to improve survival. No immunization against
AIDS is currently available, and this is one of the hoped-for outcomes of
medical and immunological research, we are told. In the mean time, vast
amounts of public money have been spent on what are euphemistically
called harm reduction measures. These include safe sex (use of
condoms), needle exchange and distribution, and testing high risk groups
for HIV antibodies. The results of HIV testing are compiled into statistics
and interpreted for the world by experts.

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In Australia, the main at risk groups, according to the dogma of the


AIDS establishment are men who have sex with men, intravenous drug
users, psychiatric patients and particular racial groups (which remain
officially unspecified, but the nature of which becomes evident when one
examines the research programs being done in Australia). The possibilility
of stigmatising these populations by branding them potentially diseased
and infectious is obvious and the risk becomes clearer still when one reads
the public education material on AIDS from the Macfarlane Burnet
Centre, Melbournes (and Australias) premier HIV/AIDS Research Institute:
It is a terrible disease process, terrible because many patients die
but also because many of the infections and tumours are disfiguring
and socially obvious. It is almost literally true that patients with AIDS
have become the lepers of the 20th century.
The same pamphlet provides Director of MBC John Mills perspective of
injecting drug users:
Injecting drug users are frequently the bridge between the
homosexual community and the heterosexual community. They are
predominantly heterosexual, sell sex for money or directly for drugs
and may not respond to the educational messages that motivate
others.
These educational messages, of which the MBC particularly
recommend the use of condoms, are accompanied by extremely pessimistic
predictions about the AIDS epidemic and the chances of individuals
surviving HIV infection. There is also a poorly veiled condemnation of the
morals of people in developing nations, particularly in Africa:
In many African countries there is no social prohibition against
husbands having non-monagamous relationships, with the
consequence that most of the women infected are done infected
[sic] by their husbands having such relationships. We need to
recognise that these women need social power before they can deal
with the AIDS epidemic. The power to tell their husbands that
polygamous relations are not appropriate behaviour. The power to
tell him to use a condom until she has evidence that his behaviour
has changed. (He does not indicate what sort of evidence is
required)
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Whilst implying that the problem with these cultures is that they will
not behave in a reasonable rational, socially and morally correct manner
Mills does admit something that suggests that Africans are indeed well
educated about the risks of AIDS; they are merely reluctant to use condoms
and change centuries-old and social structures and traditions, and/or
cannot afford them:
A study done in Uganda, a country deeply affected, showed that
the level of AIDS education there is high. Over 97% of people knew
that AIDS is an infectious disease transmitted by sexual intercourse
or injecting drug use, and that it could be prevented by condom
usage in sexual intercourse. But only 10% of these people were using
condoms not because they were unavailable but because of social,
economic or religious barriers to their use.
Needless to say, theories that AIDS was introduced to Africa in
immunization programs or for genocidal reasons are not included in the
official AIDS education in Australia or in Africa. The educational message
is basically: get tested for HIV, take drugs at the earliest medically
recommended opportunity (prescribed drugs, that is) and use a condom for
anal or vaginal sex. The Melbourne AIDS researchers are particularly
interested in anal sex, as their research and publications demonstrate. In
Australia, the focus of the AIDS research establishment is on discovering
patterns of risk-taking behaviour among young people (especially young
Aboriginal and Vietnamese people). This research includes the collection of
blood specimens (to test for venereal diseases), questionnaires and
personal interrogation (described as interviews). In these involuntary
interviews the most intrusive details about the young persons sex life are
sought, with an enthusiasm that suggests more than an element of
voyeurism.
These research projects involve a close collaboration of the hospitalbased psychiatric system and the AIDS research institutions (of which there
is really only one of note). Both collect data and the integrated results are
analysed together. Somehow the result of creating a stigmatised and drugaddicted sub-class of society has been ignored, while the research results
clearly point to this as a feature of AIDS and HIV infection in Australia.
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The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, in 1997 published


the results of such a collaboration in an article titled HIV risk behaviour
and HIV testing of psychiatric patients in Melbourne, involving several
authors, including (lead author) Sandra Thompson, Gill Checkley, Jane
Hocking and Nick Crofts of the Epidemiology and Social Research Unit of
the Macfarlane Burnet Centre. Nick Crofts is described as the
biostatistician. The study involved the Department of Psychiatry of the
University of Melbourne and the Alfred Hospital in Prahran, and aimed to,
according to the stated objectives, determine the prevalence of risk
behaviours associated with HIV transmission and factors associated with
HIV testing in psychiatric patients in Melbourne.
While lumping all psychiatric patients into a high risk group, the
study involved 145 people of whom 55.2% had schizophrenia. Most
psychiatric patients are not labelled with schizophrenia, although many
who are subjected to psychiatric treatment at the Alfred are given this
diagnosis. The results of this study reflect this and also that people who
are subjected to psychiatric treatment at the hospital develop both a fear
of AIDS and a tendency to drug addiction. This is not surprising, since the
hospital forces them to take drugs, offering addictive benzodiazepines
liberally and has a policy of injecting people who refuse to take the drugs
voluntarily. It is difficult to imagine a more certain recipe for the creation of
drug addiction, and introduction into a chemical paradigm (let alone
initiation into injected drugs). The hospital also dispenses the addictive
opiate methadone to heroin addicts and has a significant number of
homeless (and often drug-addicted young people) as chronic or recurrent
patients. They keep these patients as official patients of the hospital
through a system of Community Treatment Orders, which are routinely
issued against any patient who is suspected of lack of insight or lack of
compliance. Such was the population of young people sampled by the
Macfarlane Burnet Centre for their study of risk behaviour in psychiatric
patients.

MACFARLANE BURNET CENTRE ON AIDS


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The Macfarlane Burnet Centre in Melbourne is also a keen promoter of


Zidovudine and the other newer anti-viral drugs, making little or no
admission of the terrible side-effects they can cause. In a 1998 public
education pamphlet titled HIV/AIDS The Whole Worlds Problem, the
virology research institute claims:
HIV can also be transmitted from mother to infant, so a woman
who has HIV and becomes pregnant has between 15% and 30%
chance of passing that infection on to her baby. The risk of death for
a child with HIV infection is very high, probably 60% over two years
rather than over a decade or two as is the case with adults.
Fortunately, we now know that zidovudine (AZT) therapy of the
mother will reduce transmission to her baby by over 75%.
The same pamphlet claims that virtually all transmission of HIV is
through sexual contact and injecting drug use, however since 1998 a new
theory is being claimed and accepted as incontrovertible fact by the
medical profession: HIV is said to also be transmitted from mother to baby
by breastfeeding. This has permitted a resumption of the practice of
convincing millions of African women (and other women in the so-called
Third World) to feed their infants with milk powder, for medical reasons.
This follows a long-running campaign to sell milk powder to poor nations by
massive corporations such as Nestle, despite the widely publicised fact that
babies around the world were dying because of contaminated bottle-milk
(made with impure water), and lack of protective maternal antibodies in
the breast-milk. HIV antibodies are said, however, to signify chronic
infection rather than a successful immune response (as in other viral
infections). The MBC pamphlet a consumer version of this theory:
In the first few weeks after exposure to HIV the virus multiplies
rapidly. Next, usually within three months, the person seroconverts
that is, they start to produce antibodies to HIV. At this point
laboratory tests will record the person as HIV-positive. Many people
experience an acute febrile (feverish) illness at this time. The illness
lasts about fourteen days and may be mistaken for glandular fever.
After that, the majority of people who have HIV do not have any
symptoms at all for years or even decades before the illness
progresses to the point where it becomes clinically evident (eg as
AIDS).
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During this incubation period the victim is perfectly well and


capable of working and leading a normal life, but also capable of
transmitting the infection to other people. This is one of the very real
difficulties with the HIV virus; there is absolutely no evidence,
without specific laboratory testing, that a person has it. And if youre
in apparent good health, who would think of taking such a test?
The answer to the last question is anyone who read the MBC literature
and took it seriously. Given the basic psychoimmunological and medical
principle, though, that pessimistic prognoses resulting in despair can
weaken the bodys resistance to illness, it is hard to see how this sort of
claim can be justified in the interests of health promotion:
The latent period the interval between infection and the
development of the disease averages 9 years. That means that half
the people will get AIDS before 9 years, but the other half will not get
sick until later. There will be cases where patients have had the
infection for 20 or 30 years before becoming ill. However, virtually
everybody infected with HIV will eventually get AIDS, if they are not
treated. The estimate at the moment is about 95% but it could be
100%.
The qualifying if they are not treated is very misleading: there is no
treatment which has been shown to stop people who are HIV-positive
from developing AIDS. Some authorities, such as Dr Peter Duesberg believe
that the antiretroviral drugs such as AZT actually trigger the illness via
their known immunosuppressive activity. The MBC, however, claims that
these drugs make a 2 to 3 year difference in survival, which is described
as reasonably effective:
Since 1987 drugs have been available for treatment AZT,
Zidovudine, ddI (didanosine), ddC (zalcitibine) and stavudine (d4T).
They are reasonably effective but really only make a two to three
year difference in survival. At the NCHVR (National Centre for
HIV/AIDS Research, located at the MBC) and MBC one of our key
tasks is to develop better therapy for HIV infection, and there are
some promising leads.

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They claim, however, that the developing world cannot afford AZT,
which is admitted to be a relatively toxic drug:
In the developing world these therapeutic agents are for the
most part not available to most people. The annual costs for AZT is
about $3,000 per person, and in many such countries the total health
care budget is only a couple of dollars per year per person. In
addition, it is a relatively toxic drug which requires sophisticated
medical facilities to monitor therapy.
The pamphlet, which was apparently adapted from a talk by Professor
John Mills (director of the MBC) expands on imminent problems for
developing countries:
For the most part, the biggest growth in HIV and AIDS cases has
been in developing countries, with the major risk areas being in
Africa, particularly equatorial Africa, where it is estimated there will
be in excess of 6,000,000 cases by the year 2000. Other high risk
areas are South America and South East Asia. In places like Thailand,
India and the Philippines we are facing an AIDS epidemic that is going
to be incredibly serious. At the moment, large numbers of patients
are asymptomatic, but as their illness progresses there will be an
appalling medical problem to cope with.
As to the origin of AIDS, Professor Mills repeats the official claim about
monkeys in Africa. He answers the question where did the virus come
from?:
Probably from Central Africa, and it probably represents a virus
originally prevalent in non-human primate population monkeys, for
example which got into the human population. It has been present
in Africa for many decades [there is no scientific evidence of this],
perhaps even for centuries (but probably not for thousands of years,
unlike some other viruses). The reason for the epidemic in the
second half of the twentieth century is because of the profound
social and political changes which have permitted this infection to
become a pandemic, meaning that it is a disease of world-wide
distribution.

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He does not expand on the precise nature of these profound social and
political changes, or the injustice of third world debt causing starvation,
lack of health care and a worsening gap between rich and poor. He does
not refer to the ongoing wastage of arms purchases by poor nations from
rich ones, or the support of corrupt and despotic regimes by the war
machine. He does not mention biological warfare, chemical warfare or drug
warfare. He does not mention the mining and forestry industries interests
in the gold, diamond, uranium, minerals and forests of Central Africa or
Australia. He does, however, paint a grim picture of the toll of AIDS in
Africa:
In Africa, where the disease is older than in other parts of the
world, it is a disaster with whole villages wiped out. There is real
concern that AIDS is now the major political threat to the economic
and social future of AfricaIn the central African country of Rwanda,
which is heavily affected by the AIDS epidemic, up to 30% of young
Rwandan women delivering in the obstetric ward are infected with
HIV. This is a terrible problem, because apart from the economic
difficulties and the need for medical care, these women can also pass
the infection along to their children. The risk is 30-50% per pregnancy
and since she may be infected for many years before she actually
gets sick, there may be many children involved who will be infected
and die. Those that are not infected, or who live for years, are
orphaned when their mothers die of AIDS.
What about their fathers? Or are African children orphaned when
their mothers die because their fathers do not look after them? There are
many insinuations, subtle at times, about the morality of people in Africa
and the Third World or developing countries as the poor (colonised)
nations are interchangeably referred to, in the MBC propaganda:
In developing countries the AIDS epidemic is particularly a
problem in women and children, because women play a key role in
the society of those countries *they dont here?+. In many of those
countries women form a crucial link as care givers, food providers
and part of the social network and fabric of society, and so the
epidemic amongst women in these societies will have an effect far
beyond that which would have occurred had it been amongst men.
Statistics on the prevalence of HIV amongst female sex workers
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[where?] show the role that women are playing, or are being forced
to play, in the evolution of the epidemic in these countries. In some
countries virtually female sex workers are infected, in some countries
up to 70 or 80 per cent.
The last sentence contains what is presumably a typographical error,
and should read virtually all or something to that effect. Overall,
Professor Mills appraisal of developing countries demonstrates a gross
ignorance of the complex societies and cultures of Africa and the world,
and also suggests that a dominant focus of the centres research is getting
people tested for HIV antibodies and presenting statistical one-liners that
support the use of drugs for even asymptomatic HIV positive people. That
is, as long as they can afford the expensive drugs. For the underdeveloped
countries, Professor Mills can see little hope:
In the less developed parts of the world the prognosis is poor.
We are losing the battle from the standpoint of control, losing
economically because money for AIDS control is either static or
declining, and losing medically because there are no inexpensive and
non-toxic drugs which can be used in these countries.
Whilst describing Rwanda as a central African country which is
heavily affected by the AIDS epidemic, Professor Mills neglects to
mention several historical, political, social and medical facts about Central
Africa, and specifically the treatment of Central Africa and Central African
people by Europeans over the past 400 years that might enable a better
perspective to be gained of the health problems of the millions who have
survived unspeakable colonial atrocities.
Rwanda is a small land-locked, forested, mountainous country located
east of Zaire, which is the second largest country in Africa. It was a colonial
possession of Germany, but was ceded to Belgium in the First World War.
The Belgian Government had already taken control of Zaire, which as
Belgian Congo had been a personal possession of the Belgian monarch,
King Leopold II. Leopold was guilty of some of the worst colonial abuses of
Africa, continuing a system of direct slavery in his private possession
accompanied by brutality to the natives of such cruelty that it was the
subject of international concern in 1903, following which his Government
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took over administration of the region. This continued until the 1960s,
when Zaire and Rwanda became independent. Rwanda has been in a
state of civil war since then, with the colonial formalised labelling of
Hutus and Tutsis resulting in repeated mass-murder, constituting
genocide. Zaire and Rwanda, as well as neighbouring Uganda have also
been ravaged by AIDS, and were the areas of Central Africa where the
African epidemic was first noted.
As in the homosexual population in America, immunization programs
have been blamed, by various researchers over the past 15 years, for the
introduction of AIDS and HIV into Africa. The vaccination programs which
have been most frequently mentioned are the polio eradication program of
the 1960s and the smallpox eradication program of the 1970s. R. Ayana
wrote, in 1988:
Some researchers, including Dr Douglass, have researched the
smallpox vaccination programmes conducted in Africa at that time.
Strecker, Mendelsohn, Pearce Wright, Douglass, Rifkin and others
claim that the epidemiology of AIDS corresponds precisely with the
WHO smallpox vaccination programme.
Douglass goes so far as to say that a particular vaccination
programme (referred to in a 1972 WHO report of a 1970 NIH
conference) was laced with HIVassertions that HIV was created in
Fort Detrick/NIH/NCI have been made repeatedly over the past
decade and this possibility must continue to be considered until
proven incorrect.
Dr Robert Mendelsohn wrote, in 1987, about the difficulty in proving
this due to lack of followup of people who were immunized in these massimmunization campaigns, when often a line of children would be injected
with the same needle in unhygeinic situations:
The theory that the AIDS epidemic in Africa may have been
triggered by the smallpox vaccination program has sparked intense
debate among scientistsan urgent call for evidence to support the
idea has been demanded by the World Health Organization. This
theory was discussed by WHO officials last Autumn (1987). No
follow-up data are available from the smallpox eradication campaign

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because no systematic studies of the complications produced by the


mass immunization have been done.
The practice of immunization against smallpox began in Africa as early
as the 1920s, with Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia) a centre for
immunization in Southern Africa. Rhodesia, named after the British
diamond baron Cecil Rhodes, had a white supremacist regime for most of
the twentieth century (and during the time of the beginning of the smallpox
vaccination program) along with neighbouring South Africa, which also
contains extensive deposits of diamonds which were (and are still)
exploited by British mining companies. Zimbabwe, Zambia and South Africa
have also been ravaged by AIDS.
Zimbabwe and Malawi (in the rift valley, also a previously British-ruled
nation) have been selected for International Health Programs in Southern
Africa by the Macfarlane Burnet Centre. Their 1997 Annual report states:
David Hipgrave conducted an assessment study and designed a
primary care project in several districts of Malawi which focussed on
community-based malaria prevention activities using insecticideimpregnated bednets [!]
Wendy Holmes, in collaboration with several NGOs, designed
several HIV/AIDS prevention and care projects in Zimbabwe which
focused on care and support for orphaned children; home-based care
and support for people and their families living with HIV/AIDS; HIV
prevention among young people; and support to the coordination of
the responses to HIV/AIDS by government, non-government, and
community organisations in two districts.
More detail is provided in the 1998 Annual Report:
The IHU *International Health Unit of the MBC+ is collaborating
with the Batsirai group, a community based HIV prevention care and
support NGO in Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe, in carrying out a project which
focuses on the needs and concerns of women in relation to
pregnancy and care of babies under 12 months in the context of the
HIV epidemic. It will also include an operational research study on
the feasibility and acceptability of alternatives to breastfeeding. The

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district of Makonde, in which the project is based, has probably the


highest rate of HIV infection in the world.
The project began in October 1998; Wendy visited for three
weeks last November. A Project Co-ordinator and Research Officer
have been recruited...They participated in an eight day workshop on
participatory research methods and strategic planning. The workshop
was attended by a diverse group including a traditional healer, the
Provincial Nursing Officer, a church leader, the provincial
representative of people living with AIDS, a social welfare officer
and the nurse from the municipal clinic. Detailed plans for the
situation analysis were developed at the workshopThe next step
will be to carry out questionnaire surveys and to compile all the
information so that it can inform the strategic planning process to be
conducted in April 1999.
It is to be hoped that the strategic plans decided on will be better than
those developed for Zambia and Malawi, which the MBC admits are
controversial:
In Malawi and Zambia, two southern African countries, the HIV
epidemic is widespread, with some surveillance suggesting that up to
25% of adults may already be infected with HIV. Yet nobody talks
openly about the epidemic, and this stifles the ability of the people of
these nations to make changes. This project, initiated by UNDP
(United Nations Development Programme) and funded by UNV, aims
to facilitate community discussion through placing people living with
HIV as volunteers in key government and other agencies. The project
is controversial within those countries, and the way it unfolds will be
closely considered by other countries in Africa and elsewhere.
It is interesting that the MBC refer to surveillance, which is precisely
what is being done in the guise of research around the world.
Surveillance of who has HIV antibodies and surveillance of the health,
vulnerability and sexual of habits of people around the world, especially
young people. Surveillance accompanied by the collection of blood
specimens and data from questionnaires, which can then be interpreted
in ways favourable to the profits of the pharmaceutical industry and mining
industry, two of the major corporate sponsors of the Macfarlane Burnet
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Centre. The surveillance in Australia includes such things as a phone-in


survey of demographics, attitudes and practices of male clients of female
sex workers, which is described in the 1998 Annual Report of the MBC:
Through a telephone survey approach, Project Client Call
examined the knowledge, attitudes, and risk-taking behaviours and
practices of 328 men who had been clients of female commercial sex
workers in Victoria. The interviews revealed that at least one in ten
of these men had had penetrative vaginal or anal sex with a
prostitute without a condom in the preceding twelve months
Young Vietnamese people in Melbourne have attracted the MBCs
special attention. In a study into HIV and HCV in Vietnamese IDUs, young
Vietnamese heroin users were trained to implement a survey of other
young Vietnamese IDUs (intravenous drug users):
This project is jointly auspiced by The Centre for Harm Reduction
and the Western Region AIDS and Hepatitis Prevention, which
includes a primary needle exchange based in Footscray, Melbourne.
The study builds on research completed in 1995 with 100
Vietnamese IDUs. A questionnaire was devised by 11 young
Vietnamese heroin users who were then trained with support from
staff of CHR to implement the survey. Participants were recruited
with informed consent by the peer workers through their own social
networks and at the NSEP. Over a period of 12 weeks, 200
questionnaires were completed and finger prick samples tested for
HIV and HCV antibodies.
Another project is titled ethnographic research with heroin users of
Vietnamese ethnicity:
This NHMRC-funded project is investigating the social context
of heroin use by people from Vietnamese ethnicity. This involves 30
in-depth interviews with Vietnamese users to establish a picture
which gives a greater understanding of the issues involved in heroin
use in the Vietnamese community. Themes being explored include:
the processes and influences on initiation into injecting; routes of
administration including implications for behaviour change;
economic and social factors influencing the choice of administration
route; availability and accessibility of treatment services.
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No mention is made of the fact that the treatment provided for heroin
addiction in Victoria is largely focused on replacing the heroin addiction
with methadone and psychiatric drugs. Neither is mention made of the fact
that heroin was developed by the pharmaceutical industry at the turn of
the 20th century, and used extensively by the medical establishment
(particularly the psychiatric branch of it) before it became a street drug.
No mention is made of the British use of opiate drug addiction in their
1840s war against China (the Opium Wars) or the fact that methadone
(which is as addictive as heroin) is marketed by the same company that
produces AZT (Zidovudine), the British company Wellcome
Pharmaceuticals. No mention is made of the Vietnam War or the American
sponsored militarisation of Australia and South-East Asia. No mention is
made of the real causes of diseases of poverty and warfare. No mention is
made of the fact that the Macfarlane Burnet Centre operates from the very
place (Yarra Bend) where from ancient times Aboriginal people met and
danced the gaggip at corroborees celebrating the unity and friendship of
the Kulin Nation. The MBC literature does not reveal much in terms of
history, of the people they advise the health care of, or the country they
base their operations and strategic plans from.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF MELBOURNE


When Europeans first colonised the Southern parts of the continent,
most of the Aboriginal people in Australia probably lived in this area, and in
coastal Queensland, since it is more fertile, pleasant and hospitable in these
well-watered areas than the outback. They chose to live in coastal areas
with plentiful rivers, trees and lakes because life is easier in such
environments. They were not, however, allowed to continue living in this
beautiful part of Australia because they were considered to be black and
this was to be a State for White People. Peter Murray and John Wells, in
From sand, swamp, and heatha history of Caulfield write:
Early in the growth of Melbourne, Aborigines were banned from
the town and later from its southern coastal suburbs. During the
1860s and 1870s the remaining Aborigines were forced south where

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they set up a camp at Mordialloc and survived, in part, by begging.


(p.84)
The discovery of gold in Victoria in the 1840s transformed this part of
the world, and brought a flood of European bounty hunters and goldobsessed men from England, Continental Europe and North America
through the 1850s and 1860s. Quiet rural villages became rowdy
boomtowns overnight, and Melbourne became a sprawling city. Alan Gross
writes in his biography of Charles Latrobe:
While the constitutional change was being made, the entire
conditions of Australian life were transformed. Gold was found, or,
more accurately, permitted to be found since its occurrence had
been known for a generation. Earlier reports had been hushed;
excitement of such a nature was thought to be too dangerous for a
community in which the convict element was so strong. Means were
found to silence colonists who dabbled in such geology: when a
convict reported a find, he was flogged for statements declared to be
untruthful. La Trobe had administered his province in accordance
with this policy.
In fact, although Melbourne grew into a city during the time of and
based on the finance of the Victorian gold rush, initially the city was, to the
concern of Governor La Trobe, left deserted by colonists seeking instant
wealth through the discovery of gold. Gold-fever and gold mania
became common diagnoses in the first lunatic asylums built to try and
contain the situation. Cunningham Dax writes in History of Psychiatry:
Following upon the development of the wool industry from 1830
to 1850, there was a turmoil created by the discovery of gold at
Bathurst in New South Wales and at Clunes in Victoria (as it was
called when obtaining its independence from New South Wales, in
1850). Men left their homes and jobs, migrants poured in,
bushrangers abounded, roads were clogged, grog shops flourished,
prices soared and fortunes were made and lost overnight. The
combined population of Victoria and New South Wales went up from
265,503 in 1850, to 886,393 in 1860There could hardly have been a
period of more rapid social change and adjustment, or such an
opportunity for sociopathic traits to be mobilized. Such was the
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demand upon the mental hospital services in Victoria that in 1867


two mental hospitals in gold mining areas, at opposite ends of the
state, were opened within ten days of one another. A third, at Kew,
admitted its first patients only five years later, with the object of
relieving Yarra Bend, the first asylum in Melbourne.
Ironically, Yarra Bend, where the first Melbourne lunatic asylum was
constructed in 1848, was the place where John Batman had traded an
enormous area of land with a false promise he never intended keeping, in a
bogus treaty signed by three Aboriginal men whose names are recorded,
all three, as Jiga Jiga. Manning Clark, in A History of Australia writes:
That day *in May, 1835+ he gave the men blankets, tomahawks,
knives, scissors, and looking-glasses and hung around the necks of
each woman and child a necklace [he also gave the men alcohol,
according to other reports]. They appeared highly gratified and
excited. The next day he explained to the chiefs that the object of his
visit was to purchase a tract of their country, since he intended to
settle amongst them with his wife, seven daughters, his sheep and
his cattle. He proposed, he said, to employ the people of their tribe,
clothe and feed them, and pay them a compensation for the
enjoyment of the land.
Although Batman temporarily became one of the biggest landowners
in the world, it was not long before the area was seized by Governor La
Trobe for the British Crown, and Batman was forced to buy back some of
the land from the Colonial Government. The question of who rightfully
owned and owns the land of Australia has not been settled yet. It is worth
noting that the report of a Select Committee of the House of Commons on
Aborigines, in 1837, stated:
in the recollection of many living men every part of this
territory was the property of the Aborigines
La Trobes claim of the land we now call Victoria, followed an equally
dubious ceremony, which occurred in 1802, and is described by Hunter
Rogers in The Early History of the Mornington Peninsula (1968):
On February 15th, 1802, the Lady Nelson entered the Heads and
anchored off Point Paterson (Point King, Sorrento). Here they
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explored the immediate terrain and ascended Arthurs Seat, so


named by Lieut. Murray after a similar mountain on the outskirts of
Edinburgh, of which city he was a nativeA month later, on March
9th, 1802, he took formal possession of the territory by holding a
parade on the foreshore at Point King, which was renamed in honour
of the Governor, and hoisting the Union Jack. (p.14)
The discovery of the extensive forests of Gippsland and the Otway
ranges brought more white settlers armed with axes and saws to fell the
forest giants. Aborigines who lived in these areas were driven away or
massacred, sometimes with historical justifications recorded by colonial
authorities. An example of this is the Aire River massacre of Gadubanud
people in 1846, which was apparently in retaliation for the killing of a white
surveyor at nearby Blanket Bay (in what is now the Otway National Park).
The killing of a single white man was punished, in customary fashion by the
massacre of a whole family (or tribe) of Aborigines. Following the massmurder of the majority of the aboriginal population in the early years of
colonisation, during the many years of the White Australia policy, most of
the aboriginal people in Australia were contained in reserves and
missions in central and northern Australia. These are, as mentioned
before, functionally, large concentration camps.
Another example of modern-day concentration camps in Australia are
so-called detention camps in which foreign asylum seekers (denigratingly
termed illegal immigrants or illegals) are imprisoned on arrival here
and may be held without trial or crime (other than coming here illegally)
for months or even years. These people (currently several thousand) are of
many races: Africans, Asians, Arabs and others from what have been
designated as Third World nations. These nations are being kept poor by
the same nations that are responsible for the development and
implementation of the global market and International Health policies and
politics. Unfortunately, these policies and politics remain tainted by the
ugly racism and bigotry of eugenics.
It is generally supposed that the White Australia policy itself was
instituted in the 1860s primarily to prevent the exploitation of gold by
Chinese miners (who were also often indentured or otherwise enslaved)
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attracted, like the British, to the huge finds. Another possible motive more
these discriminatory laws, though, was to prevent freed black slaves from
coming to Australia from America, where a simultaneous gold rush was
occurring in California. Basically, the British colonists who established
towns and later states in Australia did not like blacks, wherever they
came from. They regarded them as a whole as dirty, dishonest and
otherwise inferior. This racist legacy began before the official founding of
the eugenics movement in Australia, but provided fertile ground for the
prejudiced doctrines of survival of the richest to grow.

EUGENICS AND MENTAL HYGIENE


Eugenics is a scientific theory concerned with breeding better human
beings, and consists of positive eugenics(encouraging people with
selected gene pools to have more children) and negative
eugenics(preventing the breeding of undesirables). The theory was
directly developed by blood relatives of the English aristocrat and
evolutionist Charles Darwin, who founded the first society for eugenics
in the 1870s, shortly after the official abolition of slavery in the United
States of America. The Englishmen who developed a human racial
hierarchy for the implementation of their genocidal plans placed
themselves, their families and friends at the top of the list of favoured
blood lines, and attempted, by various means to prove their genetic
superiority over the majority of the human population. Darwin
considered himself to belong to a family well-endowed with geniuses,
which included himself and his cousin Francis Galton, who founded the
first Society for Eugenics in England, shortly after writing Hereditary
Genius in 1869. In it he hypothesised that mental qualities are biologically
inherited, that the white race is biologically shaped to dominate and
that, among the white race, the English are the most superior.
Darwin followed in 1871 with Descent of Man in which he argued:
The variability or diversity of the mental faculties in men of the
same race, not to mention the greater differences between the
men of distinct races, is so notorious that not a word need here be
said.
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So in regard to mental qualities, their transmission is manifest


in our dogs, horses, and other domestic animals. Besides special
tastes and habits, general intelligence, courage, bad and good
temper &c., are certainly transmitted. With man we see similar
facts in almost every family; and we now know, through the
admirable labours of Mr.Galton, that geniustends to be inherited;
and, on the other hand, it is too certain that insanity, and
deteriorated mental powers likewise run in families.
Darwin (1809-1882), who had travelled as a scientific observer on the
HMS Beagle in the 1850s, developed the theory of evolution of species by
natural selection following detailed observation of animal species (birds, in
particular) and, to the outrage of biblical creationists, presented evidence
that man was descended from apes in Descent of Man. Although he himself
was parodied in cartoons at the time as being part-ape, his followers
seriously embarked on a scientific quest to discover which races were
closest to apes, and which were the most evolved with several false
assumptions already clouding their judgement.
Murray and Wells wrote, in From sand, swamp and heath:
From the mid-1800s the evolutionary theories of Darwin and the
geological principles of Sir Charles Lyell began to take hold of
European thinking. Darwins ideas were applied to the Australian
native, and reduced him to the embodiment of primeval man.
Thomas Huxley drew comparisons between the Aboriginal skull and
that of Neanderthal man and Schoetensack even suggested that man
originated in Australia. By 1900 the Aborigine was regarded as a
simple, habitual being, incapable of adapting to change. (p.83)
Racism inherent in supposedly anthropological analysis of the
indigenous people of Australia has been repeated in numerous ways over
the past 150 years, ranging from scientific papers and texts to school
atlases. From the 1940s publication by the Adelaide Advertiser, The Modern
Pictorial World Atlas is taken the following description of The Stone-Age
Men of Australia:
Australia, it has been remarked, is the asylum of many quaint
creatures, like the duck-billed platypus, who have ages since
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disappeared from the rest of the world. It is also the home of one of
the most primitive of human peoples the Aborigines, the Stone-Age
men in the twentieth century.
They live in the arid, semi-desert lands of Central Australia. With
increasing white penetration of their inhospitable bush, their
numbers have rapidly dwindled. In thirty years at the beginning of
the century the Arunta tribe diminished from about 2000 to about
three to four hundred souls.
Their skins are of a dark chocolate colour, but well smeared with
ochre and decorated with coloured designs. They are, on the whole,
a little shorter than the average white Australian, but fairly well built,
and they carry themselves with a graceful, erect carriage. Through
work and child-bearing, the women grow old and hideously ugly by
the time they are thirty.
Very early man probably had a face resembling that of the
Australian aborigine in his heavy, overhanging brows and receding
forehead. (p.78)
An obsession in skull size and shapes which apparently indicated mental
attributes was a particular feature of the nineteenth century scientific
racists, who developed pseudosciences named craniometry and
phrenology to prove such things as the inferiority of blacks, the
criminality of half-breeds and the mental weakness of women. The
famous neurologist Paul Broca, a keen craniometrist, asserted:
In general, the brain is larger in men than in women, in eminent
men than in men of mediocre talent, in superior races than in inferior
races. Other things equal, there is a remarkable relationship between
the development of intelligence and the volume of the brain.
Steven Jay Gould, a popular scientific writer and evolutionary biologist
from Harvard University, from whose 1983 collection of essays titled The
Pandas Thumb the above quote is borrowed, points out the biases that
were demonstrated in the efforts of craniometrists to prove their own
superiority:
In an outrageous example of data selected to conform with a
priori prejudice, he [E.A.Spitzka, an American craniometrist]
arranged, in order, a large brain from an eminent white male, a
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bushwoman from Africa, and a gorilla. (He could easily have reversed
the first two by choosing a larger black and a smaller white.) Spitzka
concluded, again invoking the shade of Georges Cuvier: The jump
from a Cuvier or a Thackeray to a Zulu or a Bushman is no greater
than from the latter to the gorilla or the orang.
Such overt racism is no longer common among scientists, and I
trust that no one would now try to rank races or sexes by the average
size of their brains. Yet our fascination with the physical basis of
intelligence persists (as it should), and the nave hope remains in
some quarters that size or some other unambiguous external feature
might capture the subtlety within. Indeed, the crassest form of moreis-better using an easily measured quantity to assess improperly a
far more subtle and easily measured quality is still with usThis
essay was inspired by recent reports on the whereabouts of
Einsteins brain. Yes, Einsteins brain was removed for study, but a
quarter century after his death, the results have not been published.
The remaining pieces others were farmed out to various specialists
now rest in a Mason jar packed in a cardboard box marked Costa
Cider and housed in an office in Wichita, Kansas. Nothing has been
published because nothing unusual has been found. So far its fallen
within normal limits for his age, remarked the owner of the Mason
jar. (p.125-6)
The craniometrists used as their yardstick for big-headed, white
geniuses the skull of the French biologist Baron Georges Cuvier, who died in
1832. Gould writes, with characteristic wit:
Cuviers contemporaries marveled at his massive head. One
admirer affirmed that it gave to his entire person an undeniable
cachet of majesty and to his face an expression of profound
meditation. Thus, when Cuvier died, his colleagues, in the interests
of science and curiosity, decided to open the great skull. On Tuesday,
May 15, 1832, at seven oclock in the morning, a group of the
greatest doctors and biologists of France gathered to dissect the
body of Georges Cuvier. They began with the internal organs and,
finding nothing very remarkable, switched their attention to
Cuviers skull. Thus, wrote the physician in charge, we were about
to contemplate the instrument of this powerful intelligence. And
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their expectations were rewarded. The brain of Georges Cuvier


weighed 1,830 grams, more than 400 grams above average and 200
grams larger than any non-diseased brain previously weighed.
(p.122)
These attempts at proving the superiority of white men occurred prior
to Darwins theories, but with the acceptance that men were related to
apes additional prejudices became apparent as the efforts to prove which
race was superior gathered momentum. They reached new depths with the
development of eugenic theories which recommended the sterilization and
later, the mass-murder, of defective and degenerate individuals and
races, amongst which were the previously enslaved Africans, as well as
Jews and Gypsies (another much maligned and persecuted people). The
Nazi regime in Germany and Europe also murdered communists, political
dissidents, deformed and disabled children and adults, and mentally ill
people in their misguided efforts to create a pure, white Aryan superrace.
Unknown to many in the modern world, however, the eugenic theories
and policies which gave rise to the genocide of the 1940s were not an
isolated aberration of Nazi madmen. The theories, which originated in
England, not Germany, were the predominant socio-medicoanthropological beliefs in Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand
and South Africa of the time, and had been for many decades. The first
eugenic sterilization laws, legislating for the castration of feeble-minded
boys were enacted in the United States in the early 1900s, and centres for
eugenic study and policy development were established in association with
major universities in Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane and other Australian
universities, which shared ideas and attitudes with American, British and
Canadian Universities, including those at Oxford and Cambridge. In the
1920s, according to the Australian historian Ross Jones, large amounts of
money were spent by the Carnegie foundation and other American
eugenics supporters to develop the philosophy in what was still intended to
be a White Australia.
A similar corporate support for white supremacy eugenics in psychiatry
and the medical sciences is evident from the historical account of South
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African Psychiatry in A World History of Psychiatry as described by


Professor Lewis Hurst, professor of psychological medicine at
Johannesburg, although he does not describe it as such:
In 1926 the number of mental defectives in South Africa was
estimated at 300,000. When in 1927 the president of the Carnegie
Corporation visited South Africa, the Dutch Reformed Church
requested his assistance in investigating the matter. The Carnegie
Corporation gave substantial financial assistance and provided the
services of C.W.Coulter and K.L.Butterfield to assist in research.
(p.616)
This quote is taken from the pro-psychiatry World History of Psychiatry,
which was published in 1975, when the racist apartheid regime continued
white rule in South Africa. The injustices of racial segregation and denial of
civil rights to the African and coloured population of South Africa are not
considered important enough to mention in the professors account of
psychiatry, but they are evident in the limited statistics presented of
patients accomodation in institutions for mental defectives. Two,
named as those at Alexandra and Umgeni Waterfall contained only
whites: treating 879 and 445 patients respectively. Some contained both
whites and non-whites, including institutions at Komani (1,498
patients), Oranje (1,636), Valkenberg (1,911) and Weskoppies (2,122). The
largest institution (or most crowded) contained only non-white inmates,
one at Bophelong, the patient accomodation of which is listed as 2,500.
What does not become clear from Professor Hursts account of
psychiatry in South Africa is what constituted mental defectiveness and
what type of treatment was given to the people thus diagnosed. It is easy
to deduce these things, however, by examining psychiatric trends and
treatments in other nations that have come under the influence of the
eugenics movement, white supremacy movement and Mental Hygiene
Movement, including Australia and New Zealand. Hurst refers to this
movement under the subtitle National Societies:
Passing reference has already been made to the role played by
the National Society for the Care of the Feebleminded in the case of
mental defect or subnormality. The mental health movement
originated in the United States, and came out of the experience of
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Clifford Beers. As a result of his endeavors in this direction, the


National Committee for Mental Hygiene of the United States came
into being on February 19, 1909, followed by the creation of local
bodies in various cities, a pattern followed in South Africa and many
other countries (p.618)
Clifford Beers was an ex-psychiatric patient who wrote an influential
book describing his illness, hospitalisation and recovery titled A Mind that
Found Itself in 1908, following which he was involved in the foundation of
the National Committee for Mental Hygeine, together with the American
psychiatrists Adolf Meyer and William James. While the mental hygiene
movement urged some reforms in the treatment of the inmates of
psychiatric hospitals, based on Beers experiences which were degrading
and unpleasant in the extreme, their main agenda was an expansion of
psychiatric and eugenic influence and policies into the wider community. In
this matter, accounts of various historians differ. The psychiatric apologist
Professor Edward Shorter writes, in his 1997 book, A History of Psychiatry:
Psychiatry further reached out with the founding in 1909 of the
National Committee for Mental Hygiene. A book by ex-psychiatric
patient Clifford Beers, A Mind That Found Itself (published in 1908),
prompted a number of prominent figures such as Meyer and William
James to promote the concept of mental hygiene. In subsequent
years, the mental hygiene movement involved psychiatrists in
numerous plans to improve the mental health of Americans
through various well-meaning efforts. (p.161)
Bruce Wiseman, in Psychiatry, the Ultimate Betrayal (1995), presents a
different view, and provides more detail to support it:
The genesis of the Mental Hygiene movement is usually told as
follows: In 1908, Clifford Beers, a former mental patient, wrote the
sordid story of his incarceration in a book entitled A Mind That Found
Itself. The book was so well received that Beers went on to found the
National Committee for Mental Hygiene, an organization formed to
assist the cause of the mentally disturbed as well as promote the
prevention of mental illness.
But there is more to the story. Before Beers published the book,
he sent the manuscript to the Father of American Psychology,
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William James. James endorsed it wholeheartedly. And, armed with


William James support, he went to talk to psychiatrists, neurologists,
social workers and social-minded laymen.
In September, 1907, he took the manuscript to well-known
psychiatrist Adolf Meyer. A member of the Eugenics Society, Meyer
had been a student of Alfred Hoche, co-author of The Release of the
Destruction of Life Devoid of Value, the book promoting the killing of
mental defectives. He also studied under Swiss psychiatrist August
Forel, whose influence on the young student was great, according
to one biographer. An example of Forels views: Even for their own
good the blacks must be treated as what they are, an absolutely
subordinate, inferior, lower type of men, incapable themselves of
culture. (p.71)
In customary fashion, the pro-psychiatry historical accounts omit any
reference to racist theories by eminent psychiatrists. Michael Stone writes
of Forel:
Swiss physician August Forel had been influenced by the Nancy
hypnotists, Liebault and Bernheim, as had Krafft-Ebing and Freud.
Forel (1905) wrote on the topic of female sexuality, including themes
popular at the time, such as that of femme fatale and the flirt. He
also addressed the general topics of sadism, masochism,
exhibitionism, fetishism, and homosexuality in men and women.
Turning toward forensic matters, his 1905 Die Sexuelle Frage [The
Sexual Question] included case histories of mothers who had
strangled their babies. (p.146)
Edward Shorter has yet another perspective of Forel:
A more dyed-in-the-wool organicist than August Forel, Zurich
psychiatry professor between 1879 and 1898, would be hard to
imagine. Forel spent much of his time doing neuroanatomy, and his
correspondence with colleagues reflects far greater interest in frog
brains than in clinical psychiatry. Yet Forel was a master hypnotist. So
great was his reputation that one colleague referred to him a woman
whom another hypnotist had put into an evil hypnotic trance, with
the request that Forel lift the trance. Later in life, Forel even went
beyond hypnotism to talk of love and intimate knowledge of
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patients lives. Thus for Forel, there was no contradiction between a


neuroscientific view of psychiatry and psychotherapy. (p.139)
When describing Adolf Meyer in glowing terms, Shorter fails to mention
his views on race either; likewise Stone, who describes the once president
of the American Psychiatry Association thus:
Adolf Meyer (1866-1950) exerted enormous influence on
psychiatry in America, not just in the 1920s, though this decade
offers a convenient time frame to discuss his work. Like Jung, he was
the son of a Swiss pastor. He studied under August Forel in Zurich,
then worked in France with Dejerine, and later in England, where he
was impressed with the work of Hughlings-Jackson, from whom he
derived his ideas about the layers of brain organization and the
organisms adaptation to the environment.
Meyer came to the United States in 1893, working first as a
neurologist. His interest in psychopathology was stimulated by
William James. He established a friendship with another prominent
psychologist, John Dewey. In 1907 Meyer met Clifford Beers and,
joining hands with this former mental patient, now reformer of
hospitals, started a mental-hygiene movement in America. Meyer
also had an illustrious teaching career; he taught at New York State
Psychiatric Institute, later at John Hopkins and the Henry Phipps
Psychiatric Clinic, both in Baltimore. In 1927 he was president of the
American Psychiatric Association (p.153)
Bruce Wiseman provides more of the picture:
In 1909, the National Committee for Mental Hygiene was
formed, with Beers as its head. Adolf Meyer and William James were
among the original twelve charter members.
James role was not small. In a biography by Clarence Karier we
are told: James was not only a theoretical conceptualizer of the
therapeutic society but also an active historical actor, helping to
shape its development. Late in life (1909), as an executive committee
member of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, he wrote to
John D. Rockefeller and begged him for a million dollars to support
the efforts of the National Committee for Mental HygieneShortly
thereafter, the foundations under Rockefellers influence began to
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pour millions of dollars into the mental hygiene movement, into the
development and construction of psychopathic hospitals, and into
the training of psychiatrists, psychologists, and mental health
workers in a variety of institutions across the countryThe Mental
Hygiene movement expanded rapidly around the globe, setting up
groups in the 1920s in Canada, France, Belgium, England, Bulgaria,
Denmark, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Russia, Germany, Austria,
Switzerland, and Australia. Twenty-four countries had Mental
Hygiene Associations by 1930. (p74)
Asylum to Community is Professor Eric Cunningham Daxs version of the
development of the mental hygiene service in Victoria, Australia, over
which he presided, after he emigrated from England in 1952, as head of the
Mental Hygiene Authority (later called Mental Health Authority). The book
was published in 1961 by F.W Cheshire for the world federation for mental
health. Despite the fact that the book was written during the days of the
official White Australia Policy, or perhaps because of it, aborigines and the
treatment or even the existence of Aboriginal people in Australia is not
mentioned at all. The focus of the book is on new hospitals and clinics
which were built with public support (following newspaper support) of
reforms for the care of the mentally afflicted white residents and
immigrants (some of whom were not strictly speaking white-skinned),
describing in detail training programs and construction programs, as well as
details of administration and the complex network of institutions involved
in the reform of the mental health services which occurred after the Second
World War in the State of Victoria.
These institutions are listed in the appendix as clinics, hostels,
social clubs, day hospitals, early-treatment hospitals, mental
rehabilitation hospitals, intellectual deficiency services and other
clinics. The focus is on early diagnosis and treatment, although cure of
mental illness is considered beyond the possibility of even successful
treatment, which remains poorly defined throughout the book. It appears
on close examination of the book that the types of treatment instituted in
the network of psychiatric hospitals and clinics would be difficult to
recover from, especially the surgical treatments like leucotomy when
areas of the brain were deliberately destroyed in the hope of improving
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behaviour. Only one institution is listed in the appendix under other


clinics: Pentridge Prison. The Mental Hygeine Authority took over the
medical staffing of Melbournes main jail in 1959. Under the subtitle
sociopaths, Dax writes:
For many years the country prisons at Beechworth and Ballarat
have been supplied with medical care by the staff of the local mental
hospitals. Previously the Chief Government Medical Officer and his
assistant looked after Pentridge (which is the male prison in
Melbourne) though when a new psychiatric clinic was opened there
in 1959, the Mental Hygiene Department undertook the medical
staffing of this unit and also of the prison. (p.133)
He continues to explain how closely the psychiatric system is involved
with the courts and prisons systems, painting a rosy picture of the
prisoners liberties in what he admits are rather grim surroundings:
most of them are occupied with industrial work, and there is
some individual therapy there and a most interesting programme of
psycho-drama. The patients organize their entertainments and have
an active library and education section. Group therapy is highly
organized and most productive. This same medical staff looks after
the Alexandra Parade Clinic, since the sociopaths at Pentridge and
the alcoholics overlap appreciably. When patients are remanded on
bond by the courts for medical examination the reports are made at
the Alexandra Parade Clinic, when they are remanded in custody the
reports are made at Pentridge. Sociopaths who have spent a short
time in the prison psychiatric unit may be in need of more treatment
when they are discharged, and they will then attend the Alexandra
Parade Clinic to see their doctors. For this reason the staff of the
clinic work in close conjunction with the probation officers and one
of these officers regularly attends the Alexandra Parade Clinic and
sees patients there when they have their appointments for
psychiatric treatment. (p.133)
Although he does not explain treatment in other than the most vague
ways in the text, a few comments do give an indication of what was being
offered to the Australian people in the way of health promotion. In his final
chapter, titled the future, Dax writes:
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Within the past forty years vast strides have been taken, in two
eras of psychiatric treatment. First the physical treatments were
used, malaria for general paralysis [syphilis], prolonged sleep, insulin
comas, cardiazol and electroplexy, leucotomy, abreaction, and the
use of barbiturates. Next the advent of social psychiatry, industrial
occupation, group activities and therapies, rehabilitation,
resocialization and the tranquilizing drugs brought in a new phase of
treatment.
Now we are on the edge of a more fundamental change. Even in
our lifetime we shall see psychiatry move into the community and a
new attitude emerge to mental illness, its prevention and its
treatment. Perhaps this is the most exciting phase of all, for with
support, tolerance and group understanding we may together learn
to carry more of the stresses of civilization within our new
community structure. (p.205)
Dax does not mention the word eugenics in his book, nor admit to the
connection between the eugenics movement and the mental hygeine
movement, but he does include in another appendix a list of drugs being
studied under the auspices of the Mental Hygeine Authority, some of
which are still used today, but all of which can cause acute toxicity and
chronic illness themselves. These drugs include Chlorpromazine (Largactil),
Reserpine, Melleril, Tofranil, Stelazine, Librium, Parnate, Bromides and
Mono-amine oxidases. Chlorpromazine, Melleril and Stelazine are crippling
dopamine-blocking major tranquillisers notorious for causing tardive
dyskinesia and other forms of chronic brain and nervous system damage.
These and other toxic chemicals, including lithium and benzodiazepines
(the first of which was Librium) have been forced into people of all races
and ages in Australia via the public hospitals and community psychiatric
services, over the past fifty years, and especially in the past five.
Dax is best known in Melbourne, to which he returned from Tasmania in
1984, for the Cunningham Dax Collection of Psychiatric Art which includes
over 6,000 works of art by (often imprisoned) psychiatric patients and is
administered by the Mental Health Research Institute at Parkville. The
collection is used as a means to teach high school and university students in
Melbourne how to diagnose mental illness from peoples art. Dax began
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this collection, he said recently, in 1947, when he was working as a


psychiatrist in Surrey, England, and continued to build a large collection in
Victoria since the 1950s, after he emigrated to Australia (largely by
acquiring the art of inmates of the Royal Park Hospital, several of whom are
now dead, unlike Dax). The ownership of the 80 or so paintings he first
appropriated was disputed by the British hospitals he had taken them from,
and he says, he took 80 pictures back to France in 1952, and assumed
they had gone back to the hospitals. Dax is now 91 years old, and refused
to comment on problems in local or international psychiatry, saying his
views were out of date. He said he still goes in, twice a week, to keep an
eye on his collection.
Is the collection really his, though? He certainly collected them, but the
majority of the people who did the art were prisoners of the system he
headed, and are not even personally acknowledged for their often amazing
work. They become schizophrenics, manic depressives and
psychotics. Their art becomes evidence of mental illness demonstrating
psychopathology rather than creative genius. Their art was taken without
payment or recognition, and they were able to produce brilliant works of
art despite forced treatment which robbed them of their freedom, dignity
and physical health. They were truly tortured artists.
This tradition of forced slave labour in the guise of occupational
therapy has a long history in the mental health system, and still, every
year, the Mental Health System and allied organizations pathologise
creative activity by young people in Australia, while collecting their art, for
free. One of the most influential of these organizations, which often
masquerade as independent non-government organizations (NGOs), is
the Mental Health Foundation.

MENTAL HEALTH FOUNDATION


According to the self promotional literature of the Mental Health
Foundation of 1997, the Foundation was established in 1930 as the
Victorian Association for Mental Hygiene, however, the next year, they
were claiming something different:
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The Foundation was established in 1981 by a group of mental


health & business entrepreneurs in response to awareness that
governments could not permanently fund voluntary organisations.
The chairman of the Mental Health Foundation is Professor Graham
Burrows, who heads a Board of Directors which, according to their
promotional literature, has a National Scientific Advisory Board which
comprises key resource people and leaders in mental health opinion &
policy development around Australia and a National Organisation which
comprises organisations, individual & corporate members throughout
Australia. The 1998 pamphlet continues with the claim that these include
consumers and carers with experience of mental illness; members attracted
by the mental health promotion & education programmes, professionals
attracted by the Partnership programs; and, others are the corporate
supporters & sponsors. These corporate sponsors include drug
companies, and the Mental Health Foundation avidly supports drug
treatment for a wide range of mental illnesses, and have provided a
plethora of mental health education literature which promote both
mental illness diagnoses and drugs to treat them. This is despite claims that
the aims of the Foundation are to raise funds to promote mental health &
wellbeing, public involvement in mental health, removal of the stigma
linked with mental illness, research on mental health issues, effective
prevention programmes and mental health education.
An example of mental health education by the Foundation is
witnessed in a pamphlet titled Break down the barriers of mental illness,
sponsored by Eli Lilly, manufacturers and promoters of the SSRI
antidepressant Prozac. It begins with a most contentious claim:
One person in four in Australia right now is suffering a mental
health problem or mental illness severe enough to significantly affect
their daily lives.
What, exactly, these mental health problems and mental illnesses
are is not explained in the pamphlet, which is vague about this, in the
extreme:
These can range from long term, but intermittent severe
illnesses, to short term stress related disorders.
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Mental health problems and illness affect people from all cultural
backgrounds in rural and remote areas as well as the cities.
All are treatable, and with care and treatment, people usually do
recover.
After recovery, people with a mental illness usually want to
continue to live their lives as they did prior to their illness, as we all
expect following a physical illness to return to work or school, to
have fun, to care for, and be loved by friends, while continuing to
receive treatment and medication for their illnesses.
Yet anyone who experiences a mental health problem or illness
will suffer, in addition to their illness, the pain caused by stigma and
its related discrimination and isolation.
The irony that the psychiatric profession should be exhorting the public
to be aware of stigma whilst actively creating prejudice, drug addiction,
social isolation and suicide clearly escapes the authors of the pamphlet. The
extent of discrimination (including governmental discrimination) against
people who have been diagnosed with serious mental illnesses such as
schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder is listed in the pamphlet:
It is harder to get and keep work
Some government legislation discriminates against the mentally ill
It is harder to join sporting and recreation groups
Exclusion from membership of Boards of community associations or
companies
Insurance companies often refuse to insure mentally ill people or raise
premiums for superannuation, health cover, travel and life insurances,
amongst others
Some travel companies and airlines may refuse to carry people
experiencing a mental illness
People with a mental illness who may look or act strangely or possibly
cry in the street, shopping centres, public transport are avoided or
ignored instead of being comforted by others
Children whose parents have a mental illness find their friends at school
may drift away or ostracise them
There is even a popular misconception that people with a mental illness
have a developmental disability rather than an illness
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This perspective on stigma is far from the reality of psychiatric


survivors in Australia and it fails to explain the genuine causes of stigma
and prejudice against people who have been tortured as psychiatric
patients, euphemistically referred to, in recent mental health propaganda
as consumers. The injections of dopamine-blocking anti-psychotics that
people deemed to be seriously mentally ill are routinely subjected to
themselves cause the appearance to strangeness. They cause a
distressing range of movement disorders, including akathesia (difficulty
staying still and an urge to pace), Parkinsonism (tremor, rigidity and slowed
movements) and tardive dyskinesia (involuntary spasms and grimaces of
the face and limbs). Combined with the social isolation that results from
weeks, months or years of imprisonment, paranoia instilled in family
members and friends regarding a relapse of mental illness, media
demonisation of psychopaths and systematic disinformation connecting
mental illness with drug addiction and violence, people who have been
treated for mental illness in the Australian public hospital psychiatric
system can claim to have survived chemical and psychological torture.
The Mental Health Foundation, however, claims that this stigma and
isolation is caused by myth and misunderstanding of mental illness. In
claiming to be dispelling such myths, the Foundation reinforces the view
that drug compliance is of paramount importance in the treatment of
mental illness, and denies the extensive human rights abuses occurring in
Australian hospitals and psychiatric treatment clinics and centres. The
Foundation described its directly supported projects as:
Stress Management Programs for corporate, community & rural sectors
National Depression Awareness Campaign
Towards a Gentler Society Campaign (TAGS)
Quiet Crisis Campaign
Partnership Programme for GPs & Pharmacists
Mental Health Lecture Series
OPTIONS (Schools) addressing bullying
OPTIONS (Community) addressing suicide
Multimedia Information & Resources Project
Mood Disorders Group
G-LINE Problem Gambling Service
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The Foundation claims that it enjoys a reputation built on its success in


collaboration, support, auspice & sponsorship, and that others to
benefit include the Addiction Research Institute, Association of
Relatives & Friends of the Mentally Ill, Alzheimers Diseases & Related
Disorders Society, Anorexia & Bulimia Nervosa Education Campaign,
Childrens Protection Week, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Foundation
and States Mental Health Foundations. The Mental Health Foundation
claims to enjoy collaborative and support alliances with many national,
state and international agencies including:
Addiction Research Institute
Alzheimers Association Australia
Australian Medical Association
Australian National Association for Mental Health
Australian Red Cross
Australian Federation of Deaf Societies
Australian Society of Hypnosis
Council on Aging (Australia)
East-West Centre on Mental Health
Family Services Australia
Federation of Australian Jewish Welfare Societies
National Council of YMCA Australia
National Mental Health Council
Pharmaceutical Society of Australia
Royal Australian New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Royal Australian College of General Practitioners
Many Church Social Justice Committees
American Psychiatric Association
International Society of Hypnosis
International Society for Stress
World Federation for Mental Health
World Psychiatric Association
The gold-embossed pamphlet, does not admit to an author, however,
the activities of the Mental Health Foundation are controlled by Professor
Graham Burrows, Director of Psychological Medicine (Psychiatry) at the
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Austin Hospital in Heidelberg, Melbourne and senior Professor of Psychiatry


at the University of Melbourne. Professor Burrows, who is also on the
honorary editorial board of the drug-promoting MIMS publishing
company and directs many of the organisations mentioned in the
pamphlet, was mentioned in Ray Moynihans expose of diseasemongering by the medical profession in Australia. In Too Much Medicine,
the journalist wrote, in 1998:
In a series on depression in the Medical Journal of Australia
(MJA) in 1997, Professor Graham Burrows and colleagues wrote that
up to one in five people who visit a GP in this country will be
suffering from depressive or anxiety disordersThree weeks later, in
the same MJA series, another psychiatrist Professor Philip Mitchell
gave these endorsements to the role of drugs in the treatment of
depression. Most patients do best with a combination of
antidepressant medications and some form of psychological
therapythe vast majority of depressed patients seen in the general
practice setting have mild to moderate depression, for which the
new antidepressants are as effective as the old
Associate Professor Mitchell is with the School of Psychiatry at
the University of New South Wales, and is the Administrative
Director of the Mood Disorders Unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital
in Sydney. When questioned about the strong endorsement of drug
therapy, even for mild to moderately depressed patients, Professor
Mitchell said the wording could have been clearer
Moynihan tends to understate the impact of disease creation through
the suggestion of mental illness and the promotion of diagnoses such as
depression, and does not mention chemical, drug or biological warfare,
nor eugenics, but he does make some pertinent points about conflict of
interest:
After reading the first MJA article on the prevalence of these
disorders and the second on treatment, the reader might be forgiven
for forming the strong impression that up to 20 percent of the
Australians who visit a GP could benefit from treatment with the new
antidepressants: the medication of a nation on an unprecedented
scale [subsequently exceeded by cholesterol lowering drugs]. The
other clear message is that depression and related disorders are
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greatly under-diagnosed. This assumption has been at the centre of


the company-sponsored depression-awareness campaigns in
Australia as each company promoted its new antidepressant through
the 1990s. But are things really as bad as that?
Professor Burrows article stated, A general practitioner who
sees 40 patients a day can expect that eight will require support or
treatment for anxiety or depression and thats not counting those
whose disorders go unrecognised. Yet at almost the same time a
major report on the treatment of depression prepared in Britain,
while not ruling out that the prevalence might be higher, referred to
a prevalence in general practice of about 5 per cent for neurotic and
depressive illness
Discrepancies like these are hard to explain. Clearly the larger
the prevalence of a disease, the bigger the potential market for those
selling drugs. In such a situation it seems reasonable to expect that
any relationship between those making the estimates of disease
prevalence and the companies selling drugs should be made clear.
(p.144)
One of the dominant activities of the Mental Health Foundation is
fundraising, and even in death one is exhorted to support their vital work.
In a grotesque appeal for Wills and Bequests the Foundation has
produced a tear-off glossy Form of Bequest which allows the dying to
leave money and possessions to be used by the Mental Health Foundation
of Australia in its work of promoting good mental health to all Australians.
The smiling face of Professor Graham Burrows explains:
About one in every five Australians more than three million
people are suffering mental illness severe enough to significantly
affect their lives.
One person in ten will be hospitalised for mental illness at some
time during their lives.
Mental illness costs at least $3 billion per year for hospital
admissions, doctors fees and invalid pensions.
Added to this are the human penalties: marriage breakdown,
family disruption and child abuse.

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Stress caused by the economic recession alone is already having


an impact on the mental health of millions of Australians.
Young people especially are at risk with long-term
unemployment and homelessness in danger of setting behaviour
patterns for a lifetime.
There is a desperate need to act now to provide people of all
ages with the support they need to face the future with hope,
confidence and peace of mind.
We need to make good mental health a vital part of the
Australian lifestyle.
Professor Burrows does not make it clear as to what, exactly, good
mental health is, or how he plans to promote it for all Australians but he
does make clear that he is prepared to accept anything of value:
Your bequest may specify the activity you want to support
children, adolescents, corporate stress, aged care, etc. or become a
general bequest. You may specify the gift of a part of your estate, or
a parcel of shares, debentures or bonds, or a house or other real
estate, works of art, antiques or anything of value.
If in doubt about such a course of action the Mental Health Foundation
explains, further, that:
The Mental Health Foundation of Australia has appointed Trust
Company of Australia as trustees of the Mental Health Foundation of
Australia Charitable Fund. We would be happy to arrange a meeting
with a senior manager if you would like to discuss your will.
The G-Line is a joint project of the Mental Health Foundation of Victoria,
Vic Health and Liberty Victoria. Liberty Victoria is the government
sponsored Human Rights Organisation of Victoria, previously called the
Victorian Council for Civil Liberties. G-Line is one of the Mental Health
Foundations OPTIONS projects. Graham Burrows is described in their
promotional literature as being qualified with AO, KSJ, MD, ChB, BSc, DPM,
FRANZCP, FRCPsych, MRACMA, Dip.M.Hlth.Sc (Clinical Hypnosis) being, in
addition to other things, Professor of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne
and Director of the Psychiatry and Psychology Service Unit of the Austin
and Repatriation Medical Centre. He is Chairman of the Options Project,
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which claims to be promoting mental health and human rights in the


community.
In 1998, the options project produced an advertising pamphlet, with
tear-off order form for a 59-paged book titled Your Guide to Responsible
Gambling, priced at $6 per copy. The book is heralded with the grandiose
claim, splashed in red letters above small photos of its two smiling authors:
This book is a must for everyone! Those who gamble, who
know someone who gambles, those who feel they have a gambling
problem and everyone with an interest in gambling and its effects.
The book is authored by Graham Burrows and a psychologist called Greg
Coman. Greg Comans stated qualification is a humble MSc. He is said to
be a psychologist specialising in habit disorders, particularly problem
gambling. He apparently was instrumental in setting up G-Line,
Australias 24-hr gambling telephone counselling service and is currently
researching the potential for telephone counselling as a treatment
approach for gambling and other psychological problems. He is described
also as Treasurer of the National Association for Gambling Studies. It is
likely that he did most of the hard work in writing the book.
It is ironic that the OPTIONS project claims to be promoting mental
health and human rights in the community is jointly sponsored by
institutions with a long history of atrocious human rights abuses: the
psychiatric treatment industry and State Government of Victoria (which
controls the Police Force and public hospital system). Added to the irony of
this alliance for human rights is the collaboration of Liberty Victoria in the
options projects. Their name appears at the bottom of the pamphlet
advertising Graham Burrows new book alongside the logo of VicHealth, but
it is unclear as to what their role in the project is.
In 1996 and 1997 two workers from the Victorian Council of Civil
Liberties, Konstandinos Karapanagiotidis and Steafan Kilkeary undertook an
investigation into official complaint mechanisms for aggrieved psychiatric
patients in the State of Victoria. Their findings, after a one year
investigation including taped interviews and numerous personal interviews
for the Seeking Justice Project, confirmed, in addition to a complete
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failure of these complaint mechanisms, extensive human and civil rights


abuses of the most appalling nature occurring in Victoria. This included
punitive treatment, heavy drugging, misdiagnosis, unnecessary
incarceration, and sexual abuse by psychiatrists. They give examples of
women who had been raped or otherwise sexually assaulted being
disbelieved and punitively diagnosed and treated by the psychiatric
profession and hospital system:
A woman screaming saying that she had been gang raped by 5
men while on day leave and that she was pregnant as a result of this
abuse was not believed by anyone in the psychiatric hospital in which
she was a patient. The workers punished her for telling lies by not
allowing her to see a doctor. It was not until the woman was
discovered in a pool of blood, having miscarried, that the workers
finally believed her.
The report, which the Liberty Victoria attempted to prevent the release
of, quotes Fran Quigley of the Geelong Rape Crisis Centre who says:
Women in the psychiatric system are treated in an appalling
manner. They are often caught up in the system for a long
timeoften do not have a mental illness. At one stage they are told
they have schizophrenia then it suddenly becomes a personality
disorder. Clearly they are not being assessed properly.
The report says:
The sad fact is that the dominant medical model of mental
health dictates the way the mental health industry is run. It imposes
a biological, victim-blaming approach that diminishes the individuals
capacity for self-understanding and self-fulfilment. By instead
concentrating on those damaging and dangerous labels of mental
illnessthis results in practices which cause rather than cure
distress.
The investigation of the Seeking Justice Project was focused on
complaint mechanisms, specifically about complainants experiences in
dealing with the Office of the Public Advocate, Community Visitors
Program, Mental Health Legal Centre, Victorian Mental Illness
Awareness Council, Health Services Commissioner, Chief Psychiatrist
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and State Ombudsman. The authors list several fundamental failures of


the existing system, including, lack of independence in which they quote
Isabel Collins, Executive Officer of the Victorian Mental Illness Awareness
Council as saying, There does not exist in the state of Victoria a single
independent body where a consumer can take their complaint and have it
dealt with objectively and fairly. In the same section they write:
advocates from The Office of the Public Advocate appear
before the Guardianship and Administration Board and actively speak
against the wishes of those individuals for whom they are supposed
to be advocating. One such example was where the hearsay evidence
of an advocate led to an individual having his freedom of movement
curtailed.
Of betrayal by supposed advocates they give several examples:
in 1996 we witnessed a Community Visitor in Footscray
Psychiatric Hospital advocating against an involuntary patient, while
pretending to her that he was on her side. What he was trying to
do, without her knowledge or approval, was to have her children
permanently placed in the custody of her estranged husband.
They add:
It is really disappointing that the statutory complaints
mechanisms, all of which have sweeping legislative powers to act
against abusive and negligent mental health workers, steadfastly
refuse to do so. Particularly when it is understood that lethargy, as
Keith Jackson from the Health Services Commissioner put it, is met
with ridicule and contempt by workers against whom complaints are
made. He stated that psychiatrists for one in Victoria operate as a
law unto themselves. Laughing off even such serious allegations as
the sexual assault of a patient. The Ombudsman too, retains the
power to initiate investigations on its own behalf, and to name
negligent service providers in Parliament. It however remains silent,
neutered.
Referring to a Climate of Fear in the Victorian Mental Health System,
Karapanagiotidis and Kilkeary, who left Liberty Victoria after the human
rights organization had refused to release the report, write:
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almost every mental health worker encountered during the


SEEKING JUSTICE Project made some reference to the climate of
fear. With the exception of Dr Carlyle Perera *the State Governmentappointed Chief Psychiatrist], who conversely stated that individuals
in Victoria now live in a climate of openness.
A great deal has been written and said about the climate of fear
in the mental health industry. Indeed, it was one of the key reasons
why Mr Brian Burdekin, then Human Rights and Equal Opportunity
Commissioner, reconvened his inquiry into human rights and mental
health in Victoria in 1994. It had been stated to Mr Burdekin that any
worker who spoke out against the mental health system would be
persecuted. Usually by her or his job.
The human rights workers summarise treatment in the public hospital
system:
from first contact with the mental health industry the
individuals experience can be typified and normalised by the use of
excessive force, copious amounts of mind-stultifying medication, and
treatments such as solitary confinement, shock therapy, and stimulus
aversion. Treatments which tend to exacerbate rather than alleviate
situations of mental unwellness.
In the brief conclusion of the report, the authors quote a response from
Dr Carlisle Perera, who has since been replaced as the head of State
Psychiatric Services by Professor Norman James, previously head of Royal
Park (Psychiatric) Hospital in Parkville. They write:
Dr Carlyle Perera stated that do-gooders from organisations
such as Liberty Victoria just wanted to rush out there and give
themtheir rights. That this would cause them distress and would
alienate them from the people who really cared about them (the
workers in the mental health industry). This is, at best, a dodgy line
of reasoning.The bottom line is that when do-gooders such as us
talk about human rights, we are talking about everyones right to live
free from abuse. What came out of the Seeking Justice Project and
the Know Your Rights Workshops was that many individuals felt that
their rights were being sorely trampled on in Victoria. And that there

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was nowhere to go to either evince justice, and/or to prevent further


abuse.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHIATRY IN AUSTRALIA


When the first large asylum was built in Australia, at Tarban Creek in
New South Wales, the Superintendent made a requisition that hints at the
treatment the inmates were to receive when the lunatic asylum opened:
63 iron bedsteads, six chairs for violent cases, 16 cribs of wood
for dirty cases, 12 pairs of leather hobbles of various sizes for males
and females, 12 hard belts of strong leather and iron cuffs attached
to them with straps, 12 cuffs and belts for the hands in less violent
*cases+ (Dax, 1975)
The Tarban Creek Asylum was opened in 1838, and it accepted patients
from Victoria who were transported there by ship from Melbourne. The
state of Victoria had not yet been founded, and the area was still
administered by the British colonists from New South Wales. Prior to this a
smaller asylum had been opened in 1811 in New South Wales, before
which the insane were kept in jails. The close connection between the
prisons system and the psychiatric system has persisted to the present.
The next asylum was built in Tasmania (Van Diemans Land) which was
then a prison colony along with Norfolk Island, to the east of Tasmania. This
occurred in 1829 and was followed by an additional larger asylum at Port
Arthur in 1842. Dax wrote of Port Arthur in A World History of Psychiatry:
In 1842 an asylum was opened at Port Arthur. There were four
dormitories, a central hall, 24 cells, and a padded room. One patient
spent long hours in a cage. Port Arthur then had an evil reputation,
and Britain, in a wave of belated guilt, ordered the penal settlement
to be abandoned, so that by 1879 only 64 prisoners, 126 paupers
(presumably housed in the invalid block), and 69 lunatics remained.
They were called imperial lunatics!
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Another matter of psychiatric interest at Port Arthur was an


adjacent establishment at Point Puer which contained up to 730
delinquent boys, mostly aged 9 to 18. Some were transported for
trivial offences. It appears that Governor Arthur made a real attempt
to educate and train them as stonemasons, sawyers, and in other
trades. (p.707)
The training and retraining of young people was one of the many
agendas of the mental hygienists, but they had to compete for the minds of
the young with the Churches, which had a longer history of both teaching
children and looking after the poor and disadvantaged. It was the Anglican
Church and the Roman Catholic Church in Australia that controlled most of
the primary and high school education in these areas in Australian schools,
but this was to change, according to the plans of the mental hygiene
movement.
One way in which the psychiatric profession formed an unholy alliance
with the Anglican and Catholic Churches, was by providing the initial
incarceration, enforcement of compliance (obedience) and drug
treatment of young people and collaborating with Church organizations in
their subsequent training in menial occupations, whilst providing on-going
supervision and enforcement of drug treatment. Cunningham Dax refers to
such programs
in From Asylum to Community, and continued
developments of this alliance are evident in an examination of todays
youth-training programs and psychiatric treatment and followup programs.
Dax wrote, of the then new system in the late 1950s:
Prior to 1954 there were no full-time chaplains within the mental
hospitals. Since that time the Anglican Church have appointed five
and the Presbyterians one, and it is hoped that three other full-time
chaplains from the Catholic and the Methodist churches and another
Anglican will be engaged before long. They are jointly appointed by
the Church and the Mental Hygiene Department. There is a
chaplains advisory committee which discusses the terms and the
conditions of appointment, and the training. Opportunities are
available for the chaplains of the various denominations to discuss
their work together and a series of successful seminars have been
held which have extended from a single day up to a full residential
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week. Three Anglican chaplains have been abroad for training.


(p.34)
Dax does not say which countries the chaplains were trained in but it
was undoubtedly Britain or America. Dax, who was born in Britain and
graduated in medicine at the University of London in 1935, is Anglocentric
in his perspective, and, along with common medical views of British and
British trained psychiatrists had fundamental belief in physical treatments
and drug treatment over talk therapies and psychotherapy of a more
gentle nature. This has been a feature of Australian psychiatry since the
time of Cunningham Dax, especially in the public hospital system, where
the only treatment is drugs and electric shocks. Psychotherapy is generally
held to not work for serious mental illness, and psychoanalysis, by
which is usually meant Freudian analysis, is suspected (with good reason) to
confuse the psychotic further. Dax does not mention psychoanalysis, or
Freud, and makes only passing references to psychotherapy, which he says
the psychologists employed by the Mental Hygiene Authority and public
hospitals were actively discouraged from doing. He writes:
Neither the psychologists nor the social workers are encouraged
to do psychotherapy as it is felt that they are more usefully used in
their own special fields. On the other hand, it is hoped to extend the
group activities for both these associates within their own
specialties (p.34)
In territorial fashion he defines what he sees the role of psychologists to
be in this new empire controlled and dominated by psychiatrists:
Nine years ago there was an establishment of seven
psychologists; now there are nineteen. They have not as yet been
widely used in the mental hospitals, but more within the clinics and
particularly in those for children. The ways in which they have been
occupied within the Department are therefore as follows:
Intellectual Deficiency Here the psychologists are particularly
concerned with assessing the intellectual abilities of the patient and
his capacity for development. They give remedial teaching, so the
child may develop to the maximum of his ability. They supervise the
patients activities so as to direct them towards gaining a therapeutic
benefit. They are able to guide the patients into appropriate
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occupations or activities towards training them to live in the


community.
Children In child guidance clinics some of the psychologists are
used for play therapy or counselling, but the practice varies.
Intellectual and vocational testing, educational assessment and
advice on overcoming difficulties, and remedial educational therapy
are regarded as some of the psychologists functions in this field.
They do valuable work in the instruction of the staffs of institutions
for adolescents and children, especially through group activities. Also
they usefully undertake the management of parents; group
discussions for remedial training.
Adults In this field the psychologists undertake the intelligence,
educational, vocational and projective testing, and they direct the
junction with the occupational therapists. They can set out patients
records in such a way that they will supply the needed data for
statistical records. Similarly they can prepare and plan controlled
psychiatric experiments in a way capable of statistical analysis.
Research They carry out research into the various aspects of
human behaviour and the best means by which patients, in all the
psychiatric fields can be taught fully to use their abilities and skills.
(p.34)
As far as spiritual needs of his patients, and of the Australian population
generally, Dax assumes that the Church can provide this:
Chaplains functions within the hospitals relate to the patients
spiritual needs and welfare and to their way of life, and therefore the
duties of the chaplain may be defined as follows:
To see whether each patient admitted wants, or is likely to want,
his spiritual help, and always to be available at a definite time for
patients to visit him.
To arrange for prayers, services and religious observance for the
patients of his own denomination.
To supervise the care of the hospital chapel.
To co-operate with the chaplains of the other denominations for
the welfare of the patients.
To act as educational officer in the hospital and so to interest
himself in such items as the library, debates, drama, English lessons,
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recreations, current affair discussions, choral societies, music, and


the patients magazine.
To be available to see patients relatives and to communicate, as
needs be, with their clergy.
To participate with the other medical associates in the treatment,
resocialization and rehabilitation of the patients.
To further the understanding between the mental hospitals and
the general public by interpreting the hospitals functions to the
community (p.35)
In other words, the mental hygiene movement seconded the Christian
Churches, starting with the Anglican Church, as public relations agents for
the treatments, diagnoses and propaganda provided by the psychiatric
profession, which controlled the mental hospitals, despite the fact that
what they were doing and teaching were the very antithesis of what Jesus
of Nazareth did and taught. They also seconded the psychology profession,
which competes with the psychiatry profession, to implement psychiatristdesigned treatment programs, administer psychiatrist-approved
intelligence tests and personality tests for psychiatric diagnoses made
by the psychiatrists (not the psychologists), and process statistics which
could be used by the medical and psychiatric profession, and, it turns out,
the pharmaceutical industry.
The care of intellectually deficient children was already a self-appointed
responsibility of the Christian Churches in Australia, and the conditions in
which these children were kept from the earliest days of British
colonization is a national disgrace. Although Dax does not write about
mistreatment of psychiatric patients during his own years of office, his
description of the conditions at the Kew Cottages in the 1950s gives some
indication of how unwanted children were treated in Melbourne:
There were open drains, children caught worms by drinking the
water, there was little storage accomodation, the paint was drab and
peeling. The childrens clothing was awful; the small boys had
unlaced boots, long moleskin trousers turned up at the bottom, adult
football jerseys which had been given to the cottages by a football
club with old army jackets on top and whatever hats they could
collect. They were dirty and had very little washing accomodation
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indeed. Many played in a shed during the day in a half-nude state,


there was a battery of lavatories with eight or ten adjoining seats but
there was no way of swilling the excreta out of the trough except by
walking thirty yards for water. They passed urine into the open
drains. The patients ate from tins with their fingers, slept on straw
mattresses and the place smelt of stale food and excreta and
unsatisfactory drainage. (p.125)
Although there were improvements in the cosmetic appearance of many
of the metropolitan institutions in the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s, the abusive
treatment of young people in Australia, including forced labour, separation
from families, and arbitrary punishment were to continue under the joint
supervision of the Mental Hygiene/Health Authority (and its successors)
and Church Organizations, later accompanied by bigger and bigger doses
and combinations of crippling drugs. Dax explains:
The intellectual deficiency colonies are partly under the care of
the Mental Hygiene Authority and partly of several voluntary
organizations. One of the latter is really a day-centre, organized on a
residential basis because it is in the middle of a sparsely populated
district, where the pupils cannot come by transport each day, in
other ways it is similar to the retarded childrens day-centres. There
are eighteen boarders there who go home for holidays and
frequently for weekends. A few day-children are taken. The other
two voluntary residential colonies are run by the Catholic Church.
Marillac House for retarded children from 6 to 16 was opened in
1943 by the Daughters of Charity of St Vincent de Paul. In 1961, there
were ninety-six girls, of a higher intellectual level than the children in
the retarded childrens centres and mostly of about special school
standard.
The Brothers of St John of God opened an institution in New
South Wales in 1947 for the training of intellectually handicapped
boys, and another in 1953 in Victoria. The children in the main
training centre are at the special school level, but a lodge adjoining
was later opened for those who were no more than the day-centre
level. In 1957 they opened a farm colony and there are now 95 boys
in the residential unit, and 40 in the farm colony. (p.124)

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The Church directly sold out to the corporate interests of the chemical
industry and psychiatric profession by selling Churches for conversion into
psychiatric treatment centres, where the treatments were inevitably
chemicals, combined, at times, with surgical mutilation and electric shocks,
physical restraint and solitary confinement, forced labour and
brainwashing. Dax writes:
The Clarendon Clinic [in East Melbourne] was formed by
redesigning a church, its vestry, a church hall and an adjacent house.
The body of the church has been converted into a therapeutic
workshop and the vestry into four consulting rooms. The church hall
has been made into a cloak-room, sitting- and dining-room, and a hall
for the rooms, offices and staff rooms and a female toilet block.
The clinic was designed to supply the needs of those patients
who had been many years in hospital, had been rehabilitated there
by the new methods used, and were now fit for community care.
However many of them were unable to earn a living at first or to find
accomodation except by the use, at least on a temporary basis, of
one of the departmental hostels. Moreover, many of them still
needed some medical care, and were therefore followed up by their
own medical staff who could visit the Clarendon Clinic to see them.
The new methods used are inadequately described by Dax, but
included insulin comas, chemical shock using cardiazol, injected and
ingested tranquillisers, electric shocks (an older treatment) and brain
mutilation by psychosurgery. He explains of the upgrading of Larundel
receiving house into a major treatment centre, which it remains today:
Larundel has a residential early-treatment unit and a short-term
rehabilitation hospital attached. At Mont Park [the adjoining
hospital] there is a longer term treatment hospital with a long-term
rehabilitation hospital attached; this has a subdivision consisting of
the general, medical and the surgical services and the neurosurgical
unit, together with a geriatric hospital. Opposite to Larundel is a
repatriation hospital for psychiatric cases attributable to war service.
Within two miles is the old private hospital which is being used for
geriatric patients but which may be converted later into a short-term
alcoholism treatment centre (p.177)

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As they plotted to convert a general hospital for the elderly to an


alcoholism treatment centre, the Mental Hygiene Authority and
associated hospitals explored new treatments for their captives and
converts with the aid of the then new Mental Health Research Institute in
Parkville, Melbourne. Dax writes:
In 1954 the Chief Clinical Officer, Dr Alan Stoller, was appointed,
but much of his time in that year was spent in an Australia-wide
survey of mental health needs and facilities, so he did not take up his
position until 1955. Shortly after this the Mental Health Research
Institute was built and officially opened by the late Sir Ian CluniesRoss.
In 1955 a Mental Health Research Fund was founded consisting
of an annual grant by the Victorian government to the University of
MelbourneWithin the first year the University Department of
Anatomy was able to demonstrate its work on the neuro-anatomical
basis of emotion and growth on mongoloid children. The
Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology were working on
cerebral sedatives and analeptics while the Department of Pathology
was doing research on cerebral arteriosclerosis.
By the beginning of 1956 the Mental Health Research Institute
was able to give demonstrations of the work proceeding in the
Department on the incidence of schizophrenia, Huntingtons Chorea,
juvenile delinquency, the clinical effects of tranquilizing drugs,
electro-encephalographic studies of brain-damaged children and the
results of infero-medial leucotomy [psychosurgery]. Studies had also
been made on the treatment of excitement with lithium and its
effects were being tried out at several hospitals. (p.139)
The passage above reveals the connection between the mental hygiene
movement, the University of Melbourne, the Mental Health Research
Institute in Parkville and the public hospitals, including Royal Park Hospital,
also in Parkville. In all these institutions the main focus was on drug
treatments, although Dax was also enthusiastic about brain surgery for the
treatment of psychological problems. At Royal Park Hospital, Larundel and
other psychiatric hospitals electric shocks to the brain were also used for
various conditions, the names of which have been changed over the past
forty years. Electric shocks to the brain, usually called ECT in Australia, are
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used against peoples wishes in dozens of hospitals in Australia, today. The


use of electrical shocks in Australia dates back to the 19th century, and it
has been an unchanging feature of Australian psychiatry over the past
century, although the discovery of ECT is usually attributed to Cerletti in
Italy in the 1940s. Such is the nature of psychiatric diagnosis and treatment
terminology as well as history: it is subject to frequent changes. Thus
electric shocks to the brain have been called electroconvulsive therapy or
ECT, shock treatment, electroshock, electroplexy and electrotherapy. The same class of drugs have been called analeptics,
neuroleptics,
anti-psychotics,
major
tranquillisers
and
psychotropics. The use of lithium was experimented with, in Daxs
terminology, for excitement (a suspect indication, indeed), but now it is
used for mania and bipolar affective disorder. Previously bipolar
affective disorder (BAD) was called manic depression.
Lithium was first used on psychiatric patients by the then 39 year old
superintendent of Bundoora repatriation hospital in Victoria, Dr John Cade.
This occurred in the 1940s, and since then the Victorian and Australian
psychiatric hospitals have been avid dispensers of lithium, often referred to
as a mood stabiliser. Although it may indeed prevent fluctuations in
mood, the ingestion of lithium is accompanied by a range of unpleasant and
dangerous side-effects and is extremely toxic in overdose. Lithium is toxic
to the kidneys and thyroid in particular, and, since the toxicity margin is
recognised to be low, regular blood tests to check lithium levels (also used
to check compliance with drug-taking) are necessary if this drug is
prescribed, as it often is done in Australia. It also dulls emotional reactions
generally and produces a range of unpleasant mental side-effects in many
who are forced to take the drug under threat of incarceration if they fail to
comply with treatment.

A PERSONAL EXPERIENCE
In August 1999 I appeared on public radio in Melbourne warning about
the dangers of dopamine-blockers, lithium and other drugs currently being
forced into people against their will in Melbourne and Australia and
drawing attention to human rights abuses in Victoria and elsewhere by the
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mental health system. Two weeks later I was myself abducted from my
residence by police and psychiatric workers (CAT team from the Alfred
Hospital) who broke into my home, handcuffed me and took me away for
treatment at the Adult Psychiatry Unit of the Alfred Hospital, in the inner
eastern suburb of Prahran, in Melbourne. Discussion occurred there
between psychiatrists as to whether to try and force me to take lithium
(with accompanying blood tests), but it was decided to inject me with
dopamine-blocking depot (long-acting) tranquillisers instead. Several drugs
were injected into me while I was kept in solitary confinement for three
days during the time of the Victorian State election and Republic
referendum.
After three separate abductions over a period of 2 months and a total
incarceration of 5 weeks, I was allowed home again, but placed on a
Community Treatment Order which made me an involuntary patient of
the Victorian Psychiatric Services, and authorised repeated injections of
long-acting tranquillisers at two-weekly intervals, a treatment decided by
the English psychiatrist nominated to treat me at the Alfred Hospital.
Whilst incarcerated, I was diagnosed as possibly suffering from several
serious mental illnesses, including Bipolar Affective Disorder and
Schizophrenia. Finally it was decided that I had Schizo-affective
disorder and regular injections were instituted with the depot antipsychotic Zuclopenthixol. On one occasion, within minutes of my arrival in
the seclusion room of the hospital I was injected with two injections, which
I was later told were Accuphase (another preparation of Zuclopenthixol)
and Droperidol (another dopamine-blocking major tranquilliser).
A formal presentation to senior psychiatrists by the psychiatric
registrar, a Dr Tejpal Singh, was organised at the hospital, in which he
presented a motley collection of fact and fiction about me to an unknown
(to me) group of doctors who diagnosed me in my absence as probably
suffering from Bipolar Affective Disorder.
The case presentation reads as follows:
Presenting Romesh Sinewiratne, a 39 years old, currently de-registered
General Practitioner, divorced father of one 7 years old daughter living
alone in a rented house in Caulfield.
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Referred to the CAT team by a medical colleague and recommended


under MHA because of:
Grandiose & Persecutory delusions
Decreased need to sleep
Elevated affect
Increased agitation & irritability
These symptoms were said to have been demonstrated for 1-2 weeks,
however, the report is mostly fictional, and merely crafted to fit the
diagnosis. Dr Singh, who constructed the Case Presentation, had
worked in the area of psychiatry for only a few months, while he awaited
Australian qualification as an ophthalmic surgeon. He was hesitant in his
speech in English, but capable of doing complex eye surgery, a skill much
needed by Australians, particularly Aboriginal Australians. Yet he was being
denied an opportunity to work in this area in Australia, despite working for
several years as an ophthalmologist in his native India. In Australia he was
required to work within the public hospital system as a junior registrar in
the area of psychiatry, about which he knew and cared next to nothing, and
where his main role was writing forms, making phone-calls and arranging
treatment with tablets and injections for people who did not want or need
such treatment.
He was a polite man, who seemed somewhat embarassed at having to
treat a colleague in this way, but he still did what he thought he was
required to, and presented a case study conforming to psychiatric
expectations, and those of his superiors. In it he repeated verbatim,
extracts from a previous discharge summary from Royal Park Hospital in
1995, which was itself hearsay and not supported by fact. As a history of
present illness he wrote:
His first contact with psychiatric services began in 1995 when he
was practicing as a GP in the Dandenong area. At that time he had
begun to neglect his medical practice, abolished regular hours and
appointments in his practice, and claimed to be able to diagnose
patients problems instantly on sight, without the need for proper
history and examination. He failed to pay his employees in the weeks
leading to the admission and omitted to pay his rent, taxation and
superannuation commitments. He was spending uncharacteristically
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large amounts of money on books. He was referred to the Inner


South CMHC and CAT by family.
This historical evidence of mental illness is repeated as fact by Dr
Singh and is copied from a discharge summary he had access to, which was
issued by another hospital, the now demolished Royal Park Hospital. He
had access, through the State Psychiatric System, to previous
misinformation provided to, and accepted by psychiatrists at the Royal Park
Hospital back in 1995. The discharge summary from the hospital claims:
Approximately 4 months prior to admission, Romesh developed
a decreased need for sleep, elevated affect and frenetic activity. At
this time he began neglecting his medical practice. He stated to
relatives that he had a revelation like Buddha in which he became
aware of the oneness of all living things and began haranguing
friends and relatives about this incessantly. He referred to a complex
series of ideas which he referred to as the Bioblos *the 4dimensional bioblob, a biological theory, not originally one of my
own+ and the Chaotic theory of time *chaos theory+ which made no
sense to relatives. He abolished regular hours and appointments in
his practice *untrue+, and claimed to be able to diagnose patients
problems instantly on sight, without the need for a proper history
and examination [also untrue]. He attempted to give away his
practice gratis to his locum [untrue]. He failed to pay his employees
in the weeks leading to his admission [untrue] and had omitted to
pay his rent, taxation and superannuation commitments [partly true].
He was spending uncharacteristically large amounts of money on
books [$600 on medical and psychological textbooks for my
research+Referred to Inner South CMHC and CATT by family.
Refused community Rx.
The irony escaped Dr Singh and his colleagues that even worse than
diagnosing people on sight, must be diagnosing people based on hearsay
and defamatory documents in their absence. Not that there is a necessity
for locking up and injecting people for failing to pay their superannuation
and spending uncharacteristically on books.

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Dr Singh, and the consultant psychiatrist, Kym Jenkins, had interviewed


me while I was held in seclusion, but their description of my mental state
was no more accurate than the claim in the case study that I had a strict
catholic upbringing (I actually went to two Anglican private boys schools
and came from a protestant family). After describing my premorbid
personality as schizo-typal dependant personality disorder, is a report of
my Mental State Examination which reads as follows:
General appearance & behaviour- Well groomed, suspicious,
hostile, verbally aggressive
Speech- Pressured, coherent
Mood & Affect- Elevated, anxious, angry, irritable
Thinking Stream of thought Rapid
Form of thought flight of ideas
Content of thought Delusional beliefs that he is
persecuted by a Jewish mafia. Believes that Mr Kennet & Mr
Howard have him locked up before elections. Says that he is
being threatened with political incarceration, character
assassination and attempts on his life. The reason for this
related to the independent political, medical and scientific
research that he has been carrying outDelusional belief that
the hospital staff are involved in spreading AIDS to third world
countries like East Timor.
Perceptions Not elicitable
Cognition Conscious state conscious
Concentration poor
Orientation in T, P, P orientated
Registration poor
Short term memory poor
Long term memory poor
Insight & judgement Impaired
Rapport difficult to establish
Under treatment and progress Dr Singh reveals the miraculous nature
of modern psychiatry, in the cure of one so clearly moribund:
Currently receiving:
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Risperidone 2 mg nocte
PRN medications Injection Droperidol 5-10 IM [intramuscular
inj.]
Midezaolam [Midazolam] 5-10 mg IM
Diazepam [Valium] 10 mg PO
Settled down remarkably with treatment
The valium was, in actual fact, only offered and not forced (and
therefore not taken) and Dr Singh fails to mention the Accuphase
injections, or the solitary confinement, let alone my actual political, medical
and scientific work. Following the normal sleeping patterns and speech
patterns observed on the ward, the diagnosis had to be changed, but the
sentence increased: long term injections and a potentially fatal psychotic
illness: probably either schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. Drs
Singh and Jenkins refused point blank to discuss human rights abuses,
eugenics, medical ethics or disease-mongering and actively avoided
conversations with me while I was held at the Alfred Hospital. They
insisted, however, that I was very ill and needed my medication.
The first time efforts were made to force me to take lithium occurred in
February 1995, when two men, one of whom said he was a doctor arrived
at my home in St Kilda and asked me to take lithium and clonazepam (a
benzodiazepine tranquilliser). I was very surprised. I agreed, however to
walk down Fitzroy street later that week to visit a psychiatrist called Rajan
Thomas, whom I had been told was an expert in autism.
I was reading Oliver Sacks Anthropologist on Mars at the time, and had
become fascinated by this psychiatric diagnosis of children. I was
particularly moved by the amazing drawings in the book said to be done by
idiot savants, children diagnosed as autistic but with brilliant intuitive
musical and/or artistic skills. Interested in psychology generally and the
brains development as well, I expected an interesting discussion with a
colleague with expertise in childrens brain development, but that is not
what was waiting for me at the Junction Psychiatric Clinic, where I had been
lured under false pretences. Dr Thomas knew next to nothing about
children or their mental development and was more interested in
diagnosing me than discussing neurology or even psychiatry with me. His
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provisional diagnosis was hypomania, I believe, but he never told me


this himself.
I discovered that I had been diagnosed as hypomanic when I had been
taken by police and CAT team workers to Royal Park Hospital in April 1995,
and the diagnosis was officially confirmed by Norman James, then
Psychiatric Director of Royal Park Hospital, and now the Chief Psychiatrist of
Victoria. During the three weeks I was held in one of two locked wards at
Royal Park Hospital, I only saw Norman James once, and have a poor
recollection of the meeting, since I was heavily drugged at the time (with
haloperidol syrup). I think I just begged him to let me go home. He said next
to nothing.
My second meeting with Norman James I recall very clearly. I had just
returned from Brisbane, Queensland, where I had been locked up for six
weeks after I escaped from Royal Park in May 1995. Since I had not shown
evidence of mania or even hypomania, the diagnosis at the Prince Charles
Hospital had been changed to a presumed paranoid psychosis for which I
had been injected with a terrible drug called flupenthixol. Flupenthixol is
a dopamine-blocker, but was then said to be new and improved. It gave
me severe akathesia, Parkinsonism and a rash on my face. These all
resolved within a few weeks of the two injections I was given of the drug in
1995. Norman James ordered the second of these himself after asking me
to leave the room and making a phone call to the Prince Charles Hospital.
He then ordered me to return to see him a week later, reminding me that I
was still an involuntary patient of the hospital. A week later, he discharged
me from the hospital on a Community Treatment Order (CTO). This was my
first introduction to the modern development of eugenics in Australia. At
this stage, however, I had not even heard of eugenics.

PREJUDICED RULES
Following the early development of eugenics theory by Francis Galton
and Charles Darwins son, in England in the 1800s, the ideas, which
included fundamental assumptions of white superiority, spread to
Germany, Scandinavia and the United States. They also underpinned
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Commonwealth racial and social policies in countries such as Australia, New


Zealand, South Africa and Canada. The first American State to formally
adopt eugenics laws was Connecticut, which in 1896 passed legislation
forbidding marriages of insane people followed by other states, with
increasingly barbaric laws. In 1898, the same year heroin was first
manufactured from morphine by Bayer pharmaceuticals, a eugenic
sterilization bill was introduced in Michigan allowing castration of all
inmates of the Michigan Home for the Feeble-Minded and Epileptic, and
also people who had been convicted of a felony for the third time. In the
same year, twenty four male children in Massachusetts were castrated for
persistent epilepsy and masturbation and masturbation with weakness
of mind.
In 1899 Houston Stewart Chamberlain published Foundations of the 19th
Century in which he described Aryan superiority and denounced Jews and
Negroes as inferior. Chamberlain had previously advised the Kaisers court
(in 1897), Germany having become a major centre of eugenics
development. At the time he apparently urged the elimination of Jews and
other racial aliens from Germany and the establishment of a Teutonic
religion founded on the sacred mystery of Aryan blood(Meinsma, 1998).
A Brief History of Mental Therapy (1998) by Robert Meinsma, published
on the Leading Edge Research Group Home Page contains detail about the
history of eugenics that is difficult to obtain elsewhere, since this area of
medical science has been effectively written out of history following
World War II, when it had to be admitted that eugenics practices had gone
too far. In Schizophrenia Genesis: Origins of Madness (1991) the American
psychiatrist, Professor Irving I. Gottesman gives a subtle warning about
pessimistic genetic counseling regarding schizophrenia:
This is an appropriate place to broach the topic of genetic
counseling - the use of genetic information to influence decisions
about marriage, divorce, childbearing, and abortion after reminding
ourselves that the road to Hell is paved with good intentions and that
we are dealing more with an art than a science for the time being.
The decisions here are very personal ones, going to the core of an
individuals sense of identity, and they are often made at the height
of vulnerability to both competent and incompetent adviceMuch of
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the information available to patients and their relatives is really


misinformation. The well-known prototype of Huntingtons disease,
where remarkable advances have taken place in locating a gene at
the tip of chromosome 4 and that can be detected with enough
accuracy to identify carriers before they show symptoms, provides an
inappropriate, even misleading, model for counseling in
schizophrenia. Unnecessary guilt and self-limitation in both marriage
and reproduction are the result of such misinformation. (p.199)
The road to Hell being paved with good intentions is probably a
reference to the implementation of eugenics programs against
schizophrenics and other mentally ill people, since the index reference
to eugenics refers to this passage on genetic counseling. Most modern
psychiatry and psychology textbooks do not even mention the word,
although the traditions and prejudices of eugenics have persisted in these
mind sciences. As Gottesman rightly points out, however, some aspects
of psychiatric practice are more an art than a science. This is not
necessarily a bad thing, since practising science in an artistic and
aesthetic way could greatly improve what is often ugly and clumsy theory
and practice. This is probably not what Gottesman means, though. Shortly
before warning about misinformation, he refers the reader to his own
introductory pamphlet on genetic counseling, commissioned by the
National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI), described as a self-help
consumer group who have expressed a keen interest in the issues
surrounding the possible genetic transmission of schizophrenia, affective
psychoses, and Alzheimers disease. (p.199)
There is no doubt that genes can affect the development of the brain
and intellect. The obvious example is that of congenital syndromes such as
Downs syndrome, in which the underlying genetic defect has been well
established. Downs syndrome can be caused by two types of chromosomal
abnormality (trisomy 21 or translocation of part of this chromosome), and
produces a distinctive syndrome including intellectual deficit, distinctive
facies (epicanthic folds, macroglossia and low set ears) and short stature.
Children with Downs syndrome are also prone to congenital heart defects
as well as ear problems. The genetic problem underlying this disease
involves chromosome 21, which can cause Downs syndrome by being
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attached to another chromosome (translocation), or by being doubly


represented (trisomy). Children with Downs syndrome, who comprise the
largest subgroup of children with severe intellectual impairment, are not all
equally affected as far as any of the many features of the syndrome is
concerned. Some children have profound intellectual difficulties and are
unable to learn to speak or understand speech, read or write. Others are
not seriously affected, and have only mild intellectual difficulties. In
addition to this, children with Downs syndrome often have skills and
attitudes which are unrecognised or undervalued. This may include a
passionate love of music and art, unaffected by pretension, and a gentle
and sensitive disposition.
It is unfortunately the case that in our academic system the measure of
success is almost exclusively on beating other students in exams and
tests, where one of the key necessities for winning is speed. The neuronal
circuits in the brain of a child with Downs syndrome do not allow for as
rapid physical and intellectual movement as a child unaffected by the
condition. This means that in a competitive academic system, these
children are likely to fail, and thus lose confidence in themselves. A better
alternative would be to maximise the opportunities for creative selfexpression through, for example, art and music in any children who have
difficulty with verbal communication, in a cooperative rather than
competitive environment.
Although there have been marked improvements in the treatment of
mentally disabled children in recent years and increased implementation of
some of the teaching principles above, few are aware of how terrible
treatment of feebleminded and imbecile children has been for most of
this century, and the last one. Closely linked with this appalling abuse were
eugenics theories which supposed that efforts should be made by
scientists, doctors and politicians to improve the human race and the
human gene pool. This meant sterilizing or killing defectives so they did
not propagate the defect to future generations by breeding.
These may be familiar to readers as Nazi philosophy, and indeed the
German Nazis sank to new levels of depravity in their euthanasia (mercy
killing) program, in which mental defectives, including intellectually
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handicapped children, adolescents and adults, as well as the mentally ill


and degenerate were systematically hunted and exterminated using a
range of cruel methods. What is less well recognised is that the Nazi
eugenics program was developed from theories of racial superiority that
were prevalent in universities in most other parts of the western world,
notably the British Commonwealth countries, Scandinavia and the United
States of America, as well as in Western Europe. Japan, too, adopted
eugenics theories into an elitist scientific and political philosophy, this time
based on Japanese supremacy. These theories were based on the premise
that a natural hierarchy of superior and inferior races exist in the world,
and these include both animals and humans. The recognition that we are
primates, as well as mammals, and vertebrates, is inherent in the theory,
which accepts the basic principles of evolutionary theory as developed by
the English scientist Charles Darwin and his cousin, Francis Galton. These
British aristocrats placed themselves (the Darwins) at the top of an
intellectual hierarchy as the cream of English society. In this hierarchy, the
English, but specifically white Englishmen from good, aristocratic families
were intrinsically superior to the poor, foreigners, natives and
savages. Savages and natives included all dark-skinned indigenous
inhabitants of the countries the European colonists plundered, and these
people, of hundreds of different cultures, nationalities and origins were
indiscriminately referred to as indians.
From Manning Clarks Sources of Australian History is a quote from the
English Captain W. Tench, who wrote in 1788 of the Aborigines at Botany
Bay and Port Jackson:
The only domestic animal they have is the dog, which in their
language is called Dingo, and a good deal resembles the fox dog of
England. These animals are equally shy of us, and attached to the
natives. One of them is now in the possession of the Governor, and
tolerably well reconciled to his new master. As the Indians see the
dislike of the dogs to us, they are sometimes mischievous enough to
set them on single persons whom they chance to meet in the woods.
A surly fellow was one day out shooting, when the natives attempted
to divert themselves in this manner at his expense. The man bore the
teasing and gnawing of the dog at his heels for some time, but
apprehending at length, that his patience might embolden them to
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use still further liberties, he turned round and shot poor Dingo dead
on the spot: the owners of him set off with the utmost expedition.
(p.92)
As for the Aboriginal people who owned the Dingos, Tench is more
interested in their skin colour than their culture, language or genuine
motives in setting their dogs on the intruders and invaders:
Their colour, Mr. Cook *Captain James Cook+ is inclined to think
rather a deep chocolate, than an absolute black, though he
confesses, they have the appearance of the latter, which he
attributes to the greasy filth their skins are loaded with. Of their want
of cleanliness we have had sufficient proofs, but I am of opinion that
all the washing in the world would not render them two degrees less
black than an African negro. At some of our first interviews, we had
several droll instances of their mistaking the Africans we brought
with us for their own countrymen. (p.90)
Skin colour is, like blood group, and many physical attributes, genetically
determined, but this would not have been known by Captain Tench or
Captain Cook, since the concept of genes had not yet been elucidated,
however concepts of inherited traits that run in the blood are thousands
of years old. These have been associated with various social and political
policies in many parts of the world, in which the superior place of ruling
elites (and elite blood lines) has been justified by arguments that they are
naturally more deserving and thus destined to dominate the lower
classes. They include the caste system in India, as well as the feudal
states of ancient China, Japan, Africa, Europe and Asia. The prejudices that
lie behind such hierarchies, although widespread and enduring, have not
been a ubiquitous feature of human society, and many people in modern as
well as ancient societies have been fundamentally unprejudiced,
egalitarian, and respectful of other lands, cultures and people.
The English colonists who decided on Australia an ideal site for a penal
colony were not unprejudiced men, as their own records and transcripts of
their speeches demonstrate. In 1779, when Joseph Banks recommended
Botany Bay as a site for a convict colony, he is recorded in the Journals of
the House of Commons as suggesting:
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In case it should be thought expedient to establish a Colony of


convicted Felons in any distant Part of the Globe, from whence their
Escape might be difficult, and where, from the Fertility of the Soil,
they might be enabled to maintain themselves, after the First Year,
with little or no Aid from the Mother Country, to give his Opinion
what Place would be most eligible for such Settlement? informed
your Committee, That the Place which appeared to him best adapted
for such a Purpose, was Botany Bay, on the Coast of New Holland, in
the Indian Ocean, which was about Seven Months Voyage from
England; that he apprehended there would be little Probability of any
Opposition from the Natives, as, during his Stay there, in the year
1770, he saw very few, and did not think there were above Fifty in all
the Neighbourhood, and had Reason to believe the Country was very
thinly peopled ; those he saw were naked, treacherous, and armed
with Lances, but extremely cowardly, and constantly retired from our
People when they made the least Appearance of Resistance (p.61,
Sources of Australian History, Manning C. Clark, 1957)
The British plan to make Australia into a penal colony was based on
several factors about the large island previously known as New Holland,
after the discovery of the island continent by Dutch sailors and merchants
in the 1600s. The main reasons that Australia was chosen were that it was
far away and relatively unpopulated. The extraordinary beauty of the
land was largely unappreciated by the European colonists whose primary
motive was exploitation of resources, including both natural resources
and human resources, but, until the discovery of gold in Victoria and New
South Wales in the 1850s and subsequently extensive mineral deposits in
many other areas, Australia was considered a useless piece of land by all
the Europeans nations that visited. This included the Dutch, Spanish, French
and English and probably also the Portuguese, Chinese and Indians, all of
whom explored the area now called Indonesia prior to the 1800s. As the
early historical records show, another important motive by the English for
colonizing Australia was to prevent their arch-enemies, the French, from
taking possession of the continent.
As the historian Manning C Clark explains:

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External causes also contributed to the occupation of more


territory. Fear of the French, a chronic mental disease of the English
over the whole period, led to the abortive settlements at Western
Port (Victoria) in 1826, and to a military settlement using convict
labour at King Georges Sound (Western Australia) in the same year.
The prospect of capturing some of the trade with Indonesia led to
the creation of a convict settlement at Port Essington in 1826. Fear of
the French played a part, too, in the decision to create a new colony
on the Swan River (p.143)
In World History of Psychiatry Professor Dax, who presided over the
reforms in mental health care that occurred in the 1950s and 1960s only
hints at the abusive treatment of early psychiatric inmates in Australia:
there is little record of any special treatment other than the
usual purging, bleeding, blisters, and setons. The electrical machine
at Lachlan Park in Tasmania has already been noted, and an ominous
sounding acid to the spine
The electrical machine Professor Dax refers to was a torture device, to
which immobilised lunatics would be strapped down and electrocuted for
upto half an hour daily (p.709). This cruel piece of what was then very
modern technology was used as early as 1851 according to records from
the Lachlan Park hospital in Tasmania, which was then administered by
the Commonwealth of Britain as a prison colony.
Britain had, at the time, a horrible history regarding institutional
treatment of those deemed insane by the medical profession and other
authorities. Bethlem Hospital, the first modern asylum, was renovated in
1676, and was considered one of the finest buildings in London, resembling
the Tuilleries, a French royal palace, from the outside. This was a
consequence of petty rivalry between the King of England and the King of
France, and Louis XIV of France was said to have been displeased with what
he saw as a deliberate slight against himself and the French Empire. As it
turned out, though, George III, the mad King of England was himself
treated by the medical experts of the time, who for some reason thought
that he was even madder than other members of the British aristocracy.
King George III was subject to bleeding, blistering, scarifying, purging,
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emetics and solitary confinement when he went mad recurrently during


his reign, concluding with a final breakdown at the age of 82, according to
Professor John Howells who wrote the chapter on Great Britain in the
same book.

THE BRITISH EMPIRES PSYCHIATRIC SYSTEM


Howells elaborates on the less harsh treatment given to inmates of
British asylums in the late 1700s and early 1800s:
regulations provided for periodical inspections of chained
patients, to make sure that the circulation of the blood was not
impeded. Blood-letting was the usual remedy for manic patients,
who were also calmed with warm baths, tartar emetic, and
purgatives; melancholic patients were given similar treatment, but
they were immersed in cold water. Sores were artificially produced,
as it was believed that they provided an outlet for bad
humours.(p.192)
Despite the high ideals professed by the carers of the mentally ill in
England, a public scandal resulting in a Parliamentary Enquiry occurred
when in 1814, a Mr William Norris who was suffering from tuberculosis
(which used to called consumption) was discovered in a dark damp cell in
Bethlem, having been kept there in chains for 10 years. He died a year after
being removed from the place, but Professor Howells, who recounts the
story in World History of Psychiatry does not explain how, exactly, he died.
It is not unreasonable to wonder, given the public scandal surrounding his
case, whether the doctors who supervised his treatment in Bethlem had
anything to do with his treatment after he left the hospital.
Bethlem Hospital, from which the word bedlam is derived, was
acquired by the City of London in 1547 and remained a city-run asylum until
1948, although it also housed private patients, some of whom were young
women whom Dr John Haslam, the physician of Bethlem in 1809, lamented
had been subject to a brutal operation termed spouting. The torturous
mutilation, which included removal of the front teeth of upper and lower
jaw was intended to let the madness out through the mouth, since, at the
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time, madness and mental derangement were still thought to be caused by


bad humours.
Later in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries it was also believed
that madness was caused by abnormalities of blood flow to the brain, a
theory favoured by American psychiatrists such as Benjamin Rush and
others. This was used to rationalise the practice of bleeding and other
physical treatments, which were used on people who were physically
bound, chained and imprisoned. Flogging was a common punishment, and
other treatments, following the industrial revolution, included
technological wizardry such as spinning chairs and beds, and Rushs own
Tranquilliser Chair which prevented all movement and vision.
British psychiatry, which developed during the era of official British
slavery and imperialism has been punitive from the outset. It has also
been characterised by double standards based of class and race. What
was shrugged off as eccentricity in the upper classes was punished as
insanity in the lower classes, later called the working classes. The
ruling aristocracy and monarchy (royal family), after whom several
Australian and British hospitals are still named were allowed to behave in
ways and believe things which were not tolerated in commoners as
they referred to their subjects. In Australia today, several people
(mainly men) remain incarcerated indefinitely in forensic psychiatry
hospitals without having been found guilty of any crime. These people,
who have been deemed criminally insane are held at her Majestys
pleasure. Queen Elizabeth of England has, of course, never met any of
the people who are imprisoned for life at her pleasure.
The treatments given to psychiatric patients in Australian Hospitals and
asylums closely followed those in England in important respects, but the
level of experimentation with cruel new treatments in Australia exceeded
that of the mother country of Australian psychiatry. Because most of the
biggest hospitals and universities in Australia were built using British advice,
British designs and British systems of hierarchy, administration and
organization, the political and cultural links between Australian medicine
(including psychiatry) have always been deep, although in recent years
there has been an increasing influence from American psychiatry in the
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style of the APA, whose DSM is accepted as an authoritative source by


Australian courts and public hospital psychiatrists.
Unlike American psychiatry, which was strongly influenced by Freudian
psychoanalysis, Australian and British psychiatrists have traditionally been
more focused and often exclusively focused on drug treatments and
physical treatments (such as electric shocks, chemical shocks and brain
mutilation). The drugs used in Australia and Britain are largely the same,
and prescribed for the same diagnoses, although the doses used in
Australia are usually higher, and they are often prescribed in combinations,
with some patients receiving three, four or five drugs at the same time.
Many of the large drug and chemical companies in Australia, including
SmithKline Beecham and Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) are based in
England. Likewise many mining companies.
This is a pattern repeated in other Commonwealth countries including
Canada, South Africa and New Zealand, in which universities and hospitals
were also built during the reign of the British Empire. These countries were
the white colonies, but universities and hospitals, administered initially
by white colonists, were also built in other British colonies, which are now
considered to be part of the Third World. These include India, Sri Lanka,
Singapore, Hong Kong, Fiji, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), Ghana
(in Western Africa, previously called the Gold Coast), Kenya (in East Africa)
and several islands in the Caribbean Sea (the West Indies). During the
colonial era, a divide and rule policy was employed by the British, where
minority elites were established to rule over the majority population
through a British-controlled public service and colonial administration. This
strategy has had disastrous effects in nations around the world, resulting in
prolonged civil wars in many countries after they were granted
independence in the tumultuous years following the Second World War.
The universities founded by the British taught British-style psychiatry,
complete with schizophrenia, manic-depression and personality
disorders as well as the drugs favoured for their treatment. British
psychiatry was itself strongly influenced by Western European psychiatry,
especially that of the professors in German, Austrian and Swiss universities.
Then and now, universities were closely associated with hospitals and
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asylums which treated the poor and disadvantaged. In these hospitals, in


which young doctors were trained and old doctors established empires,
various therapeutic interventions were attempted to cure or control the
mad, some more cruel than others.
The focus of treatment of the insane has always been on control of
behaviour, rather than cure of psychological distress and the diagnoses
favoured were also based on outward evidence of abnormal behaviour
rather than the more subtle attempts by European and particularly Jewish
European doctors (including Freud) to understand the intricacies of the
human mind through psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis, which was largely
based on Freuds prejudiced and confused ideas about sexuality became
very popular in the United States of America after the Second World War,
but never gained a foothold in the more conservative British universities
and hospitals. The same was and remains the case in Australia:
psychoanalysis and also psychotherapy based on words (talk therapies)
are generally thought as ineffective in the management of serious mental
illness in line with a similar belief prevalent amongst British psychiatrists.
The connection between British and Australian psychiatry (and other
medical specialties) is more than a historical one. Today the entire system
of medical qualification and specialist recognition as well as most of the
postgraduate (and much of the undergraduate) medical education is
controlled by the so-called Royal Colleges. These shadowy remnants of
British Imperialism (and possibly Freemasonry) were instituted during the
age of slavery and were centred in London, and the old British Universities:
the Universities of London, Oxford and Cambridge. These institutions were
initially the only ones which could confer academic qualifications in the
British Empire, including degrees, fellowships and professorial
positions.
In the British academic hierarchy, which was exported to the colonies
and instituted in colonial universities, the heads of each department or
faculty were called professor and they had authority over the more
junior academic staff. This junior staff included tutors and lecturers, who
were graded as junior lecturers and senior lecturers. It took many years
to climb the academic hierarchy, which was (and is) centred in the
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universities. This academic ladder could be climbed in several ways, but


was largely available only for those born into priviledged families (and who
went to the right schools). One way to climb the ladder was simply by
staying in the same institution, and waiting ones turn to be professor. It
could be a long and futile wait. Professorial positions were few, and
jealously guarded. The Royal Colleges, dominated by old men from private
schools and with good connections had control over professional
qualifications generally, and this included who could call themselves
professor. This hierarchy was instituted in all the fields of science, as well
as in the arts.
The British tertiary education system divided all knowledge into
science or arts. Politics, history and philosophy became faculties of the
arts, while medicine, surgery, geology, biology and astronomy were
considered, along with some other disciplines, to constitute the sciences.
Progress in the lower grades of the academic hierarchy could only be by
passing tests and examinations devised, controlled and judged by senior
academic staff, most of whom were, and still are, male.
The medical sciences were, in the British and European academic
systems, fundamentally divided into medicine and surgery the politics
of which were controlled by the London-based Royal College of
Physicians and Royal College of Surgeons. In Australia, these became the
Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) and the Royal
Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS). These patriarchal, authoritarian
bodies confer higher qualifications (post-graduate qualifications) to
medical graduates who continue in training positions within the public
hospital system. Senior members of these college were (and are) made,
according to changing and inconsistent rules, into fellows of the college,
who were more highly qualified than ordinary members or
unspecialised doctors. They were allowed, according to the rules of
academia, to write FRCP or FRCS after their names and call themselves
physicians or surgeons.
Over the past one hundred years, new Australian colleges have been
founded based on a similar model and with intricate political connections
with the older colleges. These include the Royal Australian College of
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General Practitioners (RACGP) and the Royal Australian and New Zealand
College of Psychiatry (RANZCP). They too confer fellowships according to
obscure and secretive rules and rites of passage. These are not democratic
organizations. Old boys are given honorary degrees for doing favours for
other old boys (or the Royal tradition). This is a world still dominated by old
school ties. It is rigidly hierarchical, authoritarian and patriarchal. Women
who are allowed to climb to the professorial top of the academic ladder are
obliged to accept misogynist traditions and behaviour from the middleaged men who control all these colleges.
The diagnostic model favoured by British psychiatrists who taught in the
teaching hospitals and universities in England and Australia was developed
initially by German and Swiss lunatic asylum psychiatrists such as
Professors Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler, who described, for the first
time, so-called organic mental illnesses such as manic depression and
schizophrenia. Developed in a background of Protestant Christianity, the
ideas and views which were held to be irrational, bizarre, odd,
grandiose and in other ways indicative of psychosis and mental illness
were based on a fundamentally Judao-Christian paradigm. It was thus
considered indicative of mental abnormality if one had unconventional
beliefs concerning God, good and evil, Satan, the Devil, angels,
saints, messiahs, spirits, reincarnation or possession. These
delusional beliefs included any of many personal experiences with the
divine or supernatural, which were included in the psychiatric symptom
of religiosity, indicative of schizophrenia and mania. Serious mental
illness would also be suspected in young people who suddenly changed
their religious and/or political beliefs. A conversion to Buddhism,
Hinduism or Islam, an embracing of Indigenous American or Shamanic
religions were all to be suspected, and words were developed to describe
the core beliefs of non-Christian religious beliefs as schizophrenic. This is
reflected today in the World Health Organizations Brief Psychiatric Rating
Scale (BPRS) which suggests that unusual thoughts can be elicited by
asking, Do you have a special relationship with God? The BPRS explains
that delusions are to be suspected on the basis of preoccupation with
unusual beliefs in psychic powers, spirits, UFOs or unrealistic beliefs in
ones own abilities. New Age ideas can also be diagnosed as

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schizophrenic, as I have elaborated on in a previous book, Psychiatric


Tales and Words about Life.
The treatment for these conditions was (and is) forced treatment in a
secure environment. Secure environments have provision for
treatment in locked rooms, solitary confinement and physical restraint
while the treatment (usually initially in the form of tranquillising
injections) is commenced. The diagnosis is one for life. A schizophrenic
can never be healed he or she can only go into remission. In other
words further episodes of madness and chronic mental deterioration are
likely. Ironically the seeing of visions, hearing of Gods voice,
visitations by angels and battles with demons which feature so
prominently in the Christian Bible all became evidence of mental
derangement in the fundamentally atheistic blend of Psychiatry,
Capitalism and Protestant Christian moralism which evolved over the
twentieth century and was implemented mental hygeine programs
throughout the Commonwealth.
This Protestant Christian psychiatry involved the Anglican Church in
fundamental ways in Australia as well as England. The Church determined
what were orthodox and conventional thus acceptable and normal
interpretations of the Bible and Theology, as well as being directly involved
in the rehabilitation of mental patients and the care of the chronically
ill. A belief that one was possessed by evil spirits or Satan was treated
with chemical or electrical shocks at first, and later by injections and tablets
of dopamine-blockers. A belief that one heard the voice of God,
communicated with angels (or extra-terrestrials) or was the (or a)
messiah was treated the same way. A refusal to renounce the delusional
(heretical) belief was diagnosed as chronic mental illness and refusal to
accept such an interpretation of ones religious beliefs was called lack of
insight. The same criteria for diagnosis and the same treatments (with
minor variations) have been employed in both Australian and British
psychiatric hospitals. Australian psychiatry has also come under an
increasing influence, however, from the American Psychiatric Association
(APA) over the past fifty years.

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AMERICAN PSYCHIATRY IN AUSTRALIA


In every Australian University and Psychiatric hospital will be found at
least one copy of the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, now into its fourth edition
which was published, with much fanfare in 1994). The seal of the American
Psychiatric Association portrays the American Father of Psychiatry,
Benjamin Rush, the most famous American physician of his time (and place)
and a highly placed officer in George Washingtons military forces during
the American War of Independence (1776-1783). Rush, who was the only
doctor to sign the Declaration of Independence, was a keen proponent of
bloodletting, in line with his theory that all mental illness is caused by
derangement of blood flow in the brain. He also developed other methods
of torture including the gyrator chair as well as the tranquilliser chair.
Flogging, too, was employed in Rushs hospitals, not regarded as
punishment, but for therapeutic reasons.
Rush had another theory that is not mentioned in the DSM or other
current psychiatric texts, which are generally omissive regarding historical
detail, especially about the more unpleasant aspects of the past, as far as
psychiatric treatment and theory are concerned. Rushs theory regarding
black people was that they are affected by a disease (negritude) which
causes both their abnormal skin color as well as their abnormal behavior
and beliefs. This was inline with his avid support of slavery of Africans by
naturally superior white people.
The acknowledgement of Rush as the official Father of Psychiatry
followed an actual formal declaration by the American Psychiatric
Association, in 1965, according to the Canadian historian Professor Edward
Shorter who admits that the venerated physician was more a
propagandist than a promoter of health. In A History of Psychiatry (1997)
he writes:
Rushs partisans have argued that his occasional musings on
moral suasion anticipated later psychological therapies. Yet,
psychological sensitivity is difficult to detect in his practice. As one
visitor to the Pennsylvania Hospital in 1787 recounted of Rushs
rounds, we next took a view of the maniacs. Their cells are about 10
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feet square, and made as strong as a prisonIn each door is a hole,


large enough to give them food etc., which is closed with a little door
secured with strong bolts. Most of the patients were lying on straw.
Some of them were extremely fierce and raving, nearly or quite
naked.
Rush, however claimed differently when he wrote his textbook,
published in 1812, lying that his patients, now taste the blessings of air,
and light, and motion, in pleasant shaded walks in summerhave
recovered the human figure, and with it, their long forgotten relationship
to their friends and the public (Shorter,1997). The father of American
psychiatry had a scientific theory that rationalised his practice of bleeding
patients until their overactivity decreased, and their mad ravings were
quietened (as happens with acute blood loss, prior to loss of consciousness
and death if the blood loss continues). This was his bizarrely reductionist
and simplistic theory that the cause of madness is seated primarily in the
blood-vessels of the brain, and it depends upon the same kind of morbid
and irregular actions that continues other arterial diseases (Shorter, 1997).
In truth, however, this is no more stupid than the numerous equally
simplistic explanations of madness (including chemical imbalance
theories) that have followed his reductionist line of thinking.
Bizarre mechanistic models of the body, brain and mind have existed in
many areas of medicine, but the most grotesque, prejudiced and
outrageous ideas have originated in the minds of psychiatrists and
psychoanalysts, whose destructive theoretical assumptions are shared,
although the two schools of thought have been at odds with each other
regarding the place of drug therapy versus psychoanalytical
psychotherapy for the treatment of mental disorders. The shared
assumptions (with notable dissidents) are that mental illness is
underdiagnosed and thus undertreated and that serious mental illness
is incurable and very difficult to treat. This is predictable since it is they
who get paid for the diagnosis and treatment of sick individuals, as well
as for advice and teaching about how mentally ill people should be
treated in the future. Euphemistically the mechanistic drug promoters in
modern psychiatry are referred to in the psychiatric literature as biological

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psychiatrists and their chemical-oriented eugenics theories are referred to


as biological psychiatry.
Professor Shorter, professor of the History of Medicine in Toronto,
Canada, describes the false paradox that has him confused:
Psychiatry has always been torn between two visions of mental
illness. One vision stresses the neurosciences, with their interest in
brain chemistry, brain anatomy, and medication, seeing the origin of
psychic distress in the biology of the cerebral cortex. The other vision
stresses the psychosocial side of patients lives, attributing their
symptoms to social problems or past personal stresses to which
people may adjust imperfectlyThe neuroscience version is usually
called biological psychiatry; the social stress version makes great
virtue of the biopsychosocial model of illness. Yet even though
psychiatrists may share both perspectives, when it comes to treating
individual patients, the perspectives themselves really are polar
opposites, in that both cannot be true at the same time. Either ones
depression is due to a biologically influenced imbalance in ones
neurotransmitters, perhaps activated by stress, or it stems from
some psychodynamic process in ones unconscious mind. It is thus of
great importance which vision has the upper hand within psychiatry
at any given moment. (p.27)
Shorter is confused in believing that biological psychiatry and the biopsycho-social model (of which there are many) have irreconcilable
differences. They are, in fact, in their present form, closely related. The
recognition that stress can cause mental illness and that psychosocial
factors influence both stress and mental illness are obvious. The focus on
stress and mental illness or on neurotransmitters is not conducive,
however to the promotion of mental health. Genuine scientific biology is
also a far cry from biological psychiatry which shares more common
ground with biological warfare than the objective, logical study of living
things.
Biological warfare and military medicine (including military psychiatry)
are intrinsically related. Both thrive on the preparation for and existence of
warfare. During the Second World War, during which there was massive
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expansion of the propaganda industry and the chemical industry, the


objective of the military psychiatrists was to train soldiers, and return
shell-shocked soldiers to the frontline. To do this they used brainwashing
techniques, drugs and electric shocks.
This was the case for all sides of the war. The American psychiatrists
taught patriotism to America, capitalism, the Constitution and the
Founding Fathers, the British psychiatrists programmed their patients
with patriotism for the Empire, love of King and Country and hatred of
the enemy. During the Second World War, the enemy included Germans
(whose psychiatrists trained soldiers to fight for the Fatherland), Italians
(likewise, but for the Fascists), Japanese, Communists and traitors (those
who would not support the war effort).
Owing to the subservience of the Australian political, military, medical
and social systems to the old country the war effort and war
propaganda in and from Britain produced jingoistic war fever combined
with patriotism not for Australia (and her very different needs) but for
England, Britain and the British Empire. The medical profession, Red Cross
and Church leaders all contributed to creating and maintaining this war
fever. While Nazi doctors were engineering and implementing eugenic
theories with death camps, gas chambers and medical experiments on
unwilling subjects, the Allies instituted internment camps for Germans,
Italians and Japanese unfortunate enough to be living in Australia at the
time, and gas chambers (they were actually termed as such) in Northern
Queensland to test the effects of mustard gas on young Australian
volunteers from the army. These young people, who were sworn to secrecy
and told they were helping the war effort, discovered that mustard gas
causes horrific burns and permanent health problems following even brief
exposure. At the same time, Jewish refugees, interred Italians and
wounded Australian soldiers were deliberately infected with malaria (also
in Northern Queensland) to test anti-malarial drugs, also ostensibly for the
war effort. Of shame to this charity, the Red Cross was directly involved
in the malaria experiments, providing the infected blood for transfusion
into the victims.

MEDICAL WARS AND THE AIDS INDUSTRY


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It is timely that the Australian newspaper, on 2.2.2000 has a warning


about modern biological wars (without naming them as such). The caution
is expressed by Evan Whitton in an article titled Hard evidence a casualty
in the HIV war:
Also alarming is any initiative with war in the title. US president
Richard Nixons 1971 war on cancer garnered billions for research,
but no cure. Gerald Fords 1976 war on swine flu procured 50 million
vaccinations against a bug that may have caused one death.
And Ronald Reagans 1984 war on AIDS extracted more billions
from the public purse
The article describes the immediately disputed claim by Robert Gallo
that he had discovered the viral cause of AIDS, with Reagans health
secretary at his shoulder at a press conference on 23.4.84:
Gallo, a Californian virus hunter and veteran of the lost war on
cancer, said he had found the probable cause of AIDS and that it was
a virus, later called human immunodeficiency virus. This meant AIDS
was caused by a bug rather than by lifestyle-stress, and that women
were also in danger. My God, how the money rolled in.
Whitton goes on to express doubt as to whether HIV causes AIDS,
quoting the Nobel prize-winning Dr Kary Mullis as writing, in 1996, that no
one has ever proved that HIV causes AIDSthere is simply no scientific
evidence demonstrating that this is true.
He gives some figures and facts about AIDS, HIV and AZT which give
some indication of the size of the AIDS industry and where significant
conflict of interest may lie:
to 1997, US taxpayers alone had contributed $US45 billion to
the AIDS industry and it had generated 1500 HIV-related US patents,
100,000 scientific papers, blood-screening tests for evidence of HIV
worth millions and sales of AZT totalling $US2.5 billion.
AZT (Azidothymidine) is a form of chemotherapy invented by
Jerome Horwitz in the 1950s to treat cancer. It was abandoned
because of its toxicity and resurrected to attack the alleged HIV
virus.
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Evan Whitton gives an indication of the financial cost to those


concerned if the man-made theory turns out to be correct (another
disincentive to looking for or accepting evidence of such):
Not surprisingly, lawyers are becoming key players in the AIDS
industry: it was reported in January that a legal firm had got $200
million for 500 Australians with medically acquired HIV.
On the other hand, if people such as Nobel prize winner Mullis
and Perths Papadopulos-Eleopulos turn out to be right about the
dreaded HIV, lawyers will see $200 million as no more than a drop in
the ocean.
Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos is described in the article as a Perth biophysicist who has been studying AIDS since 1981. She is quoted as saying,
There is no proof that HIV exists; there is no proof that HIV causes AIDS.
The difficulty which arises when one talks about proof of HIV causing
AIDS, the existence of HIV or the origin of AIDS is that there is no universal
measure of what types and quantities of evidence constitute proof. One
hundred percent proof is rare in medical science, but it does exist. Levels of
certainty, however, range from complete certainty to disproof. It has now
been disproved that the earth is flat. It has also been proved that
masturbation does not cause blindness, but with less certainty. The reason
it is less certain is that, to my knowledge, no scientific studies have been
done that prove beyond doubt that people who masturbate do not develop
deterioration in their vision over many years (though most unlikely). There
are also, perhaps more worryingly, few studies showing that watching
television (or computer) screens does not damage vision. What is proved
depends on what is looked for.
Viruses cannot be seen the way bacteria and other small cellular
organisms can be seen: directly, with the aid of a light microscope. The
existence of viruses is mainly inferred through serological tests (blood tests)
and the clinical course of various illnesses which behave as infectious
diseases, but in which bacterial or fungal causative organisms have not
been identified. Viral infections also cause characteristic changes in the
appearance and behaviour of cells in the body, which can be detected
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under a microscope. They also cause macroscopic changes, which can be


evidenced by looking at the organs and tissues of people (and animals) that
have died of the infection. The virus itself, however, is too small to be seen,
even with the most powerful light microscope, and the level of certainty
allowable for their existence is therefore necessarily less than that of
bacteria (certainty).
The existence of viruses is, nevertheless, very close to certainty. Modern
imaging techniques, including electron microscopy, have been claimed to
show what viruses look like, but the colour enhanced, computerenhanced pictures of virus particles cannot be relied on with the same
faith as seeing the organism oneself under a microscope. In the case of HIV,
we are forced to rely on the very institutes who may have created the
organism to tell us about it, as well as the disease it is said to cause:
acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). The problem is, they have
said some very contradictory things, and said them with the authority of
experts. They have also claimed, with certainty, things which have turned
out to be untrue.
The popular science magazine Scientific American is such an authority. In
their 1988 October edition, they featured a single-topic issue titled What
Science Knows About AIDS. In it, Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier (of the
Pasteur Institute in Paris, who contested Gallos claim of discovery saying
he had discovered HIV first) wrote, in their first collaborative article:
As recently as a decade ago it was widely believed that infectious
disease was no longer a threat in the developed world. The
remaining challenges to public health there, it was thought, stemmed
from noninfectious conditions such as cancer, heart disease and
degenerative diseases. That confidence was shattered in the early
1980s by the advent of AIDS. Here was a devastating disease caused
by a class of infectious agents retroviruses that had first been
found in human beings only a few years before. In spite of the
startling nature of the epidemic, science responded quickly. In the
two years from mid-1982 to mid-1984 the outlines of the epidemic
were clarified, a new virus the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
was isolated and shown to cause the disease, a blood test was
formulated and the viruss targets in the body were established.
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The article describes the discovery of the first retroviruses in animals


by Howard Temin of the University of Wisconsin and David Baltimore of the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1970 and the decade-long search
for human retroviruses:
In spite of such discoveries, by the mid-1970s no infectious
retroviruses had been found in human beings, and many
investigators firmly believed no human retrovirus would ever be
found. Their skepticism had several grounds. Many excellent
scientists had tried and failed to find such a virus. Moreover, most
animal retroviruses had been fairly easy to find, because they
replicated in large quantities, and the new virus particles were
readily observed in the electron microscope; no such phenomenon
had been found in human beings. In spite of this skepticism, by 1980
a prolonged team effort led by one of us (Gallo) paid off in the
isolation of the first human retrovirus: human T-lymphotropic virus
type I (HTLV-I).
HTLV-I infects T-lymphocytes, white blood cells that have a
central role in the immune response. The virus causes a rare, highly
malignant cancer called adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) that is endemic in
parts of Japan, Africa and the Caribbean but is spreading to other
regions as well. Two years after the discovery of HTLV-I the same
group isolated its close relative, HTLV-II. HTLV-II probably causes
some cases of a disease called hairy-cell leukemia and lymphomas of
a more chronic type than those linked to HTLV-I. The two viruses,
however, share some crucial features. They are spread by blood, by
sexual intercourse and from mother to child. Both cause disease after
a long latency, and both infect T lymphocytes. When AIDS was first
recognized, these properties took on great additional significance.
More detail about Gallos discovery of HTLV-I is given in the 1994
Penguin publication The Coming Plague by Laurie Garrett (who won the
Pulitzer Prize for reporting on the Ebola Virus):
Dr. Robert Gallo and his NCI colleagues found evidence of a virus
inside the T cells of a twenty-eight-year-old African-American man
who had come to Bethesda, Maryland, in 1979 from his Alabama
home for experimental cancer treatment. The NCI group quickly
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found two other individuals who suffered T-cell lymphomas and


seemed to be infected with a virus: an immigrant woman from the
Caribbean and a Caucasian man who had traveled extensively in the
Caribbean and Asia.
Two years earlier Kiyoshi Takasuki, an epidemiologist with the
Tokyo Cancer Institute, had discovered groups of people living on
outer Japanese islands who apparently had cancer involving their
immune systems T cells. The Japanese researcher dubbed the
disease adult T-cell leukemia or ATL. Gallos laboratory isolated their
virus and named it HTLV, or human T-cell leukemia virus [Gallo
himself describes it as T-lymphotropic virus in his 1988 article]. The
Gallo group also identified the existence of an oncogene [cancercausing gene] in the HTLV virus that gave the microbe the ability to
produce leukemia. Attempts at collaboration between the Japanese
and American researchers went awry and Yorio Hinuma and Mitsuaki
Yoshida of Kyoto University announced discovery of a different virus
in the Japanese leukemia patients, named ATLV, or adult T-cell
leukemia virus.
Ultimately, Mitsuaki Yoshida led a Tokyo Cancer Institute study in
1980 that compared ATLV and HTLV and found them identical. They
furthermore showed that Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata),
Indonesian rhesus monkeys, and African green monkeys captured in
Kenya and held in captivity in Germany had antibodies to ATLV/HTLV,
and that the virus or a monkey version of the human virus could
be transmitted from one co-caged animal to another. (p.229)
The extent of primate research which involves intentionally infecting
monkeys with fatal viruses becomes evident from several sources, including
the above passage and from the table in Gallo and Montagniers Scientific
American article, in which a table purporting to establish evidence that
HIV causes AIDS is by now as firm as that for the causation of any other
human disease claims, under evidence from animal systems:
Several types of retroviruses can cause severe immune
deficiencies in animals. For example, the feline leukemia virus (FeLV)
can cause either immune deficiency or cancer, depending on slight
genetic variations in the virus. A virus related to HIV, the simian

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immunodeficiency virus (SIV), can cause AIDS in macaque monkeys.


The second AIDS virus, HIV-2, may also cause AIDS in macaques.
The discoverers of the HIV virus do not blame animal experimentation
for the development of new viruses and viral strains, nor do they blame, or
mention, biological warfare or even the immunization programs of the
preceding years in Africa when they explain their theory on where was HIV
hiding? In their answer they present a scenario which is speculative and
not supported by any specific evidence:
Both of us think the answer is that the virus has been present in
small, isolated groups in central Africa or elsewhere for many years.
In such groups the spread of HIV might have been quite limited and
the groups themselves may have had little contact with the outside
world. As a result the virus could have been contained for decades.
That pattern may have been altered when the way of life in
central Africa began to change. People migrating from remote areas
to urban centers no doubt brought HIV with them. Sexual mores in
the city were different from what they had been in the village, and
blood transfusions were commoner. Consequently HIV may have
spread freely. Once a pool of infected people had been established,
transport networks and the generalized exchange of blood products
would have carried it to every corner of the world. (p.31)
Gallo and Montagnier give no explanation for the almost simultaneous
epidemics affecting black heterosexual populations in central Africa and
white homosexuals in America, and though they refer to known at risk
populations they fail to specify who, exactly, these are. The discussion
refers to homosexuals, who are clearly at risk, and the end of the article
implies that the drug culture is also to blame:
All of us must learn how HIV is spread, to reduce risky behavior,
to raise our voices against acceptance of the drug culture and to
avoid stigmatizing victims of the disease.
They do not explain why women and children in Central Africa and later
in South East Asia and the Third World are also high risk populations,
although they make insinuations about villagers in Africa undoubtedly
bringing HIV with them to urban centres where sexual mores were
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different. Their model for the dispersal of AIDS via contaminated African
blood transfusions following the initial infection of a local population is
plausible and undoubtedly explains some, but not all, of the spread of AIDS
around Africa (via transfusions and blood products). It is accepted that prior
to screening, several recipients of transfusions and blood products
(particularly haemophiliacs) developed HIV antibody reactions as well as
AIDS. In fact, this is included in the proof of HIV causing AIDS provided in
the Scientific American article:
A study of people who received blood transfusions in 1982-83
(when the fraction of blood donors infected with HIV was about 1 in
2000) showed that of 28 people who got AIDS, the virus could be
found in all 28. Furthermore, for each recipient who got AIDS an
infected donor could be found. Today most of those infected donors
have also developed AIDS.
It is not exactly true that the HIV virus could be found, however, in the
cases described. It would be more accurate to say evidence of HIV
exposure could be found. The HIV infection was inferred by the
presence of HIV antibodies: evidence of the immune systems reaction
against the human immunodeficiency virus. In all the other described viral
infections, and according to the basic principles of immunology, antibodies
are produced as part of the immune defences their production is an
indicator of a healthy, not an unhealthy, immune response. They can,
however, fail to control an infection and people can become ill from viral
infections while still producing antibodies.
After an infection has been defeated the immune system continues, for
a variable period of time (sometimes for life), to produce antibodies which
protect against re-infection or subsequent infection by the specific virus.
These antibodies are transmitted to a breast-feeding infant in breast milk,
protecting the baby from infections while the immune system is
developing. With no satisfying logic, this is said not to be the case with HIV:
antibodies are measured as an indicator of active infection and the breast
milk of infected (HIV antibody positive) mothers of risk to their babies. Or
are the World Health Organizations immunization programs the real risk?

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Confusing, or perhaps clarifying the issue is the argument put forward


by Professor Peter Duesberg, an eminent virology professor who disagrees
that HIV causes AIDS, believing instead that recreational drug use and
antiviral drugs, such as AZT are the real culprits. In Inventing the AIDS Virus,
published in 1996, he wrote:
While hundreds of thousands of people die of heavy drug abuse
or from their AZT prescriptions, AIDS officials insist on pushing
condoms, sterile needles, and HIV testing on a terrified population.
AIDS propaganda is ubiquitous, observes Charles Ortleb, publisher
of the homosexual-interest New York Native. Ten percent of every
brain in America must be filled with posters, news items, condom
warnings, etc., etc. The iconography of AIDS is everywhere. Part of
the Big Lie is that AIDS is somehow not on the front burner of
America. AIDS propaganda has become part of the very air that
Americans breathe. All of this is based on a war against a harmless
virus waged with deadly treatments and misleading public health
advice.
This is truly a medical disaster on an unprecedented scale.
Ironically, HIV-positives actually have no reason to fear. As
with uninfected people, those who stay off recreational drugs and
avoid AZT will never die of AIDS. Antibody-positive people can live
absolutely normal lives. Worldwide, seventeen million of eighteen
million HIV-positives certainly do. Those at real risk of AIDS could
help their fate if they were only informed that recreational drugs
cause AIDS. And those with AIDS could recover if they were informed
that AZT and its analogs inevitably terminate DNA synthesis, and thus
life. (p.462)
Duesberg, who is Professor of molecular and cell biology at the
University of California at Berkeley, is a pioneer in retrovirus research, and
was the first scientist to isolate a cancer-causing gene (oncogene). Aware of
a professional bias towards blaming viruses for toxin related illnesses, he
has been disputing, with detailed scientific arguments, the official
explanation of AIDS since 1989. For this he has been personally vilified by
senior figures in the American medical (and scientific) establishment and
suffered an inexcusable campaign of suppression, misrepresentation and
ridicule.
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Nevertheless, his articles challenging the HIV/AIDS hypothesis have been


published in such journals as The New England Journal of Medicine, Science,
The Lancet, British Medical Journal and Cancer Research. The biological
warfare theory or vaccination theory have not received such support.
Surprisingly, Duesberg does not even mention the correlation between
Hepatitis B vaccines (or any other vaccines) and the development of AIDS.
He blames malnutrition and other environmental factors for the
development of immunosuppression in Africa, and drugs for the
appearance of AIDS amongst homosexuals and intravenous drug users in
the USA. He presents a complex and detailed argument to support his view,
some of which is very convincing.
Duesberg explains that AIDS is not a specific diagnosis. It is a clinical
syndrome, which is categorised as AIDS if antibodies against HIV are
detected. If a person has tuberculosis and HIV antibodies it becomes
AIDS, if such antibodies are not detected, it is just tuberculosis. He points
out that the disease presents very differently in Africa and the United
States of America (where it was first reported), affecting different
populations and causing different illnesses. He writes:
HIV would need to perform other miracles to cause AIDS.
Virtually all diagnoses of Kaposis sarcoma are made in homosexuals,
not in the other AIDS risk groups. Intravenous drug addicts
disproportionately suffer from tuberculosis, Haitians from
toxoplasmosis, and hemophiliacs from pneumonias. African AIDS
diseases are basically different, manifesting as tuberculosis, fever,
diarrhoea, and a slim disease, unlike our wasting syndrome. A
homosexual with HIV who may develop Kaposis sarcoma can donate
blood for a hemophiliac. But no hemophiliac has ever developed
Kaposis sarcoma from a blood transfusion. Instead he is more likely
to develop pneumonia, if he contracts anything at all. Only HIV is
common to both victims. (p.215)
Duesberg considers HIV to be a harmless passenger virus, similar to
the simian virus SV40 which was discovered in the late 1950s and
unintentionally injected into human populations in polio vaccination
programs at the time. Although there have been concerns about long-term
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disease (or risk of disease) from this virus, Duesberg, along with most other
experts, considers the viral contaminant safe in humans. He writes of the
discovery of SV40:
The war on polio provided an unexpected opportunity for finding
new viruses. In 1959, the Salk polio vaccine was in wide distribution,
and the Sabin vaccine was undergoing large-scale trials in foreign
countries. Almost simultaneously, two scientists independently found
a new virus in the monkey kidneys in which the poliovirus was being
mass-produced for the vaccine in other words, a contaminant. The
virus was native to monkeys and caused cell death in the kidney
tissues. Inspired by the polyoma discovery, both researchers injected
this virus into newborn hamsters in an attempt to cause cancer, even
though neither yet knew of the others work. To the investigators
excitement, the hamsters did indeed get tumors from the virus. As
the fortieth virus isolated from monkey cells used to propagate polio
vaccines, it was named Simian Virus 40, or SV40.
The new virus was first publicly announced in 1960. Millions of
children in the United States and abroad had already been
immunized with polio vaccine contaminated with this potentially
cancer-causing monkey virus. Another million soldiers had received
vaccines for a different disease that had been similarly contaminated.
Huge studies tracking vaccinated people soon confirmed no unusual
cancer cases among them, but the virus hunters had achieved their
victory. In the wake of the near panic over SV40, growing amounts of
research dollars were earmarked for cancer-virus study. In 1959, for
example, NCI specifically reserved the extraordinary sum of $ 1
million for the field. The notion that viruses might cause cancer in
humans had been firmly embedded in the thinking of the scientific
community. (p.94)
There are, in fact, several known viruses that can cause cancer in other
mammals (including mice, hamsters, cats and monkeys). It would seem
likely that viruses could also cause cancers in humans, but this is only, of
course, a partial explanation of the causation of cancer. Radiation can also
cause cancers and so can exposure to chemical toxins and hormones. Some
cancers demonstrate family clustering, often claimed as evidence that
genetic susceptibility (oncogenes) is a major factor in the development of
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cancer. Duesberg is an expert in both oncogenes and virology. He doubts,


however, that any viruses cause cancer in humans. This would, however, be
an exception in the mammal world. He also doubts that hepatitis B
infection predisposes the sufferer to cancer, a dogma accepted by the AIDS
industry, and promoted as a reason to increase hepatitis-B vaccination
programs.
Duesberg argues that firstly, no evidence has surfaced that liver cancer
is infectious (as it should if caused by an infectious agent), and secondly,
many people who develop liver cancer are not infected with viral hepatitis.
This does not, however, prove that hepatitis B infection does not
predispose to cancer of the liver if the transmission of the virus is limited to
blood contact or infected vaccines. These possibilities are not discussed by
Duesberg who does not mention biological warfare in his 700-paged thesis.
He infers, however that disease is being intentionally created in a multibillion-dollar terrorisation campaign about superbugs (including HIV) to
attract funds for research into new viruses and new viral explanations for
old illnesses.
He also refutes, with good reason, claims of uniform fatality from HIV
infection:
The national AIDS figures fall well short of a virus with a nearly
100 percent fatality rate. But rather than abandon the hypothesis,
the experts have chosen to revise the parameters of HIV infection.
The latency period was originally calculated in 1984 on the basis of
tracing sexual contacts, finding homosexual men developing AIDS an
average of ten months after their last sexual contacts with other AIDS
patients. This incubation period has since been stretched out to ten
to twelve years between HIV infection and disease. For each year
that passes without the predicted explosion in AIDS cases,
approximately one more year is added to this incubation time. Even
this is insufficient; with only 5 percent of infected Americans
developing AIDS each year, the average latent period would have to
be revised up to some twenty years for 100 percent to become sick.
(p.214)

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This is indeed what Professor John Mills has done at Melbournes


Macfarlane Burnet Centre. He claims in the MBC pamphlet HIV/AIDS the
whole worlds problem that although there will be cases where patients
have had the infection for 20 or 30 years before becoming ill, virtually
everybody infected with HIV will eventually get AIDS, if they are not
treated. Since HIV was first discovered only 16 years ago, and several (the
numbers are disputed) who were diagnosed as positive at that time
remain well today, it is strange that Professor Mills is so certain about the
fatality rate from HIV infection, of which he says, the estimate at the
moment is about 95% but it could be 100%.
It is obviously in the interests of drug promoters to describe the disease
they are treating as more lethal than it is. If HIV infection is said to cause
death in 2 years, and those who are given AZT live, on average for 5 years,
the drug could be said to have improved life expectancy by 3 years. If
AIDS is viewed as not being so dangerous, and causing death, on average, in
7 years time, the same results (death on AZT in five years), would be
recognised as a harmful treatment. If HIV infection is not dangerous at all,
as Duesberg believes, the use of the drug in asymptomatic HIV-positive
people or even established cases of AIDS would be an inexcusable crime,
since the toxicity of the drug was recognised in the 1960s (which is why the
drug was rejected as a treatment for cancer).
It is worth noting the CDCs criteria for the diagnosis of AIDS (which
was already overinclusive in the opinion of Duesberg and others) were
further broadened in 1993 to include all HIV-infected persons (those
testing positive for HIV) who have CD4 counts and T lymphocyte counts
below 200 per microlitre, even if they show no signs of illness, and people
with HIV antibodies who develop pulmonary (lung) tuberculosis, recurrent
pneumonia or invasive cervical cancer (Harrisons Principles of Medicine,
1997, p.1567). Needless to say this greatly increases the official number
of people with AIDS as opposed to asymptomatic HIV, and greatly
increases the number of candidates for drug treatment.

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DISEASE CREATION

There is no doubt that disease can be artificially created, both deliberately and
unintentionally. It can be created by individuals, it can be created by institutions and
it can be created by professions, especially the medical profession. All doctors are
trained with the knowledge necessary to cause disease, if they so desire, but for
obvious reasons most do not intentionally harm their patients. Nevertheless few, if
any, doctors could reflect on their careers honestly and say that they have never
unintentionally caused illness. There is a big difference between the accidental
causation of disease and illness, however, and the intentional creation of disease
and illness in targeted populations. The latter is an illegal form of warfare termed
biological warfare, and has been regarded for several decades (with good reason) as
a heinous crime, one commonly considered a crime against humanity. But then,
the manufacture and distribution of anti-personnel land mines is also a heinous
crime against humanity and yet these monstrous human creations are still
manufactured and distributed today.

Nuclear weapons are still manufactured and tested, and the Australian government
allows our uranium to be made into bombs and missiles which subsequently pose a
horrific danger to us as well as our neighbours. In the 1950s, the Commonwealth of
Australia actively sought the use of central Australia as a testing-ground for British
nuclear bombs with full knowledge of the dangers of radiation and the fact that the
area was inhabited by an unknown number of aboriginal people at the time. These
families were given no warning when a series of atom bombs was exploded in
Maralinga leaving a toxic site which will remain devoid of all life for thousands of
years. The military machine which created the mutually assured destruction
(MAD) scenario can hardly be expected to comply with chemical and biological
weapons treaties if they know that they can make their own rules and definitions
regarding how these weapons are defined.

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The fact that the British and US Governments ran biological warfare centres during
and after the Second World War is indisputable and can be verified from historical
records. It is likewise certain that Japan and Germany, the other major protagonists
in the war, also ran biological warfare departments and did much cruel human
experimentation during the 1940s on captured soldiers as well as civilians in their
own countries and those they attempted to colonise. These included experiments by
the Japanese war criminal Dr Shiro Ishii in China and Nazi doctors in Poland,
Czechoslovakia and other parts of Europe. During these years two psychiatric
treatments still widely used in Australia were developed, both in European
countries influenced by Nazi and fascist politics: electroconvulsive treatment (ECT)
by Cerletti in Fascist Italy, and dopamine-blocking chemical restraints (major
tranquillisers) by the French Pharmaceutical company, Rhone Poulenc. These drugs
surely qualify as chemical warfare agents.

The first such drug, heralded at the time as a major breakthrough in the treatment
of schizophrenia, mania and other psychotic illnesses was the phenothiazine
Chlorpromazine (still marketed in Australia and widely used by psychiatrists in the
prison and psychiatric systems under the trade name Largactil by Rhone-Poulenc
Rorer).

It is probably true that Largactil and other dopamine-blockers can


reduce or even stop auditory hallucinations at times, however the drug
also causes a range of terrible neurotoxic effects, some which can
appear within minutes of ingestion (or injection) and others which
develop with prolonged exposure of the brain and nervous system to
Largactil and other major tranquillisers. It is probably the constant
dopamine blockade which these drugs are intended to cause that results
in this potentially incurable damage to the brain and nervous system.

The immediate toxic reactions that these drugs (also called


antipsychotics or neuroleptics) can cause include immediate
dystonic reactions (such as oculogyric crisis when the spine arches
backwards in uncontrollable spasm and the eyes roll upwards, again
uncontrollably) and movement disorders such as Parkinsons syndrome
and akathesia. Parkinsons syndrome results from dysfunction in the
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basal ganglia of the brain which are involved in initiating voluntary


movement, and, when caused by these drugs, is usually treated, not by
stopping the drug, but adding the anti-Parkinsonian drug benztropine
(Cogentin). Whilst it can help reduce the stiffness and tremor of druginduced Parkinsonism, Cogentin also has a range of a common adverse
effects including tachycardia (rapid heart rate), blurred vision, nausea,
urinary retention and constipation. The manufacturers (US based
pharmaceutical giant Merck Sharp and Dohme), in the detailed
prescribing information (MIMS Annual, 1993) warn that:
When Cogentin is given concomitantly with phenothiazines
or other drugs with anticholinergic activity, patients should be
advised to report gastrointestinal problems promptly. Paralytic
ileus, sometimes fatal, has occurred in patients taking
anticholinergic type antiparkinsonism drugs, including Cogentin,
in combination with phenothiazines and/or tricyclic
antidepressants.

The same prescribing information admits that the following


psychological effects can result from the drugs blockade of acetyl
choline receptors:
Toxic psychosis, including confusion, disorientation, memory
impairment, visual hallucinations, exacerbation of pre-existing
psychotic symptoms, nervousness, depression and listlessness.

In addition:
Tardive dyskinesia may appear in some patients on long-term
therapy with phenothiazines and related agents, or may occur
after therapy when these drugs have been discontinued.
Antiparkinsonian agents usually do not alleviate the symptoms of
tardive dyskinesia, and in some instances may aggravate or
unmask such symptoms.
(MIMS Annual, 1993, p. 3-221)
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It is because of this horrible and incurable neurotoxic effect that all


dopamine-blocking drugs have the potential to cripple and stigmatise
recipients of the drug in a way no other chemical agents are known to,
tardive dyskinesia being a dreadful condition when the face and limbs
contort in strange grimaces and spasms which are involuntary and often
constant. The grimaces have a bizarreness to them unrivalled by the
neurotoxic effects of other classes of drug, including repeated puckering
of the lips, puffing of the cheeks, twisting of the mouth and protrusion of
the tongue. It is easy to see how such abnormal movements, especially if
combined with other iatrogenic (treatment-induced) movement
disorders could lead to stigmatisation of the sufferer, who, in
appearance, may resemble stereotypes of the mad. Tardive dyskinesia
can develop following the exposure of the brain to any of the large (and
increasing) range of dopamine-blocking drugs used in the treatment of
psychotic disorders in Australia and elsewhere. The commonest
diagnoses for which they are prescribed in Australia are
schizophrenia, mania and dementia, and the drugs which can cause
tardive dyskinesia included, in 1993, haloperidol (marketed in Australia
as Haldol, by Janssen Cilag and Serenace, by Searle), trifluoperazine
(Stelazine, by Smith Kline Beecham), fluphenazine (Modecate, by
Bristol-Myers Squibb), thioridazine (Melleril, by Sandoz), pimozide
(Orap, by Janssen-Cilag), thiothixene (Navane, by Pfizer) and
pericyazine (Neulactil by Rhone-Poulenc Rorer).

By 1995, clozapine (Clozaril, from Sandoz), flupenthixol (Fluanxol from Lundbeck)


and rispiridone (Risperidal from Janssen-Cilag) had been added to the list of
pharmaceutical drugs prescribed in Australia which can cause tardive dyskinesia
and other neurotoxic effects.

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What makes this class of drugs different from all others is that much of the
time they are given, by tablet, liquid or injection, to people against their will.
Regardless of how much a physician may believe that a person is in need of
antibiotics or antihypertensives, they cannot and do not force these drugs into
people by injection if they refuse to swallow them. They do not have the legal
right to lock people up until they agree to take drugs which may, by admission
of the very companies who produce them, cause permanent and incurable
damage to the brain and nervous system.

Dopamine blockers are only one class of the many psychiatric drugs
that can be used to create illness and death rather than cure it. Valium
(diazepam), heralded as the housewifes panacea when first marketed in
the 1960s, can, along with other benzodiazepines, cause acute toxicity
(including coma and death with overdose) and chronic illness
characterised by anxiety and addiction. This problem was already
recognised by 1970, but that did not stop Roche pharmaceuticals from
advertising the drug with no admission of risks or adverse effects in the
Australian medical journal Modern Medicine. One such ad, from 1970,
reads:
Thanks to research in neurophysiology, neuropharmacology and
psychology we have now mapped every nook and cranny of the road
which starts with emotional disturbance. We are now aware of the
vital importance of the limbic system as the substrate of the
emotions its direct relationship, through the hypothalamus, with
the autonomic and hormonal systems. Valium Roche, through its
finely balanced effect on this emotional substrate, effectively treats
not only emotional irregularities but also emotionally-conditioned
functional disorders and organic lesions.
Like Prozac twenty years later, the list of indications is extensive
indeed:
Indications: All illnesses which give rise to emotional tension,
anxiety, excitation, restlessness, hypochondriac tendencies;
headaches, cardiovascular, broncho-respiratory, gastrointestinal and
urogenital disorders caused by emotional imbalance; centrally or
peripherally determined muscular spasm.
In 1982 the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Canada published a
small book titled Effects of Tranquillization: Benzodiazepine use
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in Canada, warning about long-term problems from these drugs.


The introduction reads:
During the past two decades, there has been a proliferation of
psychotropic chemical agents developed by the pharmaceutical
industry, prescribed by physicians and used by consumers. Among
the most widely used psychotropic drugs are the benzodiazepines.
One of the most popular drugs in this class in Canada for many years
has been diazepam (most common trade name, Valium). This is only
one of 10 benzodiazepines marketed in Canada and while they are
advertised for a variety of purposes they all share common sedating
properties.
Concern with benzodiazepine use in Canada has been expressed
by consumers of health services, professionals and government
agencies. The purpose of this document is to bring together
information on these drugs, including extent of use, appropriate
indications, contraindications, and some of the problems associated
with their use. These include dependence, polydrug use, overdose,
and the risk to some segments of the population who receive large
quantities of these drugs.

These segments of the population, which are described in the table


of contents as high risk groups reflect the target populations for
Valium sales in the 1960s and 1970s: women, the elderly, the chronically ill
and the institutionalized. The reasons for women being a high risk group
for Valium addiction and dependence are explored briefly in the book, and
although the authors identify that doctors are more likely to prescribe
valium to women than to men, they do not make the connection that it
might have something to do with the initial and subsequent advertising
campaigns for Valium, which specifically targetted women. The 1970
advertisement for Valium in Modern Medicine draws the attention of the
reader with a glossy full-colour photograph of the disembodied head of a
young woman with a worried look on her face, beside which is printed:
N.H.S Pensioner Benefit for any disease or purpose.
The biggest problem with valium and other benzodiazepines is that they
cause severe withdrawal symptoms once they have been ingested regularly
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for more than a few weeks. This is described in the Canadian Health
Department manual:
Many individuals will attempt withdrawal and quickly resume
drug use because of symptoms such as lack of energy, sleepnessness,
headache, trembling and nausea. These symptoms appear from 24
hours to 10 days following cessation of use, depending on the halflife of the benzodiazepine take. In severe cases, where high doses are
ingested, withdrawal can take forms similar to that found with
alcohol or barbiturates, such as muscle twitches, seizures, weakness
and tremors, confusion and psychosis.

Could benzodiazepines be used for chemical warfare, along with dopamine-blockers?


Valium is available as injections for intravenous or intramuscular injection. These
injections are, in Australia, given to angry or upset people against their will at times.
This occurs in psychiatric hospitals, prisons and nursing homes. They are painful
injections which cause rapid sedation and may be followed by loss of consciousness.
They cause chronic debilitating illness with long term ingestion, and can also cause
acute intoxication (with confusion and even psychosis).

It is important to note that not only governments and military


organizations can wage drug and chemical warfare. Private companies,
including pharmaceutical companies and universities can also wage
chemical warfare. They can also wage biological warfare, not necessarily to
kill, but maybe merely to make sales.
Biological warfare in its broader definition can include several strategies,
all of which increase disease in targetted populations. These include the
direct spread of bacteria, viruses and other microbes (germ warfare), and
the induction of disease by other means, including by the suggestion of
disease. Suggestion of disease can create disease, which is a basic principle
of psychological warfare, popularised as psyching out the opponent and
pointing the bone at or cursing the enemy. This is a powerful means
of military conquest known since ancient times. Propaganda, used to create
fear and confusion, has been routinely used by all sides in wars throughout
the ages. During the Cold War propaganda was disseminated widely in
the capitalist world against communism and socialism. Whether
people in Australia wanted to or not they were in a nation plagued by
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paranoia about reds under the bed and terrorised with threats of
impending attack from the Asian hordes.
Anti-communist paranoia infected the mass-media in Australia too, and
dominated the political world together with the medical world and
scientific world. Each of these worlds was, however, also at war with the
other, as was the communist world with the capitalist world, the first
world with the third world and the christian world with the moslem
world. Like it or not the people of Australia were involved in the
continuing battle between the English-speaking world and the nonEnglish-speaking world.
Of course, most people did not see the real world as divided in this way,
however battles between these worlds raged throughout the Cold War.
The war was characterised by killing and maiming without explosions:
psychological warfare, drug warfare, chemical warfare, biological warfare,
technological warfare, sound warfare and economic warfare were
favoured.
It was a battle of words and a battle of propaganda disseminated by an
ever-expanding range of mass-media, beginning with the radio and
followed by films, television, videos, audiotapes and records, compact discs
and computers. All this modern technology can be used to disseminate
confusing disinformation, and for disease creation. Suicide can be induced
and so can murderous behaviour. Depression can be suggested and horror
as well as terror can be caused. Children can be convinced to love Mickey
Mouse and MacDonalds and to think that Coke adds life. People can be
converted into idolatory of pop stars, movie stars and sports stars. They can
be hypnotised into glorifying guns and shooting imaginary enemies. They
can be made into consumers of alcohol, cigarettes and tablets and
reassured that these can do them no harm. They can be induced to hate
the latest international despot and demonise people they have never
met. They can be made to buy things that harm them and spend money to
insure themselves against an ever-increasing range of man-made fears. A
range of unhealthy mental states and behaviours can be put into peoples
minds with modern technology.

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Behind the scenes, armed with detailed knowledge about hypnotic


induction, the psychology of how to enforce insight into mental illness
and the conversion of the masses into drug ingestion and a chemical
paradigm is the psychiatry profession. They remain, true to the objectives
of the Mental Hygeine Movement, ever manouvering for more influence
over society and how the people who comprise society think. The minds of
children and the minds of adolescents are diagnosed and newly created
illnesses and disorders are blamed for what were viewed, for millenia, as
the normal changes of growing up. The endearing forgetfulness of older
people is made into an incurable disease called Alzheimers. Meanwhile
everyone is induced into forgetting about the past while history is rewritten
in books, magazines, television programs and movies.

PSYCHIATRIC TREATMENT AND NAZI PHILOSOPHY

Psychiatry, being the medical specialty discipline that controls the


development and implementation of national and international mental
health strategies has a pervasive influence on modern Australian society.
This influence is largely unrecognised, but psychiatric theory and practice
influence education at all levels as well as prominent media stories, movies,
and magazine articles. Even the few stories that are critical of the
treatment that psychiatric patients receive tend to validate the stereotypes
and diagnoses of psychiatrists (such as schizophrenia).
The psychiatry profession, with their access to sensitive, private and
potentially revolutionary information about dissidents in society has also
traditionally played a prominent role in the shadowy area of surveillance
and control of dangerous elements in society. Of course, how dangerous
the citizens of a country are viewed as and for what reasons, depends on
the paranoia or otherwise of the governments and public institutions that
control the police, military and judicial systems as well as the psychiatric
systems of the country concerned. The colonial history of Australia and
specifically the fact that convicts and other undesirables were sent by the
British Crown to Australia is pertinent to the development of punitive and
repressive attitudes towards the mentally ill by Governments as well as
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by treatment centres and the public generally. This is a complex area


beneath which lurks a terrible series of atrocities.
Although Mental Health Acts differ between the States, every State in
Australia does have laws prohibiting politically motivated incarcerations, as
have occurred in recent years in the Soviet Union, South Africa and other
politically repressed nations. Such incarceration is anyway prohibited by
International Laws declared in the 1940s following the discovery of the
extent of and reasons behind the Nazi Holocaust. The reasons behind the
Holocaust are complex, but even the most ardent apologist for psychiatric
abuses, would agree that the eugenics policies that determined who would
be killed, and who would be encouraged to breed in an effort to create an
Aryan super-race, were developed and implemented by men who called
themselves scientists, academics, physicians and psychiatrists. Many of the
most influential eugenicists were professors in the most respected
Universities and Hospitals in Germany, such as Professor Karl Schneider,
who was head of psychiatry at the University of Heidelberg in the 1930s.
Professor Sidney Bloch, a senior professor of psychiatry at the University
of Melbourne, in the edited transcript of his 1996 Beattie Lecture at the
University, described Professor Schneiders horrible acts as follows, when
warning of the dangers of misused psychiatric theory:
Karl Schneider held an even more prestigious post as chairman of
psychiatry at Heidelberg. Alongside his celebrated academic
activities, Schneider contributed energetically to the euthanasia
program. A party stalwart from 1932, he became imbued with the
Nazi vision, particularly racial hygeine. Ironically he was able to
pursue two contradictory pathways. On the one hand he elaborated
progressive measures of rehabilitation for the chronically ill and, on
the other, participated actively in both the sterilisations and the
medical killings. Moreover, he developed a grand plan to establish a
research institute dedicated to biological anthropology, launching his
studies with the examination of brains derived from the victims of
Aktion T4 (other eminent academics also snatched the opportunity to
examine the hundreds of available brains).
The criteria for death were remarkably straightforward: a
diagnosis of schizophrenia, epilepsy, senile disorder, intellectual
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retardation and the like; hospitalisation for 5 or more years; an


incapacity to work productively in the mental hospital setting; or
not being of German race and nationality (all Jewish patients were
killed). The 70 000 patients who met these criteria were shunted off
to transit centres in specially disguised buses and thence to one of
six special hospitals. Mercy killing was merciless killing. Naked
patients were herded into chambers, camouflaged as showers, and
gassed with carbon monoxide by hospital staff. Relatives were
subsequently informed of the patients unfortunate death from a
medical condition and commiserated with. Killing by gas ended in
August 1941, only in the wake of a hard-hitting sermon by Bishop
Clemens Von Galen of Munster, a solitary dissenting voice in the
Church. (p.177)
Following the allied victory in the Second World War, a radical
restructuring of world politics occurred, including the formation of a
number of new nations with independent constitutions and governments
as well as the United Nations and related bodies, which grew out of the
League of Nations, a confederacy of European colonial powers formed
after the First World War. Here the term independent refers to the
ostensible political autonomy granted to many of the countries previously
ruled as properties owned by European nations (and often specifically,
European monarchies) that had attacked and exploited these lands and
people who lived in them, over the preceding 500 or so years. The
fundamental abhorrence of such actions is obvious now, as it was to the
more enlightened members of all societies over the thousands of years
that slavery has occurred, in one form or another.
The master-slave relationship is such that the slave must do
whatever he or she is told (ordered) to do, and is usually punished for
disobedience. Historically, this punishment has ranged from verbal
censure to the harshest and most cruel tortures and killings imaginable.
Colonial atrocities are the history of every country, and virtually every
country has been subject to colonisation or attempts at colonisation by
other, usually larger and more aggressive nations. Of course, within these
nations, many, indeed the majority, of the population may have disagreed
with the principle and practices of the military-backed colonial expansions
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that the governments and monarchies that ruled them embarked on, but
then, as now, voices calling for equality, peace and friendship were
drowned out by the amplified rhetoric of war-mongers, profiteers and
enslavers.
It is important to realise that the early implementation of eugenics
programs was actively supported by distinguished psychiatrists and other
doctors in respected academic institutions as well as politicians and social
policy developers (including Church leaders) in several nations outside
Germany. Australia was one of these nations, along with many others,
including the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada,
Switzerland, Austria, Sweden, Norway, South Africa and Japan. In each
country there were differences in the hierarchy proposed, along which
lines humans were to be classified and either encouraged to breed or
prevented from breeding. There was also a variation in the methods used
to prevent young men and women (or children) from parenting children
later in life, ranging from the relatively painless to the most cruel forms of
mutilation. These included literal castration of young boys diagnosed as
feeble-minded or morally depraved, often for petty crimes of
poverty or resistance to discipline. In the first three decades of this
century thousands of boys and men were mutilated in this way according
to the guidelines of North American eugenics laws, described earlier.
The Nazi atrocities were carefully planned and executed, with an
elaborate disguise of the mercy killings as well as denial, at first, of
what was occurring, and, when the evidence was incontrovertible, denial
that what they did was morally wrong, or evil. This denial of guilt was
repeatedly seen during the Nuremberg Trials, when some of the Nazi war
criminals were tried for crimes against humanity. Many who were
executed remained defiant to the end, justifying or denying their crime.
It is common knowledge that several senior Nazi scientists, including
military scientists and medical scientists were not committed for trial
despite devising and orchestrating the murderous euthanasia program
and military aggression that the German government embarked on in the
early 1930s and continued until the end of the second world war over a
decade later. These scientists were given asylum by the British, American
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and Russian victors of the war, and given safe passage to, and often new
identities in, a number of countries, including Canada and Australia.
Others were said to have been provided with a safe haven in South
America, and some in Southern Africa. The asylum of war criminals in
Australia is not rumour, however. It is now officially accepted historical
fact (although denied for several decades). Many might suppose that the
wickedness of Nazi philosophy became a discredited and cruel aberration
of the past, and that Neo-Nazis are just an inconsequential bunch of
skinhead football hooligans in Europe or drunken rednecks in America.
This is not the case.

SECRET POLICE, WARFARE AND THE COMMONWEALTH

In 1998, the Age newspaper ran a headline story about revelations of


State secret police files and activities in the Australian State of Victoria.
Secret police systems have been in operation in Australia for a long
time. In fact, over the past 200 years, several secret police systems have
developed alongside each other in Australia, with varying levels of
cooperation and communication between different secret police systems.
In this book, the secret police systems currently in operation in Australia
will be examined in the hope that this will shed light on similar systems in
operation elsewhere, and draw attention to how such police systems are
contributing to global warfare and human rights abuses. In particular,
similar systems which are closely connected with the Australian secret
police systems exist in Canada and New Zealand, as well as in South Africa
and other nations with a history of being part of the British Empire. The
secret police systems were actually set up in the first place by British
Commonwealth agents in the British colonies as part of the colonial
governments in these nations. Australia is a good example of a nation with
a history inextricably connected with British penal and judicial policies and
thus an active police and secret police system is to be expected in a close
examination of Australian legal and social history.

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COLONIAL CONTROL
The federation of separate British colonies into the nation of Australia
occurred only one hundred years ago. This is not as long as the State of
New South Wales existed as a separate colony. The State of Victoria, named
after Queen Victoria (of England and the British Empire), was founded in
1850, many decades after Captain James Cook claimed Botany Bay and the
surrounding land for the British Crown (1788). Of course, the British
Crown is something of an abstract entity, and heads wearing British
crowns have rarely been seen in Australia. Representatives of the British
Crown have, however, played a huge role in the history of Australia over
the past two hundred years, including the establishment and management
of several secret police systems in Australia. These systems include military
intelligence systems (such as ASIO), federal police investigation systems
(such as the NCA), state based criminal investigation systems (such as CIB)
and psychiatric diagnosis and treatment systems (such as CAT teams).
These parallel systems are poorly integrated and have very different ideas
about what is right and what is wrong, as well as what is legal and what is
illegal. They also have very different ideas about what should be legal and
what should not. They also target different populations for surveillance and
containment and use very different techniques to gather information and
extract it under duress if this is thought to be necessary.
Secret police systems are fuelled by paranoia and xenophobia.
Foreigners are routinely targeted. In Australia, fear about communists,
Asians, Moslems, radicals and others have historically obvious
associations with secret police activities since the Second World War,
however fear of these alien populations far predates the 1930s and
1940s. Fear that the Russians are coming, although worked into a frenzy
in the 1950s and 1960s with Macarthyism, was used to terrify Victorian
men, women and children in the 1800s, when the lure for the Russians
and Chinese was said to be gold.
Gold mania (also called gold fever) was, alongside dipsomania
(alcoholism), the main diagnosis used to incarcerate Victorians in the 1860s

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and 1870s, according to psychiatrist Eric Cunningham Dax in his 1961 book,
Asylum to Community. On page 14 he wrote:
Victorias first mental hospital was opened in 1848 at Yarra Bend,
in Melbourne, and designed on the lines of a gaol, but afterwards
some prefabricated wooden buildings, imported from England, were
erected on the spot to increase the accomodation.
The gold-rush began in 1851, but by the middle sixties it was
trailing off, as much of the surface gold had been mined so there
were large numbers of restless, disturbed and often drunken
individuals who must have been a considerable problem to the
government. Partly because of the needs of the population, and
perhaps mainly because of the unemployment, two new mental
hospitals were put up at that time, one in the western part of the
state on the goldfields at Ararat and the other in a rich gold-mining
district at Beechworth in the north-east.
Lust for gold has played a major role in the development of social policy
in Australia, and Victoria in particular. The White Australia Policy, that
embarrassing legacy of British colonial racism, was itself devised in the
1860s to prevent Chinese exploitation of the newly discovered gold in
Australia, among several reasons, all racially and culturally discriminatory.
The indigenous people of Australia were not even recognised as human by
the first English colonists who declared Australia to be Terra Nullius. This is
despite over two hundred years of prior European knowledge that the
Southern Land was indeed populated with a race of dark-skinned people
who spoke several different languages. More recently, it has become
evident that they spoke several hundred different languages. From the
English point of view, however, it did not matter what or how many
languages they spoke: they were all just natives, who were equated with
savages.
The treatment of those deemed to be savages was indeed savage.
Genocide through several techniques resulting in the mass murder of
hundreds of thousands, possibly millions, of men, women and children of
all ages. Some were taken as slaves, but most were killed mercilessly,
mostly through poisoning (chemical warfare) and infections (biological
warfare). Infants and young children were taken forcibly from their families
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and biological parents to be brought up in orphanages and foster homes, or


enslaved as domestic servants. Their parents were subjected to arbitrary
arrest and arrest for crimes of poverty. Alcohol was used by the colonists
to stupefy natives in many lands, including Australia. These natives
included aboriginal people as well as native Australians of European
ancestry. Alcoholism is still rife in Australia generally and it is of note that
the early psychiatric hospitals were full of people with alcohol-related
problems. It is also of note that alcohol was the first British currency in
Australia.
In Australia, alcohol was used as a direct weapon for genocide of the
aboriginal population by the British in a similar way to that in which opium
was used in the opium wars against China and India. In these wars, which
occurred in the early and mid 1800s, Indian, Burmese and Bengali farmers
were forced to dig up their rice fields by British colonial rulers and plant
their homelands with opium poppies. The opium was then pushed into
Chinese society with the intent of addicting and subduing the Chinese
population. When the Chinese Government attempted, in the 1840s, to
halt the opium trade, the British threatened to attack Chinese cities with
battleships poised outside Chinese ports. Hong Kong was ceded to the
British for the period of 150 years after this shameful act of international
terrorism and drug warfare. Shortly afterwards, and in the wake of the
British success, the USA demanded similar trade concessions to the British
from China and maintenance of their own opium export industry to the
most populous nation on earth. It is of note that enforcement of free
trade was the justification the British Government gave to its people, for
what later became known as the opium wars.

DOCTORS AND DRUG WARFARE


The activities of the secret police systems in Australia are centred on the
issue of drugs. The matter is clouded by confusion about what is a drug
and legal versus illegal drugs. Some drugs are prohibited under
International Drug Laws, including narcotics such heroin and other
opiates. Narco means sleep, and narcotics cause sleepiness when
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ingested or injected. The effects of alcohol are narcotic at high doses, but
excitatory at low doses. Alcohol, however, is not usually considered a
narcotic, since, although it causes a great deal of human illness and
misery, alcohol, like tobacco, is considered a legal drug.
Opiate narcotics are derivatives of opium, which can be smoked,
ingested or injected. Opium is a potent analgesic (pain killer) and has
effects on the mind which are pleasant at times, which contributes to the
problem of opium addiction. Opiate addiction includes much more than
psychological addiction, however; they can also cause physical addiction
and painful, debilitating withdrawal suffering when levels of the drug in
the body decrease. They are also toxic in overdose, causing vomiting, coma
and respiratory depression, which can be fatal. Heroin overdoses are
claiming more and more lives in Australia and around the world, and this
trend has been worsening over the past century (since heroin was invented
by the European drug company Bayer pharmaceuticals), corresponding
with an expansion of secret police activities. It has been suggested that
secret police activities and military activities are, at least in part, to blame
for the scourge of heroin and other illegal drugs in the modern world.
The prohibition of heroin and other hard drugs has resulted in a
situation where thousands of young people around the world are presently
incarcerated in prisons and psychiatric hospitals due to their addiction,
while those who push the addiction on these young people are not behind
bars. Compounding the problem, the accompanying prohibition of products
of the Cannabis Sativa plant (Marijuana and hashish) have resulted in a
massive black market trade in illegal drugs, whilst making these drugs
more fashionable in some circles. They have also become associated with
crime in a direct way, since the selling and use of illegal drugs is
considered to be a serious crime, punishable by jail sentences and heavy
fines. Yet, hypocritically the Australian Government and governments
around the world continue to profiteer from legal drug sales including the
legal opiate trade, as well as from tobacco and alcohol. Cannabis Sativa
plantations also bring revenue to the Government, since this ancient crop is
grown in Australia under Government control, for the production of hemp.

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Unknown to most in the modern world is that heroin was invented by


the pharmaceutical industry and used extensively as a medical (and
psychiatric) drug long before it became a street drug. It is made from
opium poppies and is chemically related to other narcotic opiates such as
morphine, which was also used as a pharmaceutical drug and continues to
be so today. In Australia, morphine is manufactured and marketed by
several large drug companies including Glaxo-Wellcome, Mundipharma and
Fawns & Mc Allen.
The medical indication for the prescription of morphine is severe
intractable pain, and morphine is an effective pain-killer. It is also, like
heroin, extremely addictive. Pethidine, codeine, oxycodone and methadone
are other addictive opiates widely prescribed in Australia. Codeine
preparations are, unlike in most other countries, available over the counter
at pharmacies in Australia. Methadone syrup is used as a heroin
replacement and prescribed by specially authorised clinics and doctors for
heroin addicts ostensibly to prevent injection of opiates whilst preventing
withdrawal. Unfortunately, methadone syrup can itself be injected, is highly
addictive and has other dangers. It is also possible to combine methadone
ingestion with injections of heroin and other drugs. It is of note the GlaxoWellcome, who sell morphine as well as AZT (Zidovudine) are also the
manufacturers and promoters of methadone. This drug company, one of
the largest in the world, and perhaps the largest of the massive
transnational pharmaceutical companies, also markets codeine
preparations in Australia (Dymadon forte).
The medical professions attempts to combat drug addiction generally
and heroin addiction specifically have been a dismal failure. Throughout the
world, the incidence of self-injection of drugs has increased alarmingly over
the past four decades. This scourge has mainly affected young people, and
young men in particular. The drugs which are most often self-injected are
heroin and amphetamines in Australia, but other drugs, including codeine
and methadone are also being injected with disastrous consequences. The
medical professions strategies have included the provision of more drugs,
including addictive benzodiadepines such as valium and serepax, other
opiates such as methadone and the provision of free needles through

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needle exchange programs. These strategies have succeeded in


worsening an already huge problem, for obvious reasons.
One reason is the huge propaganda machine behind the needle
exchange program and methadone program, sponsored by the mining
industry, pharmaceutical industry, and insurance industries with support
from the Commonwealth and State Governments in Australia. These
industries finance a plethora of non-government organizations (NGOs)
which have a subtle or unsubtle drug pushing agenda. This can be
witnessed in the Spring 1997 newsletter of the Drug Reform Foundation
titled Drug Reform News. In the front page article, Dr Alex Wodak wrote:
Will the moral conservatives turn on practices such as
methadone maintenance and needle exchange? This is a growing
concern among drug experts. Theres been a very alarming
deterioration over the last six months, the dinosaurs have been let
out of their cages and the very impressive record of achievement
that Australia has clocked up in this area since 1985 is now at risk.
One of our supreme achievements during that time was keeping
HIV under control among injecting drug users and therefore
protecting the Australian population.
This was a delicate balancing act that involved Commonwealth
and State Governments working together and also politicians from all
parties accepting that this was an area that they shouldnt score
points off each other. This is breaking down with the kind of decision
that was made on Black Tuesday.
The black Tuesday event Dr Wodak is referring to is the decision by
the Federal Government made on Tuesday 19th August 1997 to scuttle the
heroin trial. Dr Wodak, who was head of the drug and alcohol services at
St Vincents Hospital in Sydney is described in the newsletter as President
of the Australian Drug Reform Foundation. The article quoted above is
from an adapted version of an interview he had with ABC Radios Life
Matters program. In it he abandons all common sense, logic and
experiential wisdom as well as sound scientific principles in his answer to
the question Is it harder to break a methadone program compared to
heroin? His answer reads as follows:

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Its certainly street mythology that methadone is harder to get


off than heroin. Theres only been one study where this has actually
been examined and the differences were marginal and yes,
methadone was marginally more difficult to get off than heroin but
to a very insignificant extent.
But it is street mythology and it comes from the fact that drug
users, people using heroin, are usually deeply ambivalent about their
heroin use, they love all the attractive things about using heroin and
they also hate a lot of the negative things about using heroin.
When they switch from heroin to methadone they keep on with
all the negativity but theres very little to be positive about, as far as
they see it, about the drug side of the methadone program and so
this spills out into all sorts of urban myths.
In the same newsletter, Dr Nick Crofts, who is described as President
of the Victorian Drug Reform Foundation and Deputy Director of
Macfarlane Burnet Centre for Medical Research where he is Director of
Epidemiology and Social Research authored an article titled The
consequences of our drug policies in Asia. In it, he wrote, from Bangkok:
The UN Joint Programme on AIDS is trying to stem the tide of HIV
infection among injecting drug users in Asia. And what a tide it is,
with more than 90% of drug users infected or developing AIDS in
places along the trafficking trails of the Golden Triangle.
It has been a bumper year for heroin production in Burma. Now
China is both producing heroin and consuming increasing amounts,
and beginning its own drug war which will out-do that of the US in
ferocity and foolishness. And amphetamines are flooding into
Thailand from factories in China and Burma.
This situation cries out for explanation. Why is there so much
drug use here? Why is there so much drug production? Why is HIV
spreading so rapidly? It is not hard to make the connections between
the drug policies we espouse in the west and these tragic
consequences in Asia.
Because we have generated such a profitable black market with
our prohibition, and because we export our drug wars to regional
governments dependent on foreign aid, we have created a
nightmare.
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Dr Crofts is correct in claiming that drug policies in the West have


created a nightmare in Asia, and that drug wars have been exported to
Asia, however his article is noticeably short on solutions. He tirades against
prohibition, but the Drug Reform Foundations and Macfarlane Burnet
Centres support of heroin trials in Australia and needle distribution
programs in Asia are not necessarily a step in the right direction. It is with
good reason that the Prime Minister John Howard and others have
objected to attempts such as shooting galleries at dealing with the drug
problem. However, they too have not come up with satisfactory solutions
to the worsening problem of world-wide drug addiction.
More recently, the Age newspaper, on 18.12.99, ran a front page
headline story titled Federal lawyers reject Howard line on heroin. The
article, by Meaghan Shaw, claims:
The Prime Ministers opposition to Victorias plan for heroin
injecting rooms has been undermined by advice from the AttorneyGenerals Department that it might not breach international treaty
obligations.
The advice, given to the Victorian Government in September, is
also at odds with warnings from the United Nations International
Narcotics Control Board that the plan could breach a treaty and
imperil Australias $150 million-a-year legal opiates industry.
Mr Howard referred to the advice yesterday to demonstrate
that his Government had warned of the potential breach in
September, well before he wrote to the Premiers of Victoria and New
South Wales this week urging them not to proceed until the
Commonwealth could consider all the implications of their plans.
The full implications of the States plans can only be appreciated with a
background knowledge of eugenics theory and practice in Australia and
awareness of drug policing in Australia.

EUGENICS AND SLAVERY

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Eugenics, referring to the science of breeding better human beings,


has a long tradition in Australia and is deeply embedded in university and
hospital doctrines and culture in Australia, particularly in the mental health
sciences and the area of public health policy. This is because eugenics was
actively supported by Governments in Australia before the Second World
War, with financial support from American and British eugenic societies and
wealthy individuals and families, such a the Carnegie family in the US. Other
notorious supporters of eugenics were the Rockefellers and Kelloggs.
In Australia eugenic social policy was formulated by academics from the
oldest Universities, such as the University of Melbourne and University of
Sydney, in collaboration with business leaders (mainly industrialists) and
Commonwealth advisers. The policies paralleled eugenic programs in Nazi
Germany, with which it shared foundations. These foundations were
inescapably racist and hierarchical, based on assumptions of racial and
cultural superiority of the eugenists. Thus the eugenics movement in Japan
placed Japanese blood lines at the top of their hierarchy. The Germans
placed Northern Aryan blood lines at the top of theirs. In Australia, the
situation was more complicated, since eugenics was introduced into the
country by races and groups with different ideas about who was at the top
of the hierarchy. They agreed, however, on who was at the bottom of the
ladder they created: Aboriginal people and those from the Torres Strait
Islands.
Accompanying indigenous people at the bottom of the eugenic
hierarchy, were (and are) drug addicts, alcoholics and the mentally ill.
These people were also inevitably from the poorer sections of society, and
the eugenics movement was very much a club for the rich. Rich men were
the only people involved in the inner circle of eugenic policy devisers, and
many of them were highly respected (at the time) doctors and professors.
These men turned a blind eye to their own failings and diagnosed a range
of other races, cultures, classes and individuals as defective, constructing
names, such as schizophrenic to identify them and euthanase them.
Euthanasia was the name given by eugenists (eugenicists) for the many
cruel methods of mercy killing employed to rid the world of defective
and degenerate individuals and races.

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Eugenic theory first developed in the last years of legal slavery by


European Imperial Nations. Nations involved in the slave trade of African
people included Britain, France, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Belgium and Holland
(Nederlands) in Europe which exported slaves to North and South America
(especially Brazil) as well as the West Indies, Cuba and elsewhere. The
Governments and monarchies of these countries fought an ongoing war
with each other over slaves from what they later termed the Third World.
Each government sanctioned the taking of children, women and men of all
ages forcibly to another country where they were subjected to cruel abuses
as well as being compelled to work in captivity. The above nations, all of
whom obtained slaves from Africa, also were involved in genocide of
people in the colonised country. The purpose of this genocide was to rid
the land of indigenous people and populate it with people loyal to the
colonising country. This military and political strategy became notorious as
the British divide and rule policy, which might better have been termed
genocide and rule.
In this policy, minority groups and individuals with loyalty to England
and the British Empire were placed in positions of power and authority
over the majority population. They were then encouraged to engage in
nepotism and also to follow ongoing instructions from London. Later a
middle class of professionally trained people from other Commonwealth
countries was placed in administrative positions in different countries,
again in the hope that they would maintain loyalty to the anglophile
institutions that trained them, as well as the British Crown and British
national interests. This policy was instituted in Australia, America, parts
of Africa (especially Rhodesia and South Africa), New Zealand and parts of
Asia. The British Empire also took slaves from South India to Sri Lanka, Fiji,
the West Indies and other British colonies.
The South Indian slaves taken to Sri Lanka, then called Ceylon, were
forced to live in concentration camps and work for less than a subsistence
wage on European-owned tea estates. These included estates owned by
Liptons, Bushells and other large British based tea companies. The estates
were usually administered and managed by Sri Lankans of mixed European
and Singhalese or Tamil descent (Burghers). Tamils, who speak a different
language to the Singhalese majority population, were placed by the British
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in influential positions within the colonial administration of Ceylon. These


Tamils were initially educated in English at Indian universities, but later
both Singhalese and Tamils were trained at the University of Ceylon in
Colombo. Scholarships and opportunities for private education at British
Universities were also provided by the British Empire, and thousands of
foreign graduates were produced by the old British Universities in the
1950s and 60s. These foreign graduates were regarded, however, as second
class citizens by the British academic hierarchy, and many returned to their
homelands in the 1960s and 70s.
Over the past three decades, however, many of these anglophile
professionals from Sri Lanka and other Commonwealth countries have been
employed in the public service (including the health system) in Australia,
Canada, New Zealand and other previously white British colonies. Some
of these have been involved in the development of the extensive
psychiatric secret police system in Australia.
The mental health system in Australia grew out of the asylums of the
nineteenth century, and involved the slavery of people who were
diagnosed as mentally ill or mentally defective. The mental
defectiveness label was applied to people who were also described as
degenerates, imbeciles, idiots and feeble-minded people. Masturbation
was viewed as evidence of feeble-mindedness, and disobedience as a sign
of degeneracy. The inmates of asylums were forced to work in menial jobs,
while the institutions that held them profited from their forced labour.
Torture, including flogging, water torture, chaining, and electrical shocks,
was routinely administered in these asylums under the guise of treatment.
According to Cunningham Dax, the first electrical shock machines were
being used in Tasmania as early as the 1800s. Cunningham Dax, who
headed the Mental Hygeine Movement in Victoria in the 1950s and 1960s,
himself presided over a continued system of slavery for psychiatric
patients, particularly of those with artistic talent. To add insult to injury,
Dax presided over a huge collection of stolen art works, now exhibited as
the Cunningham Dax Gallery of Psychiatric Art. None of the psychiatric
patients who did this art have been paid for their work, and many are now
dead, often because of the treatment they were given by Dax and his
colleagues.
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BRITISH SLAVERY PROGRAMS


To orchestrate such a widespread slavery program, the British
developed extensive policing systems, espionage systems and assassination
programs. These were connected with secret police and military
organisations, constituting an intricate Commonwealth spy program
involving people of many nationalities united by loyalty to the British
Empire. Numerous secret societies, often masquerading as charity
organisations, missionary outposts and mens clubs were instituted
during the time of open slavery, and continued their nefarious activities
after African slavery was officially abolished. The public opposition to
African slavery that resulted in the cessation of this cruel trade grew over
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, culminating in the official
banning of the slave trade and release of slaves from bondage in the 1830s
to 1860s.
The Commonwealth slavers were not to be so easily stopped, however,
as by an International Ban on African slavery. As Myra Willard wrote, in The
White Australia Policy to 1920:
The stringent enforcement of the international treaties which
aimed at the extinction of the African slave trade caused many in
tropical lands who had become dependent on this form of labour to
look to Asia for a substitute.
This substitute included Chinese and Indian coolie labour, according to
Willard, but the whole story of the evolution of British and Australian
Commonwealth slave theory and practice has been far more complex and
persistent than Willards book reveals. This book was, incidentally, the first
book published by the Melbourne University Press (in 1923).
In fact, the British Commonwealths system of slavery included all the
countries in the British Empire, including Australia. Not all the Empires
countries were treated as harshly as Australia was, however. And this harsh
treatment of Australia and its residents by agents of the British
Commonwealth in Australia has continued to this day. Involved in this
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abuse of the Australian population are the numerous secret police


organisations currently active in Australia, several of which have direct links
with the British Commonwealth.
The centre of the British Empire was London, and this was also the
centre of the British slave trade. The concept of the Commonwealth was
devised by social theorists, politicians and academics at the University of
London and also at the Oxford and Cambridge Universities. These
Universities became an essential part of British foreign policy during the
time of open slavery, as well as in the times of disguised slavery which
followed. Brainwashing, involving indoctrination into the academic system
of doctors, degrees, honours and other titles were bestowed on
students of the system creating a persistent and highly authoritarian
academic hierarchy. This system was exported to the colonies, where an
uninterrupted tradition has continued to the present day.
In the academic system, as in the police system and military, obedience
to the chain of command was ensured by a hierarchical system of titles. In
the University and hospital system this hierarchy was headed by
professors, who had authority over associate professors. These had
authority over senior lecturers, who could pull rank on lecturers.
Lecturers were above tutors and tutors had superior rank to students.
Senior students were viewed as superior to junior students in this system,
which also encouraged the entire academic institution to compete with and
look either up to or down at other academic institutions. A similar
mentality was encouraged in Church owned high schools in England and the
British colonies, in which schools and universities were built by the British
which repeated the same hierarchical system, often with individual
perversions of the British model.
The secret police systems devised by the colonial system in Australia
involved a poorly integrated system of police departments and health
departments, together with departments designed for the protection of
natives and military departments. The police departments included
officers whose duties were to keep the peace amongst the Australian
immigrants and convicts as well as native police. The immigrants included
free men and women who emigrated to Australia from England, Scotland
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and other white nations, and also a smaller number from China. The
police had to keep the peace between Chinese and European immigrants
on several occasions, especially during the scramble for exploitation of
Australias gold deposits which occurred in the 1860s.
The colonial police, who were given ranks of constable, sargeant,
commissioner and the like also were responsible, together with the navy,
for patrolling the oceans that surround Australia, and preventing aliens
from entering the country. They also prevented people from leaving the
country without authority, since many of the people who initially came to
Australia from England, Scotland and Ireland did so against their wills. They
were sent here as convicts, as a punishment. Once they arrived here, men,
women and children were forced by the British colonists into slavery,
sometimes for the colonial administration and sometimes for wealthy (free)
families and individuals. They were forced to work for these families and
suffer arbitrary punishment from them for the terms of their sentences. It
is important to note that many of these sentences were for trivial offences,
the result of poverty and repression in Britain and Ireland.
In the navy, airforce and army, the titles given were different, but the
system of authority in titles the same. Here commanders, generals and
other senior officers ruled, often with extreme cruelty and callousness, an
army of men and women, who were initially slaves who were conscripted
to fight and die for the British Empire. These slaves were not able to aspire
to senior (safe) positions in the armed forces by virtue of their birth
(including class and nationality).
The navy, like the army and airforce were officially the Royal Australian
Armed Forces, with emphasis on Royal. The chain of command of the
Australian armed forces began not in Australia, but in England, home of the
British Royalty and the originating point of royal directives. The British
monarchy had, and continue to have, a unique authority over the system of
titles which maintains Commonwealth authority. The monarch is able to
confer titles on whoever he or she likes. These titles include Knights who
are allowed to use the title Sir as well as lords and barons. The latter
are usually reserved from Englishmen of noble birth. It is difficult to see

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how such a system can be maintained in any nation that aspires to


democracy, or calls itself democratic.

SANDLINE AND THE GROUP OF FOUR


Recent newspaper reports have revealed worrying military and paramilitary activities by the British in the Australian region. These have
included activities in Timor, New Guinea, Australia and New Zealand.
Shortly before the Allies invasion of Timor, an extraordinary meeting
occurred in New Zealand. It was extraordinary because it was supposed to
be an Asia-Pacific Economic Community (APEC) conference, and most of
the Asian nations boycotted the meeting. It was also extraordinary because
the British Foreign Minister Robin Cook was there and was given a
prominent platform on which to call for war. Britain is not a member of
APEC, and the Asian leaders were wise to suspect foul play by the Allies.
The term Allies is here used to describe the old World War Two Allies,
who became allied again against freedom in Asia, Timor and New Guinea.
The late 1990s have been accompanied by a flourishing of private
prisons and private mercenary military activity in this part of the world. In
Melbourne the British private security company Group of Four have
been involved in the imprisonment of more and more young Victorian
people in private prisons. Group of Four security guards have recently also
been seen in a public psychiatric hospital, where they were asked by public
hospital psychiatric nurses to discipline involuntarily detained public
patients. This occurred at the Alfred Hospital in Prahran, one of the many
hospitals included in the Inner and Eastern Health Care Network.
The Health Care Network System was instituted by the Liberal Party
Kennett Government, and involved a direct attempt by the larger hospitals
to take over the funds of the smaller ones. These larger hospitals included
the Alfred Hospital, which is now co-administered with the Royal Eye and
Ear Hospital, Box Hill Hospital, Maroondah Hospital and Peter MacCallum
Cancer Institute. In the Age newspaper, on 18.12.99, a story by Mary-anne

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Toy suggests that some of the truth of the politics behind the Health Care
Networks is now being revealed. Toy writes:
Tens of thousands of dollars donated by the public to the Peter
MacCallum Cancer Institute may have been siphoned off by a health
authority to plug budget deficits in other public hospitals.
Peter MacCallum is now part of the Inner and Eastern Healthcare
Network and the network board has the authority to redirect money
donated to the cancer hospital anywhere in the network unless it
has been expressly reserved for a particular project.
In other words, people who donate money for what they intend to be
help for the ill can find their donations used for completely different
reasons. More seriously, some of the hospitals included in the Inner and
Eastern Health Care Network are involved in cruel and degrading treatment
of people held against their wills in psychiatric wards. These people are
being systematically given crippling injections and electroshock treatment,
often against their will. It is disturbing that funds given for the purposes of
supporting medical research into cancer and the treatment of canceraffected people should be diverted into treatments that many in society
would disapprove of if they knew about it. It is also disturbing that
mercenary police forces are given free reign in Australia in the form of
Group of Four run prisons and other private prisons. It is even more so
because the treatments of people in these prisons and the contracts
between private prison contractors and Governments are being kept from
the Australian people and the world.
In New Guinea the activities of British mercenaries came to light with
the revelations of Bill Skates Governments arrangements with the
Sandline company to provide mercenaries to put down the rebellion in
the island of Bouganville. This arrangement was to cost millions of dollars,
and the deal was again kept from the world in a corrupt secret
arrangement that amounts to treason by the New Guinean Government. It
is of note that the New Guinea Government, centred in Port Moresby, is
heavily dependent on the Commonwealth of Australia for its authority and
finance. It is also important to understand that independence movements
are active all over the world, and that it is global suicide to employ

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mercenary forces to subdue such movements, since they will aggravate


global warfare.
Bouganville is a small copper-rich island to the east of New Britain and
Papua New Guinea. It lies between New Britain and the Solomon Islands,
which were also part of the British Empire. These islands and New Guinea
itself are home to a Melanesian race of people, who have lived in this area
of the world for millenia. They share a racial and cultural heritage with
Australian aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. These people are
the rightful owners of the copper deposits in Bouganville, as well as the
other natural resources of the island. However, such rights are being
trampled on by the Australian and British mining companies which have
long exploited the indigenous people as cheap labour while stealing the
resources of their country. Similar situations occur all over the world,
including Australia.
New Guinea has suffered a similar fate, and the people of this large
forested island have also been subject to the divide and rule policy. New
Guinea was literally divided into East and West halves by Dutch and British
masters. The West New Guineans were given the choice of rule by Dutch
masters or death and the East New Guineans were given a similar choice by
British colonists. Freedom and Independence were not offered by the
colonial rulers until after the Second World War, when native New
Guineans, Solomon Islanders, Australian aboriginals and other Australians,
New Zealanders and Torres Strait Islanders were forced to give their lives
for the British Empire and Allied Forces. Millions of colonised people died
in this war, which began as one between the colonising European nations.
Japan and the United States of America entered the war later, and each
made a grab for the nearest territory, following the lead of the older slaving
nations. The Japanese, as all children in Australia are taught, invaded China,
South East Asia and Indonesia, bombed Darwin in Northern Australia and
were thought to be poised to invade Australia.
In reality it is most unlikely that Japanese would have attempted to
invade Australia in any way other than the way they did so after the end of
the Second World War: as tourists and landowners. The Japanese generally
love Japan, just as most Australians love Australia. Japanese generally like
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living in Japan, and prefer to visit Australia rather than attack it. The current
attack from Japan, and other nations, comes not so much from individuals
but from institutions, and these institutions are mainly engaged in
economic warfare, espionage and stealth warfare against Australia, rather
than conventional warfare and invasions.
Japan and Germany were rebuilt after the Second World War by
American and British finance, and also by Jewish finance, centred in
Switzerland and other tax-havens. The Global Economy that was
constructed after the Second World War was centred in Geneva in
Switzerland, which had adopted a neutral position in the Second World
War. During the European War of the 1930s, Italy and Spain sided with
Germany and France and England united against the Nazis. Russia fought its
own war against Germany, whilst most of Europe was conquered by the
Germans without significant resistance. This included Austria, Norway,
Sweden, Belgium, Switzerland, Denmark and Holland. This may be because
the Governments in these nations agreed with the basic Nazi philosophy,
which was that of genocidal eugenics. Maybe the people in these countries
were too frightened to resist the ferocity and brutality of the Nazis. Maybe
they did not know what was happening and were kept in the dark by media
blackouts and Nazi propaganda. War is a very confusing thing.

SECRET POLICE AND NAZIS


Nazi philosophy assumed that people with white skin were superior to
those with black skin, and the many different hues of humanity were
divided into blacks and whites. This was a central precept of eugenic
theory. The experts in the theory further classified people along
anthropological lines into different races based on Blumenbachs division
of humanity into black, brown, red, yellow and white races.
Eugenic theory was practiced differently in different countries that
passed eugenic laws earlier this century, but the theory inevitably brought
atrocities to every nation that embraced this racist medico-political theory.
This is because eugenics is divided into positive eugenics and negative
eugenics. Positive eugenics involves the encouragement of people with
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good genes to have more children. In Nazi eugenic theory, these people
had white skin and preferably blonde hair and blue eyes. These were
favoured as aesthetically superior to dark features. It is ironic that images
of Jesus of Nazareth, a man of Semitic origin, was portrayed at this time in
Nazi sympathising countries as having blonde hair and blue eyes.
Negative eugenics was (and is) centred on preventing those accused
of having defective genes and defective blood-lines from breeding. It is
sad to reflect that the Christian Churches did little to prevent the Nazi
atrocities of negative eugenics and played a significant role in condoning
and aiding the abuse. Children in the care of the Catholic and Protestant
Churches in Europe were, at this time voluntarily given up by Church
authorities for negative eugenic treatment. This involved diagnosing these
children as mentally ill or degenerate and sentencing them either to
sterilisation or death. Sterilised children were then sold into slavery.
Children who were considered unfit to live were killed in a variety of ways
by people who called themselves doctors and nurses. Chemicals were
tested on them for toxicity, and drugs and infections were forced into
them. The effects of starvation combined with hard labour on people who
were being tortured in a variety of ways were studied scientifically by men
who called themselves professors, physiologists, and medical
researchers.
The Nazi Party also developed a notorious secret police system of
gestapo, and a social system based on social and familial betrayal.
Children were encouraged to inform on their parents in Nazi schools and
neighbours were encouraged to spy on each other and report dissident
behaviour to the authorities. An intricate system of espionage was
accompanied by forced confessions, framing of innocent people with
crimes, summary executions, arbitrary arrest, political incarcerations and
other features of repressive political systems.
The detailed systems of interrogation and framing by the Nazis was
developed by eugenists, many of whom were psychiatrists. Germany
already had an international reputation for psychiatry prior to the Second
World War. Professor Edward Shorter, in A History of Psychiatry (1997),
writes:
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Germany became the world leader in psychiatry during the


nineteenth century precisely because of this dispersal of academic
talent into many separate universities, each nurtured by the dynastic
ambition of its own little principality. Germany possessed some 20
separate universities in addition to two medical academies, each
struggling for glory and competing in a lively race for scientific
advancement against the others.
Shorter is Professor in History of Medicine at the University of Toronto
(Canada) and is a keen supporter of biological psychiatry, but even he has
to admit to the connection between eugenic evil, Nazism and psychiatry:
Part and parcel of European culture, the fateful notion of
degeneration was picked up by the eugenists, by social-hygienists
intent on combating mental retardation with sterilization, and by
antidemocratic political forces with a deep hatred of degenerate
groups such as homosexuals and Jews. Psychiatrys responsibility for
all this is only a partial one. Academic psychiatrists in the 1920s were
not generally associated with right-wing doctrines of racial hygiene,
though there were exceptions to this, such as the Swiss psychiatrist
Ernst Rudin who after 1907 worked at the university psychiatric clinic
in Munich, and the Freiburg professor Alfred Hoche who in 1920
coauthored a justification for euthanasia. Academic medicine in
Germany on the whole stood waist-deep in the Nazi sewer, and bears
heavy responsibility for the disaster that followed. After 1933,
degeneration became an official part of Nazi ideology. Hitlers
machinery of death singled out Jews, people with mental
retardation, and other supposedly biological degenerates for
campaigns of destruction. (p.99)
In the above passage, Edward Shorter gives a very inaccurate account of
the targets of Nazi mass-murder. The killing was not, in fact, limited to
degenerate races, which, by the way, also included Negroes, Poles,
Russians, Gypsies and other races, in addition to Jews. The Nazis also
targetted political dissidents, regardless of race, particularly pacifists,
socialists and communists. In addition of the mentally retarded, many
others of normal and exceptionally high intellect were also sterilised or
euthanased if they were from the wrong cultural, social, religious or
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political background. These were generally diagnosed as mentally ill with


labels such as moral degeneracy, schizophrenia and personality
disorders. Shorter also fails to mention that eugenic laws recommending
the castration of mental defectives were passed in several states of the
United States of America many years before the Nazi atrocities, or the
widespread acceptance of negative eugenics by British, South African and
Australian doctors and academics before and after the Nazi holocaust.

SECRET POLICE AND PSYCHIATRY IN AUSTRALIA


A unique psychiatric secret police system has been developed in
Australia over the past ten years, under the guise of The National Mental
Health Strategy. This system has several stated objectives, and has had
very different practical results. It is ostensibly designed to streamline the
mental health services, get institutionalised people into the community,
and treat the worsening mental illness problem in Australia. The mental
illness problem is said to include depression, anxiety, panic,
schizophrenia, attention deficit, hyperactivity, drug addiction,
alcoholism and many others. However, these are names, not cures. There
is no known cure for most of the diagnoses promoted by the Mental
Health Strategy, and the treatment is almost exclusively on treatment with
often addictive drugs. Routinely, people who do not want to be drugged
are forcibly injected with tranquillisers simply because they refuse to agree
that they are mentally ill (termed lack of insight) and thus refuse to take
drugs voluntarily. The entire psychiatric system in Australia is one where
people are given drugs as the sole focus, and punished for refusing to take
them. It is drug enforcement of a different type.
Integrated with the psychiatric system in Australia are mobile treatment
teams, which visit people at home and ensure compliance with drug taking.
These people are trained in eliciting evidence of mental illness and are
not above fabricating such if they are unable to detect it. They also have
the authority to break into peoples houses and take them away for
treatment in public hospitals with the assistance of State police. No warrant
is necessary for such intrusions and the paperwork authorising such actions

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may be signed by doctors who have never met the person to be taken in for
treatment.
In Victoria, these actions are carried out by people who call themselves
health workers and may be qualified as doctors, nurses, psychologists or
social workers. They are systematically programmed into negative eugenics
before they are allowed to work in these mobile attack and treatment
teams, termed CAT teams. CAT team is an acronym for Crisis Assessment
and Treatment Team, but inevitably it is the team that creates the crisis.
People generally do not react well to being spied on in their own homes
and injected with drugs against their will. This sort of abuse can be stopped
by curtailing secret police activities in Australia and the British
Commonwealth, and by ignoring corrupt hierarchies based on principles of
slavery.
The abolition of secret police activities in Australia will result in greater
freedom and peace of mind for the Australian people, since such activities
breed paranoia both in the secret police and the population they suspect of
being drug addicts, terrorists, mentally ill, criminals and
degenerates. Such prejudices have no place in a free, just, democratic
society. I believe most Australians aspire to such a home.

MENTAL HEALTH REVIEW BOARD


The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
states that no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment (article 5). The same collection of
International Laws states that everyone has the right to freedom of
thought, conscience and religion (article 18) and that everyone has the
right to freedom of opinion and expression (article 19). These rights are
fundamental to any democratic society, however much they are ignored
or perversely misapplied.
The Australian population is ostensibly protected from the perverse
misapplication and misinterpretation of laws by a legal concept termed
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natural law or natural justice. This is an interesting and largely


unexplored area of law at the crossroads of science, philosophy, theology
and law. Natural law is rarely quoted in Australian courtrooms, but it is an
important principle evoked in the hearings of the Mental Health Review
Board in Victoria and equivalent bodies in other states. These are semiformal hearings with the power to authorise the release or continued
incarceration of people held against their will by the public hospital system,
when the usually drugged patient is interrogated by a lawyer and
psychiatrist, with a largely symbolic community visitor present to provide
a semblance of impartiality. The proceedings are unrecorded other than
the notes of the lawyer for the Board, and the patients reasons for
requesting release are contested by the psychiatrist who has a massive
advantage in convincing the Board representatives that the ongoing
treatment of the patient is necessary and desirable for the good of society,
as well as that of the patient. At times, the psychiatrist who seeks
continued detention of the (usually young) person is not even there in
person: they are allowed to present their evidence over the phone!
The Annual Report of the Victorian Mental Health Review Board and
Psychosurgery Review Board for the year ending 30 June 1998 states that
the Board heard 4827 cases in 1997-98, an increase of 11.6% from the
previous year, when 4326 cases were determined. In 1990-91, 2657 cases
were heard, and a constant rise in the number of cases has occurred each
year since then. Of these 4827 cases 33% were involuntarily detained
inpatients (held against their will in hospitals) and 63.4% were people
objecting to community treatment orders (CTOs) which had been made
against them by psychiatrists. Of these appeals, only 5.7% of patients
were discharged.
An argument that could be put forward to justify this low release figure
is that few of the people denied their freedom were not in need of forced
treatment and denial of the right of free movements that other citizens are
entitled to and take for granted. In other words, most of the people
incarcerated and forcibly injected with major tranquillisers
(antipsychotics) need this treatment for their own wellbeing and that of
society, and thus no human rights abuses are occurring through the actions
of the Mental Health Review Board.
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Examination of the criteria by which mental illness is judged, the


personal experience of the author, the Report of the Seeking Justice Project
and several cases cited in the Annual Report of the Mental Health Review
Board (1998) show that, in fact, systematic abuses of young peoples right
to freedom of thought, speech and action are occurring as a direct result of
inappropriate determinations by the Mental Health Review Board, which
largely supports the treatments meted out to psychiatric patients in
Victoria, regardless of how cruel these treatments are, often based solely
on lack of insight in patients regarding their mental illness and the
need for treatment(drug treatment).
The Board routinely turns a blind eye to irregularities in paperwork
and medical records, excessive doses of drugs forced into patients, assault
by nursing staff, long periods of solitary confinement and punitive or
coerced electroshock treatment, all of which are occurring in Australian
hospitals today, and which regulatory bodies such as the Mental Health
Review Board have a legal and ethical responsibility to identify and
prevent.
According to the report, in 1998, only 3 of the 24 psychiatrists on the
Mental Health Review Board are women, but 10 of the 23 legal members
and 14 of 19 community members were women. All five professors (the
highest rank in the academic hierarchy) were men. These included three
professors of psychiatry, Professor Richard Ball, Professor Graeme Mellsop
and Associate Professor Sidney Bloch. Professor Bloch co-edited
Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry, the standard textbook for medical
students at Monash University and the University of Melbourne (at which
he is one of several psychiatry professors). He also gave the 1996 Beattie
Smith Lecture at the University of Melbourne, a revised version of which
was published in 1997 in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of
Psychiatry.
In it he warned, hypocritically:
Those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it,
claimed Santayana. What can we learn from the Soviet and Nazi
horrors? We can recognise in both contributory elements derived
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from concepts moulded by the psychiatric profession itself. In the


USSR the monopoly of Snezhnevskyism facilitated the States
embrace of psychiatry to stifle dissent. In Nazi Germany, the
eugenic movement, led in part by distinguished academic
psychiatrists, was the foundation on which Hitler could erect his
murderous edifice. Thus we see that psychiatry is not necessarily an
innocent victim when forces beyond its borders seek its connivance
to pursue pernicious goals.
Snezhnevskyism is a reference to Soviet psychiatric policies based on
the doctrines of Professor Andrei Snezhnevsky, described as an architect
of the diagnostic schema which facilitated the Soviet misuse of psychiatry
for political purposes. Snezhnevsky, according to Professor Bloch, crafted
the reasons that a dissident could be labeled as schizophrenic because of
the political beliefs and behaviour, doing this over a period of thirty years
during which he created new categories such as sluggish schizophrenia
which could be diagnosed in people who appeared quite normal to the
untrained eye.
Professor Bloch explains:
In essence, he devised concepts which profoundly shifted the
way the condition was used clinically. This was no mere academic
exercise. Several crucial repercussions eventuated: (i) schizophrenia
was always genetically determined; (ii) although its features might
only manifest intermittently, the biological foundation of the illness
always remained; (iii) recovery was not possible; (iv) the main
question was the speed with which a patient would deteriorate;
and (v) rather sinisterly, because the illness might present with mild
symptoms and only progress later, schizophrenia was much more
common than previously thought. (p.174)
The Annual Report of the Mental Health Review Board (1998) states
that 65% of patients seen at hearings had been diagnosed with
schizophrenia, with another 9% as having schizoaffective disorder and
11% with bipolar affective disorder (BAD). A disturbing perspective is
presented of one of these cases, which is amongst 21 of the 4827 cases

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selected for presentation in the annual report, of a young man diagnosed


as schizophrenic for what are common new age ideas:
The patient had been diagnosed as suffering from
schizophrenia with fixed delusional symptoms. He was preoccupied
by his space and research project which involved making further
contact with aliens from another planet and believed he and his
girlfriend were the living embodiments of people who had been
burnt to death as witches in the 17th century. He told the Board he
had communicated with aliens from another planet via dreams and
astral travel. He did not believe he was mentally ill but was being
persecuted for his religious beliefs. (p.33)
The Board, which had considered whether the patients beliefs could
be characterised as religious decided that it did not matter whether or
not they were religious, since even if [the patients] beliefs were
religious, the Board finds that aspects of [the patients] religious
practice, namely his interaction with aliens, falls properly into the
category of hallucinations, rather than mystical experience with the
supernatural. The appeal for release was rejected and the Mental
Health Review Board decided that even were his beliefs to be
characterised as religious, the Board can and does take them into
account, along with these other factors, to determine [the patient] to be
mentally ill.
The Mental Health Review Board hearings are usually held in a room at
the same hospital where the patient is held, and may have been held for
several weeks or months, and some people have been kept on
involuntary status for several years with plans to continue certification
indefinitely, against which practice no real protections currently exist. It is
important to note that these are not dangerous, violent people who have
murdered people or even broken the law. They are usually young people
who have been diagnosed as schizophrenic because of their beliefs and
behaviour and refuse to accept the label and the crippling drugs that have
been forced into them (usually by injection if they refuse to swallow
them), usually in huge doses and in locked wards of psychiatric hospitals.

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Despite claims of independence and impartiality, the Mental Health


Review Board is closely associated with the Public Hospital Psychiatry
Departments (in which hearings are held) which, in conjunction with the
Victorian Department of Human Services and Commonwealth
Department of Health, implement the National Mental Health Strategy,
which was launched in 1994 during the last year of Paul Keatings Labour
Government. This Federal (Commonwealth) Labour Government, in which
Dr. Carmen Lawrence (who has a psychology degree) was the Minister for
Health, made many changes in the Mental Health System that gave senior
psychiatrists more power and money and this trend has continued under
John Howards Liberal Government.

PSYCHIATRY, PRISONS AND VIOLENCE


The National Mental Health Strategy was introduced in 1994 as a joint
Federal, State and Territory Government project. According to the
Director of the Research and Outcomes Evaluation Section of the Mental
Health Branch of the Commonwealth Department of Human Services and
Health, in a letter dated 6 March 1996, the Commonwealth Government
has provided $269 million for the reform of mental health services, of
which $189 million has been allocated to state and territory governments
to achieve these aims.
The majority of this money has gone into restructuring of the existing
mental health system, including the formation of the Mental Health
Council, integration of community psychiatry services and the
construction of several new psychiatric institutions, including a new 135
bed forensic psychiatry hospital in Yarra Bend Park, adjacent to the
Fairfield Infectious Diseases Hospital. The lack of public consultation and
sinister degree of secrecy concerning this major construction project is
predictable when the history of forensic psychiatry in Melbourne is
known.
Forensic psychiatry literally means law-related psychiatry, but has
evolved from the branch of the public psychiatric system that diagnosed
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and treated people labeled criminally insane in asylums for the


criminally insane, as well as psychiatric treatment (meaning drugs
and/or electroconvulsive treatment) to prisoners within the prisons
system. It has, for a number of years, been impossible to obtain records of
how many people are given electroconvulsive treatment (ECT, or
electroshock treatment) in public hospitals in Australia, but it is known to
be several hundred every week. In recent years it has been promoted in
Australia, not as a last resort, but as important first line therapy for
particular psychiatric conditions, particularly depression, but the
treatment is also given for mania and schizophrenia as well as
schizo-affective disorder and when injected drugs have failed to
produce improvement in behaviour.
The prisons system in Australia is closely linked to the public
psychiatric system, and both are integrated with police operations. There
are several possible points of referral to the psychiatric system from the
police. The Protocol Between Victoria Police and the Victorian
Department of Health and Community Psychiatric Services Division of
1995 provided a list of indicators for referral to mental health services.
The police members are instructed to contact mental health services if
one or more of the following are thought to apply: Where a person is
known to have a mental illness and
Has a history of violence or is a current threat to the safety of others
Is a serious threat to property
Shows significant self neglect
Has a high level of distress
Or is a person who:
Has a history or presents a current threat of deliberate self harm
Is behaving in a bizarre or unusual way
Is displaying gross mismanagement of personal affairs as a
consequence of an acutely disturbed mental state.
If the person is held in police custody or imprisoned by the courts, they
may still be subject to psychiatric drug treatment. As Professor Paul
Mullen writes in Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry:
Psychiatrists also became involved in the care of those in
prisons who though not so disordered as to have been found insane
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were sufficiently disturbed as to require treatment. The role of


psychiatrists now includes a wide range of advisory and therapeutic
functions at almost every level of the criminal justice system.
(p.322)
The word care is used very loosely. The prisons in Australia are not
intended for the care of people, they are intended for punishment. The
punishments are termed custodial sentences and are the result of
judgements of guilt. Incarceration is unpleasant and widely recognised to
be unpleasant, not least of all because of the environment in which
offenders are held. One has reason, then, to doubt a stated intent to
care for rather than contribute to this punishment. Painful, crippling
injections, electric shocks to the head and permanent labels of mental
disorder are indeed cruel punishments. Professor Mullen uses the term
mental disorder repeatedly in the text, but makes a mess of defining the
term:
Mental health legislation varies between definitions which leave
the issue to the medical profession and those which state clear
criteria with the intention of placing a brake on medical discretion.
The latter attempt to wrest decision-making from the medical and
vest it in the legal profession rarely succeeds for it simply translates
the decision about who is mentally ill into a decision about who is
and is not deluded, hallucinated or whatever. In a number of
jurisdictions antisocial personality disorder is specifically excluded
from the forms of disorder justifying committal. (p.335)
Antisocial personality disorder is described, in a previous chapter of
Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry, as follows:
People with this disorder manifest pervasive irresponsible and
antisocial behaviour in adult life. In their childhood, lying, truancy
and vandalism are common. In adulthood they cannot hold steady
employment, fail to maintain monogamous relationships and behave
irresponsibly. They frequently break the law, are involved in
aggressive outbursts and show little regard for the property of
others. They rarely experience remorse. They are reckless and seem
unable to plan or parent effectively. They often abuse both legal and
illicit drugs in association with complaints of tension, boredom and
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anger. The disorder is more common in males and is seen in


considerable numbers in criminal populations. In their background
there may be evidence of Attention Deficit Disorder and Conduct
Disorder occurring in childhood. There is an increased incidence of
substance abuse and Somatisation Disorder. Relatives also show a
high prevalence of Antisocial Personality Disorder and substance
abuse. (p.192)
Associate Professor Jayashri Kulkarni who authored the above and the
chapter on personality disorders in Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry
from which it is quoted is one of the few female psychiatry professors in
Australia, and is, with Professors Graham Burrows and Robert Adler, a
ministerial nominee on the psychosurgery Review Board of Victoria.
The Psychosurgery Review Board is co-administered with Mental Health
Review Board. Graham Burrows is the head of the Mental Health
Foundation and the Department of Psychiatry at the Austin and
Repatriation Hospital at Heidelberg, Melbourne, and Robert Adler is, in
addition to being a professor of child psychiatry, is the psychiatrist on the
Medical Practitioners Board of Victoria.
Professor Adler co-authored the chapter on Child and Adolescent
Psychiatry in Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry. In it the American
Psychiatric Associations recent labels for delinquent (or, more
accurately, disobedient) children, oppositional defiant disorder and
conduct disorder, are described in a single passage, providing an
unpleasant stereotype for the impressionable minds of medical students:
This disorder is characterised by negativistic and defiant
behaviour which is excessive for the childs developmental stage and
has been present for over six months. There is debate as to whether
it is simply the early manifestation of Conduct disorder. Certainly
many children who present with more serious antisocial behaviour
associated with the latter have a past history of hyperactivity and
negativism. Stealing, lying, running away from home, truancy and
physical aggression are common among conduct-disordered children,
who often show little remorse or concern for the feelings of others.
Conduct disorder is described as socialised or unsocialised depending
on whether the children commit their offences alone or in company.
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A proportion of cases proceed to more serious offending in later


adolescence and Antisocial personality disorder in adulthood.
(p.281)
It is not surprising that the authors have difficulty differentiating
Oppositional defiant disorder and Conduct disorder. There is hardly any
difference between the two: they are both stigmatising labels for naughty
children and adolescents. These are disciplinary diagnoses, social labels
with deeper political significance and implications. Together with
Attention
Deficit
Disorder
(ADD)
and
AD/HD
(Attention
Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder), these are the most likely diagnoses that
troubled (or troublesome) children receive if they are introduced into the
psychiatric system.
The American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM IV) defines Oppositional Defiant
Disorder as follows:
The essential feature of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a
recurrent pattern of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile
behavior toward authority figures that persists for at least six months
(Criterion A) and is characterized by the frequent occurrence of at
least four of the following behaviors: losing temper (Criterion A1),
arguing with adults (Criterion A2), actively defying or refusing to
comply with the requests or rules of adults (Criterion A3),
deliberately doing things that will annoy other people (Criterion A4),
blaming others for his or her own mistakes or misbehavior (Criterion
5), being touchy or easily annoyed by others (Criterion A6), being
angry and resentful (criterion A7), or being spiteful or vindictive
(Criterion A8). (p.91)
It is assumed that children should obey adults, especially authority
figures (including psychiatrists), without question. These same children are
stigmatised as being spiteful, intentionally annoying, unreasonably
resentful, irritable and angry. Their understandable reluctance to accept
the label of defective person which is forced them is explained away as if
this is part of the abnormality:

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Usually individuals with this disorder do not regard themselves


as oppositional or defiant, but justify their behavior as a response to
unreasonable demands or circumstances (p.92)
Conduct Disorder is described in the DSM IV as a mental disorder
distinct from Oppositional Defiant Disorder, although the authoritarian
attitudes involved in creating the label are evidently very similar:
The essential feature of Conduct Disorder is a repetitive and
persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or
major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated (Criterion
A). These behaviors fall into four main groupings: aggressive conduct
that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals
(Criteria A1-A7), nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or
damage (Criteria A8-A9), deceitfulness or theft (Criteria A10-A12),
and serious violations of rules (Criteria A13-A15). Three (or more)
characteristic behaviors must have been present during the past 12
months, with at least one behavior present in the past 6 months.
(p.85)
Inconsistently, but for obvious reasons, given the authors of the DSM,
the adults who order bombs to be dropped on other countries (or their
own country), send young people to kill other young people and order the
execution of prisoners on death row are excluded from a diagnosis of
conduct disorder. The scientists who infect innocent young animals with
Ebola virus and other killer-viruses are also spared a diagnosis of conduct
disorder: the label is intended with other targets in mind.
The DSM explains, without declaring the social, racial and cultural
prejudices (let alone the age-ist ones) underlying the practical application
of this label, the collection of behaviours which are to be expected in
children unfortunate enough to be called conduct disordered:
Children or adolescents with this disorder often initiate
aggressive behavior and react aggressively to others. They may
display bullying, threatening, or intimidating behavior (Criterion A1);
initiate frequent physical fights (Criterion A2); use a weapon that can
cause serious physical harm (e.g., bat, brick, broken bottle, knife, or
gun) (Criterion A3); be physically cruel to people (Criterion A4) or
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animals (Criterion A5); steal while confronting a victim (e.g., mugging,


purse snatching, extortion, or armed robbery) (Criterion A6); or force
someone into sexual activity (Criterion A7). Physical violence may
take the form of rape, assault, or in rare cases, homicide. (p.86)
In a single masterpiece of stigmatisation, children who break rules or
are cruel to animals are placed in the same category as rapists and
murderers. These bad children grow into bad adults according to the DSM
IV, which claims that most of the adults who have Antisocial Personality
Disorder previously display symptoms of conduct disorder when they
are children:
For this diagnosis to be given, the individual must be at least 18
years (Criterion B) and must have had a history of some symptoms of
Conduct Disorder before age 15 years (Criterion C). Conduct disorder
involves a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the
basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or
rules are violated. The specific behaviors characteristic of Conduct
Disorder fall into one of four categories: aggression to people and
animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, or serious
violations of rules. (p.646)
To make sense of conduct disorder one must first decide what the
basic rights of others are. The United Nations Universal Declaration on
Human Rights could be used as a guide. Article 3 states that everyone has
the right to life, liberty and security of person. This is surely an
indisputable and fundamental human right. A child who takes the life of
another person may be diagnosed as having conduct disorder, according
to the DSM IV, with good reason, but this is merely a description of the
crime, not an explanation of the cause of the crime. Oppositional Defiant
Disorder is not an explanation either: it just means that the child
concerned refuses to obey the orders he or she is given. This may occur for
any number of reasons. Neither children nor adults enjoy being given
orders, as a rule. People usually prefer being asked to being commanded.
Rules may be trivial, unreasonable or harmful. Rules are, moreover, a social
phenomenon, not a medical one.

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One of the rules that children and adolescents are expected to obey, to
avoid a diagnosis of conduct disorder (or antisocial personality disorder
in adults) concerns violence. This includes physical violence and emotional
violence (outbursts of anger or verbal aggression). Even passive
aggression can be viewed as evidence of mental disorder. Violence and
cruelty to animals can also be diagnosed. Yet children as a whole are
subjected to a constant (and escalating) barrage of violent images and
ideas, aggressive modes of speech and behaviour from television and video
programs, as well as from adults in real life. They are presented with selfmutilating role models like Marilyn Manson who scream or growl lyrics
about killing people, hating people and destroying life. They are fed sound
bites and have their concentration interrupted every few minutes with
commercial breaks and are then labelled with attention deficit disorder
if they fail to concentrate in class. They are brought up watching television
shows glorifying a promiscuous lifestyle and are then diagnosed as
mentally ill or mentally disordered if they adopt one themselves. They
are given addictive drugs (including amphetamines) from their early
childhood and then labelled substance abusers if they ingest or inject the
same drugs (or other drugs) later in life.
Violence also comes in many forms which are not covered by the DSM,
which also fails to mention needles as possible dangerous weapons. It is
also known that amphetamines, which are routinely prescribed to children
as young as four years old in Australia and the USA for AD/HD are notorious
for causing violent behaviour in both adults and children. Amphetamines
were invented about 100 years ago and were first used to attempt to
control the behaviour of hyperactive children as long ago as the 1940s. It
was a largely unsuccessful experiment, not least of all because
amphetamines were found to be highly addictive, and to cause psychosis
and aggression. Methyl phenidate (Ritalin, from Novartis) is the most
prescribed modern stimulant for children diagnosed with ADD or AD/HD.
It is also an amphetamine-like drug, although it is less addictive than
dexamphetamine, which is also prescribed for ADD and AD/HD.
In the 1970s and 1980s, true hyperactivity, as it was then called, was
considered to be a rare condition, affecting about one in two hundred
children (0.5% of children). These children were said to show a paradoxical
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response to stimulant drugs (specifically amphetamines), but the


prescription of these drugs was restricted to psychiatrists (who were also
allowed to prescribe them for narcolepsy) and paediatricians. Children and
adolescents (or adults) who obtained amphetamines by other means were
deemed to be committing a crime so serious that they could be sent to jail
for it. Suddenly, in the early 1990s, however, whilst maintaining the
illegality of black market amphetamines, a huge campaign was
mounted to increase the legal market for amphetamines. The target
population was children.
The first step, as with the marketing of any new diagnosis, was to claim
that ADD is often undiagnosed and is actually much commoner than
previously supposed. ADD (AD/HD) was now said to affect up to 5% of
children, a 10-fold increase on what was claimed a few years earlier. No
cause for an increase in the disorder was identified, however, and no
explanation put forward for the sudden increase in prescription of
amphetamines. Furthermore, the well-recognised addictiveness of these
drugs was denied by senior paediatricians and psychiatrists.
In a seminar for general practitioners masquerading as medical
education, Professor Ernest Luk, professor of child psychiatry at Monash
University admitted that drug prescription for AD/HD had increased by
2000% between 1988 and 1994, and a further 700% from 1993 to 1995.
The talk was given in 1997, and included the promotion of a range of drugs,
including stimulants, clonidine (an old anti-hypertensive drug now
relaunched), tricyclic antidepressants and SSRI antidepressants. Even low
dose neuroleptics (dopamine-blockers) are suggested.
Professor Luk provided notes to accompany his seminar, which
promoted a genetic factor for AD/HD, but listed other aetiological factors
as brain damage, toxic substances, dietary factors and psychological
factors. Television and sensory overload are not mentioned as
psychological factors, which are listed as adverse upbringing experience
and child rearing practice. Only lead and foetal alcohol syndrome are
considered as possible toxic substances which can contribute to the
problem. Amphetamine addiction is not mentioned, and the recognised
fact that a disproportionate number of children who have been diagnosed
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as suffering from AD/HD develop problems with substance abuse is


blamed on the condition itself, and not the practice of prescribing addictive
drugs to young children.
Dr John Court, a senior paediatrician at the Royal Childrens Hospital and
Board member of the Medical Practitioners Board of Victoria repeats this
claim in The Puberty Game published by Harper Collins in 1997. He is
explicit about how safe amphetamines are:
Dexamphetamine has been used for children with ADD for over
fifty years, and there is no evidence that it has led to dependence or
addiction. Both Ritalin and Dexamphetamine have been highly
researched, and long-term harmful effects have not been found.
These medications are now so widely used, particularly in the USA,
that there is considerable experience over many years in their use
and confidence in their safety. (p.156)
He then goes on to describe a series of side effects which should cause
serious concern about long-term damage as well as immediate risk:
There are some side effects that may occur with the medication
but usually settle down quickly and seldom last more than a few
weeks at most. These include some loss of appetite. With careful
introduction of the tablets in correct dose, children usually notice
very little change, and the effect wears off in time for the evening
meal. Dexamphetamine may lead to some difficulty in getting to
sleep, but only if the tablet is taken rather late in the day.
Sometimes, in my experience, children get an occasional headache or
abdominal pain in the first few days, though these dont persist.
Sometimes pre-teens and teenagers can get rather depressed
when they start the medication. In younger children this is seldom a
problem, though they can be rather emotional at first. Older
teenagers may become quite depressed, perhaps because the tablets
make them focus on their past failures and faults. Depression is
perhaps the most significant side effect of stimulant medication at
this age.
It has been reported that the stimulants may slow down growth.
This should not be a problem if the medication is used properly, but
we always monitor growth with any medication given to children. It
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has been shown that even if growth has been slowed, children catch
up later, and adult height is not effected [sic+. (p.156)
It is surely a big problem if drugs which cause depression are given to
children when the incidence of childhood depression and suicide has been
steadily rising in both the USA and Australia. It is interesting that Dr Court
recognises that taking tablets (to improve behaviour) makes children focus
on their past failures. This is not, obviously, a pharmacological effect of the
drug: it is due to the diagnosis and the fact that they are being compelled to
take a tablet because of past failures and faults. John Court even admits
that:
Its hard to resist the comment Have you had your tablet today,
Peter? whenever an ADD child misbehaves.
The paediatricians strategy to ensure compliance in drug taking is an
effective technique if one wants children to develop a misguided
enthusiasm for taking pills:
I sometimes call the stimulants concentration pills that only the
best kids are allowed to have. (p.155)
Another keen promoter of the AD/HD diagnosis and the use of
stimulant drugs in children is Dr Christopher Green, author of Toddler
Taming and other books about bringing up children. In 1998 he authored
an article in Modern Medicine titled Attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder clearing the confusion. Perhaps better sub-titled refuting the
criticism, the article seeks to reassure doctors and parents about the
safety of stimulant drugs, while legitimising what is clearly a vague,
subjective and stigmatising label. He states the cause of the condition
with authority but a noticeable lack of evidence:
Until relatively recent times, professionals blamed the parents
attachment or relationships for causing ADHD behaviours. Others
said that ADHD was due to additives in food. Now we know that
neither of these is the cause, although the standard of parenting and
some food substances may influence already existing ADHD. Two
things are certain: firstly, ADHD is strongly hereditary and, secondly,
it is a biological condition.

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Dr Green fails to recognise the propensity of the medical profession to


see what it looks for when he claims that heredity of the condition is
obvious as so many sufferers have a parent or close relative who has a
similar problem. Given the broad range of behaviours which can be
viewed as symptomatic of AD/HD, it is not surprising that once one
member of a family has been diagnosed, others with similar behaviour can
be found. Green admits that the presentation varies considerably. He
writes:
Most parents present a restless, intrusive, unthinking child.
Others tell of no obvious behaviour problems, just a child who finds it
hard to remember, to stick at a task and to maintain work output at
school. Some also have problems of dyslexia, language disorder or
clumsiness. Others are impossibly oppositional and a few have
extreme behaviour that has placed them in trouble with the law.
Green has difficulty explaining how it is that all these different
behaviours are caused by the same disorder or how it is that stimulant
medication is miraculously able to control the problem. He tries hard to
validate his position that this disorder (which is diagnosed on the basis of
unwanted behaviour) is a biological condition. By this he means that it is
caused by dysfunction of the brain (a similar label, minimal brain
dysfunction, was used for many years). He claims that this has now been
proved. He writes:
For years it was presumed, but not proven, that ADHD is caused
by a minor difference in brain function. Now this can be shown by
imaging techniques such as PET, SPECT, and volumetric and
functional MRI. In ADHD, scans using these techniques show a slight
difference in function and anatomy in the behaviour-inhibiting areas
of the brain (the frontal lobes and their close connections). The
mechanism of this underfunction seems to be caused by an
imbalance of the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and dopamine.
The effect of stimulant medications, which are used to treat ADHD, is
to increase the production of these natural chemicals. (p.119)
As in the dopamine theory of schizophrenia and the serotonin theory
of depression (which followed the noradrenaline theory of depression),
the neurotransmitter theory of ADHD is inexcusably reductionist, and
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merely follows the use of drugs which are known to affect these chemicals.
One wonders how Professor Luk can justify the use of low dose
neuroleptics (which block dopamine receptors) for the same condition that
Green claims is caused by lack of the same chemicals. In truth, neither an
excess nor a deficiency in any of these chemicals has been detected in
untreated ADHD sufferers (or schizophrenics or depressives) and the
chemical imbalance theory is merely one of inference secondary to known
pharmacophysiology.
John Court, in The Puberty Game, repeats the chemical imbalance
theory, while presenting a regressively mechanistic, reductionist model of
mental function:
The rationale for giving medication to children with ADD is this:
the brain acts like a computer in many ways, but its function depends
on chemical substances called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters
help transmit messages between nerve cells, which are called
neurones. Neurones are the basic units of the nervous system,
including the brain. These neurotransmitters ensure that messages
are sent through the nervous system in an orderly and efficient way.
We believe that in ADD some of these neurotransmitters are not
functioning properly. It seems likely that the brain is not making
them efficiently, or in sufficient quantity. What we do know is that it
is possible to increase the efficiency of these neurotransmitters
through stimulating them by medication. This seems quite logical,
and there is ample experience to show that this stimulant treatment
is one that works in most cases, and is safe. (p.153)
The Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre in Melbourne lists some of
the common symptoms in amphetamine withdrawal in their 1996
booklet titled, Getting Through Amphetamine Withdrawal. Days 1 to 3
(described as the crash) are typified by exhaustion, increased sleep and
depression. On days 2 to 10 the symptoms include, strong urges (cravings)
to use amphetamines, mood swings (alternating between feeling irritable,
restless, and anxious to feeling tired, lacking energy and generally run
down), poor sleep, poor concentration, general aches and pains,
headaches, increased appetite and strange thoughts (such as feeling that
people are out to get you misunderstanding things around you, such as
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seeing things that arent there). The withdrawal symptoms, according to


the Turning Point doctors, start to settle down in 7 to 28 days, during
which time common symptoms include, mood swings (alternating
between feeling anxious, irritable or agitated, to feeling flat and run down),
poor sleep and cravings. It is easy to see how the withdrawal symptoms of
stimulant drugs can be attributed to the conditions they are claimed to be
treating: they sound remarkably similar to the symptoms of attention
deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
The concept that initiating young children and their parents (and
siblings) into taking tablets to improve concentration and behaviour could
lead to subsequent dependence on drugs generally is not difficult to
understand. The psychological ramifications (for the whole family) of
singling out individual children to blame for arguments and discordance in
the family (or classroom) is cruel and socially destructive. I have not read a
single article blaming boring school curricula for lack of attention from
children, although inconsistent discipline from parents is blamed as a
contributing factor at times. Furthermore, the medical profession
continue to turn a blind eye to the part they play in creating drug addiction,
despite growing concerns from the public as well as from dissidents within
the profession. Christopher Green refutes such concerns in Attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder clearing the confusion:
Stimulant medication was first used for ADHD in 1937. The drug
Ritalin has been used since 1958. These preparations have now been
extremely well researched and proven; currently there are over 150
published papers showing that stimulants are effective and safe in
ADHD. Yet there are still people in this country who state that
stimulants are new, controversial, addictive, dangerous and
unproven. These ideas are out of date in 1998. (p.126)
It is not true that stimulant medication was first used for ADHD in
1937. In 1937, ADHD did not exist. It is true, however, that some
children were experimented on with amphetamines, and that these
children were labelled as hyperactive. The construction of the new
disorder which is now accepted so glibly as a distinct biological condition
by Dr Green and others, was formally announced in the 1994 Fourth Edition
of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders by the
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American Psychiatric Association (APA). The disorder is described as


follows:
The essential feature of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity that is
more frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at
a comparable level of development (Criterion A).
Hyperactivity is described thus:
Hyperactivity may be manifested by fidgetiness or squirming in
ones seat (Criterion A2a), by not remaining seated when expected to
do so (Criterion A2b), by excessive running or climbing in situations
where it is inappropriate (Criterion A2c), by having difficulty playing
or engaging quietly in leisure activities (Criterion A2d), by appearing
to be often on the go or as if driven by a motor (Criterion A2e),
or by talking excessively (Criterion A2f). (p.79)
It appears that the psychiatrists who decided on these criteria were
brought up in the school that insists that children should be seen but not
heard. Further evidence of hyperactivity is evidenced in children who
often get up from the table during meals or while doing homework. Far
from recognising any deleterious effects of television on concentration,
according to the DSM IV, getting up often while watching television is
further evidence of abnormality.
Incredibly, the psychiatric profession, and medical profession generally,
have failed to grasp the influence of television on childrens behaviour.
Rather than attributing increasing violence at younger ages to increasingly
violent television programs, video games, computer games and films, vague
chemical imbalance theories and statistics purporting to demonstrate
genetic factors are put forward, not as possible and partial explanations
but as proven fact. Science fiction movies about extraterrestrial invasions
are all the rage, but if an adolescent (or even a child) seriously believes in
UFOs, he or she can be diagnosed as having schizophrenia according to
modern psychiatric criteria.
The diagnoses of child psychiatry provide a justification to use the full
spectrum of adult psycho-active drugs on children. In essence the related
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disorders of AD/HD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder


are pseudoscientific gradings of delinquency. A child with AD/HD is bad, but
not as bad as a child with Oppsitional Defiant Disorder. These children are
not as bad as those with Conduct Disorder. The latter is the favoured label
for children whose behaviour is deemed bad enough to go to prison for.
Not surprisingly, many adults who are labelled as having antisocial
personality disorder have previously been designated defective as children
with one of the labels, and been early victims of psychiatric stigmatisation.
Antisocial personality disorder, which is the new label for people who
used to be described as sociopaths, is not a nice thing to be diagnosed
with. The term implies that the person has no conscience, and does not feel
remorse for causing the suffering of other people or animals. There is no
doubt that such people exist, however the label is selectively applied for
those caught up in the prisons and psychiatric systems, and not those who
make the sort of rules that allow the poisoning of European rivers with
cyanide, the distribution of landmines or the incarceration of children. Men
who send young men off to war and inject them with chemicals for
corporate profits, or create depression and suicide for personal profit are
also spared a diagnosis of Antisocial personality disorder, together with
men who design taxes that further impoverish the poor and dispossessed in
countries with an offensive disparity between the conditions in which rich
and poor members of society live.
The DSM IV defines Antisocial Personality Disorder as follows:
The essential feature of Antisocial Personalty Disorder is a
pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of
others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues
into adulthood.
This pattern has also been referred to as psychopathy,
sociopathy, or dyssocial personality disorder. Because deceit and
manipulation are central features of Antisocial Personality Disorder,
it may be especially helpful to integrate information acquired from
systematic clinical assessment with information collected from
collateral sources [hearsay and rumour].

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For this diagnosis to be given, the individual must be at least age


18 years (Criterion B) and must have had a history of some symptoms
of Conduct Disorder before age 15 years (Criterion C).
The long term unemployed are targetted with this horrible label,
which does not take into consideration the frustrations, loss of self-esteem
and boredom which can result from being denied rewarding and
meaningful activity:
Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder also tend to be
consistently and extremely irresponsible (Criterion A6). Irresponsible
work behavior may be indicated by significant periods of
unemployment despite available job opportunities, or by
abandonment of several jobs without a realistic plan for getting
another job. There may also be a pattern of repeated absences from
work that are not explained by illness either in themselves or in their
family. (p.646)
The hypocrisy of the description of Antisocial Personality Disorder
becomes more obvious when one remembers that infamous reproach to
the Australian people from ex-Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser, now head of
CARE Australia: Life was not meant to be easy. Such statements are
apparantly a feature of Antisocial Personality Disorder, according to the
American Psychiatric Associations DSM IV:
Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder show little
remorse for the consequences of their acts (Criterion A7). They may
be indifferent to, or provide a superficial rationalization for, having
hurt, mistreated, or stolen from someone (e.g., lifes unfair, losers
deserve to lose, or he had it coming anyway). These individuals
may blame the victims for being foolish, helpless, or deserving their
fate; they may minimize the harmful consequences of their actions;
or they may simply indicate complete indifference. (p.646)
At the time of writing the Governor of Texas, presidential hopeful
George Bush junior, was confronted with a distraught 61 year-old great
grandmother, who begged him to spare her life. She had been sexually and
physically abused since childhood, and had suffered greatly during her
childhood, adolescence and adult life. She had killed her fifth husband, in
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circumstances which were not elaborated in the television program which


showed part of her plaintive appeal for clemency, and Bushs response. He
was unmoved. She was later killed by lethal injection. She was the 120 th
person to be executed in Texas in recent years. George Bush, the son of the
CIA boss and ex-president of the same name, gave his personal assent to
the killings despite numerous appeals against this State-sanctioned murder.
Almost all the people thus killed have been young black males. Four of
those killed have been women. Bush personally approved the death of two
of these four women since he became Governor of Texas. He campaigns
under the slogan the compassionate conservative. But then, his grasp of
the English language (his only language) is doubtful. Does this man have
Antisocial Personality Disorder? What about his father, who presided
over the CIA while they smuggled coccaine from Central America into his
own country, in exchange for guns which were used to kill freedom fighters
in other nations?
The DSM IV deftly redirects the attention to the victims and not the
perpetrators of poverty. Under Specific Culture, Age and Gender Features
the textbook claims:
Antisocial Personality Disorder appears to be associated with low
socioeconomic status and urban settings. Concerns have been raised
that the diagnosis may at times be misapplied to individuals in
settings in which seemingly antisocial behavior may be part of a
protective survival strategy. In assessing antisocial traits, it is helpful
for the clinician to consider the social and economic context in which
the behaviors occur. (p.647)
The textbook follows with a suggestion that the label is not applied
often enough to women:
Antisocial Personality Disorder is much more common in males
than in females. There has been some concern that Antisocial
Personality Disorder may be underdiagnosed in females, particularly
because of the emphasis on aggressive items in the definition of
Conduct Disorder. (p.647)
The Australian textbook Foundations of Clinical Psychiatry expresses
different concerns about antisocial personality disorder:
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The diagnostic criteria consist of little more than a catalogue of


obnoxious and disruptive behaviours which, it has been suggested,
far from defining a clinical disorder merely attempts to medicalise
evil. Many clinicians wish to banish those with APD (antisocial
personality disorder) from the realm of medicine and consign them
as social deviants to the police and justice systems. (p.339)
A case example is presented of a person typifying the label in what
is claimed as an attempt to establish that in addition to disturbance in
behaviour such people also have a disorder of mental function:
A man in his mid-twenties was first encountered after slashing
his wrists and abdomen while in prison where he was awaiting trial
on charges of burglary. He came from a disorganised home in which
he had been physically and sexually abused. At school he had been a
behaviour problem and had been referred to the educational
psychologists for what we would now term Conduct Disorder with
features of Attention Deficit Disorder. He left school at fifteen with
no qualifications despite having above average intellectual ability. He
was involved in petty theft both at school and in boys homes where
he spent part of his adolescence. In his teens he abused alcohol and
solvents. He had appeared before the courts on numerous occasions
for theft, assault, indecent assault and car conversion. He had been
admitted to psychiatric hospitals on two occasions, after an overdose
and after slashing his arms and legs with a razor. Both episodes
followed the breakdown of relationships with girlfriends.
He presented as an articulate man with considerable charm
which contrasted with his grim appearance, not improved by tattoos
over his face and hands. He acknowledged recurrent periods of
depression, usually lasting only hours and never more than days.
During these episodes of despondency he would experience selfdestructive urges combined with violent fantasies. He had a
pervasive suspiciousness of others with a tendency to refer any
chance remark or overheard laugh to himself. This led to
confrontations where he would accuse and occasionally strike others.
Sexual relationships soon disintegrated because of his excessive
jealousy. On one occasion when in prison he had entered a disturbed
state with bizarre persecutory beliefs and pseudo-hallucinations, but
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this had rapidly resolved on transfer to the hospital wing. His


behaviour was impulsive, unpredictable and often destructive of his
own interests as of the common good. Police, prison authorities and
most ordinary people he came into contact with considered him
mad because of his unpredictable, self-destructive and impulsive
behaviour. Psychiatrists had on several occasions declared him to be
sane and to have a personality disorder. The extensive abnormalities
in his state of mind as well as his behaviour carried no weight with
the doctors bacause they were not the types of disturbance found in
the schizophrenias or other psychotic disorders. (p.339)
Professor Paul Mullen, who presents the case history, omits some
valuable information about this man that could help understand his
behaviour. It is easy to see unpredictability in people one does not
understand. What happened to this mans family? Did he have any siblings,
and if so, where are they and what is his relationship like with them? Was
he a stolen child? What colour was his skin? What religious beliefs, if any,
did he have? Was he addicted to drugs, like much of the prison population?
What drug treatment had he been given in the past? Had he ever been
given ECT? What kinds of punishments was he subjected to in the boys
homes and prisons where he had obviously spent much of his youth? What
had he stolen in the alleged burglary?
Mullen presents this case in this way to illustrate some points of
psychiatric dogma. One is that people with personality disorders are not
insane. To put it simply, they are bad, not mad. This means that they can
be incarcerated in jails rather than psychiatric hospitals, although they can
still be treated with psychiatric drugs. Another point the professor is trying
to illustrate, is that people who develop this adult personality disorder
demonstrate symptoms of Conduct Disorder earlier in life. Despite the
fact that the case example may be fictional or fictionalised, the story of
this young man does illustrate an all too common journey for unwanted
children in Australia. Disobedience, disorder label, psychiatric treatment,
loss of self esteem, drug addiction, depression, alcohol abuse, aggression
and violence, police punishment, custodial punishment, worsening of drug
addiction, self-harm, combined prison incarceration and punitive

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psychiatric treatment. Not surprisingly, this journey often ends in early


death, often attributed to suicide.
Paul Mullen is a senior professor of forensic psychiatry at Monash
University and Director of Forensic Psychiatry Services in Victoria. He
authored the chapter on Forensic Psychiatry in this textbook. He describes
his specialty as follows:
Forensic psychiatry is that area of psychiatry which overlaps with
the legal system. Central to it is assessment and treatment of the
mentally disordered offender, and provision of expert testimony to
both criminal and civil courts. In addition, forensic psychiatrists may
become involved in legal issues concerning competence, consent and
confidentiality, and malpractice. In recent years forensic psychiatrists
have had to care for a wide range of mentally disordered people
considered either of such high risk of dangerous behaviour, or so
problematic as to be unmanageable in normal psychiatric facilities.
(p.321)
Forensic psychiatrists themselves predict risk of dangerous behaviour
and their opinions on the matter are taken seriously by police and the
courts, despite their abysmal failure to make these predictions with
accuracy, or their inexcusable failure to abandon racial and cultural
prejudices. It is no longer politically correct to accuse particular races of
violent tendencies, dishonesty or criminality, so modern psychiatric
textbooks make much of refuting racialist theories of violence, preferring
class-ist ones instead. The racist prejudices underlying the new theories are
poorly disguised however, and the proportion of blacks in custody (in
Australia, New Zealand and the USA) speaks for itself.
Professor Mullen writes, under clinical prediction of dangerousness
that social background is an associated factor for high rates of violent
behaviour:
Those who appear before the courts and populate our penal
institutions are drawn disproportionately from lower socio-economic
classes. Poverty, though relevant, is less important than a sense of
exclusion from the rewards and regard of society. Those disabled by
mental illness are often drawn into the impoverished and drifting
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populations of the excluded and rejected, and with this comes an


increased risk of offending, arrest and re-offence. Those who are
economically and socially deprived as well as being members of
minority groups are at particular risk of offending and arrest, e.g.
black Americans, Maori New Zealanders and Aboriginal Australians.
Race is not the issue; it is the social and economic conditions under
which these racial minorities live. The unemployed, the unmarried or
unattached and the socially isolated are all at higher risk. (p.332)
One of the roles of forensic psychiatrists, according to Professor Mullen
is the investigation of malpractice. This rarely affects his own profession,
but in July 1991 there occurred an exception to the rule. He was called
upon by the Director General of Health in New Zealand to investigate the
treatment and death of Dolly Jane Pohe at the Psychiatric Unit of Rotorua
Hospital, and the practice of rapid neuroleptisation at the hospital.
Responsible for this abusive practice was the psychiatrist Gil Newburn, who
was simultaneously conducting drug-trials-for-profit for several
pharmaceutical companies (including the new antidepressant Aurorix, for
Roche). Dr Newburn had a treatment for manic patients that routinely
rendered them comatose with massive intravenous and intramuscular
injections of diazepam, chlorpromazine and haloperidol. Dolly Jane Pohe
was one of his victims. Although her race is not stated in the report, Pohe is
a Maori name.
The committee of inquiry into this death consisted of Paul Mullen, who
was then Professor of Psychological Medicine at the University of Otago,
and David Bates, a barrister. Despite his advice to students that a
psychiatric report can present them as people with backgrounds,
personalities, strengths and weaknesses, Professor Mullen presented a
report that is cold and impersonal, but also negligently omissive. It was, in
fact, a cover-up.
Dolly Jane Pohe, whose age, race and family background are not
mentioned in the report died on Sunday, 7th April, 1990, after being
admitted as an involuntary patient by Dr Newburn on Wednesday, 4th April,
three days earlier. During this time she received 10 injections: 4 of
haloperidol, 4 of diazepam (Valium), one of chlorpromazine (Largactil) and
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one of clonazepam (Rivotril). All these drugs are tranquillisers. In addition


to this she was given a huge amount of oral neuroleptics (dopamineblockers) including chlorpromazine and haloperidol. This included 400
milligrams of oral chlorpromazine as soon as she was admitted (which was
followed by intramuscular injections of 30mg haloperidol and 10mg
diazepam an hour later) and 15 mg oral haloperidol later that afternoon.
The next day she was given 15 mg haloperidol at 8.00 a.m., with further
doses of the same drug at 1.00 p.m., 3.30 p.m., 6.00 p.m. and 9.00 p.m. At
4.15 p.m. she was punished with intramuscular injections of haloperidol
(30mg) together with diazepam (10mg). Her crime was escaping from
torture and going down to the pub:
At 15:30 the security room door appears to have been open and
Ms Pohe slipped through and left the ward. The police were notified.
She was returned to the ward by the police at 16:15 having been
found in a nearby pub, the Palace Tavern. She was given haloperidol
and diazepam intramuscularly on return to the security room as she
was noted by Dr.Finucane to be more irritable and disturbed. She
appears to have settled after the medication until about 18:00 hours
when she was noted to be restless and banging on the door. She was
threatening to the nursing staff [from behind a locked door] and they
recorded anxieties about her potential for physical aggression. Ms
Pohe seems to have settled from 19:30 and remained quiet and
probably sleeping until 07:00 the next morning.
The next day the torture continued:
On waking, Ms Pohe appears to have become more restless and
disturbed [as one might if one woke in such an environment]. She is
described as aggressive, abusive, violent, unco-operative and
physically aggressive towards staff. At the request of nursing staff
Dr.Newburn saw Ms.Pohe in the seclusion room. The trainee intern
accompanied Dr.Newburn and described how impressed he was,
both with Dr.Newburns ability to calm Ms Pohe sufficiently to talk
with her and his ability to inject the haloperidol intravenously despite
her initial reluctance. Dr.Newburn considered her state to be
deteriorating rather than improving and an intravenous injection of
haloperidol 35 mgs and diazepam 80 mgs was administered at 09:00
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hours. A further 30 mgs of valium was injected by Dr.Newburn at


10:00 hours.
One thing that is obvious about Dolly Jane Pohe is that she did not want
to be locked in a room, and repeatedly banged on the doors, presumably to
be let out. This was callously noted as evidence of aggression, violent
behaviour and restlessness, further evidence of mania. It is unclear as to
what specific evidence Dr Newburn found of a deteriorating state other
than that she refused to co-operate with the incarceration and was angered
by it, and by how she was being treated. It is relevant that she was calm
enough to converse with the doctor before he injected her with the drugs.
Maybe she hoped he would let her go home, or at least leave the security
room. This was not to be the case.
The next day, finding that she was still imprisoned, Dolly Pohe was
obviously despairing, but also suffering from poisoning by the drugs she
had been given:
On the Saturday morning she was noted to be restless and
irritable, banging on the door and angry. It was possible to bath her
and she had some breakfast. At about 09:00 she calmed down and
appeared to be asleep until 10:20. She was then noted to be in some
distress, wailing sounds were noted. She then slept until mid-day.
At 12:00 hours Nurse Young became aware that Ms Pohe was
heavily sedated and was apparently having difficulty swallowing. She
decided not to administer any further medication and phoned
Dr.Finucane to inform him of Ms Pohes state and her decision.
Dr.Finucane supported her decision.
At 13:00 hours Nurse Young noted Ms Pohes pulse was irregular.
She phoned Dr.Finucane to apprise him of the situation. He
instructed her to call the on duty house surgeon to request an ECG.
Dr Finucane examined Dolly Pohe at 4.00 p.m., but reassured the
nursing staff that although he found her to be drowsy and unco-operative
he was able to examine her cardiovascular system and her pulse was now
regular. He thought, however, that the 400 mg of chlorpromazine she had
been given in the morning combined with clonazepam may have resulted in

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a cardiac arrythmia (irregularity) and wrote in the chart, try to use just
haloperidol for rest of day.
If the evening nurse had the same reluctance to further drug a heavily
drugged prisoner as Nurse Young, Dolly Jane Pohe may have survived. Mr
Lee, the male nurse who took over the care of Ms Pohe after Nurse Young
did not share her concerns. He noted that whenever Ms Pohe did rouse
she showed signs of becoming disturbed again and he felt it was important
to maintain the continuity of the sedation effect. She was given 20
milligrams of haloperidol at 14:45, 19:00 and 22:00, according to the
report. She was given another 20 mg of haloperidol at 1.00 a.m. after
banging at the door again, this time because she wanted to go to the toilet.
When nursing staff entered the seclusion room at 5.15 a.m. she was dead.
The report, presented to the Director General of Health (New Zealand)
made two recommendations, after a single sentence of summary. The
summary reads:
In our opinion there is no prima facie evidence against any
person in respect of which a prosecution should be recommended, or
in respect of which a complaint should be made under the Medical
Practitioners Act.
The recommendations are as follows:
(1) We do not recommend criminal prosecution of any person nor
complaint against any person under the Medical Practitioners Act or
Nurses Act
(2) We express our regret that there exists no suitable mechanism by
means of which civil remedies might be pursued against health care
professionals in appropriate cases of which the death of Ms Pohe might
possibly be considered an example. We recommend investigation of this
deficiency in our civil law with a view to legislative action being taken.
The psychiatrist who made these recommendations, Professor Paul
Mullen, is now one of the senior psychiatrists in charge of the forensic
psychiatry system in Melbourne. He is also a Professor of Psychological
Medicine (psychiatry) at Monash University, which is affiliated with both
the Mental Health Research Institute and the Macfarlane Burnet Centre. It
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is also affiliated with Monash Medical Centre and the Alfred Hospital, both
of which inject people with crippling drugs against their will. Both hospitals
also give coercive electoconvulsive treatment. This is what medical
students and junior doctors learn to do in Melbourne, since both of these
hospitals are teaching hospitals.
The Fairfield Infectious Diseases Hospital, next to which the new
Forensic Psychiatry Hospital is currently being built is the home of the
Macfarlane Burnet Institute, the largest AIDS research institution in
Australia. The Macfarlane Burnet Centre (MBC) is soon to be located next
to the Alfred hospital in a multi-million dollar development. The executive
director of the Macfarlane Burnet Institute is the American Harvard
University graduate Professor John Mills, who is also the director of the
Amrad corporation. Amrad is a new Australian biotechnology company,
a branch of which is Amrad Pharmaceuticals, which is involved in joint
projects (as corporate partners) with the Macfarlane Burnet Institute,
according to the Institutes Annual Report. Other (non-executive) directors
of the Institute, which is soon to be relocated to new premises at the
Alfred Hospital in Prahran, include Sir Roderick Carnegie, who is described
in the 1998 MBC Annual Report as Chairman of Hudson Conway and
Director of John Fairfax Holdings limited. Hudson Conway is part owner of
the Crown Casino in Melbourne and Fairfax Holdings owns the Age
newspaper and several popular magazines.
The 1996/97 Annual Report of the Macfarlane Burnet Centre for
Medical Research Limited lists their biggest corporate sponsors as HIH
Winterthur (insurance), Rio Tinto (mining) and Smith Kline Beecham
Pharmaceuticals. HIH Winterthur donated $112,700, Rio Tinto donated
$90,000 and Smith Kline Beecham donated $40,000. Page 17 of the
Annual Financial Report (1998) of the Macfarlane Burnet Centre states (in
bold italics) under renumeration of directors that non-executive
directors do not receive any income. It also contains a small table that
one director (presumably the executive director, Professor Mills) was paid
$273,515 (30 June 1997) and $453,745 (31 December 1998). Chairman of
the Board of the Macfarlane Burnet Centre is Mr.Graeme Hannan, also
Chairman of the Hannan finance group, and the Deputy Chairman is Mr
Raymond Williams, also chief executive officer (CEO) of HIH Winterthur
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International Holdings Limited and director of the following organizations:


Insurance Council of Australia, Australian Motor Insurers Limited, and
Garvan Institute for Medical Research (in Sydney).
The insurance industry and mining industry both have a vested interest
in the public health programs promoted by the Macfarlane Burnet Centre
for the prevention of AIDS and hepatitis, programs which are exported to
Africa, Asia and the Pacific Region by the Centre under the auspices of the
World Health Organization. These programs have an almost exclusive
focus on surveillance, injections, drugs and condom distribution as part of
what is euphemistically called a harm reduction strategy. The
promotional literature of the National Mental Health Strategy and Drug
Strategy suggest that harm minimization and harm reduction
programs accept that drug use is now an unavoidable feature of society
and rather than attempt to stop people from injecting themselves with
heroin, amphetamines and other chemicals, public health designers are
focusing on teaching young people safe injecting habits such as not
sharing needles between users and safe disposal of contaminated
needles and syringes.
The other major focus of the Macfarlane Burnet Centre, under the
guise of epidemiological research, is investigation of the sexual habits
of particular populations of young people in Australia and elsewhere,
particularly the Aboriginal population, with the simultaneous promotion
of what is, again euphemistically, termed safe sex, meaning the use of
condoms and lubricants, rather than sexual fidelity. This is the same lobby
group that have actively promoted safe injecting houses, also called
shooting galleries, where, it is planned, young people will be provided
with the means and environment to inject themselves with
pharmaceutically regulated heroin, using clean disposable needles in a
controlled environment where they can be resuscitated if the
overdose. The strategy of virus infection control is centred on, in their
own terminology, surveillance.
The Macfarlane Burnet Centre Annual Report of 1997-98 describes
their involvement in an ongoing project titled Victorian Aboriginal Health

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Service Study of Young Peoples Health and Well-Being. It is described as


follows:
The objective of the Young Peoples Health Study is to establish
a longitudinal study of a cohort of young Aboriginal people in order
to describe their health problems, explore the interrelated causes
of these problems, and describe factors associated with adolescent
resilience and vulnerability. This year the project team have
finalised the questionnaire which was programmed for computer
use. A team of peer interviewers was trained and a data collection
manual prepared. The team of young peer interviewers contacted
young people on the random sample list and invited them to take
part in the study. 180 young Koori people living in metropolitan
Melbourne have now completed the lengthy questionnaire on
portable computers. Those over 16 years have also been counselled
and had tests for blood borne viruses and sexually transmitted
diseases [hepatitis B and AIDS]. Data collection is now finished and
the data entered into the computer. The next stage of the study will
be analysis and writing up the results. The results will be
disseminated to the Aboriginal community and the local Aboriginal
community organisations. There will also be presentations at
seminars and conferences and the results will be published in
journals. (p.82)
The Macfarlane Burnet Centre were also involved in a project titled
Community Health Needs Assessment: Yarrambah Aboriginal
Community. This one week project, funded by Qld Health and Harvard
University involved assisting the Yarrambah Community to design an
evaluation process for a community-based needs assessment. One
wonders whether this Aboriginal Community know who sits on the Board
of the Macfarlane Burnet Centre, or that Rio Tinto Mining are contributing
to their activities, along with the insurance industry. One wonders also
what conclusions the computer will reach with all the information
gathered about young aboriginal people in urban and rural Australia, and
what other purposes this sensitive information could be used for.
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Wellcome) for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS, and needle and
condom distribution for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases
including AIDS. They have been involved in establishing a needle and
syringe exchange program in the Indian State of Manipur, which is the
first of its kind, and is described in the previous years annual report as
follows:
The SHALOM (Society for HIV/AIDS Lifeline Operation in
Manipur) Project is a collaboration between MBC and the
Emmanuel Hospitals Association (EHA). The project was established
early in 1995 as an indigenous response to the alarming incidence
of HIV infection among young drug users in the semi-rural
community of Churachandpur in Manipur state, in far Northeast
India. This community-based project aims to reduce the
transmission of HIV and the impact of AIDS in the community.
Home based care and drug detoxification together with counselling
and community education continue as major components of the
program.
A needle and syringe exchange program has been established,
the first of its kind in India, thus providing leadership in the
introduction of new but acceptable strategies to reduce the
transmission of HIV in south Asia. MBC has provided technical
support, assisting in the review of project activities and in planning
and design of the third phase. Further support has been extended
through training and support for investigations including a study of
impact of the epidemic on women by the community and
seroprevalence of HIV among injecting drug users.
In the next annual report, the same strategy is described as a harm
reduction approach without giving the detail that this involves the
distribution of needles and syringes.
It could be argued that if the Prime Ministers and American
Governments professed zero tolerance policy on drugs is totally
incompatible with the simultaneous provision of needles and plastic
syringes (in the form of needle exchange and distribution programs),
without the added hypocrisy of injecting rooms or injecting houses, as
has been promoted in recent years by the drug enforcement industry.
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There is a fundamental difference between swallowing a drug and selfinjecting it. This is a point exploited by the methadone lobby, long after
the methadone program had demonstrably failed to prevent an
increasing number of Australians, Americans and Europeans from
becoming addicted to opiates. Other parts of the world are not equally
troubled by opiate addiction, although it is said to be a growing problem
in large cities throughout the world. The reason that methadone failed to
decrease addiction levels in the world is obvious. It is itself an opiate, and
can cause even worse and more prolonged withdrawal if suddenly
stopped, than heroin. A fear of the pain and suffering of withdrawal, and
a weakening of resistance to refuse the drug as the symptoms worsen are
recognised amongst the many factors that contribute to this terrible
problem.
Methadone (physeptone) is a synthetic opiate available in tablet and
syrup form, and sold in Australia by the same company that produce AZT,
the giant pharmaceutical company Glaxo-Wellcome, the head offices of
which are based in the US and England. Wellcome Pharmaceuticals is
related to the Wellcome Trust, probably Britains largest medical research
trust fund, although it is claimed that the two organizations are politically
independent, and that financial, political and scientific decisions of the
Wellcome Trust are not influenced by agendas for the profit of Wellcome
Pharmaceuticals, now merged with the huge American drug company
Glaxo to form Glaxo-Wellcome. Wellcome Pharmaceuticals is the only
drug company in this part of the world to manufacture and sell
azidothymidine (AZT), now being promoted by the Macfarlane Burnet
Centre as a successful treatment for AIDS, despite much evidence to the
contrary. The Centres literature also claims that HIV antibodies in the
blood signify an infection that is inevitably fatal, with or without drug
treatment, a claim that is scientifically unjustified and potentially
disastrous.
Amrad corporation, as well as the Macfarlane Burnet Centre and
Forensic Psychiatry Centre are closely involved with the University of
Melbourne and Monash University, and Professor John Mills, who has a
bachelor of science (BSc) from Chicago and a medical degree (MD) from
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Harvard is a professor of Microbiology at both Universities (a situation


not uncommon in Melbourne).
Monash University and the University of Melbourne are the only
institutions that are allowed to produce medical graduates in Victoria,
and only medical practitioners are allowed to prescribe psychoactive
drugs via the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Many
potentially dangerous drugs are, however available over the counter at
pharmacies in Australia, and others on pharmacy shelves and
supermarket shelves. One such drug is the opiate codeine, which, like
morphine, pethidine and heroin causes habituation and physical
dependence with extended ingestion.
The physiological mechanism behind this phenomenon of
psychological and physical addiction to opiate drugs is well understood,
and it is of note that the British Empire was using opium for its addictive
and socially destructive properties when used as an intoxicant in the
1840, during the Opium Wars with China. Following this notorious war,
when British warships threatened to attack Chinese ports if the country
refused to allow more of the deadly chemical import, Britain was ceded
the territory of Hong Kong and extensive trading rights as well as a
guarantee of increased opium exports into China. This opium was
processed from poppies grown in other British colonies, particularly India
and Burma. In these countries farmers were forced to dig up their rice
fields and plant fields of poppies instead. Since rice was, and is, a staple
diet in these areas, this resulted in subsequent mass-starvation over the
subsequent century, for many millions whose land and culture have been
destroyed or degraded by these and similar acts of tyranny.
Opiates act on the brain by binding with opiate receptors on neurones.
These neurones are thought to be mainly in the central core of the brain,
in the hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. The emotional circuit
termed the limbic system is closely connected to these areas as is the
movement generation centre termed the basal ganglia. The
hypothalamus, and other parts of the brain produce the bodys own
supply of natural opiates, termed endogenous opiates or endorphins.
These act as natural painkillers, relieving both physical and psychological
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pain. They are released in increased quantities at times of need due to the
integrated activity of the nervous system and mind. This physiological and
biochemical mechanism is one of an undiscovered number of natural
abilities that human beings have to withstand pain and other traumatic
experiences and recover from them.
The ingestion (or injection) of opiates has two obvious and predictable
effects of the brains physiology. Firstly, less opiates are produced by the
areas of the brain that normally secrete them. A similar effect is observed
in people who take thyroid extracts or cortisone, when endogenous
production (by the body) of these hormones decreases. The second
predictable effect is that the brain starts developing more receptors for
opiates, partly due to damage of other artificially stimulated receptors.
Artificial chemicals, whilst mimicking the effects of natural stimulation
of neurone cell membrane receptors (at synapses or on the body of the
cell) in some ways, behave in fundamentally different ways in the long
term. Natural neurotransmitters and neurohormones are constantly
recycled by the brain and are also being constantly synthesised from
amino acids, which reach the brain through the blood stream. This is a
complex and intricate chemical orchestra conducted by the brain, but
profoundly influenced and in a real sense controlled by the mind. Both
the mind, and the sensitive processes that regulate the biochemistry of
the brain can be adversely affected by exogenous (from outside)
stimulation of receptors designed for transient stimulation by naturally
synthesised and catabolised chemical messengers. These include the
endorphins as well as neurohormones and neurotransmitters.
Some of the named neurotransmitters have been increasingly
mentioned in popular literature and the mass-media in recent years,
mainly because of the aggressive marketing of a range of drugs that exert
their most obvious effects by increasing and decreasing the activity of
neurotransmitters. These drugs include the old and new antidepressants,
amphetamines (and related stimulants) and major tranquillisers
(antipsychotics
or
dopamine-blockers).
The
older
tricyclic
antidepressants (such as Tryptanol and Prothiaden) tend to stimulate
noradrenaline and serotonin activity, according to pharmacological
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literature, whilst the newer SSRI antidepressants are claimed by the


manufacturers to specifically target serotonin reuptake mechanisms in
synapses in the brain, hence the name Selective Serotonin Reuptake
Inhibitors.
Prozac was the first SSRI drug to be marketed by a pharmaceutical
company, although the chemical precursor of the drug (also the precursor
to the euphoria drug ecstasy) was discovered several decades ago.
Following the unprecedented sales of Prozac by Eli Lilly, the US based
drug company that manufactures and sells the drug, several other drug
companies have brought out their own SSRIs to get their share of the
depression market, as their own marketing plans describe the troubled
people of the world. SmithKline Beecham, the huge UK-based drug
company are one such company, and, in the mid-1990s began an
aggressive marketing campaign in Australia and New Zealand for their
SSRI antidepressant Aropax, with a particular push for the prescription of
the drug by psychiatrists and general practitioners for panic disorder.
This was done with the assistance of the Mental Health Foundation,
headed by Professor Graham Burrows, who endorsed a series of patient
education leaflets promoting the diagnoses of depression, anxiety,
panic disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder(OCD) and the new
drugs to treat these conditions (including the ones produced by the
sponsor SmithKline Beecham notably Aropax).

SMITH KLINE BEECHAM AND PANIC


The following information was provided to their sales representatives
for Aropax (paroxetine) in New Zealand as part of an intensive marketing
campaign for the drug in the 1990s:
Depression is a condition of the central nervous system-ie the
brain. The basic unit of the nervous system is a neurone, which
looks like a rod with a swelling at each end. In the body these
neurones form long chains, or nerves. In the brain, they form
massive, tangled complexes. Chemical impulses pass from neurone
to neurone like a bucket-brigade, leaping the tiny gaps between
each cell. These gaps are called synapses.
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The most important chemical imbalance that causes depression


seems to be related to a substance called serotonin, which is
produced by neurones and released into the synapse. Serotonin is
necessary as a medium for the brain to transmit positive
emotions. Without enough serotonin, it is physically impossible to
feel happy or content. Serotonin levels are usually kept at the right
levels by the neurones themselves, which re-absorb any excess, and
release more in case of shortage. In some depressed people,
however, the neurones seem to hoard serotonin, letting out only a
trickle while aggressively reabsorbing. As a result, the persons
ability to feel happy dries up, and they enter clinical depression.
This unreferenced and simplistic piece of nonsense fails to mention
some important facts about serotonin and distorts others in an
inexcusable act of medical and scientific fraud in an effort to promote a
drug that specifically targets serotoninergic neurones in the brain. The
promotional literature fails to mention that serotonin is manufactured in
the gut and nervous system (including the brain) from the dietary amino
acid tryptophan, and performs many functions in the body other than
being a happy chemical, which is what the promotional literature from
SmithKline Beecham suggests. This advertising blurb also fails to mention
that serotonin is concentrated in the brain in the pineal organ, where it is
converted to the neurohormone melatonin, a scientific fact discovered in
the 1960s and conclusively proved in numerous studies. The fact that
serotonin is concentrated in the pineal where it is converted to melatonin
during the night-time hours of darkness is generally not found in
literature about Prozac, Aropax and the other SSRI drugs, including
information provided by the drug companies to doctors or in the many
books and medical articles published about (and promoting) the new
psychiatric drugs.
SmithKline Beecham, who are, with the Commonwealth Serum
Laboratories (CSL) and the American giant Mercke, the biggest marketers
of virus vaccines in Australia, have played a prominent role in the
Commonwealth of Australias National Mental Health Strategy, and
funded or co-funded a range of public health and disease awareness
campaigns and strategies in Australia over the past 10 years. These have
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included collaborating with the Mental Health Foundation and other


drug foundations to produce, promote and distribute literature
promoting the diagnosis of panic disorder for which the new SSRI drugs
were being promoted despite conclusive evidence that the drugs can
aggravate anxiety immediately after they are started precipitating
psychosis and suicide in vulnerable individuals.
Australian ABC reporter Ray Moynihan, in his 1998 book Too Much
Medicine? described an elaborate launch of Aropax and panic disorder in
Sydney, in 1996:
One of the top chefs in the country is catering at one of the best
venues in the nation. A large gathering of doctors are about to tuck
into a $100-a-head meal. The live satellite link with hundreds of
their colleagues across Australia is soon to start: another lavish
promotional event dressed up as a scientific gathering, courtesy of
the pharmaceutical industry.
This 1996 Sydney harbourside dinner was how the drug giant
SmithKline Beecham chose to educate doctors about the
governments approval of its new antidepressant, Aropax, for the
treatment of a psychiatric condition called panic disorder. The night
was just one component in a highly sophisticated marketing
campaign to promote Aropax and this little-known disorder. The
strategy included Panic, the book; Panic, the video; and Panic, the
T-shirt. (p.115)
Moynihan continues to expose just a small amount of the ensuing cost
to the Australian community:
The use of new antidepressants, including Aropax and the
better known Prozac, has grown astronomically in Australia since
the early 1990s, from 5,000 prescriptions a year in 1990 to over 2.5
million in 1996. Aropax is now one of the top-selling
antidepressants. And as the number of people using these
expensive new drugs has dramatically escalated, so too has the cost
to the taxpayer. The new antidepressants now cost the
Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme funded through Medicare over
$120 million in 1995-96. (p.115)

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The 1992 SmithKline Beecham marketing plan, sent to the ACACP and
HRIC by a human rights worker in New Zealand in 1998, demonstrates a
callous disregard for the human beings being targeted to both prescribe
and consume this drug. The following extracts show the general tone of
the document:
Task/Assignment
We are to produce a strategy and creative execution to launch Aropax to GPs.
For the creative, we need a foundation concept and image, reflected in concept
boards for:
A detail aid
An invitation to the launch seminar
An educational mailing pack
Branding advertisements
Thought should also be given to
Leave behinds
Neurone card, showing how the neurone can hoard serotonin
Branded give aways
The client wants to research and test the campaigns submitted. Our concept
boards should be designed with this in mind.
Objective
Marketing Objectives
1. Establish SSRIs as the future of antidepressant therapy by educating GPs.
2. Differentiate Aropax on the basis of its key attributes and strong branding.
3. As a result, establish Aropax as the SSRI of choice.
Direct marketing Objectives
1. Teach doctors about SSRIs.
2. Show why Aropax is the closest thing to an ideal agent.
3. Generate qualified leads for later sales calls.
Advertising Objectives
1. Build strong brand awareness of Aropax as the SSRI of choice. As we may
have a standing start race against a similar competitor, all branding must
be
strong and emotional.
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2. Build on the educational messages of the direct marketing.

Perhaps it is nave to imagine that the pharmaceutical industry would


consider the health of humanity as its primary objective. It is a clear
conflict of interest when the same industry is allowed opportunities to
promote diseases (especially invisible diseases) for which the drugs they
produce will be prescribed. It is also against the law. The wilful creation of
disease, termed biological warfare, is a crime against humanity, and is
prohibited by International Laws.

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AND THE MASS MEDIA


Biological warfare has been mentioned many times on television, on the
radio and in major newspapers over the past two years, especially at the
time of the Gulf War, when Saddam Husseins Government in Iraq was
accused of having biological weapons and/or the potential to develop
them. Iraq was also accused of having chemical weapons and claims were
made, mainly by European and American media sources, that Husseins
military-controlled government had used these weapons against minority
groups in Iraq in an act, or several acts, of attempted genocide. If these
accusations are true Saddam Hussein and commanding officers in his army
are guilty of a heinous crime against humanity, and are guilty of both massmurder and genocide, since literal genocide involves mass-murder.
The biological and chemical weapons that Iraq was said to possess were
described by the Australian United Nations weapons inspector Richard
Butler as weapons of mass destruction, the development and use of
which is prohibited, as they should be, by International Law. It is the legal
and ethical responsibility of the United Nations to enforce these laws, as
the organisation has the financial power, political power and military power
to do. Of course, it is the United Nations organisation (UN) that made these
laws in the first place, but not the first to conceive the concept of Universal,
and Global Laws. Universal Laws and Global Laws are not the same thing,
although colloquially the words Universal and Global are often used
interchangeably and this is even the case in the naming of the (1948)
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Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In this case, the laws refer to the
human rights of every human being in the Universe. There can be no
exceptions if such a law is to be just. It cannot be applied with double
standards, favouring one individual or regime over another. It is also not
possible to ignore Universal Human Rights laws infringements in some
countries and punish others for less serious crimes by attacking the nations
with other weapons of mass destruction, and expect nobody to notice
inconsistency in the response.
The following radio reports were heard in Melbourne on 17.4.99,
containing carefully edited coverage of the American and British military
strikes against Baghdad:
American military voice:
their mission is to attack Iraqs nuclear, chemical and biological
weapons programs and its military capacity to threaten its neighbours.
Their purpose is to protect the national interest of the United States and
indeed the interests of people throughout the middle east and around the
world.
The broadcast continued with a voice with an Australian accent saying:
Britains Prime Minister Tony Blair says his government has backed
the U.S. attack because there was no realistic alternative to military
force.
The voice of Tony Blair is allowed, by the radio programmers and
editors only the brief statement, read in measured tones:
We are taking this military action with real regret, but with real
determination. We have exhausted all other avenues.
The Australian-accented continues:
Canada has supported the US and British air-strikes against Iraq.
Germany says the attack is regrettable but Iraq had plenty of chances to
avert the use of force; while France, China, Iran and Russia have deplored
the attack. At Russias request the United Nations Security Council is due
to convene in 90 minutes from now to discuss the Iraqi crisis. UN

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Secretary General Kofi Annan, who tried to broker a peace deal with Iraq,
says its a sad day for the United Nations and a sad day for the world.
A sad-sounding but calmly measured voice, presumably that of Kofi
Annan, is heard saying what is unfortunately not nearly enough:
All we know is that tomorrow, as yesterday, there will still be an
acute need in Iraq and in the surrounding area for humanitarian relief and
healing diplomacy. In both these tasks, the United Nations will be ready,
as ever, to play its part.
It is not, then, unreasonable to ask what part the United Nations and
its allied organizations, the World Health Organization and World Bank
have played in stopping or promoting biological and chemical warfare in
the past, so that we can know what sort of humanitarian relief and
healing diplomacy to expect from the worlds most respected authority
on global health and global economics.
The Macfarlane Burnet Centre is deeply involved in the United Nations
and World Health Organizations Third World health policies, especially in
regards to AIDS treatment and prevention, and several projects are being
done in collaboration UN organisations and International Aid organisations,
particularly World Vision and AusAID. Among the centres many public
education pamphlets, is one introducing the centre, which claims in the
section about the International Health Unit:
The IHU at MBC is working to reduce the impact of many
diseases, and improve the overall health of hundreds of communities
around the globe, through technical assistance and training
programs.
Current projects focus on sexually transmitted diseases such as
HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B, malaria, vaccination programs for preventable
childhood diseases, and improvement of water supplies. The IHU also
conducts a number of teaching programs in Australia, such as the
Masters of Public Health and Health and Human Rights courses.
The IHU works with a number of national and international
organisations such as the World Health Organisation, World Vision
Australia, World Bank, and AusAID. IHU aid programs are being
conducted in over 20 countries around the world, including
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Zimbabwe, Vietnam, India, Tibet, Nepal, PNG, Thailand, and


Australia.
Given the disastrous problems affecting both global health and the
global economy, it would seem that the advice the Third World and the
World Health Organization receive could improve. It will only improve by an
improvement in honest communication between researchers, scientists,
politicians, institutions and nations. Public health will only improve in
Australia when there is co-operation rather than competition between city
and country, Labour and Liberal, black and white, Christian and nonChristian, rich and poor. It will only improve if Australians support each
other without being alienated by divide and rule politics, when we abandon
antagonism between races, religions, nationalities and states.

ANTAGONISM BETWEEN THE STATES


The geographical positioning of Canberra between Melbourne and
Sydney as the new capital city of the federated Australia was influenced by
an overt recognition of antagonism (euphemistically called rivalry)
between the two largest cities in Australia and the two most populous
States, Victoria and New South Wales.
Interstate competition and rivalry are not confined to Victoria and New
South Wales. Parochial attitudes are common in Queensland and the other
states, since Australia has never been a truly unified nation in terms of the
people who live here and even those who feel they belong here and are
citizens of the country. Although they may identify themselves as
Australian when overseas, many Australians identify themselves (and
others) as Queenslanders, Victorians, Western Australians etc. This
division of the population into camps with different state loyalties affects
some members of the community more so than others. In the arena of
State Politics, antagonism between State Premiers, usually based on
arguments about the relative allocation to State Governments of federally
collected taxes, is typical.

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The political history of Australia is important to understand to gain an


accurate perspective of the present psychiatric system and prisons system
in Australia, because the three have been closely related since the
development of methods to control the immigrant and convict
populations in the early days of British Imperial Rule in what was, only
100 years ago, named Australia (Southern Land).
Antagonism between people identifying themselves as being of one
State or another has persisted over the past 100 years and a constant
feature of local politics has been bickering between State Governments and
between the State and Federal Governments, but the problems created by
fighting between institutions and organizations whose responsibilities are
the protection, defence, health and well-being of all Australians, do not end
at State level. The confusion and xenophobic hostility demonstrated by
several prominent State leaders over the past 30 years has influenced and
been influenced by the philosophies and political culture/attitudes of
experts on public health, including the mental health of the public. As well
as rivalry between States, each of which has different Mental Health Laws
(such as how, why and for how long people can be locked up and forcibly
treated), aggressive competition occurs between providers of health care
and drug treatments. These providers include some of the largest
corporations in the world, giant drug companies based overseas.
The basic structure of the mental health system in Australia and
elsewhere in the Commonwealth was established by the British
Government following colonisation, which was actively resisted by the
native residents of Australia as it was by native populations throughout the
world. The period of European colonisation of the world began long before
the 1700s when what is now called Australia was claimed by Captain James
Cook for the British Crown. Only 100 years ago the separate states that had
been set up as semi-independent states and penal colonies (large prisons)
were federated into the Commonwealth of Australia, in which the system
of separate states with separate state governments persisted, with an
additional Federal (Commonwealth) Government with power to over-ride
State laws and policies (under certain conditions), based in Canberra.
Constitutionally, however, Australia remained a monarchy ruled by the
British Royal Family and their political representatives, and the Governor
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General of Australia was given the power to dismiss the elected


government, under certain conditions, as occurred in 1975, when Gough
Whitlams Labour government was sacked by John Kerr.
Following this notorious incident, which disproved any notion of political
independence and democracy in Australia, Malcolm Fraser was appointed
as caretaker prime-minister. This political farce, which has been much
written and speculated about over the past 25 years occurred not long
after the end of the Vietnam War and the Javanese invasion of East Timor,
which was previously a cruelly administered, and badly neglected
Portuguese colony. The Portuguese retained commercial interests in the
mineral-rich area and also a philosophical and political presence in the form
of the Catholic Church, facts that have importance in the current debate
about Timorese independence and freedom.
The Australian Governments previous betrayal of the Timorese people
should be kept in mind when deciding on the ethics of sending armed
young men and women to keep the peace according to American and
Commonwealth directives and strategies, since for many years, our
Governments, in defiance of the UN and the wishes (and health) of the East
Timorese people, have been the only ones in the world to officially accept
what was clearly a politically and economically motivated invasion of Timor
by Indonesia. This was clearly the invasion of a small island nation by a
larger neighbour, an act which ostensibly triggered one of several Gulf Wars
when Iraq did a similar thing to neighbouring Kuwait.
Double standards in international politics is ugly to see and abhorrent
in practice, but it has been a consistent feature of justified military
actions claimed in the name of peace-keeping, in which Australian
military personnel have played a role that can only be described as
mercenary executors of American and British national security
demands, labouring under the misapprehension that these demands are
the same as Australias and Australians national security needs.
Geographically, politically, historically and ethically, such a position is
untenable, for several reasons, and the history of economics, psychiatry,
medical science and scientific research in Australia clearly demonstrates
why this is so.
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THE DISUNITED NATIONS AND WARFARE


The World Health Organization was formed after the Second World
War as a United Nations associated organization with a responsibility to
improve the health of the global human population. The organization
initially focused especially on infectious diseases in what they called the
third world, being a poorly-defined collection of nations most of which
are in Africa and South America. South-East Asian and South Asian
nations were also mostly described as third world, whereas Russia and
China formed the less spoken of second world. The first world in this
three tiered classification of the 180 or so independent nations on Earth,
were the same nations that developed the classification and their
historical, economic and political allies. Thus Britain, the United States of
America, Canada, France, Switzerland and the Scandinavian countries
were elite members of the First World, while Germany and Japan, who
lost the war, were also allowed into the first world club, provided they
accept the economic and development reforms decided by the United
Nations policy makers, which included the notorious World Bank and
International Monetary Fund (IMF).
The worldwide misery created by the global debt and development
loans of the IMF and World Bank is almost incalculable. Under these
programs millions of people, particularly in Asia and Africa, have been
dispossessed of their land and forced into slavery or starvation. Their land
has been developed along the lines of escalating exploitation of the
mineral wealth of these parts of the world, regardless of growing
pollution and toxicity in the air, water and soil. This toxicity affects the
countries in which the minerals are mined and processed, as well as the
oceans they are transported across and the countries in which they are
refined and consumed or otherwise used. Too often, the raw minerals
that are mined by the slave-labour of a particular country are sold back to
the enslavers at enormous profit in the form of weapons and other
technology to control to increasingly restless populations of impoverished
and angry slaves.

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The development of modern slavery through the system of national


debt is simple in principle, but cruelly unfair. Under the system, nations
were allowed to borrow credit (loans) from first world banks via the
World Bank and pay back the loans, with interest, over the ensuing
decades. Part of the condition of these loans is that the countries, many
of which had strong nationalist political movements, accept the
development plans devised by the United Nations. These plans included
programs affecting education, health and banking, as well as defence and
population control.
The ideals espoused by the United Nations many organizations have
been consistently noble, such as eradicating infectious disease,
malnutrition and pollution, and the promotion of peace and global
tolerance, respect and friendship. The outcomes of policies prescribed by
the United Nations have been less than disappointing in all these areas,
and today, people in increasing number are dying of infections,
malnutrition, poisoning and the direct or consequent effects of warfare
and slavery.
The architects of policies that have created the modern medical,
educational and economic systems in Australia have included native
Australians as well as immigrants to the country and foreign citizens and
nationals. This is also the case in military policies and decisions, in a
situation unique in the modern world.
The August 1999 Bulletin magazine features a cover story titled
Defence: our new policy revealed by national affairs editor John
Lyons. The article begins:
The chief of the Defence Department, Paul Barratt, has just
been sacked. An official report has condemned the $5bn purchase
of six Collins-class submarines as a disaster, saying they are unfit for
war. Morale has hit rock bottom for Australias armed forces
personnel. And a major review of Australias defence outlook,
prepared in 1997, was outdated before it was even published.
Despite the fact that events had overtaken the assumptions
contained in them six months earlier, the governments two
reviews premised on continuing economic expansion in the region
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were used as justification for not cutting Australias $11 bn-a-year


defence budget. Our regional neighbours so the logic went
would continue to expand their military capabilities.
Now, an investigation by The Bulletin has uncovered classified
Defence Department documents which show that Australia has
been developing a dramatically different defence policy in secret.
Since the end of the Vietnam War, Australia has placed priority on
defending the sea-air gap across northern Australia. Our desire
for forward operations, such as Korea or Vietnam, had dissipated
with defeat in Vietnam.
But what is occurring now is an historic change in the countrys
defence policy. Australias defence force is becoming more
integrated into the American military machine and has begun
purchasing equipment with less relevance to its own defence
needs.
The reality is clear: Australia is now moving towards a forward
defence policy, by stealth.
The Fairfax-owned Age newspaper on 29.7.99 featured a front page
story by Paul Daley, the papers defence correspondent in Canberra
titled Australia troops set for Timor. The article begins:
The United Nations is expected to ask Australian troops to form
the core of an international military operation for East Timor in the
likely event the province votes for independence from Indonesia.
Defence sources told the The Age that under strategies
discussed by Federal Cabinets national security subcommittee,
Australian and New Zealand troops are expected to form a nucleus
of expertise for any East Timor force at the UNs request.
Under the strategy, other Pacific and Asian countries such as
Fiji, Malaysia and possibly Thailand would be asked to contribute
the bulk of the ground troops for the force, which would be
referred to as an international monitoring group or a transition
assistance force.
The article also stated that the Foreign Minister, Mr Alexander
Downer, said in Singapore that Australia would consider sending more

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police to East Timor to deal with any increase in violence after the selfdetermination ballot.
Violence comes in many forms. It can be psychological or physical.
Speech can be violent, and verbal abuse has real casualties. In fact both
the receiver of the abuse and the perpetrator of it suffer through verbal
abuse and the psychological damage that accompanies it. This may partly
account for the low morale of the Australian armed personnel who are
yet again to be ordered to use these arms against people in other
countries that they do not even speak the same language of and cannot
possibly understand the complex problems of. The Australians and New
Zealanders that the Commonwealth governments of these nations are so
readily prepared to contribute to an international peace-keeping force
were, according to the Age article, to be protected from harm by a mainly
Malaysian and Fijian human shield of ground-troops, whom they would
obviously command, but only according to directives from the
Commonwealth and American Military experts that also advise the State
and Federal Governments about matters relating to defence, and coach
the political leaders of the country about what to say to the public about
defence. Needless to say, the Prime Minister, Foreign Minister and other
senior cabinet ministers do what they are told during military crises
such as have occurred in the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia this year, and
can be expected to continue unthinking obedience to NATO and US
military policy, regardless of how much these policies kill and maim
Australians and their neighbours.
On Friday, 2nd April, an article was published in The Age newspaper by
Henry Kissinger, about the NATO bombing of Kosovo, titled Clinton is
mistaken. The article contains no reference to the extraordinary
coincidence that the offensive against Kosovo was launched at the same
time that the US President Bill Clinton was under threat of dismissal or
criminal prosecution for publicly lying under oath to Congress (the US
Government) and American people. It was the act of lying under oath that
was the serious crime, much more so than the sordid sexual matters that
Clinton was lying about.

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Somehow the remarkable timing of the American militarys publicly


reported offensives against Iraq, Sudan, Yugoslavia and Afghanistan at
times of political and personal desperation by the official chief of the US
armed forces, have been all but ignored by the mass-media in Australia, but
not by the Australian people.
Cynicism towards American politics and Australian politics is a common
attitude in Australia, as is a general apathy towards politics of both a
domestic and international nature. There is little recognition of the
enormous influence that domestic and international politics has on the
health of each and every Australian. Yet the evidence is all around us that
the official Australian Health Policy, and the radical changes in Australian
politics reported in sporadic and soon-forgotten media reports are rapidly
following the lines of the United States system, but with significant
differences.
The similarity is that capital rules and capitalism rules, with a veneration
of the principles free market and economic rationalism, both
euphemisms for modern slave theory. A key deception of this excuse for
economic and political expansion by already dominant economies is the
concept of the trickle-down effect. This is a justification for the worsening
gap between haves and have-nots in countries and communities around
the world, and a suggestion that if the rich are allowed to become richer
still, some will trickle down to poorer members of society increasing the
overall wealth of society. This discriminatory economic theory has turned
out to be a bad joke played on the millions of people who have been
induced to climb the illusory economic ladder only to find themselves
deeper and deeper into debt, more stressed, and more depressed.

DIAGNOSING THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

The signs have been evident for many years that the global economy is
sick. These signs include a widening gap between rich and poor individuals
and nations as well as rising dependence by the people of the earth on
drugs to help them cope with living. Most animals do not need help to cope
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with living, although some, diagnosed as suffering from depression by


human beings, are being given the same drugs that humans take to
medicate their unhappiness. Despite these drugs, or because of them, the
number of people who are killing themselves has been increasing every
decade during the past 50 years. These are surely some signs of a sick
economy.
In 1999 the Age newspaper contained a half page story on page 4 titled
Australias stark reality: size does matter written by the reporter Malcolm
Maiden. The article claimed that the company that once called itself the
Big Australian signalled its final, full surrender to the forces of
globalisation.
The Big Australian referred to is the mining company BHP (Broken Hill
Propriety Limited), whose advertising campaigns of the past have identified
the company as the Big Australian and the Quiet Australian. The
newspaper report described some of the actions of the new American boss
of the company, which many Australians continue to identify as a great
Australian company along with Arnotts biscuits, Holden motor cars and
other traditionally Australian companies which have been taken over by
larger foreign controlled companies in the new globalised economy.
It would appear on deeper political and economic analysis, that the
State and Federal (Commonwealth) Governments of Australia surrendered
to the forces of globalization many years ago, and for over a decade have
been loud advocates of what was termed globalization and economic
rationalism. Both are synonymous with the economy being ruled by the
markets and those with the most capital: capitalism, in other words. The
Australian Governments have been strong proponents of the philosophy
that large corporations and affluent individuals should be allowed to
continue to profit freely with minimal government interference
suggesting that by so doing, a trickle-down effect will lead to an overall
rise in standard of living, with the poor also eventually benefiting from
increasing affluence of the rich. This too is a Capitalist philosophy, closely
connected with the notorious social and political philosophy called social
darwinism.

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SOCIAL DARWINISM
The discriminatory social policies that have resulted from misapplication
of the evolutionary theories of the English scientist Sir Charles Darwin,
include a range of social and economic theories based on promoting
survival of the fittest including promotion of the dominant races and
enslavement or extermination of inferior (also called degenerate
races). Dominant races (and races that implemented eugenics to try and
become dominant) include Aryan races (not all of whom are white) and
white races, however the races considered to be inferior (intellectually
and morally) have consistently been uncivilised natives of colonised
countries in the continents of Africa (especially), Australia, South America
and Asia. The Asian exception in post-world war two history has been
Japan, reflected by the fact that (rich, fair-skinned) Japanese were
considered to be honorary whites in white-supremacist systems such that
in apartheid South Africa.
Social darwinism infers from the concept that it is natural for the
strong to survive and the weak to die, that it is natural for the rich to
prosper and the poor to be exploited and enslaved. It supposes that in the
struggle for survival, the fit (rich) are destined to rule over the poor.
This applies to individuals, as well as groups of people and even nations
according to social darwinist theory. Nazi theory is a development of social
darwinism, centred on the implementation of eugenics, a catastrophic
medico-political attempt to improve the genes and genetics of the human
race initially by selective sterilization of those considered unfit to breed,
and later by the mass murder of races and classes of people considered
dangerous, defective or degenerate.
Social darwinism is intricately enmeshed with capitalist theory and slave
theory, and a close historical examination of the three theories
demonstrates common features and prejudices in their underlying
philosophy.
The first is that some people, families, and some classes of people are
superior to others, and therefore deserving of more political power, more
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money and property and more respect from the public, as well as better
opportunities for happiness, survival and success. These people are also
encouraged to have more children and to educate them in such a way as to
maintain the existing class and political structure. The inferiors in these
hierarchies were considered to be deserving of rule, as well as exploitation
by the superior races, classes and cultures.
The second is the class structure itself. Charles Darwin, as the grandson
of the imperial social theorist Sir Erasmus Darwin, was born into an elite
English academic family, and supposed, as his letters to his cousin Francis
Galton reveal, that the Darwin family were exceptionally well-endowed
with geniuses (including himself), amongst what he considered to be the
most intelligent type of person on earth, the Englishman of good breeding
(and from a good family). Hitler, and other advocates of racial superiority
theories formulated, or had formulated for them, different hierarchies,
with some differences in the order in which races and individuals have been
categorised in terms of superiority and inferiority, however the basic
obsession with categorisation according to class, colour, race and presumed
genetics is common to all.
The class structures of Germany, Scandinavia, the United States of
America, England and Australia are significantly different, and the types of
policy which have been formulated to control troublesome sections of the
society have differed between these major centres of eugenics practice
and exporters of eugenic ideas.

EUGENICS IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY


The word eugenics was effectively written out of contemporary
English language after the end of the Second World War. This is because
the discredited philosophy of breeding better people according to
Darwinian principles, after being embraced by several European nations
before the 1940s, was responsible for mass-murder, genocide, torture and
other abuses when practically applied to rid Germany and Germanoccupied Europe of degenerate races and degenerate individuals. The
nations whose scientific, medical and political establishments initially
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embraced eugenics included the United States, Great Britain, South Africa,
Canada and Australia. The misguided abuse of genetic science resulted in
thousands of forced sterilisations (often by simple castration) of young men
and boys in the United States in the early years of the twentieth century,
often for feeble-mindedness or degeneracy. Feeble-mindedness and
degeneracy were manifest in such behaviour, according to eugenists, as
masturbation, petty crime, immorality and delinquency.
The term eugenics and the first Society (organization) for Eugenics
were created in the 1860s by Charles Darwins first cousin Sir Francis Galton
and Darwins son, with the ostensible aim of improving humans by
selective parenthood, and to give a better chance to the more suitable
races or strains of blood (De Paoli, 1997). The philosophy was exported
from London, where it originated, to Germany where both eugenics and
euthanasia (mercy killing) were instituted as State Social Policies in the
1920s and 1930s when, starting with the mentally ill and physically
deformed, those deemed to be immoral, or degenerate were killed
following torture in the form of cruel medical experimentation. This was a
horrible practice that became obvious to the world following the Second
World War, when the methods used by German and Japanese authorities
to achieve racial cleansing was revealed (in part) by the mass-media,
which had become increasingly powerful following the development of
television in the 1920s. The abuses which resulted from eugenics were
usually blamed, however, on Hitler and the Nazis, clouding the issue of
why and where the Nazis got their ideas. It also clouded the important fact
that many other nations, including those which constituted the Allies,
also implemented eugenic policies before and during the Second World
War. Television, as usual, told only part of the story, and was used, from
the outset, for the purposes of pro-British and pro-American propaganda. It
did not suit the agenda of the television programmers at the time to reveal
to the world how widely eugenic philosophy was accepted and
implemented.
The first television broadcast, an experimental internal broadcast before
an audience at the Royal Institution in London was done in the late 1920s
by John Logie Baird, a 38 year-old Scottish engineer who had worked at a
Clyde Valley electric power company, before leaving to concentrate on his
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research, according to Penguins Chronicle of the World. The same year as


the founding of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 1927, ICI
chemicals was also founded in England. ICI is an acronym for Imperial
Chemical Industries, and these were the last days of undisguised
imperialism by the British Empire. ICI continued, after the war, to grow
into a massive chemical and pharmaceutical company, which profited from
experimentation on captive subjects during and after the Second World
War, including the recently revealed experiments on interred Italians and
Jewish refugees in Australia, who, along with injured Australian soldiers,
were deliberately infected with massive doses of malaria. These malaria
infections were transmitted by transfusions of infected blood, and by
exposing them to specially bred mosquitoes.
The experiments on the disabled Australian soldiers and interred
civilians were claimed at the time to be necessary for the war effort and
to protect Australian troops who were dying of malaria in New Guinea, but
this was not, in fact, true. The cruel tests were done in the interests of the
pharmaceutical industry in the USA and England, specifically for those of
the American company Winthrop (manufacturers of Panadol) and ICI
chemicals, which were testing out a German-discovered drug, later
marketed as Paludrine. After the war ended, the trials continued for several
months in Melbourne, at the wishes of these foreign drug companies,
demonstrating the lie that lay at the heart of claims that they were
necessary for the health of Australian troops. The drug trials and the
deliberate infections which preceded them were orchestrated by the
military hospital at Heidelberg, Melbourne, and conducted in remote North
Queensland, far from the eyes of the rest of Australia and the world. What
is worse, rather than compensating the victims of this cruel human
experimentation, the government of Australia and the Australian military
denied that such events actually occurred until 50 years later, and even
then denied culpability for their actions. The orders that resulted in what
can easily be described as torture came from the British Empire, without
whose agreement (and complicity) the experiments would not have been
allowed.

IMPERIALISM AND SLAVERY


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At the time of Erasmus Darwin, Charles grandfather, London was the


centre of the British Empire and the global economy, and the academics
in Englands two major Universities, Oxford and Cambridge, considered
(and declared) themselves to be the cream of the worlds intellect. They
were the educators of the British Royal Family and the designers of the
British educational system which was exported to the world. They were
also the designers and masterminds of English Imperialist theories,
including the divide and rule policies used in the many countries colonised
by British Forces, and many other socially destructive policies that continue
to this day, sometimes due to conscious efforts to attack other countries,
societies and populations and sometimes as a result of entrenched
attitudes and procedures.
Imperialism is a term used to describe the expansionist political and
military philosophy of European monarchic empires, including England,
Norway, Sweden, Holland (Nederlands), Greece and Monaco, to mention
some of the democratic states that retain self-styled kings, queens
and royal families today. This concept supposes some families to be
naturally superior based on heredity, blood, genes and blood lines. These
families were designated as divinely appointed natural rulers to whom all
lesser mortals were expected to show respect, and further, diffidence. A
subservient attitude when a commoner was in social contact with the
aristocracy was demanded of the commoner and enforced by the
supporters and protectors of the royal families, kings and queens
included, but also including their children, relatives and descendents. In the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, when slavery was still legal, many
other European nations also had imperial royal families, including France,
Belgium, Germany, Austria and Spain. In fact, the aristocratic families that
ruled these different European nations were often related biologically to
each other. Thus the Kaiser (emperor) William (Wilhelm) II of Germany was
the grandson of Queen Victoria of England, and the present-day husband of
Queen Elizabeth of England, Prince Philip, is of the Greek royal family.
When, eventually, slavery of Africans was deemed illegal in the British
Empire and the slaves were released in 1833, rather than paying
compensation to those who were enslaved, the massive sum of 20 million
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pounds was paid, instead, to the slavers, an action arranged by Nathan


Rothschild, of the Anglo-Jewish Rothschild banking family. This family has
remained immensely wealthy and influential until present times, as have
many other families, companies and nations that profiteered from the use
of slave labour over the past 500 years.
Although the theory of evolution by natural selection is generally
credited to his grandson Charles, Erasmus Darwin also developed a theory
of evolution by the inheritance of characteristics and preferential survival
of better adapted species, publishing his theories in 1794 in a book titled
Zoonomia. His grandson developed these theories further following his
journeys aboard the HMS Beagle in the 1800s, but published them only
when confronted by a paper detailing similar theories by the young
scientist Russell Wallace, who forwarded a paper describing evolution by
natural selection to Darwin whilst on a journey as ships naturalist
himself.
When Erasmus Darwin published Zoonomia, slavery was one of the
mainstays of the British Imperial economy, and this was to remain the case
for many decades to follow. Slaves were taken by the British from Africa to
the Americas, but also from the Indian Subcontinent to other parts of the
British Empire, where they were forced to work in menial jobs for British
companies and wealthy individuals. In Australia, convict labour was
another form of slavery instituted against the poor as well as political
dissidents (particularly Irish ones). Coolie labour, imported from China
and India, was another aborted effort at slavery by the British in Australia,
which most Australians are still unaware of.
In 1794, the same year Erasmus Darwin published his book, slavery was
officially abolished in all French territories, but not in British ones.
The Chronicle of the World, which is, it must be noted, a British version
of history, explains the French actions and motives as follows:
As the three black delegates from Santo Domingo watched from
their seats in the Assembly, the Convention votedto abolish slavery
throughout the territories of the republic and to confer French
citizenship on every former slave. Then the Domingans were led to
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the Tribunal where the president embraced them as the Convention


rose in a standing ovationIn 1792, a year after the outbreak of the
slave revolt, two civil commissioners Sonthonax and Polverel
were sent to administer the island. In August 1793 they freed all of
the 500,000 slaves. This humanitarian act had its political side. As
long as the revolt continued it was impossible for France, at war with
Spain and Britain, to defend its colony. Loyal freedmen were
naturally better patriots than rebellious slaves. (p.783)
According to Chronicle of the World, the French hoped that their action
would stimulate Britains slaves to rise in their turn, thus helping to
undermine Britains war effort. This was not, in all probability, told to the
slaves, who were undoubtedly pleased at being freed, not realising that
their freedom was part of a military strategy. Here is seen one of the
symptoms of a globally sick economy: military and political strategy
disguised as humanitarian action. It also becomes evident from this
historical episode, that war between European states has been a dominant
feature of global politics for several centuries. It is worth noting that the
British attempted a similar strategy during the American War of
Independence, when Negro slaves were offered their freedom if they
fought for the British against the Americans. Hundreds of slaves were
subsequently betrayed by the British, and sold again into slavery after the
British lost the war.
The development of Social Darwinism in the 1950s can be illustrated by
the 1958 article Forecasting the Future, published in Frontiers of Science.
The author is another Sir Charles Darwin, grandson of the famous zoologist,
and great-great grandson of Erasmus Darwin. Sir Charles, who was a
pioneer in nuclear studies and acted as Director of the National Physics
Laboratory in England from 1938 to 1949 has a preoccupying fear. His
concern is about overpopulation. He introduces a very strange, but
revealing, article with the caption:
Every day there are eighty thousand more people on the earth.
In another fifty years the world population will be four billion a
hungry four billion. And in one hundred years? (p.100)

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He explains the methodology of modern scientific forecasting on which


he bases his pessimistic prediction:
The present director of the British Meteorological Office, Sir
Graham Sutton, wrote an article which describes the situation
admirably. In making his forecast the meteorologist is doing the same
sort of thing that a player does when he bids his hand at the game of
bridge. If he were required to predict what tricks he would take with
absolute certainty, he would not get very far; for example, if he had
the ace and king of a suit he would only be absolutely certain of two
tricks if that suit were trumps.
In fact, he does not declare that he will get two tricks, but he
makes the estimate that he will probably get, say, eight or nine tricks.
He reckons that this is the probability; he knows that one or two of
his strongest cards may possibly fail to win the tricks he expects, but
then he knows that this will most likely be compensated by tricks
from some of his other cards he was not so confidently counting on.
He estimates probabilities, and if he is an experienced player he is
usually not far from right in a general way, even though some of his
details may be wrong. (p.101)
Professor Charles Darwins paper Forecasting the Future was
presented at a physics seminar at the California Institute of Technology
(Caltech) in 1956, where he had worked as a visiting professor in 1922.
During the Second World War he worked in the British Nuclear weapons
industry, directing the British National Physics Laboratory. He clearly
viewed himself as an experienced player.
Darwin gives some figures for world population that he could not
possibly be certain about, since at the times concerned large parts of the
world were undiscovered (by Europeans), and the populations of these
areas have been consistently underestimated (an example of which is seen
in the Terra Nullius declaration of Australia by the British):
At the beginning of the Christian era the population of the world
was about 350 million. It fluctuated up and down a bit, and by A.D.
1650 it was still only 470 million. But by 1750 it had risen to 700
million, and now it is 2500 million. That is to say that for 1700 years it

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was fairly constant, and then in 200 years it has suddenly quadrupled
itself.
The increase of world population is still going on at a rate of
doubling itself in a century, but it is a most menacing thing to think
about. (p.104)
More menacing than thoughts of overpopulation, is the impersonal,
abstracted way in which Darwin discusses solutions to the problem of
overpopulation:
Can anything be done about it? Frankly, though perhaps for a
short term something might be done, in the long run I doubt it. My
reason is this. Natures control of animal populations is a simple,
brutal one. In order to survive, every animal produces too many for
the next generation, and the excess is killed off in one way or
another. It is a method of control of tremendous efficiency, and
during most of his history it has also applied to man. To replace a
mechanism of this tremendous efficiency it is no use thinking of
anything small; the alternative we must offer, if we want to beat
nature, must also be tremendous.
The difficulty is even greater than it appears at first sight,
because there would be an instability about any alternative scheme
deliberately adopted. Thus, suppose some really good solution was
found and was adopted by half the world [Europe, for example?]. For
a generation or two this half would prosper. Its numbers would stay
constant and the people would not be hungry, but all the time the
numbers in the other half of the world would be increasing, so that in
the end they would swamp the first half *first world?+. That is the
terrible menace of the matter; there is a strong survival value in
being one of those who refuse to limit population. (p.109)
Darwin leaves it to his audience to work on a solution to the menacing
problem of overpopulation, warning that war is not nearly murderous
enough:
The first thing we may think of which might reduce the numbers
is war, but most war is not nearly murderous enough to have any
effect. Thus we should count as a really bad war one in which five
million people would be killed, but this would only set back the
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population increase for less than three months, and that hardly
seems to matter. I doubt that even an atomic war would have any
serious influence on the estimate, unless it led to such appalling
destruction of both the contestants that the economy of the whole
world was ruined and that barbarism and starvation would ensue.
(p.109)
Professor Darwin likes the word tremendous, and it such a solution
that the grandson of the author of Descent of Man, exhorts his audience at
Caltech to work on:
It is very much to be hoped that a great deal of thought will be
given to this matter on the chance that someone may hit on a
solution, but I must repeat that natures method of limiting
population is no brutally tremendous that it can never be replaced by
any such triviality as the extension of methods of birth control. It calls
for something much more tremendous if there is to be any prospect
of success. (p.109)
Could AIDS be such a tremendously brutal solution?
Darwin, in his talk to Caltech, refers to a celebrated book on the threat
of overpopulation, written by Thomas Malthus in 1798. In his Essay on the
Principle of Population, originally published anonymously, the Anglican
priest and economist argued that poor laws tend to increase dependent
populations, and should be replaced by workhouses for those in distress
and government incentives for agriculture. He claimed that population is
always destined to increase disproportionately compared to food
production ability. By such definition, the world has always been
overpopulated.
MODERN ECONOMICS AND WARFARE
Recent newspaper headlines (6.1.2000), announced that another
stockmarket crash has occurred, this time blamed on imminent rises in
interest rates in the United States of America. The article in The Australian,
by economics correspondent Ian Henderson, begins:

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The prospect of a sharp interest rate rise in the US within a


month
wiped $15 billion off Australian share prices yesterday
and battered other markets worldwide.
The article continues:
Share prices around the world were jolted by fears of the
looming rise, which is being fuelled by evidence of strong economic
growth, a tightening labour market and a view that share markets are
probably overvalued in the US.
Why should strong economic growth cause a lack of confidence in the
stockmarket? What constitutes strong economic growth? What is the
labour market and why is it tightening? Could warfare and slavery have
anything to do with the collapse of the stockmarket? Is this an indicator
that the global economy is becoming more unwell or is it a sign of
improving health of the people who create and maintain the economy?
The stockmarket is maintained by speculation about the future. This
includes speculation about which companies and industries are likely to
bring profits to shareholders, and which are likely to out-compete the
opposition. The opposition, in a competition-oriented capitalist economy,
include other companies and industries on the one hand, and other
countries and groups of countries on the other. This competition is often
ruthless and may involve strategies developed by military-style thinking,
including brainwashing, propaganda, subterfuge and surprise attacks.
Take-overs of smaller companies and industries by larger ones are
common, and have resulted in giant corporations wielding more economic
influence than entire nations.
The connection between the stockmarket and military machine
involve more than common strategies, however. Companies that profit
directly from warfare are included amongst the companies on the global
stockmarkets, and these are known to grow in times of war. These
companies include businesses involved in more than the manufacture of
conventional weapons such as guns, missiles, tanks, grenades, aircraft,
ships, submarines, land mines and bombs. The industries which provide the
raw materials for conventional weapons, including the mining industry also
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profit from war and preparation for war, regardless of whether this is called
the war effort, as it was called in the 1940s or defence as the same
industry has been called since then. In more recent times, computers,
surveillance equipment and biotechnology have also been part of the
military machine, and used for military purposes, as has the chemical
industry and pharmaceutical industry. These latter industries have played a
prominent role in a change in modern warfare from predominantly
conventional warfare to predominantly unconventional warfare,
involving chemical warfare, drug warfare, psychological warfare and
biological warfare.
Reading between the lines of military jargon, some disturbing
conclusions may be reached by reading the cover story of the August 1999
Bulletin magazine. The article, by John Lyons, is advertised on the front
cover as Defence: our new policy revealed and is titled Operation
Backflip. Lyons claims that following a reluctance to engage in such
activities following defeat in Vietnam, Australia is again engaged in what
are euphemistically termed forward operations, in the nature of Vietnam
and Korea. He reveals that this change in Australian military policy is being
done by stealth, and making the Australian military activities more closely
in line with that of the United States of America.
Lyons writes:
After the defeat in Vietnam, US and Australian policymakers and
the public lost the appetite for prolonged overseas engagements.
The Nixon doctrine of 1969 preached that unless a leading power
intervened in a Third World conflict, the US should not commit
forces.
Committing forces is not the same as supporting conflicts, and it is
common knowledge that the US have supported armed conflict around the
world over the past century, especially in the past fifty years when the
pentagon and US military (and successive governments) have been fighting
a war against communism and socialism. This is not surprising, since the US
is a major exporter of arms, and it is thus deemed to be in the interests of
the American Economy, and thus the US National Interest to increase

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sales of North American arms, even though they are causing misery and
terror throughout the world, including in the US itself.
It is more palatable for politicians in the USA and UK to have soldiers
from other nations doing the actual fighting and dying in the conflicts these
arms-producers support. This is an age-old military strategy which was used
by the British throughout the colonial era, which was continued in the
Second World War and after it concluded. Lyons writes:
Defence planners want Australia to become more involved in
coalition operations such as supporting the US in a Gulf War-like
crisis since the US does not like to engage in military operations by
itself. Increased inter-operability with the US coincides with
Australias desire to improve its technology, part of what the
Americans call the Revolution in Military Affairs, combining the
emergence of new technology with advanced strike capability (p.25)
The national affairs editor of The Bulletin explains that this change in
Australian defence policy brings clear economic benefit to the US (but not
to Australia):
In order to become more of an all-rounder as a military force,
the conclusion drawn by defence planners means it will be necessary
for Australia to buy more military equipment and technology from
the US.
Under the hidden policy, virtually any purchase can be justified.
This is reflected in the acquisitions Australia is considering, including
Apache armed reconnaissance helicopters with Longbow radar and
Hell-fire missiles, which are designed essentially for attacking tanks
or underground bunkers of the type found in Iraq or Northern Korea
a long way from the air sea gap.
The late twentieth century has been a time of global warfare, although
this has often been disguised by euphemisms, particularly in countries like
Australia which attempt to present to the world an image of a nation that is
intrinsically peaceful. This is far from true. Australia has sent troops to fight
in wars all around the world over the past century and even today
Australian troops are involved in military activity far from the nations
shores.
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Over the past one hundred years young Australian people have been
sent to fight in the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the pacific region. They
have sometimes been called peacekeepers, sometimes allied forces,
but rarely mercenaries. Sometimes they have been forced to go to war
after being conscripted, as occurred in the Korean War and Second World
War. In more recent times forced conscription has not occurred, and
Australian military personnel have been paid well for fighting or
peacekeeping in foreign lands. In fact, it is doubtful that these soldiers
would leave their homes in Australia were it not for the fact that they are
paid well to do so. In this case, mercenaries would surely be a more
appropriate term to use to describe these people.
Such views are not likely to be popular in Australia, since the troops
currently in Timor are being heralded as heroes who are keeping the
peace and preventing genocide by Indonesians who committed massmurder of the indigenous Timorese population for two decades before the
recent events in the island. It should be recognised, however, that the
Indonesian (Javanese) invasion of the previously Portuguese half of Timor
occurred with the complicity of the Commonwealth Government in
Canberra, and despite international opposition to this act of political and
military aggression. It should also be noted that West Timor remains
occupied by Javanese troops and is still accepted by the Australian
Government (and others) to be a legitimate part of Indonesia.
Historically, though, Indonesia is synonymous with the Dutch East
Indies, the political and military centre of which was Batavia (Java). Thus
Indonesia is really a result of neocolonialism, with Java-controlled troops
occupying the surrounding islands: Sumatra, Sulawesi, Borneo and Timor
included. During the past century, the Dutch-instituted exploitation of
these islands has continued, with western governments supporting what
was widely recognised as a corrupt Javanese political hierarchy. This
hierarchy was ruled until recently by the Suharto family, who became, in
essence, an aristocracy in the region. President Suharto, who ruled
Indonesia for several decades, placed his own children and family members
in positions that enabled the family to exploit the natural resources of the
area, particularly the forests and minerals in the surrounding islands. They
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also suppressed the growing calls for independence in brutal ways,


including genocide in Timor and other parts of Indonesia. The Australian
government supported the Suharto regime for many decades, including
providing military equipment and training as well as financial support,
incongruously described as international aid.
International aid comes in many forms and it is a massive multibilliondollar industry. It is also a euphemism, since the aid is inevitably
accompanied by a hidden agenda. In the case of Australian aid to
Indonesia, the hidden agenda was poorly disguised. Australian industrialists
and politicians intended profiteering from the Indonesian islands along
with the corrupt Javanese regime it propped up, armed and collaborated
with in other ways. When the Labour Party and Gough Whitlams
Government supported the annexation of East Timor in the early 1970s,
the motive was clear: petroleum deposits in the Timor sea. It was
supposed, at the time, that Australia would be better able to negotiate
with the Indonesians for a share of Timorese oil than with an independent
Timor, particularly a communist, socialist or nationalist independent Timor.
For over two decades Australia turned a blind eye to mounting evidence of
atrocities committed against the indigenous Timorese population by the
Indonesian military, including the genocide of a third of the population of
East Timor: some 200,000 men, women and children. So why the sudden
concern that justifies sending troops to East Timor to stop the atrocities
and keep the peace at the cost of over $500,000,000? Military, political
and economic strategy, or genuine concern about human rights abuses?
John Lyons wrote, in The Bulletin, in August 1999:
If Australia is forced to engage overseas in the next 12 months,
East Timor is the most likely flashpoint. Previously, the Korean
peninsula was Australias biggest regional security concern. While
neither necessarily involves combat troops, they could see an
Australian peacekeeping role with a dangerous edge.
East Timor holds both a humanitarian and strategic significance.
The Timor Gap and Arafura Sea provide one of the best deep-water
tunnels for submarines moving between the Pacific and Indian
Oceans.

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In this analysis, the battle for oil deposits in the bed of the Timor sea are
not mentioned, but this is another of the strategic (economic)
considerations fuelling desire by Australian politicians to control the sea
between Timor and Australia. Despite Australias less than enviable human
rights record, and recently revealed abuses by and corruption in our police
forces, it is claimed by Lyons that:
If Timor votes for independence, a new country will need to be
built with independent political systems, police force and education.
Much will depend on Australian funding, backed by Australian
peacekeepers.
It also opens up Timor to capitalist insustry, and the hold of Australian
mining companies in the area. Australia itself has an appalling human rights
record: with many abuses involving the police and related psychiatric
industry. Only a fraction of the aboriginal population survived the initial
onslaught by British colonists, and today most live in desperately
impoverished circumstances, in aboriginal settlements where they have a
life expectancy about twenty years shorter than the rest of the Australian
population. Abuses by State police against aboriginal people (especially
those in custody) and psychiatric patients (many of whom have been shot
in recent years) have received limited media attention in Australia, but
more so in the foreign press. It is worth noting that during what was
indisputably a genocidal campaign against the indigenous population of the
continent, the officials who presided over this carnage were called
protectors of the natives. It is also worth noting that in the 1840s, when
aboriginal people were still being hunted for sport, enslaved and
massacred, the British Government, which claimed to be protecting the
natives, were engaged in a cruel war against the Chinese, now known as
the opium wars. During these wars opium was forced into China from
India and Burma (where it was grown on British-owned and controlled
plantations), with the intent of addicting and subjugating the Chinese
population to the addictive drug. The justification given to the British
population for these wars was ensuring free trade.

FREE TRADE AND REPRESSION

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It could be said that free trade values the freedom of industries more
than the freedom of people. Unfortunately this means that industries that
result in disease and death of humans are protected in the modern world
more than people are. It is also the case that free trade zones are poorly
disguised concentration camps of economic, and sometimes physical,
slaves.
So-called free-trade zones have been established by action of first
world countries throughout the third world, with the objective of
exploiting cheap labour in poor nations. An example of modern economic
slavery in Indonesia and the political repression that accompanied it during
the rule of the Suharto regime is given in The Global Trap by Hans-Peter
Martin and Harald Schumann (1997):
The Asian miracle does, of course, have its darker side. The boom
goes hand in hand with corruption, political repression, massive
environmental destruction, and often extreme exploitation of a
labour force with no rights (most of it made up of women). Take
Nike, for example. Its expensive trainers, costing up to 150 dollars a
pair in Europe and the USA, are stitched and punched by some
120,000 workers in the contract companies that supply Nike in
Indonesia, for a wage of less than three dollars a day. Even in
Indonesian conditions that is a starvation wage, but it complies with
the legal minimum applicable to more than half the countrys 80million labour force. To make sure that it keeps this advantage, the
military regime headed for the last thirty years by the dictator
Suharto nips every workers protest in the bud. For example, when
Tongris Situmorang a twenty-two-year-old working for Nike in
Serang mobilized his workmates for a strike in autumn 1995, local
army men simply shut him up for seven days in one of the factorys
storerooms and kept an eye on him around the clock. Still, he was
later released and all he lost was his job. Others, such as the two
women trade unionists Sugiarti and Marsinah, who are celebrated
throughout the country, paid with their lives for their courageous
action. Their dead bodies, mutilated by torture, were found on the
rubbish tip of the factories where they had tried to organize a strike.
(p.146)

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In China, according to the same book, Chinas socialist market


economy has been accompanied by terrible atrocities:
More than a million women workers have to stitch, punch or
pack on the work-benches for fifteen hours a day, or more in
exceptional circumstances. People are forced to work like machines,
says a local newspaper. Often they must pay a deposit worth several
months wages when they first start work at the factory, and it is not
returned to them if they leave the company without the
managements approval. At night they are crammed together in
narrow and often locked dormitories which become death-traps in
the event of fire. Even the central government in Beijing has
admitted that labour legislation is being ignored; the first six months
of 1993 alone witnessed 11,000 fatal work accidents and 28,000
fires. Yet those who rule in the name of the Chinese working class
prevent any resistance, above all in the special economic zones for
foreign investors: those who complain or attempt to form unions are
likely to be sentenced to three years in a labour camp and there are
currently hundreds of trade unionists in prison.
When faced with East Asias (by Western Standards)
unacceptable campaigns to capture world-market shares, most
governments in the West exercise astonishing restraint. (p.147)
The restraint that Western governments display towards these abuses
may seem astonishing to the authors of this book, but they are hardly out
of character given the long history of Western Governments supporting
slavery under the pretext of protecting free trade. This book was written
prior to the collapse of the Asian Tiger economies in 1997, which was
blamed, in the Australian media, on various factors that had little to do with
mass opposition in these countries to the conditions in these forced labour
camps. The Economist claimed, for example, on 10 January, 1998, that the
crisis in Asia shows no sign of abating despite the vast sums of money
that the International Monetary Fund is applying to the problem. This
included a rescue plan worth $43 billion for Indonesia, which followed a
package of $57 billion for South Korea in 1997. The magazine claimed
that the economic crisis in Asia was due to failure of Asias domestic
regulators to strike a balance between the risk of lenders and depositors:

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The failure of Asias domestic regulators to strike such a balance


is the chief cause of the regions problems. For years, lenders and
depositors felt too safe for their own good. Yet the Funds response
to the crisis is to make another set of lenders, foreigners this time,
feel safe. Some argue that the true cost of that costless Mexican bailout is todays crisis in Asia because foreign lenders learned in 1995
that they would be rescued if their loans turned bad, and therefore
lent more than they should in Asia. (p.12)
The Economist fails to mention an author for this short article, which
describes the costless Mexican bail-out as follows:
Recall the Mexican bail-out of 1995. Nobody feared a global
meltdown in that case, though there were worries (justified, it turned
out) about Latin American contagion. Guided by other
considerations, America and the IMF nonetheless arranged support
amounting to $40 billion. It worked. Confidence was restored.
Growth in exports allowed the emergency loans to be serviced at
market rates and repaid. American investors in Mexico didnt lose
their shirts and, in the end, American taxpayers didnt pay a cent.
(p.11)
The global meltdown scenario is explained as a possible apocalypse
involving a systemic breakdown caused by nations defaulting on loan
repayments:
Invoking the risk of systemic breakdown is the most obvious
way to justify the IMFs intervention. Without an emergency injection
of dollars, it is argued, companies in South Korea and the rest would
default on their debts. This would cause distress everywhere,
especially in Japan, where stagnation could turn into outright
depression. From there the crisis could spread to the United States,
Europe and the rest of the world, as banks fail, credit disappears,
stockmarkets crash and economies collapse. This is the nightmare
that has driven governments, notably Americas, to support and
indeed insist upon the Funds course of action.
It is interesting to note how much of the economic jargon used by The
Economist is seconded from medical terminology, including injection of
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dollars, depression, systemic collapse and contagion. It is, by the way,


likely that most of the worlds population could imagine worse nightmares
and apocalyptic scenarios than a collapse of the International Banking
system, including the grossly unfair claims of third world debt to first
world bankers and creditors. In fact, with a longer view of history, one
could reasonably ask as to who owes who in the world of
macroeconomics. It is also evident that despite claims that these bankers
are bailing out poor nations in crisis, the real motive is protection of the
economies of rich countries (particularly the USA) rather than poor ones.

THIRD WORLD DEBT


A capitalist perspective of the Third World debt problem was
presented in an economics textbook by John Jackson of the University of
Western Australia and Campbell McConnell of the University of NebraskaLincoln. The textbook, titled Economics was in its third edition in 1988. In
the chapter titled Growth and the underdeveloped nations they wrote,
under the subtitle The debt problem:
In addition to the long-term deterioration of the underdeveloped
nations terms of trade, the global economic environment of the past
decade has been very adverse for the non-oil countries of the Third
World. A convergence of forces has greatly intensified their need for
economic assistance. First, the dramatic run-up of oil prices by OPEC
in 1973-74 and again in 1979-80 (raising the price of a barrel of oil
from about $2.50 to $32) greatly increased the energy bill of the oilimporting underdeveloped countries. Similarly, the inflation
experienced by the industrially advanced countries has increased the
cost of non-oil imports to the Third World. Finally, the general
stagnation of the advanced countries has slowed the growth of their
demand for the underdeveloped nations raw material exports. The
overall result has been that the exports of the poor non-oil nations
have been insufficient to pay for their imports. The financing of this
shortfall has been largely through borrowing, that is, increasing the
international indebtedness of the non-oil Third World nations. The
long-term external debt of these nations has grown dramatically
from $97 thousand million in 1973 to over $1000 thousand million by
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the end of 1986. Many debt-ridden Third World nations want their
debts cancelled or rescheduled so that current export earnings and
foreign aid can be used for development purposes rather than debt
servicing and repayment. (p.616)
The textbook goes on to say that, in response to a crisis that
threatened the international banking system, debts of many poor nations
were rescheduled in the 1980s, giving them more time to pay back their
debts. In reality, though, the post-WWII terms of international trade,
including the activities of the World Bank and IMF ensure that regardless of
how much time these nations are given to service their debts, they will
continue sinking deeper and deeper into debt. Yet this debt does not
really exist. The Third World owes nothing to the First World, and if
anything the reverse is the case. The rich (colonising) nations surely owe
billions of dollars in compensation to the now poor nations that they have
exploited for the past several centuries.

THE CURE
Since a reductionist and discriminatory medical paradigm has been part
of the sickness of the global economy, it is appropriate that a holistic
medical analogy may be used to lead to a natural cure for the worlds
economic ills, as well as man-made illnesses.
The worlds economic problems can be diagnosed by looking at each of
the human physiological systems, and extrapolating the systemic
functioning of the human body to the global economy. These include the
nervous system, the circulatory system, the respiratory system, the
digestive system, the reproductive system and the excretory system. The
biochemistry of the world can be approached scientifically to provide a
solution to chemical pollution and toxicity. The imbalance in distribution of
wealth can be rectified by a more healthy circulation of money and material
possessions. The population of the world will breathe easier if people are
provided with clean air to take into their lungs. The natural detoxification of
the world will occur if the forests are regenerated, and the rivers and lakes
contain pure water, rather than industrial pollutants. A depression will
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not occur if people look at their individual activities and focus on living a
useful life in the service and support of other living creatures, rather than
worry about unemployment. The world will not be overpopulated if
there is a fair distribution of land and wealth, regeneration of plant life and
cessation of unnecessary greed and waste. One can take this analogy
further.
The circulation of blood in the body can be compared to the circulation
of money in the world. For health this circulation needs to be vigorous and
evenly distributed, with those areas that need more because of more
activity, receiving more on the basis of requirement (need). Too much
blood in one area leads to blockage and haemorrhage, and deficiency in
others leads to infarction and death of tissues. Likewise, a poorly
distributed fiscal policy leads to excess amongst some individuals and
deficiency in others, within countries, and warfare and widespread misery
when the poor distribution affects the global economy as a whole. Excess
money can lead to real illness, and such diseases of excess (obesity and
addiction, for example) are common causes of disease and death in
western countries. Diseases of deficiency (such as nutritional deficiency,
starvation and immune deficiency) are common in the poor nations. It is of
note that blood is, itself, part of the world economy, and the sale of blood
and blood products a multi-billion-dollar industry. Ironically, the Red Cross,
which controls most of the circulation of blood products in Australia with a
virtual (or actual) monopoly, was involved in the previously mentioned
transfusions of malaria-infected blood to interred Italians, Jewish refugees
and disabled soldkers in the Paludrine trials in Queensland in the 1940s.
The circulatory system of vertebrates is not controlled by a single part of
the body, and regulatory mechanisms exist around the body to ensure that
only the correct amount of blood reaches different parts of the body, that
the pressure and temperature of the blood are maintained at a healthy
level, and that the heart, which pumps the blood around the body
continues to have a constant and ongoing rhythm. The blood is produced in
a protected area, the bone marrow, and the iron that is necessary to carry
oxygen around the body is recycled by action of the spleen and liver. If
there is not enough blood in circulation, disease, in the form of anaemia

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develops. For health of the tissues, and the body as a whole, blood must be
distributed by blood vessels to each and every cell in the body.
The circulatory system, briefly and simplistically described above, can be
compared with the circulation of money, the generation of cash (by
different nations, as in bones which contain the bone marrow), the
International Monetary Fund and World Bank (the heart, which is suffering
from potentially terminal illness, at present), individual national banks and
ATMs (blood vessels), and tissues of different organs (towns and
geographical regions). Every individual has need of money, and deprivation
of individual cells (people) leads to disease in the whole.
The body is much more than blood, however. People need much more
than money for a healthy, happy life. They need food, air, light, and shelter,
just to survive. They also need clothing and warmth, emotional and
environmental stimulation, meaningful activity and good education for a
comfortable and healthy existence. The physiological analogy of the
cardiovascular system can also be applied to other systems, with a focus on
healing and regeneration.
The respiratory system of vertebrates is centred on the activity of the
lungs, but health cannot be achieved without clean air to breathe. This
basic necessity for life is currently being threatened by pollution and the
promotion of cigarettes throughout the world. The growth of the tobacco
industry over the past three hundred years has been accompanied, in fact,
by a dramatic rise in actual respiratory illness, particularly in industrialised
countries, but also in other parts of the world at the hands of industrialised
nations. These illnesses include lung cancer, asthma and emphysema,
chronic bronchitis and respiratory infections. All these conditions are
caused or aggravated by cigarette smoking, and smoking adversely affects
both the smokers themselves, and other people who breathe in the smoke
that they exhale.
The tobacco industry is one of those destructive industries that became
wealthy with the sweat of slave labour. African slaves were taken to work
on tobacco plantations in the Caribbean, South America and elsewhere
throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by Dutch, Spanish
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and English slavers, with the complicity of the governments and


monarchies of these colonising countries. Tobacco plantations were also
created in the Dutch East Indies, which later became Indonesia. In these
islands indigenous and migrant workers were employed, after the abolition
of slavery, to continue the monocrop agriculture that supports one of the
biggest killers of the modern world: the tobacco cigarette industry.
The fact that cigarette smoking is a major cause of respiratory disease
was denied for many years by tobacco companies decades after the
medical evidence demonstrating this fact was overwhelming. During the
first and second world wars cigarettes were promoted as of benefit to
psychological stress although in truth, withdrawal from the drug actually
causes this problem, since nicotine causes physical addiction. When it
became impossible for cigarette companies to promote their product in this
way in western countries due to public and medical awareness of the
risks of smoking, the same companies sold heavy nicotine cigarettes
throughout the third world instead, whilst finding ways around the laws
against public advertising of cigarettes in European nations (such as
sponsorship of televised sporting events). When opportunities arose, in
the 1980s and 1990s, to sell American and European cigarettes in
previously communist countries, every effort was made to addict the
populations of Russia, Eastern Bloc countries and China to high-nicotine
cigarettes despite their known dangers. It is encouraging, however, that
recently compensation has been paid, although belatedly, to the victims of
the cigarette trade.
Cigarette addiction worldwide can be alleviated by a global ban on
public cigarette advertising, and the same applies to alcohol, which also
causes untold health damage throughout the world. This is not the same as
prohibition. It is well established that prohibition fails as a policy to stop
drug abuse, and can make the problem worse. A ban on cigarette
advertising in public places and the mass-media is a cost effective solution,
which does not interfere with the individuals right to smoke. While this
right may exist, the right to knowingly poison the lungs of the innocent
does not exist. The savings to the global health budget from such a ban
would be massive, particularly in countries such as Australia, where heart
disease and cancer are major causes of disease and death.
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The respiratory health of the global population will also benefit from a
cessation of industrial pollution, but this is not as easy to achieve as a
cessation of cigarette smoke pollution. A significant reduction in global
pollution could be achieved, however, by greater corporate and
governmental support for non-petroleum energy sources, and with
foresight this is a wise thing for governments and industry to do, since
petroleum deposits are limited. Air itself can provide significant amounts of
energy, in the form of wind power, and sunlight is another clean source of
energy, which is sustainable in the long term. As for global environmental
vandalism of the nature of the recent cyanide spills in Europe, and the
pollution of Australian waterways by the mining and agricultural industries,
the responsibility for repair of previous damage falls on the companies
guilty of the vandalism and careless pollution which now affects every
country on the planet. Compensation for poisoned, oppressed, enslaved,
tortured, terrorised, dispossessed and displaced people of the world is
surely the only just outcome, and one that should become part of the
currently dubious United Nations agenda, as well as that of national
governments around the globe.
Freedom can be equated with the breath of life. It is a fundamental
requirement for a just society. This freedom includes freedom of speech,
freedom of thought, freedom of association, freedom of movement and
freedom of procreation. Yet these are all basic rights which have been, and
are currently, denied to large proportions of the worlds population. This is
to the detriment of the global economy, and more importantly, to the
cause of humanity, justice, peace and tranquillity.
Food is necessary for the digestive health of the global population.
Contrary to claims of overpopulation, it is well recognised that starvation
and malnourishment do not occur because there is not enough food to go
around, but because of warfare and wastage. The advice of Mohandas
Gandhi 50 years ago, that the world provides enough for every persons
need but not every persons greed remains true today. Huge amounts of
wheat and other staple foods are regularly destroyed to maintain high
prices of resources that could be used to feed the poor. Rather than
encouraging people in poor nations to grow their own food using
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environmentally sensible multiple crop agriculture, for several centuries


large areas of the worlds fertile regions have been, and continue to be,
used for environmentally destructive monocrop agriculture. This monocrop
agriculture involves the deforestation of mixed vegetation and replacement
with single crops such as tobacco, coffee, tea, wheat and sugar. The prices
of these commodities has consistently fallen, while the technology required
to maintain these crops has become more expensive. These crops are also
of little benefit to the essential dietary needs of the nations in which
plantations were established during the era of slavery. These plantations
are being maintained for the convenience and economy of rich countries
rather than poor ones. Efforts to become self-sufficient in terms of food
grown in individual nations are regularly thwarted by the policies of the
World Bank and International Monetary Fund, which support the interests
of established industries and large companies based in affluent nations. Yet
even the description of these nations as affluent makes little sense if the
claims of debt to international bankers are to be accepted. By these
terms the United States of America is one of the poorest nations on earth,
since this first world nation, like Australia, also considered affluent,
apparently also owes many billions of dollars to the IMF and World Bank.
For what? For policies forced on the nations of the world that are
increasingly creating a global wasteland?
Looking at the digestive system of the global economy on a broader
level, the total amount of ingested substances by humans can be looked at
as a whole. Recent years have seen humans being described by economic
rationalists as consumers rather than people, and it is evident that in
countries such as Australia, people are generally consuming too much and
consuming the wrong things if they intend their health to improve. These
include pharmaceutical drugs as well as animal products, particularly meat.
On 10.1.2000, The Australian contains a page three article titled Bad
habits push up $3bn pill bill. In it, John Kerin writes:
Hectic lifestyles, poor diet and too little exercise are driving up
Australias $3 billion-a-year prescription drug bill. An examination of
prescription drug-taking patterns over the past 12 months shows the
big growth has been for the treatment of cardiovascular ailments,
high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Almost 140 million scripts
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were issued in 1998-99. Some 18 million were issued for blood


pressure-related complaints in 1998-99 and a further 8 million for
drugs needed to lower cholesterol.
Kerin adds that, the use of expensive stomach ulcer and gastric reflux
drugs and anti-depressants is also on the rise, with a decrease in scripts for
anti-biotics.
The reasons given by Dr David Brand, national president of the
Australian Medical Association (AMA) for this debacle are confused and
confusing. While admitting that diet and exercise are important in both
high blood pressure and lowering cholesterol and that the average
Australian has been gaining a gram of fat a day over the past 15 years, he
also claims that the growth in use of prescription drugs could also be
explained by tremendous improvements in drugs. In reality, though, the
increase is more likely to be due to extraordinarily aggressive campaigns by
pharmaceutical companies to sell these expensive drugs and the failure of
doctors to resist their marketing strategies. Dr Brand himself admits that,
a few years ago you had a bloody hard time convincing patients to take
some blood pressure preparations or anti-depressants. This statement is a
disturbing indicator of the medical professions role in pushing drugs,
especially when he also admits that the resistance of the population to
taking these drugs was because, they ended up feeling more awful from
the side effects than they did from the original complaint.
In fact, high blood pressure and high cholesterol in themselves do not
usually make people feel awful: the reason they are treated is for the
prevention of heart disease, stroke and other consequences of
atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries). Furthermore, drug treatment by
itself, without behavioral change, has been repeatedly shown to be
ineffective in reducing this risk. Taking cholesterol lowering drugs without
reducing meat and saturated animal fat intake does not reduce overall risk
of illness and death, and the same applies for taking blood pressure
lowering drugs without reduction of mental stress, obesity and other
lifestyle factors.

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The health problems which are responsible for most of the


pharmaceutical expenditure of Australia and other first world countries
are conditions caused by excess, rather than deficiency. This point is missed
by Kerin, and by Brand. They also fail to mention the major additional risk
factor for heart disease and atherosclerosis: cigarette smoking.
Brand also makes the rather contentious claim that, rather than, again,
aggressive marketing campaigns for new antidepressants, and broadened
criteria for diagnosis of the condition, higher rates of prescribing for
depression were linked to improvements in its diagnosis. Actually, this
improvement in diagnosis just means that doctors and the public are
more likely to call sadness, frustration, anxiety, worry and distress
depression.
The diagnosis of depression has been marketed ruthlessly in the mass
media, including medical educational literature provided by the
pharmaceutical industry, health-promotional campaigns, such as those
which formed the 1990s mental health strategy. In these campaigns,
spearheaded in Australia by the Mental Health Foundation, propaganda
from the drug companies Smith Kline Beecham, Roche, Pfizer and Eli Lilly
(list not exhaustive) exhort patients to self-diagnose themselves as
suffering from a medical illness termed depression. This illness is said to
be caused by chemical imbalances, which are sometimes specified as the
neurotransmitters serotonin and noradrenaline (called norepinephrine in
the USA). This theory, which conveniently acts to theoretically justify the
prescription and ingestion of chemicals (antidepressants) to correct the
chemical imbalance is the mainstay of modern biological psychiatry as a
theory of depression and is the main explanation pushed by these drug
companies through Mental Health Foundation literature, which is
sponsored by these drug companies. All these massive pharmaceutical
companies sell new antidepressants. Eli Lilly produces Prozac, Smith Kline
Beecham markets Aropax, Pfizer produces Zoloft and Roche offers
Aurorix, all to treat depression. The first three of these are SSRI
antidepressants, the marketing of which has constituted one of the biggest
scientific frauds of the twentieth century.

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The fraud regarding these drugs involves information given to doctors


and the public about the neurotransmitter serotonin, and the pineal organ
in the brain where the chemical is concentrated and converted to the
neurohormone melatonin during hours of night-time darkness. Serotonin
was discovered in the early 1940s and melatonin was discovered in 1958.
The biochemical pathway involved in the synthesis of serotonin from the
amino acid tryptophan was discovered in the early 1960s along with the
pathway for synthesis of melatonin from serotonin. It was discovered at
this time that serotonin and melatonin are concentrated in the pineal and
that light shone into the eyes during the night (when melatonin is usually
synthesised) suppresses melatonin production. It was also discovered in the
1960s and 1970s that melatonin and the pineal affect the secretion of other
brain hormones, particularly those secreted by the pituitary gland located
at the base of the brain. Melatonin and serotonin were found to have
effects on mood, blood temperature, sleep and other important aspects of
physiology. Melatonin and the pineal were also found to have effects on
sexual maturation (probably via pituitary gonadotrophin hormones) as well
as the immune system. It was also discovered, over thirty years ago, that
the pineal is connected to the eyes and visual system via the
suprachiasmatic nucleus and sympathetic nervous system, and that the
neurotransmitter noradrenaline is involved in the conversion of serotonin
to melatonin (Reiter, 1984).
The scam involving the pineal, melatonin and serotonin has involved a
systematic removal of scientific information about known pineal physiology
from medical and scientific textbooks, as well as disinformation about
serotonin and other neurotransmitters. This coincides with the marketing
of melatonin as a sleeping tablet and natural cure for jet lag and
seasonal affective disorder together with drugs which affect serotonin
metabolism, notably the SSRI antidepressants.
This removal of information about the pineal, which occurred in the late
1980s, affected a range of textbooks published by major corporate
publication companies based in the US and UK, including MacGraw Hill,
Churchill Livingstone and Appleton & Lange. A particularly outrageous
example is the respected specialist textbook Essentials of Neural Science
and Behavior published by Appleton and Lange, a subsidiary of Prentice Hall
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International. The international edition of this book, which is on sale in


the bookshops of major universities in Australia, completely omits the
pineal organ in their 1995 edition, and the same phenomenon can be
observed in several other highly respected medical textbooks. Although
most parts of the brain are discussed in detail in these books, the pineal
organ is conspicuously absent.
Corresponding with this removal of physiological information about the
pineal, serotonin has been associated with an extraordinary range of
psychiatric abnormalities. The Universal Press publication Inside the Brain
by Pulitzer prize-winning author Ronald Kotulak makes the following claim
in their book, published in 1996:
Low serotonin is common to many problems in which one or
more of our drives bursts out of its chemical corral. Medical
researchers found that most of these disorders may be treatable
with drugs that change serotonin levels. First developed to halt the
uncontrollable aggression of schizophrenia and depression, these
drugs are now being used or tested for a wide variety of problems,
including alcoholism, eating disorders, premenstrual syndrome,
migraines, anger attacks, manic-depressive disorder, obsessivedepressive disorders, anxiety, sleep disorders, memory impairment,
drug abuse, sexual perversions, irritability, Parkinsons disease,
Alzheimers, depersonalization disorder, borderline personality,
autism and brain injuries. (p.88)
The pineal is not mentioned in this book, nor melatonin, let alone the
concentration of serotonin in the pineal and the conversion of serotonin to
melatonin. A similar phenomenon can be observed in the Time magazine
article of September 1997 titled The mood molecule by Michael
Lemonick.
In this article serotonin is discussed in depth, however the pineal and
melatonin are not mentioned, and the discussion is centred on drugs which
affect serotonin, and, to a lesser degree, other neurotransmitters. The
story, as told by Lemonick does raise some concerns about the long-term
safety of these drugs, following the heart-damaging side-effects of Redux,
a serotonin-affecting drug which was marketed as a weight reduction drug
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in the 1970s and 1980s by Wyeth-Ayerst and a company founded by one of


the developers of the drug, a Dr Richard Wurtman, who had worked as a
consultant for Lilly (Eli Lilly) in the 1970s, at which time this company
(which later produced Prozac) was experimenting with serotonin-affecting
drugs as obesity treatments. Wurtman, who was trained as a neurologist
and also worked for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),
founded a company called Interneuron Pharmaceuticals to market Redux.
Redux is dexphenfluramine, derived from the amphetamine phenfluramine,
which was, even before the marketing of the drug as a human weight-loss
drug, known to cause brain damage in monkeys. Lemonick writes:
From the start, it was clear that Redux has serious potential side
effects. One is primary pulmonary hypertension, a rare form of high
blood pressure that strikes the blood vessels of the lungs. Another,
considered even more serious by some of Reduxs critics, was the
possibility of brain damage. When fed to monkeys,
dexphenfluramine can destroy neurons. Says John Harvey of the
Allegheny University of Health Sciences in Philadephia, who edits the
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics: Any of us
who were pharmacologists knew this was a dirty drug. None of us
was surprised.
Some critics claim that Interneuron steamrolled Redux through
the FDA and that the agency acted irresponsibly in approving it,
charges that the company vigorously deny.
The reason that Redux was eventually withdrawn from sale, was not
because of pulmonary hypertension or brain damage. After twenty years of
use, it became evident that the drug also causes irreversible damage to
heart valves. This unexpected side-effect should make doctors and the
public more wary of ingesting drugs that affect natural chemicals which
have a broad range of physiological effects such as serotonin, melatonin,
dopamine and noradrenaline. This concern is highlighted by the fact that,
as in the case of Redux, toxic effects may only become fully evident many
years later.
The American producer of Prozac, Eli Lilly, was the first to develop and
market globally a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI): a new
class of expensive antidepressants derived from the stimulant MDMA. The
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designer drug commonly known as Ecstasy shares its origin in MDMA,


but cannot be patented, hence its illegality. These are the realities of
modern drug laws: they are based on economic, not public health
considerations. Several dangerous man-made drugs are illegal, but far more
dangerous drugs are legal. The illegal drugs include heroin (derived from
opium poppies), and other opiate narcotics. They are not illegal, however, if
prescribed as pain-killers by doctors, in which case they are greatly
overused. The exception to this is the opiate codeine, which is available
over the counter in Australia in the form of Panadeine, Dymadon and
Tylenol tablets (forte preparations). These are also overused in Australia
along with the non-forte preparations which contain paracetamol alone
(without codeine), but can cause fatal liver and kidney damage, particularly
in overdose.
Drug overdose is one of the growing causes of death in the modern
world. These include both intentional and unintentional overdose. Of these,
unintentional overdose, less usually reported as drug overdose than
suicide by intentional poisoning with drugs, is responsible for more of these
deaths. Unintentional overdoses include those due to the self-ingestion of
drugs, including paracetamol, aspirin, tranquillisers, sleeping tablets, anti
depressants and alcohol. The category also includes drugs given in excess
amounts by doctors and hospitals to people who are considered in medical
need of these drugs by some doctor or another. Often different doctors
contribute to a cocktail of drugs that individuals in the modern world
consume. Individuals who look to these doctors for medical advice, but
receive secondhand advertising for and from the pharmaceutical industry
instead.
Turning to the brain of the economy, it becomes evident that wherever
it is, it is not working well. If it was, the economy would not be a sick as it is.
The brain controls and regulates the other systems of the body, including
the rest of the nervous system. The brain is inextricably connected to the
mind, and the minds that have devised the current economic system were
obsessed by war, nationalism and beating the opposition. This has had a
direct effect on the economic decisions which have been made in the past
fifty years, despite claims of globalism.

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The paradigm of the United Nations organisation, which grew out of the
League of Nations is still one of perpetual war and conflict, with a hidden
agenda in favour of the nations that formed the United Nations and
remain permanent members of the UN security council in the first place.
These were the victors of the Second World War: the United States and
Britain. Institutions such as the World Health Organization (WHO) are part
of the UN and World Bank systems, and again represent the interests of
dominant nations rather than smaller or less industrialised ones. In the
lingo of the UN, non-industrialised nations are termed Third World or
Underdeveloped, with development equated with corporate-ruled
industrialisation. This is one of the biggest problems that face the United
Nations, World Health Organization and populace of the world. A
fundamental change in paradigm from one of nationalistic aggression to
international cooperation and support. A realisation must be made that
conflict between nations is not necessary or inevitable and that the vast
majority of the worlds population would rather live in peace and harmony.

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