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INTRODUCTION

TO
HVAC

Industry
Overview

Technical Development Program

Technical Development Programs (TDP) are modules of technical training on HVAC theory,
system design, equipment selection and application topics. They are targeted at engineers and
designers who wish to develop their knowledge in this field to effectively design, specify, sell or
apply HVAC equipment in commercial applications.
Although TDP topics have been developed as stand-alone modules, there are logical groupings of topics. The modules within each group begin at an introductory level and progress to
advanced levels. The breadth of this offering allows for customization into a complete HVAC
curriculum from a complete HVAC design course at an introductory-level or to an advancedlevel design course. Advanced-level modules assume prerequisite knowledge and do not review
basic concepts.

This TDP provides a general overview of the commercial HVAC industry, providing an
awareness of: the design process; participants in the design and construction process; documents
involved in construction; a typical timeline of activities in the design and construction process;
and how these activities are influenced by the different participants in the process. This industry
is also influenced by regulatory agencies and legal concerns that are important to designers of
HVAC systems.

2005 Carrier Corporation. All rights reserved.


The information in this manual is offered as a general guide for the use of industry and consulting engineers in designing systems.
Judgment is required for application of this information to specific installations and design applications. Carrier is not responsible
for any uses made of this information and assumes no responsibility for the performance or desirability of any resulting system
design.
The information in this publication is subject to change without notice. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Carrier
Corporation.

Printed in Syracuse, NY
CARRIER CORPORATION

Carrier Parkway
Syracuse, NY 13221, U.S.A.

Table of Contents
Introduction...................................................................................................................................... 1
Participants....................................................................................................................................... 3
Equipment Supplier Organizations .................................................................................................. 5
Industry Associations....................................................................................................................... 6
Legal Concerns ................................................................................................................................ 7
Delivery Methods .......................................................................................................................... 10
Plans and Specifications (Plan and Spec) .................................................................................. 11
Design-Build (D-B) ................................................................................................................... 12
Construction Management (CM) ............................................................................................... 13
Performance Contracting ........................................................................................................... 13
Typical Projects ............................................................................................................................. 13
HVAC Systems.............................................................................................................................. 15
HVAC Products ............................................................................................................................. 17
Summary........................................................................................................................................ 18
Work Session ................................................................................................................................. 19
Work Session Answers .................................................................................................................. 25
Glossary ..................................................................................................................................... 27
References.................................................................................................................................. 30

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Introduction
The HVAC (Heating,
Ventilating, Air Conditioning) industry is a large and
mature industry that serves
many markets. In fact, based
on the Commercial Buildings
Energy Consumption Survey
(CBECS) it is estimated that
there were 4,859,000 commercial buildings with 71.6
billion square feet of floor
space in the United States in
2003. Table 1 summarizes
the number of buildings and
floorspace based on market
segment.

Table 2 further describes


these 4.9 million buildings by
size. Looking at the table, we
can see that over 50 percent
of the buildings are between
1,000 and 5,000 square feet
and only 1.5 percent are
above 100,000 square feet.

Table 1
Number of Buildings and Floorspace by
Principal Building Activity, 2003
Number of
Buildings
(thousands)
All Buildings
Education

% of
Total

Total
Floorspace
2
(million ft )

4,859

71,658

386

8.0

9,874

13.7

% of
Total

Food Sales

226

4.7

1,255

1.8

Food Service

297

6.0

1,654

2.3
4.4

Health Care

129

2.7

3,163

Lodging

142

2.9

5,096

7.1

Mercantile

657

13.5

11,192

15.6

Office

824

17.0

12,208

17

Public Assembly

277

5.7

3,939

5.5

Public Order and Safety

71

1.5

1,090

1.5

Religious Worship

370

7.6

3,754

5.2

Service

622

12.8

4,050

5.7

Warehouse and Storage

597

12.3

10,078

14.0

Other

79

1.6

1,738

2.40

Vacant

182

3.7

2567

3.8

Table 2
Number of Buildings and Floorspace
by Size of Building, 2003 (Preliminary)
Number of
Buildings
(thousands)

% of
Total

Total
Floorspace
2
(million ft )

% of
Total

All Buildings

4,859

71,658

1,001 to 5,000

2,585

53.2

6,922

9.7

5,001 to 10,000

948

19.5

7,033

9.8

10,001 to 25,000

810

16.7

12,659

17.7

25,001 to 50,000

261

5.4

9,382

13.1

50,001 to 100,000

147

3.0

10,291

14.4

100,001 to 200,000

74

1.5

10,217

14.3

200,001 to 500,000

26

0.5

7,494

10.5

Over 500,000

0.1

7,660

10.7

Introduction to HVAC

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

The HVAC market can be looked


at or segmented in different ways.
This review can be based on the age
of the building, the use of the building, the type of equipment or system,
or the contracting arrangement. The
existing building market is typically
two to three times the size of the new
construction market.

Figure 1
By Building Age

The new construction market consists of projects in which the HVAC system is installed
when the building is originally constructed. This market includes projects in which the shell of
the building is constructed separately, with the HVAC system and other finish work installed later
under separate contracts after the tenants and their specific needs are identified.
The existing construction market
is usually identified as the renovation
or replacement market. It includes
system replacement projects, in
which the air conditioning system replaces a previously installed system,
and equipment replacement projects
in which some or all of the major
equipment is replaced. This market
also includes projects in which the air
conditioning system is installed many
years after the building is constructed
and no specific provisions were made
for its installation.
Figure 2
By Scope of Work

Introduction to HVAC

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Where market segment is based


upon building usage, the customary
commercial market segments include
offices, schools, manufacturing, retail,
healthcare, lodging, and other, which
includes entertainment, correctional
facilities, religious buildings, airports,
warehouses, etc.

By Building Usage
% of Market
Office 17%

Other30%

Education 8%

Food Sales and


Service 11%

Public Order and Safety 1%


Public Assembly 6%

Mercantile 13%

Figure 3
By Building Usage

Where market segment is based upon contracting arrangement, the segments can be designbuild, plan and specification (plan and spec), or construction management. In design-build work,
the design and the construction are provided by the same organization. In plan-and-specification
work, a design organization performs the design and creates design documents (called plans and
specifications) that are then used by a separate contractor organization to construct the building.
In construction management work, a third party oversees the design and construction activities to reduce risk and insure project completion, schedule, and cost.

Participants
Many different entitles are mvolved in a typical construction
project. Their usual relationships are
shown in Figure 4.
An owner provides the money to
construct a project, and assumes most
of the financial risk. A developer provides the concept and the business
plan, and usually manages the overall
project. The owner and developer
functions are frequently provided by
the same organization and referred to
as the Owner/Developer.
Figure 4
Typical Construction Project Organization

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

The prime contractor is usually responsible for coordinating all construction activity and
other contractual items relating to project cost and timing. Large or critical projects are frequently
constructed on a fast-track schedule when the major equipment is purchased and the construction
work is begun before the overall project design is completed. These projects may have a project
manager or a construction manager. A project manager coordinates the entire project, including
both design and construction work. A construction manager coordinates the construction activities, that must begin before the prime contract is awarded and continues until the project is
complete. Large developers and general contractors usually have project or construction management departments that operate independently of their normal business.
An architect provides the building design services for the project. The design of the HV AC,
structural, electrical, plumbing and other trades is provided by engineers in each specialty, by
contract with the architect. If these engineers are employed by the architect, the architect becomes
an Architect/Engineer.

Contractors provide the construction work. The contract for a prime contractor is a purchase
commitment from the owner or developer. A subcontractor has a contract with the prime contractor or a higher-level subcontractor. The prime contractor usually assumes responsibility for all
work at the job site, performs some of the work with his own employees, and provides the rest of
the work through use of subcontractors.
A general contractor is usually the prime contractor on a project. If the majority of the work
is of a special nature, such as replacement of air conditioning, the mechanical contractor may
serve as the prime contractor, with the general contractor becoming a subcontractor to the mechanical contractor.
The general contractor usually performs the work of constructing the building shell, such as
foundations, masonry and concrete work. The mechanical contractor, electrical contractor and
automatic controls contractors are typical subcontractors. Subcontractors also perform some
work, and arrange for other items through additional subcontractors. The test and balance subcontractor may work for the HVAC subcontractor, who works for the mechanical subcontractor, who
works for the prime contractor, etc.
The construction contract usually includes the commissioning, or startup phase of a project. A
commissioning agent or contractor is sometimes employed directly by the owner to provide a
more objective effort to identify and correct errors made during construction. Test and balance
contractors are specialists in measuring air and water flows and checking the performance of
equipment after it is placed in service. The startup of some equipment, especially chillers and
boilers, is performed by or supervised by a representative of the manufacturer, who is expected to
be most familiar with the proper procedures.
The building operations manager is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the
HVAC system. This is usually done by contract with a building management service on small
buildings. Large buildings usually have a full-time HVAC operation and maintenance staff on
site.

Service contractors provide either preventative maintenance or emergency repairs after the
system is in operation. Most construction contracts provide a 12-month warranty period. The
construction contractor must correct all failures or deficiencies, which are identified during the
warranty period, without charge.

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Equipment Supplier Organizations


Every HVAC product is produced by a manufacturer and sold to an "end user." The end user
is the person or entity that finally pays for and uses the product, such as a homeowner or a shopping center operator. Some end users
have enough purchase volume to jusManufacturer
tify a direct purchase relationship
between the manufacturer and the end
Design, Production, Marketing
user, but most users are better served
Direct Sales
Warehouse
by purchasing the equipment through
a supply chain which can furnish the
marketing, warehousing, installation
Sales
Distributor
Representative
Sales & Marketing
and service functions which are related to the purchase. Some of the
common supply chain organizations
are shown in Figure 5.
Manufacturers provide design,
production and marketing (product
concept, advertising, sales literature,
etc.) for their products. Sometimes
they maintain warehouses for finished
products or provide their own sales Figure 5
staff, but an "equipment supplier" HVA C Equipment Suppliers
usually provides these functions in the
local sales area.

Equipment suppliers handle the sale of equipment for a project. The supplier may be a direct
sales office of the manufacturer, or a manufacturer's representative, who is an independently
owned company that typically sells several different types of equipment made by several different
manufacturers. A typical manufacturer' s representative may sell pumps from one manufacturer,
fans from another, etc.
A distributor buys equipment in large quantities from a manufacturer, and resells them to
dealers or independent contractors. Distributors tend to emphasize the products of one manufacturer and provide warehousing of products, marketing and training for their dealers. Some
distributors are independently owned, while some are owned by manufacturers.

Dealers are independently owned contractors who are franchised by distributors to install
equipment purchased from the distributor. The franchise arrangement may require the dealer to be
exclusive, in which case they buy all their equipment from one distributor in return for marketing,
training and financial assistance from that distributor.

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Industry Associations
Industry associations are formed to provide cooperative solutions to industry wide problems
that are best solved by collective effort. The following associations are typical of those involving
the HVAC industry.
ASHRAE (American Society of
Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers) is primarily
concerned with creating information
for the design of projects. They publish the ASHRAE Handbook and
create many of the recommended
minimum standards, which influence
project design.

American Society of Heating,


Refrigerating and Air Conditioning

llD~ Air Conditioning

.~

.. U

& Refrigeration Institute

f':'M
l
J

National Fire
Protection Association

NFPA

Iii:\
\:!!:J

Underwriters'
Laboratories

ARI (Air Conditioning and Re-

International

Code Council
frigeration Institute) is primarily

cout:wt:xue
concerned with creating standards for
testing and rating the various types of
equipment. Equipment ratings, which Figure 6
are ARI certified, are more likely to Industry Associations
be correct and less likely -to be misleading. ARI also provides marketing statistics for air conditioning equipment manufacturers.
L\."ffll' -\lll.IX.U .

NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) addresses building fire and smoke concerns, including fire and smoke dampers, duct and equipment construction materials and range hood
exhaust systems.
UL (Underwriters' Laboratories) is a non-profit organization divided into two parts. The first

section develops standards for the design and testing of product safety. These standards are
widely accepted as the benchmarks to be used in product safety testing. The second section of UL
is responsible for certification of products to the safety standards. Products may be tested by UL
for certification are listed in the UL directory and bear the UL label. Products tested to UL standards by an organization other than UL, such as CSA (Canadian Standards Association), AGA
(American Gas Association), and Intertech (ETL) are called UL accepted and are listed in that
organization' s directory and bear the label of the listing organization. UL may also test products
for specific applications that are not listed in its directory. These products are known as
UL recognized products. Local code officials generally accept the testing of these agencies to UL
standards as meeting the requirements for safety testing.
The International Code Council (ICC) is a non-profit association of building code officials
who develop building safety, energy efficiency, and fire prevention codes used for residential and
commercial construction. ICC has replaced other model code writing agencies such as Building
Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA), Southern Building Codes Congress (SBCC), and the
International Conference of Building Code Officials (ICBCO). The ICC model code is now used
as the basis of most all state and local building energy codes.

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Legal Concerns
The importance of legal issues to an equipment supplier depends upon the amount of money
involved and the organizational relationship of the HYAC supplier on the particular project. The
responsibilities of the supplier must be clearly identified.
The construction and operation of a building must be in accordance with the applicable local
and state building codes. These codes are usually based upon one of the model codes such as
ICC, which are written and sponsored by various associations of building code officials. The National Electric Code (NEC) is an example of a model code, which is written by an industry
association. Codes also include reference standards, which are written by industry associations
such as ASHRAE and ARI. ASHRAE Standard 15, for example, is the refrigeration safety standard that governs the design and installation of refrigeration systems. A model code or a reference
standard becomes part of the state or local building code when it is legally adopted by the appropriate governing body. The designer is responsible for meeting the elements of the design codes,
the contractor for meeting the construction elements of the codes, etc. The equipment supplier is
generally responsible for meeting HY AC equipment safety codes. This responsibility is absolute
when the construction documents identify the codes that must be met and when the purchase order for the equipment requires that the equipment be furnished in compliance with the
construction documents.
The official having jurisdiction is the government official who is responsible for enforcement
of the code item being considered. This official may be the fire marshal, the building inspector,
etc. Their interpretation of a code item is final, and they have the authority to enforce their decision by refusing to issue a certificate of occupancy for the building, which is necessary before the
building can be placed in use.
The HVAC systems are addressed
in a number of building construction
codes, mainly relating to life safety,
layout, design features, and performance (energy conservation). Across the
United States, the International Code
Council's family of publications has
been adopted almost universally. It is
safe to say that familiarity with the
International Building Code (IBC),
International Mechanical Code (IMC),
International Energy Conservation
Code (IECC), and International Fire
Code (IFC) will cover most of the
code-related requirements for HYAC
systems. See Figure 7. Always verify
your general understanding of the code Figure 7
requirements with the specific project Codes, Standards, and Guidelines
program before finalizing system se- (Reproduced with permission of I CC. All rights reserved.)
lection or closing out a design phase.

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
Figure 8 shows the relationships
involved in building codes.
Licenses and pem1its for work at
the job site are usually obtained by the
contractors. The equipment supplier is
generally not responsible unless job
site labor is included and a special
license is required for this labor.
The construction documents for a
project are prepared by the designers
of the project, and include the plans
(drawings) and specifications. ArchiEquipment
tects and engineers who are properly
Manufacturer
registered by the local authorities to
perform such work must sign the con- Figure 8
struction documents for large projects.
Legal Issues - Codes
Equipment specifications and equipment selection criteria are included in the construction documents for "plan and specification"
projects, but may be issued separately for design-build projects.
Rather than copying the entire codes and reference standards that apply to a project, a typical
specification will simply state that all equipment must comply with the requirements related to
that item. The codes and reference standards for a project are usually listed at the beginning of
each major section of the specifications.
An addendum is a change or addition to the construction documents for a project. Addendum #1 might change the capacity of a chiller, for example, and Addendum #2 might add an
electronic variable speed drive to the air-handling unit. Failure to identify addendums and include
the changes in a quotation for the project may result in the delivery of the wrong equipment to the
job. The resulting expense and construction delay will create a very difficult situation for everyone involved.
A contract is the legal agreement between the participants on a project. A contract can be
created by the purchaser writing a purchase order that identifies the conditions of the sale. Acceptance of this purchase order by a vendor constitutes an agreement by the seller to all of these
conditions. A contract can also be created by the supplier making a proposal (an offer to sell),
which identifies the conditions of the sale. Acceptance of this proposal by a buyer constitutes an
agreement by the buyer to all of these conditions. The terms and conditions of proposals and purchase orders include the "fine print," which is usually on the back of the first page. Contractors
and equipment suppliers who do a lot of business together usually agree upon a standard proposal
and purchase order format.

A change notice is a revision to the contract between the owner and the prime contractor. A
change notice may include the changes resulting from several addenda that have been issued by
the designers of the project. For example, Change Notice 1 may include Addenda 1, 3, 4, and 9,
while Change Notice 2 may include Addenda 2 and 5 through 8. Some addenda are issued, but
never incorporated into the project because the cost is excessive or for some other reason.

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Introduction to HVAC

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
Submittals and approvals are required for large projects, in order to confirm that the equipment being furnished is in accordance with the plans and specifications. The submittal and
approval requirements are described in the project specifications. The equipment being submitted
may have been the "basis of design," which is the exact equipment that the designer used to determine the size of the mechanical room, the arrangement of the piping and wiring, and the
features described in the specifications.
Construction Documents
Addendums to
(Plans and Specifications)

Equipment, which was not the basis of design, will almost always be
Proposal or
Quotation
different in some respect. These items
should be resolved during the bidding
and submittal processes. Considerable
experience is necessary in order to
identify what constitutes a significant
deviation, and how to either obtain
approval of the deviation or modify
the equipment to meet the specified
requirements. If incorrect equipment Figure 9
is installed, it may have to be removed
Legal Issues - Purchase Contract
and replaced without charge by the
contractor, probably at the expense of
the supplier.

Construction Documents

Figure 9 shows the relationship of the various documents that are most frequently encountered by equipment suppliers.

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Delivery Methods
There are many different methods of taking a project from the needs identification phase to
the completed building. The various design elements are not always completed in the same sequence or by the same members of the design team. Design is a shared, ongoing process that is
not always done by the HV AC designer. System selection needs to be responsive to this fact,
along with the many other criteria placed upon the process. Four common methods are shown
below. Features are shown in Figure 10.

Typical Projects

All types of
buildings

Complex or schedule
constrained

Complex or budget
constrained

Energy conservation
or system retrofits

When are Design


Details Worked

Before bidding for


construction

Completed after
bidding

Before or after
bidding

Completed after
bidding

Who Works on
Them?

HVAC Designer

HVAC Designer and


Contractor

Either HVAC
Designer or
Contractor

Contractor

Who is Responsible
for HVAC Design?

HVAC Designer

D-B Contractor

Either HVAC
Designer or
Contractor

Contractor

Level of Design
Team Continuity

Complete through
process

Can become
fragmented

May change during


process

Depends on
Contractor control

Who Controls
Integrity of Design?

Controlled by
HVAC Designer

Often forced to adjust


to competing needs

Often forced to
adjust to competing
needs

Contractor

Degree of Process
Burden

Greatest

Less than Normal

Moderate to High

Least

Level of Owner
Involvement

Highest

Moderate

Moderate to Limited

Very Limited

Length of Schedule

1 to 4 years typical

15 to 25% less than


Plan and Spec

Like Plan and Spec

3 to1 2 Months

Relative Cost to
Owner

Average to High depends on bidding


climate

Greatest - caused by
shortened schedule

Average to High CM fees and bidding


climate

Least - paid out of


savings

Figure 10
Comparison of the Features of Delivery Methods

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Plans and Specifications (Plan and Spec)


A typical Plan and Spec project organization is shown in Figure 11. This delivery method
has dominated the public money segments of the industry for quite some time. A detailed set of
contract drawings and specifications
are prepared by the HVAC designer,
then bid by mechanical contractors,
either publicly or by invitation. Once
a contract is awarded, the construction
team executes the design and turns
Other
Other
over the building to the client for use.
Desi ners

HVAC Design
Engineer

Subcontractors

HVAC
Subcontractors

therVendor
HVAC
Equipment
Supplier

HVAC
Service

Figure 11
Typical Construction Project Organization

Plan and Spec project delivery offers system selection as an up-front activity led by the
HVAC system designer (Figure 12). The designer completes drawings and specifications that
document what will eventually be
P lan and Spec Project Structure ( Fig 11)
provided by the construction contractor, often with minimal input by the
architect and client, and seldom if at
all from the eventual occupants.

Figure 12
Plan and Spec Project Structure

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11

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

A negative feature of Plan and


Spec is that only during bidding does
the potential construction contractor
have a chance to review the design
and communicate concerns to the designer. Changes to the design are
difficult to bring about.

During System Design Process


Q,)
C)

c:

(I)

.s::.

0
~

:i

i5
'O

c:

(I)

tl
0

Criteria

System
Concept

Design Calculations
and Equipment
Selection

Plans
and
Specs

Figure 13
Cost and Difficulty of Making Changes

Design-Build (D-B)
Design-Build differs from Plan and Spec in that the construction bidding phase is moved up
to the front of the design process (Figure 14). Properly done, the client prepares building systems
performance plans and specifications
that are bid by contractor teams with
Owner-Prepared "Performance" Bid Package
design capability that carry forward
E~~ineerj
with the design process, meshing it
Warranty Period
Single-Line
Review of
with the construction activities to
Layouts
Contractor
Bid Packages
Owner Takes
shorten the overall project delivery
and
Beneficial Occupancy
Equipment
Contract Award
schedule.
Selections
J

The HVAC system selection ocCompletion Dates


curs right up front, along with the
Update Layout,
Confirm Equip.
other building systems, as the perCoordinate
Selections
Contractor
formance documents are prepared. If
Drawings
good communication and documentaEquipment
' - - - - . . i Owner Approval
Installation
tion occurs during the performance
I
Possible 3rd Party Reviews - Arch/Engr V
phase, the initial system selection will
carry forward in the remaining phases Figure 14
of the design process and be properly Design-Build Project Structure
implemented during construction. Often, the original architect and engineer who worked on the performance specifications, if not on
the winning bid team, will be retained as consultants to ensure that the client's needs are met as
the building design takes shape and construction is completed.

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Construction Management (CM)


In the construction management delivery method, an additional person is added to the team the construction manager (also called the CM). Traditionally hired by the client, the CM oversees
the design and construction process, streamlining both efforts. The construction manager relieves
the client of watching over the complexities of the project and ensures that the design process and
construction results will be responsive to the client's program. Many times the CM will operate at
risk, having guaranteed an overall project maximum cost or a construction schedule, or both.
When a client hires a construction manager, the final selection of the architect and engineers
may be the decision of the CM.

Performance Contracting
The performance contracting method of project delivery puts the greatest amount of decision-making in the contractor's hands. Usually a client is interested in lowering their energy costs
by replacing or upgrading a building system (like lighting, HVAC, or high-use motors), but is not
willing or able to provide the capital financing. Performance contracting transfers the financing
responsibility from the client to the contractor, who is then paid a percentage of the future savings
in energy costs.
Potential savings in energy costs are discovered during an energy audit of the facility and
proposed to the client by the contractor. HV AC systems are often a source of the energy savings,
both because of how much energy they use, and the savings that occur through improvements in
maintenance and operations. When significant upgrades in HVAC systems or a retrofit to another
system are suggested, the client needs to carefully review the impact on their employee comfort
and productivity to make sure it is a net gain. Many clients will bring in an HVAC systems consultant to review the recommended changes before authorizing the performance contractor to
proceed with the work.

Typical Projects
Residential projects are usually design-build projects handled by air conditioning dealers and
contractors. The purchaser is usually a developer in new construction, or a homeowner for existing buildings.
New small commercial systems are also design-build projects by air conditioning dealers and
contractors. The purchaser is usually a developer in new construction, and a business owner or
tenant for existing buildings. New large systems, above 100 tons, are usually plan and specification projects. The equipment sale is usually to a contractor, but the owner and the designer can be
very influential in determining the equipment supplier. In some cases, the equipment is purchased
directly by the owner.

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jNDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Equipment replacement projects are usually negotiated between the owner and a service contractor.
Regardless of the type of project, the sequence of events is as shown in Figure 15, which is
sometimes referred to as the "time line" of a project. The initial phase is an organizational phase,
in which the owner or developer
CONCEPT
DESIGN
CONSTRUCTION WARRANTY AND
ORGANIZATION
identify the major participants and
PHASE
PHASE
SERVICE PHASE
PHASE
PHASE
decide how the project will be
Organization Typo:
Project Criteria:
Load
Pricing
Resolve Equipment
Calculations
Failure and System
organized (negotiated, plan and
Comfort Level
Design/Build
Award
of
Operational
Problems
Plan and Spec
Costs
Equipment
Contracts
specification with competitive
Construction
Selection
Appearance
Management
Equipment
bids, etc.).
System Choice
Purchase
Air
Purchase Method :

Distribution

Coordination:
Competitive Bid
Submittal
The conceptual phase begins
Space Budgets
and Approval
Water
Negotiation
Distribution
with the identification of the purCreate Project
Installation
Team
Automatic
pose and general criteria for the
Controls
Commissioning
project by the owner. Each of the
Construction
Documents
design professionals then deterCoordinate
mines which general concepts are
Details
most appropriate to meet the established
criteria.
The Figure 15
requirements for each trade are Typ ical H VAC Proj ect Timeline
coordinated. Using the HVAC
system as an example, the equipment and duct space is allocated by the architect, the preliminary
electrical power requirements are provided to the electrical engineer, the equipment weights to
the structural engineer, etc. The budgets for each trade and for the entire project are established.

The HVAC system design phase is dominated by the HVAC designer, either an independent
consulting engineer or an employee of the design-build contractor. The designer confirms the criteria for the HVAC system, calculates the cooling and heating loads, selects the equipment,
designs the air, water and refrigerant distribution systems and the HVAC control system. Each
item must meet the space, cost and service requirements that were agreed upon during the concept
phase, or the designer must coordinate the new requirements with all of the affected parties. Design changes become increasingly difficult during this phase.
The constmction phase is dominated by the contractor. It includes the purchase of equipment,
installation of equipment, air and water distribution and control systems and the commissioning
of the HVAC system. To the contractor, timing is extremely important. Delays in equipment
submittals or deliveries can result in substantial increased cost to the contractor that may lead to
legal damage claims.
The warranty and service phase involves the owner and, for commercial projects, the building
management and service contractors as well. Everyone, including owner, tenants, contractor, architect and engineer, becomes aware of problems that affect or prevent operation of the HVAC
system. Prompt and fair resolution of any problems is extremely important.

a+

Turn to the Expert$

Introduction to HVAC

14

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

HVAC Systems
Many types of HVAC systems have been developed to serve a wide range of different markets and performance requirements. The choice of a suitable type of system is a logical first step
toward providing a satisfied client. The choice should be based on the priorities that have been
established for that individual project. These priorities include functional performance, costs and
many other considerations.
HVAC systems differ widely in their ability to provide the normal air conditioning functions,
which include the control of temperature, humidity, air motion, air quality (ventilation and air
purity) and sound level. Costs include the initial construction cost of the system; the cost of energy, makeup water, water treatment and disposal; the cost of operation labor, maintenance,
repair and equipment replacement; the cost of system modification to serve future tenants; and the
construction cost of building space for ductwork, piping and mechanical rooms. Other considerations include the architectural appearance of visible system elements, the probability and impact
. of HVAC system failures and the disruption of tenant activities related to maintenance of items in
tenant areas.
From the above, it should be obvious that the lowest construction cost system is inappropriate
for most applications. Most owners and system designers are very interested in providing appropriate systems, and are relatively open to discussion of these items. To be successful, these
discussions must occur before or during the concept phase of the project.
HVAC systems are generally classified by the type of refrigeration and by the type of air
system.
Refrigeration systems are either direct (called DX for "direct-expansion") or indirect. The
cooling coil in a DX system is cooled directly by the expansion of refrigerant inside the tubes of
the coil. The cooling coil in an indirect system is cooled by chilled water or brine that is circulated through a piping system between a water chiller and the cooling coil.
Packaged DX systems with a single refrigeration compressor, cooling coil and condenser in
close proximity to each other generally have low initial cost, and can be very efficient if the components are selected for high efficiency. They are usually simple and trouble-free. Split system
DX systems become more complex and prone to refrigerant leakage with increasing numher of
components and the length of piping. A single leak can result in loss of the entire refrigerant
charge of a system.
Chilled-water systems are generally preferred if one or two central water chillers can replace
a large number of separate DX systems, or if the refrigeration equipment must be remote from the
cooling coils. Water piping between the chiller and the cooling coils is simpler than refrigerant
piping. The refrigerant piping system can be factory-installed and tested on practically any size
chiller, and the possibility of refrigerant leakage is minimized.
Air systems are generally classified as either single or multiple zone systems. Single-zone
systems can serve any size building area as long as a single temperature control zone can provide
reasonable temperatures throughout the area served by that system. A window air conditioner and
a 50,000 cfm central system serving an exhibition hall are examples of single-zone systems. Multiple single-zone systems can be installed to provide separate zones within the building area, with
a separate temperature control for each single-zone unit.

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Introduction to HVAC
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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Multiple-zone systems provide several or many temperature control zones from the same central equipment. One central air handler can serve over a thousand separate temperature control
zones. Many of these systems use room terminal units to serve each zone. Multiple-zone systems
are sub-classified in several ways, as shown below.

,-----------------------------

System

T pe

i Water-Cooled Packaged

~
Llll.......alol~-;;..,(lil~,,._,,,iiiilliil~~.................._.~.._--........~j..,;J

+-

l Commercial :

r---w~t~rs-~~'.~~--~-~~~~-~~~-=-:~:.-.-.-.-.- .-.~-~-~1-c-~-~~;~~ q _ _ _ '._ _ _ _J _ _ _ 3_. ---f-.-=~---~-::=--i=-~~- - -:-- - - :~~::: --~-------~--------~-~ - -_;


Water Source Heat Pump w/
1 Office
'
I 2 i 3 I 2 ! 2 I 4 I 3
I
2
2
I Precond1t1oned Vent1lat1on
I
___ ----+---------+---- ~
f------_
i

Duct-Free Spilt

!____________________________________________________ - -

, Commercial
'
1 1 1
I
4
2
~ - -------5
1 2 ----- ------ ----------- __J__ ---------------------------------------

: ~~
l - - - - - ---------- ---------r----.------r -~ 2-Pipe Changeov~!_______________________________ J____Hot~:_~_P_t :____;_____~-- _____;----~------+-------4________J___

-- ........-- -

- - - - .. -----

----

:
-<-

s____J ---~---L- ~---- I ____2 ______'---- -~-----

2-Pipe Electric Heater


4-Pipe

I Multizone
' 3 Deck Multizone

I Hotel, Apt.

t---Hote1, Apt-.---:---

'

1
1 --

---r-sT
I

'

: Mtg. Rooms ____ ----~---------L------~------J_ ____ ~____L___s________ ~----~---- __


; Mtg Rooms :
1
,
3
'
5
:
5
'
3
,
Mtg. Rooms ~------ --1---- j- .. -1 -.....j" ___ -----t -- -5.. -Laboratory

'
-'--

4
h -:-- -4-

~~~i-O~ct--- -- -------------- ---- :


-5
,_____________ - - ------- ---------------+----------- ---r--------- r------ --r - -

I Constant Volume Reheat

t----,! 5
!

:- ---1
2

'

Figure 16
Multiple Zone System Characteristics

All-air systems are systems in which a central air system provides all of the cooling effect to
the individual zones. All-water systems do not have a central cold air system, but provide a separate chilled-water fan-and-coil unit to serve each zone. Combination air-water systems provide a
central conditioned air system to do a portion of the zone cooling and also provide a chilled-water
coil in each zone to supply the remaining zone cooling load. The performance and costs of the
multiple-zone systems vary widely and are beyond the scope of this discussion.

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Introduction to HVAC

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16

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

HVAC Products
Products are also classified in many ways, beginning with the type of HVAC system for
which it is intended. A "room type chilled-water fan-coil unit" is obviously intended for use as
the room terminal of that type of system.
Products are classified by the degree of factory design, either factory-engineered or customdesigned; and by the degree of factory assembly, such as single-piece, split-system, or fieldassembled component. The design of a factory-engineered system has the advantages of being
tested before it is produced for sale and of continual improvement in response to product failures
of units previously manufactured. The fabrication of a factory-fabricated system has the advantage of production using properly trained labor with the optimum tooling and materials, plus
quality testing of the finished product.
A single-piece, factory-engineered assembled unit is inherently the most reliable and least
expensive. Split-systems provide the ability to locate the elements in more appropriate locations,
but with the possibility of poor refrigerant piping connections. Factory-engineered package
equipment is usually designed for the mass market, with commensurate lower equipment price.
Field-assembled components provide the ultimate in design flexibility for projects with unusual
needs such as extremely low energy consumption or extremely high fabrication quality.
Products are classified by the type of condenser, either air-cooled, water-cooled, or evaporative. Air-cooled units have greater electricity demand and consumption, but require much less
maintenance and do not require any makeup water, treatment, or disposal. The type of compressor is usually part of the classification, such as reciprocating, scroll, rotary screw, or centrifugal.
Finally, products are classified by
the components in the product. A
condensing unit includes a condenser
and a compressor, in order to condense the refrigerant that evaporates
in a remote DX cooling coil. A package water chiller is a complete
assembly of compressor, chiller, condenser, controls and wiring.
The CSI (Construction Specifications Institute) format is used by most
specification writers. The above discussion generally follows the CSI
classifications of HVAC equipment.

Indoor Unit
Furnace And Coil
Indoor Unit
AHU (Fan Coil)
Figure 17
Typical Components ofAir-Cooled Split System

Introduction to HVAC
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17

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Summary
The HVAC industry is a challenging and diverse marketplace. The size of the market is huge
considering the 4.9 million building base that might require some type of new HVAC system or
upgrade. Selection systems for this varied base can be complicated further by the multiple types
of systems that are available and the potential unique requirements of each building. Each participant in the design process is critical in assuring properly functioning systems are delivered to
building owners. Compliance with building codes and specifications are also the responsibility of
all members of the design and construction team.
The HVAC industry is an exciting business to be a part of. Customer requirements continually evolve and drive industry standards. Designers, manufacturers, and contractors must
constantly upgrade their knowledge to meet their customers' needs. The Technical Development
Program series is presented to help all players in the industry to develop, maintain, and upgrade
their skills in meeting customer needs.

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Introduction to HVAC

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18

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Work Session
MARKETS
1. For the HVAC industry, identify the two market segments that are based upon the age of the
buildings involved.

2. Identify the market segments that are based upon the usage of the building.

3. Identify the market segments that are based upon the type of design and contracting method.

PARTICIPANTS
4. Match the following participants in the HVAC industry:
Engineer

Contractor

Architect

provides the money and assumes the primary financial risk of the project.

B.

provides the concept and business plan for the project. May also provide the project management.

C.

provides the architectural design of the building, and


coordinates the design services of the engineers and
other design specialists for the project.
provides the design services for technical portions of
the project, such as HVAC, electrical, structural.

D.

Owner

Developer

Commissioning Agent

E.

provide the construction work of purchasing and installing the items needed for the project.

F.

places the equipment and systems in operation after


they have been installed by others. A Test and Balance Contractor is a commissioning agent.
operates and maintains the HVAC and other building
systems.

G.

Dealer

Service Contractor

Equipment Sales Distributor

- -- -

A.

H.

provides maintenance and repair service for the


HVAC and other building systems.

I.

handles the sale of equipment to the contractor. Usually sells products manufactured by several different
manufacturers.
an equipment sales representative who provides local
warehousing of products. Often provides training and
marketing services for a dealer network.
a contractor with a formal ongoing relationship with
an equipment distributor.

Equipment Sales
Representative

J.

Building Operations
Manager

K.

Introduction to HVAC
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19

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Turn to the Expert$.

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

INDUSTRY ASSOCIATIONS

5. What is ASHRAE' s primary mission?


6. What is NFPA's primary mission?
7. What is UL's primary mission?

LEGAL CONCERNS

8. Which entity (contractor, engineer, equipment supplier, etc.) has the primary responsible for
meeting the following requirements?
A. Building design codes
B. Building construction work codes
C. Equipment construction codes
D. Building licenses and pennits
9. What is a "national" building code or standard?

10. What is a "local" building code?

11. What are "Construction Documents"?

12. What is an Addendum to the construction documents?

13. Describe two ways of creating a contract to purchase HVAC equipment.

14. In question 13 above, why does it make any difference?

15. What is a Change Notice?

16. What is the purpose of an equipment submittal?

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Introduction to HVAC

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20

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

TYPICAL PROJECTS

17. What are the 5 phases of a typical project?

18. Identify some reasons to become involved early in a project.

HVAC SYSTEMS

19. There are many different types of HVAC systems - direct expansion or chilled-water, central
or unitary, etc.; and many different applications - offices, hotels, residences, shopping centers, etc. Is any one of these types of systems better than all of the others for all of the
different applications?
20. What is a DX system?

21 . What is a chilled-water system?

22. What is likely to be different if one type of HYAC system is chosen instead of another type?

23. What is a "single-zone" system?

24. What is a "multiple-zone" system?

HV AC PRODUCTS

25. Name some typical benefits of a "factory-engineered" product compared to a "custom


design" using standard components.

26. Name some typical benefits of a "factory-assembled" product compared to a "field assembly"
of components.

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Commercial HVAC Systems


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21

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INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

27. Name an advantage of air-cooled equipment.

28. Name an advantage of water-cooled equipment.

HVAC DESIGN PROCESS

29. Why might a system designer be reluctant to change the concept of a system after it has been
agreed upon?

30. Why might a system designer be reluctant to change the selection of HVAC equipment after
it has been done?

31. Why might a system designer be reluctant to change the construction documents for a system
after they have been issued?

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Introduction to HVAC

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22

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Notes

~C:o~m~m~e~rc~i~a~IH~V~A~C~S~y~s=te::m=s-------::::~----------- Turn to the Experts.


23

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Notes

<+
the Experti.----------------------_::ln~t~ro~d~u~c~t~io~n~t~o~H~V~A~C

Turn to

24

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Work Session Answers


MARKETS
1. A. New Construction
B. Existing Buildings
2. A. Residential
B. Commercial
C. Office
D . Industrial
E. Institutional (schools, hospitals, prisons)
3. A . Design/build
B. Plan and specification
PARTICIPANTS
4. Describe the following participants in the HVAC industry:
D Engineer
K Dealer
E Contractor
H Service Contractor
C Architect
J Equipment Sales Distributor
A Owner
I Equipment Sales Representative
B Developer
G Building Operations Manager
C Commissioning Agent
INDUSTRY ASSOCIATIONS
5. create HVAC design information
6. create fire and smoke safety standards
7. test products for safety
LEGAL CONCERNS
8. A. Building design codes the designer of the item or system involved, usually the architect
and engineer
B. Building construction work codes contractor
C. Equipment construction codes equipment supplier
D. Building licenses and permits contractor
9. A design or construction code prepared by a national code authority, such as ICC, UL,
ASHRAE, NFPA, NEC, etc.
.
10. A legal document enacted by the local governing body, such as a city, county or state, that
describes the minimum requirements for building construction. A local code usually "refers"
to the various national codes and standards, instead of copying the items into the local
document.
11. Drawings and specifications prepared by the designer of a project to describe the construction
work. They are used to obtain building permits and as the basis for construction contracts.
12. a document issued by the designer to describe a change in the drawings or specifications
13. A. The buyer accepts a proposal from a seller
B. The seller accepts a purchase order from a buyer
14. The "terms and conditions" of a purchase order usually favor the buyer, while those of a
proposal usually favor the seller.
15. A revision to the contract in which the contractor agrees to make the changes described in an
Addendum in return for an agreed upon change in the contract price.
16. It is to confirm that the equipment to be furnished is in conformance with the construction
documents. The objective is to avoid the project delay and expense that will result if the

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Commercial HVAC Systems

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25

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

wrong equipment is shipped to the job site and must be removed and replaced at the
supplier's expense.
TYPICAL PROJECTS
17. A. Organize: decide who does what
B. Concept: decide what is to be built and the appropriate budget
C. Design: determine capacity, arrangement and construction detail
D. Construction: Build and commission the project
E. Warranty and Service: Prevent or correct problems
18. A. If you have done good work with one of the organizers (owner, engineer, contractor) on a
previous project, they can influence the others to favor you when close decisions must be
made.
B. You may be able to identify situations, which would place you at a competitive disadvantage, and suggest changes to improve your position without hurting the overall cost or
performance of the project.
HVAC SYSTEMS
19. NO
20. A system in which refrigerant circulates "directly" through the cooling coil.
21. A system in which a water chiller is used to cool water. The chilled-water is circulated
through the cooling coils in the air-handling units.
22. A. functional performance: temperature, humidity, air quality and sound level
B. costs: design and construction, energy consumption, water and water treatment, operation
and maintenance
C. space: for duct, piping, equipment rooms
D. architectural appearance
23. A system that serves an area with one thermostat.
24. A system that serves several different areas and provides a separate temperature control zone
for each area.
HVAC PRODUCTS
25. less design cost, less chance of design errors
26. lower cost because of tooling and production quantity; better quality because of better
supervision and testing.
27. no water consumption or chemical water treatment is necessary
28. lower electricity consumption
HVAC DESIGN PROCESS
29. The other designers, such as the architect or electrical engineer, may have to change work
they have already done in order to accommodate the new concept.
30. The designer will not be paid for the time required to make the change, and there is risk that
this change will require changes to other items that have already been completed.
31. Addendums are time consuming and expensive. They also raise the issue of who is to blame
for the change.

<Cf,ji@fi

Introduction to HVAC

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26

---

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

Glossary
addendum

change or addition to the construction documents for a project

air-water system

an air conditioning system that controls space conditions by supplying a


combination cooled and dehumidified, heated, or neutral, and
conditioned air and chilled or heated water from a conditioning unit and
central plant equipment located outside the conditioned zone.

all-air system

an air conditioning system that controls space cooling . conditions by


supplying cooled, dehumidified, and conditioned air to the zone from a
conditioning unit normally located outside the conditioned zone; heated
air may also be provided for heating control.

all-water system

an air conditioning system that controls space cooling conditions by


supplying chilled-water to the zone from a chiller outside the
conditioned zone; heated water may also be provided for heating control.

architect

participant in a typical construction project who provides the building


design services; when employing the engineers is called Architect/
Engineer

ARI

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute; concerned with creating


standards for testing and rating equipment; provides marketing statistics
for air conditioning equipment manufacturers

ASHRAE

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


engineers; organization concerned with creating information for the
design of projects; publishes the ASHRAE handbook and establishes
minimum standards that influence project design

building operations
manager

responsible for the operation and maintenance of the HVAC system

change notice

revision to the contract between the owner and the prime contractor

commissioning agent

employed by the owner to provide an objective perspective to correct


errors made during construction

construction
management

delivery method where an oversight contractor controls the design,


bidding, and construction activities, most often paralleling the sequence
used in plan and spec

construction
manager

participant in a typical construction project who is responsible for


coordinating the construction activities that must begin before the prime
contract is awarded and continues until the project is complete; common
in a "fast-track" schedule

contract

legal agreement between the participants of a project; can be created by a


purchase order, or proposal

contractor

participant in a typical construction project who provides the


construction work

dealers

independently owned contractors who are franchised by distributors to


install equipment purchased from the distributor; this arrangement may
require the deal to be exclusive

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Commercial HVAC Systems

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27

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

design-build

delivery method where building systems performance criteria are


documented in a minimal set of drawings and text; contractors bid on the
completed building, finished the design while executing the
requirements, and then tum over a completed project

developer

participant in a typical construction project who provides the concept


and the business plan and typically manages the overall project;
commonly the same entity as the owner and referred to as
owner/developer

direct expansion

cooling process in which the refrigerant is used directly in the indoor


coil.

(DX)

distributor

buys equipment in large quantities from a manufacturer and resells the to


dealers or independent contractors

engineer

participant in a typical construction project who design the HVAC,


structural, electrical, plumbing, and other trades in their specialty; when
employed by the architect is called Architect/Engineer

equipment
replacement project

subcategory of the replacement market in which some or all of the major


HVAC equipment is replaced

equipment supplier

handles the sale of the equipment for a project

fast-track schedule

construction project schedule typical of large or critical projects in which


the major equipment is purchased and the construction work is begun
before the overall project design is completed

ICC

International Code Council; association dedicated to building safety and


fire prevention; develops codes used to construct residential and
commercial buildings; has replaced other model code writing
organizations

Multiple wne system

an HVAC system with multiple thermostats controlling temperatures in


various spaces served by a single air-handling unit

new construction
market

market consisting of projects in which the HVAC system is installed


when the building in originally constructed

NFPA

National Fire Protection Association; writes standards,;addresses


building fire and smoke concerns

owner

participant in a typical construction project who provides the money for


the construction and assumes most of the financial risk; commonly the
same entity as the developer and referred to as Owner/Developer

Performance
Contracting

Delivery method where an oversight contractor controls the design,


bidding, and construction activities of a normally focused set of upgrades
or retrofits to an existing building

Plan and
Specification

delivery method where building systems criteria are documented in a set


of construction drawings and specifications that are bid by contractors
who then execute the requirements and tum over a completed project

<fihi+

Introduction to HVAC

Turn roilieExperts:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

28

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

prime contractor

participant in a typical construction project responsible for coordinating


all construction activity and other contractual items relating to project
cost and timing; often the general contractor but may be a subcontractor
if most of the work is in their specialty- -

project manager

participant in a typical construction project responsible for coordinating


the entire project, including design and construction work

reference standards

standards created by organizations such as ARI arid ASHRAE that


govern the design, manufacture, and installation of HVAC equipment
and systems

replacement market

market consisting of projects in which a previously installed system or


equipment is replaced

service contractors

provide either preventative maintenance or emergency repairs after the


system is operational

subcontractor

participant in a typical construction project who has a contract with the


prime contractor or a higher-level subcontractor

test and balance


contractors

specialists in measuring air and water flows and checking the


performance of equipment after it is placed in service

UL

Underwriters' Laboratories; concerned with product safety requirements;


a UL label denotes that equipment has been tested to comply with safety
standards

<flip

Commercial HVAC Systems

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29

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW

References
2003 International Building Code. Copyright 2002. Falls Church, Virginia: International Code
Council, Inc.
2003 International Energy Conservation Code. Copyright 2003. Falls Church, Virginia: International Code Council, Inc.
2003 International Mechanical Code. Copyright 2003, Falls Church, Virginia: International Code
Council, Inc.

cfiTurnto theExpertS:- - - - - - - - - -- -- --

30

Introduction to HVAC

- - -- -- - -- - -

Prerequisites:
None

Learning Objectives:
After reading this module , participants will be able to:
Describe the commercial and how its market is served .
Describe the participants in the construction process and total HVAC life cycle influencers
in the various market categories.
Understand the steps in the construction process of typical commercial projects .
Describe the commercial new construction process and influencers, plan and specification
and design build.
Describe the commercial retrofit, replacement and renovation market and how they are influenced by the construction process and decision makers.
Understand how codes and regulatory influences impact building decision.
Be able to identify how different industry organizations influence HVAC design.
Understand how influencers and regulatory influences affect system selection .
Understand how various players in the process can work together.
Appreciate who does what design in each method of going to market and know when it is
their turn to perform.

Supplemental Material:

TOP No.
TDP-701

Book
Cat. No.

796-067

Instructor CD
Cat. No.

797-067

Title

System Selection

Instructor Information
Each TDP topic is supported with a number of different items to meet the specific needs of the
user. Instructor materials consist of a CD-ROM disk that includes a PowerPoint presentation
with convenient links to all required support materials required for the topic. This always includes:
slides, presenter notes, text file including work sessions and work session solutions, quiz and
quiz answers. Depending upon the topic, the instructor CD may also include sound, video,
spreadsheets, forms, or other material required to present a complete class . Self-study or
student material consists of a text including work sessions and work session answers, and may
also include forms , worksheets, calculators, etc.

Turn to the ExpertS.


Carrier Corporation
Technical Training
800 644-5544
www.training.carrier.com

Form No. TDP-101


Supersedes Form No. TDP-50

Cat. No. 06-796-025