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Nucleophile: Electron pair donor.

Electrophile: Electron pair acceptor.

Reagent: Chemical/chemicals that react with an organic molecule.
Substrate: The organic molecule that undergoes the reaction.
Addition Reacton: An unsaturated molecule (alkene) becomes saturated.
Elimination Reaction: Saturated (alkane) becomes unsaturated.
Substitution Reaction: Saturated (alkane) remains saturated, condition: aqueous reagent.
Base: Curly arrow begins here but goes to Hydrogen, condition: alcoholic reagent.
Dynamic Equilibrium: Forwards and backwards reactions proceeding at equal rates with the
concentration of reactants and products as constant.
Le Chateliers Principle: If we change the external condition of a reaction at equilibrium, the
position of equilibrium will move so as to oppose the external change.
Activation Energy (Ea): The minimum energy the colliding particles must have for a
chemical reaction to occur.
Most Probable Energy (Emp): This is the hump that takes place on the Maxwell Distribution
Catalyst: What: A substance which speeds up a chemical reaction but remains chemically
unchanged by the reaction.
How: A catalyst provides an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation
Reaction Rate: Change in concentration of a substance in a unit of time.
Reagent of Oxidating Alcohols: Acified Potassium Dichromate (orange)
Product of Oxidating Alcohols: Cr3+ (green)-it is an oxidising agent, therefore it is reduced.
Bio-Fuels: Fuel produced from biological or renewable sources.
Carbon Neutral: No net increase to the CO2 level in the atmosphere
Polymerisation: Reaction which turns many small molecules into long chain molecules.
How isomers found in Infa-red Spectrum: Finger print region unique to all compounds
comparison to authentic sample.
Primary Alcohols: Oxidised to Aldehydes, then to Carboxylic Acid.
Seconday Alcohols: Oxidised to Ketones.
Reducing Agents: Gains Oxygen, Loses Electrons, Loses Hydrogen.
Oxidising Agents: Loses of Oxygen, Gains of Electrons, Gains Hydrogen.
Stereoisomerism: Compounds with the same structural formula with bonds arranged
differently in space.
Structural Isomers: Have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.
Position Isomers: Have same molecular formula but different structures due to different
positions of the same functional group on the same carbon chain
Chain Isomers: Structural isomers which occur when there is more than one way of
arranging the carbon skeleton of a molecule
Hydrolysis: Splitting C-X bonds using water
Molecular Ion: The molecule with an electron knocked off
Radical: An unpaired electron.
Substitution: Replacement of the Halogen.
Racemic Mixture: A mixture containing equal amounts of both enantiomers
pH: -log10[H+]
Transesterification: A reversible reaction in which an ester reacts with an alcohol, usually in
excess, to form a new ester and a new alcohol
Plasticiser: A substance used to soften plastic and increase flexibility
Acylium Cation: The electrophile R-+CO
Buffer Solution: A solution that resists changes in pH on addition of small amounts of acid
or base or on dilution
Buffer Region: Concentration range over which a weak acid/base can show buffer action
Buffer Range: pH range over which weak acid/buffer can show buffer action
Polymerisation: The joining of small molecules to form large molecules
Enantiomers: Three-dimensional, non-super imposable molecular structure mirror images
Chromatography: Technique for separating the components of a mixture on the basis of
differences in their affinities for a stationary and for a moving phase.
Homogenous: All reactants in the same phase
Homologous Series: A group of compounds that have similar properties and share a general
formula such as CnH2n+2

Strong: Fully dissociates in aqueous solution

Weak: Partially dissociates in aqueous solution